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Vector Operations

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Mathematics 54 - Elementary Analysis 2

Institute of Mathematics

University of the Philippines-Diliman

1 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Vector Operations

Dot Product

Let ~

A = a1 , a2 , a3 and ~

B = b1 , b2 , b3 . We define their dot product as

~

A ~

B = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3

Note: ~

A ~

BR

Example

Let ~ B = 3, 2, 0 and ~

A = 2, 1, 4, ~ C = 7, 4, 1

1 ~ ~

A B = (2)(3) + (1)(2) + (4)(0) = 8

2 ~

C ~

B = (7)(3) + (4)(2) + (1)(0) = 13

~

A +~B ~

3 C = 1, 1, 4 7, 4, 1 = (1)(7) + (1)(4) + (4)(1) = 1

2 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Let ~

A,~B and ~

C be vectors in R3 and c R.

1 ~A ~

B =~

B ~

A

~

A c~

B =c ~

A ~

2 B

~

A~ B ~

C = ~A ~

B ~A ~

3 C

4 ~

A ~0 = 0

2

5 ~

A ~A = ~A

3 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

B to be the angle [0, ]

formed by the two vectors in their position representation.

If = 2 , then the vectors are said to be perpendicular.

4 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Theorem

If is the angle between the two vectors ~

A and ~

B, then

~

A ~

B = ~

A ~

B cos .

2

Proof: Consider ~

A ~

B .

2

~

A ~ (~

A ~ B) (~

A ~

B = B)

= A (A B) B (~

~ ~ ~ ~ A ~B)

= ~

A ~A ~A ~B ~ B ~

A +~ B ~

B

2 2

= ~A 2~

A ~

B+ ~ B

By cosine law:

~

A ~

B

2 2 2

~

A ~

B = ~

A + ~

B 2 ~

A ~

B cos

~

B ~

A

5 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Examples

Example

1 Find the angle between ~

A = 3 2 + 3k and ~

B = 3 + 5k

Solution:

3, 2, 3 1, 3, 5

cos =

k3, 2, 3k k1, 3, 5k

3 + 6 + 15

= p p

22 35

24

= p

770

24

= cos1 p 88.21

770

6 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Examples

Example

2 Find the angle between ~

A = 3 2 + 3k and ~

B = 3 3k

Solution:

3, 2, 3 1, 3, 3

cos =

k3, 2, 3k k1, 3, 3k

3+69

= p p

22 19

= 0

=

2

Hence, the two vectors are perpendicular.

7 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Examples

Example

3 F ) Displacement (~

In Physics, Work (W ) = Force (~ d).

Find the work done by a man carrying a load of 100 N, while walking

across a 10 meter, level surface.

Solution:

W F ~

= ~ d = kFkkdk cos

= (100)(10) cos 90

= 0 N m = 0 Joules

8 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Remarks

Two vectors ~A and ~

B are parallel if and only if ~

A = c~

B for some nonzero

scalar c.

~

A and ~B are perpendicular or orthogonal if and only if ~ A ~

B = 0.

Indeed, if = is the angle between them, then

2

~A ~

B = kAk kBk cos =0

2

and conversely if ~

A ~

B, then cos = 0, so = .

2

Note.

The zero vector is perpendicular to any vector.

9 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Projections

A nice application of the dot product is with projections.

Definition

For non-zero vectors~a and ~b, with to be the angle between them. The

vector projection of ~b onto~a, denoted by proj~a~b is the perpendicular

projection of the position representation of ~b onto the line containing the

position representation of~a.

10 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Projections

Remark

1 Given two non-zero vectors~a and ~b, the projection of ~b onto the~a is

illustrated below

11 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Projection

between~a and ~b.

Moreover,

k~akk~bk cos

!

~a

~ ~

proj~a b = kbk cos = ~a

k~ak k~ak2

~a ~b

!

= ~a

k~ak2

Hence, given two non-zero vectors~a and ~b, the vector projection of ~b onto

~a is given by the following formula:

~a ~b

proj~a~b = ~a

k~ak2

12 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Projection

Example

A = 2, 1, 1 onto ~

B = 1, 0, 2.

(~

A ~

B)~B

Solution. The projection is given by proj~B~

A = 2

~B

We need the dot product of ~ A and ~

B and the magnitude of ~

B.

2

~

A ~

B = 2+0+2 = 4 ~

B = 1 + 0 + 4 = 5

Then,

4 4 8

proj~B~

A = 1, 0, 2 = , 0,

5 5 5

13 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Projection

Example

2

~a ~b = 2 + 0 + 2 = 4

~

b = 4 + 1 + 1 = 6

(~a ~b)~b 4

projb~a = 2 = 2, 1, 1

~ 6

b

4 2 2

= , ,

3 3 3

14 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Projection

Example

3 Express ~

A = 2, 3, 5 as a sum of a vector parallel to ~

B = 2, 1, 2 and

a vector perpendicular to ~ B.

A is parallel to ~

B. Thus,

(~

B ~

A)~B (4 3 10)2, 1, 2

proj~B~

A = 2 = = 2, 1, 2 .

~B 4+1+4

Moreover, based from the construction of the vector projection, we can let

~

C =~ A, then one can verify that ~

Aproj~B~ C and ~ A are perpendicular.

Hence,

~

C = 2, 3, 5 2, 1, 2 = 4, 2, 3 .

~A = 2, 1, 2 + 4, 2, 3 .

15 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Vector Operations

Cross Product

Definition

Let ~

A = a1 , a2 , a3 and ~

B = b1 , b2 , b3

~

A ~

B = a2 b3 a3 b2 , a3 b1 a1 b3 , a1 b2 a2 b1

Note:

~

A ~

B is a vector.

A ~

B as

k

~

A ~

B = det a1 a2 a3

b1 b2 b3

a2 a3 a1 a3 a1 a2

= det det + det k

b2 b3 b1 b3 b1 b2

16 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Determinant of a 2 2 matrix

a1 a2

Note that for the matrix A = ,

b1 b2

det A = a1 b2 a2 b1 .

Example

2 0

1 det = 2(3) 0(1) = 6

1 3

5 2

2 det = 5(1) 2(4) = 13

4 1

17 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Cross Product

Example

1 Let ~

A = 1, 3, 4 and ~

B = 2, 7, 5. Find ~

A ~

B.

Solution:

k

~

A ~

B = det 1 3 4

2 7 5

3 4 1 4 1 3

= det det + det k

7 5 2 5 2 7

= (15 28) (5 8) + (7 6)k

= 43 + 13 + k

18 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Let ~

A,~B and ~C be vectors in R3 and c R.

1 ~A ~B = ~B ~A

~A c~B =c ~ A ~

2 B

~A ~ B ~C = ~ A ~B ~A ~

3 C

4 ~

A ~0 =~0

19 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Examples

Example

1 Suppose ~

A = 1, 0, 1 and ~

B = 2, 0, 1. Find ~

A ~

B and ~

B ~

A.

k

~

A ~

B = det 1 0 1

2 0 1

0 1 1 1 1 0

= det det + det k

0 1 2 1 2 0

= 3

While,

k

~

B ~

A = det 2 0 1

1 0 1

0 1 2 1 2 0

= det det + det k

0 1 1 1 1 0

= 3 = (~

A ~

B) 20 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Examples

Example

2 Show that ~

A ~

A =~0.

Let ~

A = a, b, c, then

k

~

A ~

A = det a b c

a b c

b c a c a b

= det det + det k

b c a c a b

= (bc bc) (ac ac) + (ab ab)k

= 0 + 0 + 0k

= ~0

21 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Theorem

is the

If angle

between the two vectors ~

A and ~

B, then

~ B = ~

A ~ A ~

B sin .

Proof: Let ~

A = a1 , a2 , a3 and ~

B = b1 , b2 , b3 .

2

~

A ~

B = a2 b3 a3 b2 , a3 b1 a1 b3 , a1 b2 a2 b1

= (a2 b3 a3 b2 )2 + (a3 b1 a1 b3 )2 + (a1 b2 a2 b1 )2

= (a12 + a22 + a32 )(b21 + b22 + b23 ) (a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 )2

2 2 2

= ~

A ~ B ~ A ~B

2 2 2 2

= ~

A ~ B ~ A ~ B cos2

2 2 2 2

= ~

A ~ B (1 cos2 ) = ~ A ~ B sin2

Since [0, ], then sin 0. Thus proving the equality that we need.

22 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Remark

If ~

A ~

B =~0, then the vectors are parallel.

In either case, sin = 0.

Thus, ~A ~B = 0 or that ~

A ~

B =~0.

23 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

area of a parallelogram, defined by two vectors.

point, and angle in between.

They then determine a parallelogram with

base k~ak and altitude ~b sin , thus the area of the parallelogram is given

by,

Area = k~ak ~b sin = ~a ~b

24 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Examples

Example

1 Find the area of the parallelogram defined by the vectors

~ ~ = j + k.

G = 3i + j 7k and H

Solution:

i j k

~ ~ = det 3

GH 1 7 = 8 + 3 3k

0 1 1

p p

Area = 8 + 3 3k = 64 + 9 + 9 = 82

25 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Examples

Example

2 Find the area of the triangle with vertices A(1, 2, 4), B(2, 1, 6) and

C(1, 1, 3).

Solution:

while

AB = 3 + 2k,

AC = 3 k.

k

So AB AC = det 3 1 2 = 7 3 + 9k.

0 3 1

The area of the parallelogram with adjacent sides AB and AC is

p p

AB AC = 7 3 + 9k = 49 + 9 + 81 = 139

The area of the triangle ABC is half the area of this parallelogram, that is

p

139

.

2

26 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Theorem

The vector ~

A ~

B is orthogonal to both ~

A and ~

B.

Proof:

Let ~

A = a1 , a2 , a3 and ~

B = b1 , b2 , b3 , then

~

A ~

B ~

A = a2 b3 a3 b2 , a3 b1 a1 b3 , a1 b2 a2 b1 a1 , a2 , a3

= (a1 a2 b3 a1 a3 b2 ) + (a2 a3 b1 a2 a1 b3 )

+(a3 a1 b2 a3 a2 b1 )

= a1 a2 b3 a2 a1 b3 + a2 a3 b1 a3 a2 b1 + a3 a1 b2 a1 a3 b2

= 0

A ~

B ~B = 0. Therefore ~

A ~

B is

~ ~

orthogonal to both A and B.

27 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

If~a and ~b are vectors with the same initial point, then the cross product

points in a direction perpendicular to both~a and ~b. It turns out that the

direction of a b is given by the right-hand rule.

28 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Theorem

If ~ B and ~

A,~ C are vectors in R3 , then

~ B ~

A ~ C = ~A ~B ~

C

~

A = a1 , a2 , a3 ,

~

B = b1 , b2 , b3 , and

~

C = c1 , c2 , c3

and using the definition of the cross and dot products.

Moreover, the quantity ~ B ~

A ~ C is called the scalar triple product of the

vectors ~ B and ~

A,~ C.

29 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

considering the parallelepiped determined by the vectors~a,~b, and~c.

The area of the base parallelogram is A = ~b ~c. If is the angle between

Therefore, the volume of the parallelepiped is

V = Ah = ~b ~c k~ak | cos | = ~a ~b ~c

30 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Examples

~ v = 2 + 2k and ~

u = 3 + 4k,~

w = 5 k.

Solution.

3 1 4

~

u ~v ~

w = det 2 1 2

5 0 1

1 2 2 2 2 1

= 3 det (1) det + 4 det

0 1 5 1 5 0

= 3 + 8 20

= 15

Therefore Volume = ~

u ~v ~

w = 15

31 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises Dot Product Cross Prod. Triple Prod.

Examples

~ B = 2, 1, 4 and ~

A = 1, 4, 7 ,~ C = 0, 2, 4 are coplanar.

Solution.

1 4 7

~ B ~

A ~

C = det 2 1 4

0 2 4

1 4 2 4 2 1

= 1 det 4 det 7 det

2 4 0 4 0 2

= 4 + 32 28 = 0

A,~

B, and

~ ~ ~ ~

C is 0. This means that A, B, and C are coplanar.

32 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises

Exercises

1 If ~

u = 2, 3, 1,~v = 1, 0, 1 and ~

w = 1, 3, 2, find:

1 u ~v

2~

2 ~

u ~v + ~

w

~

3 w 0.5~ u + 1.5~v

2 Determine whether the following vectors are parallel

1 ~

u = 3, 2, 1 and ~v = 9, 6, 3

1 1 1

2 ~

A = 4 + 2k and ~

B= , ,

2 8 4

3 Find a unit vector that points in the same direction as ~

T = 3 5 + k.

4 Find a vector of length 3 that is parallel to the vector from (2, 0, 1) to

(3, 2, 3).

33 / 34

Vector Operations Exercises

Exercises

5 Let ~ v = 4 + 3k and ~

u = 2 + k,~ Find

w = 2 k.

1 ~

u ~v

2 ~

u ~v

3 ~

w ~

u

4 ~

u ~v ~

w

5 ~

u~

w ~v

6 A unit vector that lies in the xy-plane that is orthogonal to ~

u.

6 The area of the parallelogram having 3 of its vertices to be the points

(0, 1), (4, 3) and (1, 6).

7 Find a vector of length 5 that is orthogonal to both the vectors

4, 1, 0 and 3, 2, 1.

8 Find the volume of a parallelipiped defined by the vectors

~ ~

A = 2 + + 2k, B = + 3 2k and ~

C = 5 .

34 / 34

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