Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

Conics in Polar Coordinates Exercises

Polar Form of Conic Sections


Mathematics 54Elementary Analysis 2

Institute of Mathematics
University of the Philippines-Diliman

1 / 13
Conics in Polar Coordinates Exercises

Focus and Directrix of a Parabola

Recall that for a parabola, we have

We define the eccentricity to be e = 1.

2 / 13
Conics in Polar Coordinates Exercises

Foci and Directrices of an Ellipse

For an ellipse, we have

We define the eccentricity to be e = ac .


The directrices are of distances ae from the center.

3 / 13
Conics in Polar Coordinates Exercises

Foci and Directrices of a Hyperbola

For a hyperbola, we have

We define the eccentricity to be e = ac .


The directrices are of distances ae from the center.

4 / 13
Conics in Polar Coordinates Exercises

Conics in Polar

Consider the following conic section C, with eccentricity e:


one focus F at the pole
corresponding directrix D: x = d
If P(r, ) C, then
PF =r,
and PD =d FB= d r cos
|PF|
Recall that |PD| =e
r
Hence, dr cos =e
Solving for r,
ed
r=
1 + e cos

5 / 13
Conics in Polar Coordinates Exercises

Conics in Polar
Example
A hyperbola has one focus at the pole, and corresponding directrix at
distance 2 units to the right of the pole. If e = 32 , find the polar equation of
this conic.

Solution:
3
Note: e = 2 and d = 2 we have

ed
r =
1 + e cos
3
2 (2)
= 3
1 + 2 cos
3
=
1 + 32 cos
6
=
2 + 3 cos some
6 points
on the hyperbola
3, 2 , (6, ), 3, 3

5 , 0 , 2 6 / 13
Conics in Polar Coordinates Exercises

Conics in Polar (General)


ed ed
r= r=
1 + e cos 1 + e sin

(directrix to the right of the pole) (directrix above the pole)


ed ed
r= r=
1 e cos 1 e sin

(directrix to the left of the pole) (directrix below the pole) 7 / 13


Conics in Polar Coordinates Exercises

Example

Identify the following conic section:


3
1 r=
1 2 sin
2
2 r=
1 + 0.5 cos
5
3 r=
1 + sin

Answer:
1 e = 2 Hyperbola

2 e = 0.5 Ellipse

3 e = 1 Parabola

8 / 13
Conics in Polar Coordinates Exercises

Conics in Polar

Example
Identify the graph of the following

1
r= .
2 sin

Solution:
Rewrite the equation above as
1
2 (1) 1
r= 1 = e= , d=1
2 sin
1 2

Hence, it is an ellipse.

9 / 13
Conics in Polar Coordinates Exercises

Conics in Polar

Example
Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x2 2y 2 + 4x + 1 = 0

Solution:
Completing the square, we have
u p !2 p !2
v
(x + 1)2 y2 u 2 2
p 2 p 2 = 1 = c=t + =1
2 2 2 2
2 2

c 1
p
Thus, the center is at (1, 0) = focus at (0, 0). Thus, e = a = p
2
= 2.
2
a
Thecorresponding is e to the right of the center. Hence
p directrix

a 2 p1 1
d = e 1 = 2 1 = 2 . Thus, we have
2
p 1
2 2 1
r= p =p
1 2 cos 2 2 cos

10 / 13
Conics in Polar Coordinates Exercises

Conics in Polar
Example.
Set-up the integral that will give the area of the region common to both
6 3
C1 : r = 2sin and C2 : r = 1+sin

Solution:
Note that C1 is an ellipse, and C2
is a parabola. Solving for the point of
intersection, we get

6 3
=
2 sin 1 + sin
9 sin = 0 = 0,

Thus,
Z 1

3
2 Z 2
1 6
2
d + d
0 2 1 + sin 2 2 sin
11 / 13
Conics in Polar Coordinates Exercises

Conics in Polar
Example.
4
Set-up the integral that will give the perimeter of the ellipse r = 2sin .

Solution:

s
2 2
dr
Z
L = r2 + d
0 d
s
2 2
4 cos
Z 2
4
= + d
0 2 sin (2 sin )2
12 / 13
Conics in Polar Coordinates Exercises

Exercises
1 Find the eccentricity and identify the ff. conics
5
1 r=
1 cos
1
2 r=
1 + 3 sin
2
3 r=
2 + cos
4
4 r=
3 5 cos
1
5 r=
3 2 sin
2 Write a polar equation for the conic with a focus at the origin and
satisifes the ff. condition
7
1 Hyperbola, eccentricity = , directrix: y = 6
4
2 Parabola, directrix: x = 3
1
3 Ellipse, eccentricity = , directrix: x = 5
2
4 Parabola, directrix: y = 2
3
5 Ellipse, eccentricity = , directrix: y = 4
4
6 Hyperbola, eccentricity = 3, directrix: x = 9
13 / 13