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Switchgears

Siemens AG 2008

Page 1 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG / Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Outline

Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Effects on rigid conductors: analytical approach and practical solution

with IEC 60865-1

Effects on flexible conductors: analytical approach and practical

solution with IEC 60865-1 and FEM

New features in IEC 60865-1: 2009

CIGR video

Siemens AG 2008

Page 2 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Outline

Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Effects on rigid conductors: analytical approach and practical solution

with IEC 60865-1

Effects on flexible conductors: analytical approach and practical

solution with IEC 60865-1 and FEM

New features in IEC 60865-1: 2009

CIGR video

Siemens AG 2008

Page 3 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Mechanical Loads and Load cases

identical as far as possible with HD 637S1

Siemens AG 2008

Page 4 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Mechanical Loads and Load cases

(EN 1990)

The design value of an action is given as

Fd : FK F

and consists of

a characteristic value of the action

and a partial safety factor of the action

Siemens AG 2008

Page 5 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Mechanical Loads and Load cases

Design situations

are classified in

Transient design situations (Q)

Accidental design situations (A)

Siemens AG 2008

Page 6 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Mechanical Loads and Load cases

Combination of actions

(Loadcombinations)

factor in the combination is orientated according to the kind of the

situation.

combination value .

Siemens AG 2008

Page 7 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Mechanical Loads and Load cases

situations (EN 1990)

j 1 i 1

- dead load

- tension load - Wind load

IEC 61936-1 ?

(- thermal - Ice load

expansion) - erection load

Siemens AG 2008

Page 8 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Mechanical Loads and Load cases

(EN 1990)

Ed G k, j "" Ad

"" 1,1 oder 2,1 Qk ,1 "" 2 ,i Qk ,i

j 1 i 1

one

persistant accidental transient

- Switch forces

IEC 61936-1 - short-circuit

forces

-dead load - earthquake

-tension load - loss of

Not to be regarded!

(-thermal conductor

expansion) tension

Siemens AG 2008

Page 9 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Mechanical Loads and Load cases

IEC 61963-1

The most unfavorable load combinations for the normal case are:

Load combination 2: dead load + tension load + erection load

Load combination 3: dead load + tension load + wind load

in x-direction

Load combination 4: dead load + tension load + wind load

in Y-direction

Ice load on steel structures are negligible low. However, ice loads on cable connections and

tubes are considered and included in the above given value of the tension load.

Siemens AG 2008

Page 10 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Mechanical Loads and Load cases

IEC 61963-1

The most unfavorable load combinations for the exceptional load case are:

Load combination 6: dead load + tension load +switching

forces

Load combination 7: dead load + tension load + earthquake

load in x/z- direction

Load combination 8: dead load + tension load + earthquake

load in y/z- direction

Siemens AG 2008

Page 11 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Outline

Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Effects on rigid conductors: analytical approach and practical solution

with IEC 60865-1

Effects on flexible conductors: analytical approach and practical

solution with IEC 60865-1 and FEM

New features in IEC 60865-1: 2009

CIGR video

Siemens AG 2008

Page 12 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Short-Circuit Current

is influenced by

Network impedance

Voltage status of the system before the short-circuit

Instant of time when the short-circuit begins

Siemens AG 2008

Page 13 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Short-Circuit Forces

Basics

Ampres Law

H ds j dA A

Magnetic induction

B 0 r H

Fm q v B

Siemens AG 2008

Page 14 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Short-Circuit Forces

Basics

d 2 F1 i1 (t )

ds1

r21

i2 (t ) Grassmann Formula

ds 2

Conductor 1

Conductor 2

0 ds1 ds2 r21

d F1 t

2

i1 t i2 t

4 3

r21

Siemens AG 2008

Page 15 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Short-Circuit Forces

F/F|

1,0

a .

0,75

F

l .

0,5

0,25

i1

0

i2 0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0

a/ I

0 l

F t i1 t i2 t

2 a

Siemens AG 2008

Page 16 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Short-Circuit Forces

l

1

F t 0 i1 t i2 t with i1 (t ) i2 (t ) 2 sin(t u z ) sin( z u )e

"

2 a k

l I k''2 1 2t

t

F t 0 e sin k 2 sint k sin k e cos2t 2 k 2

1

2 2 2

Siemens AG 2008

Page 17 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Short-Circuit Forces

l

1

F t 0 i1 t i2 t with i1 (t ) i2 (t ) 2 sin( t u z ) sin( z u )e

"

2 a k

0 l I k''2 1 2t

t

F t e sin k 2 sin t k sin k e cos2t 2 k 2

1

2 2 2

F (t) = f0 + fg + f + f 2

single line frequency

double line frequency

Siemens AG 2008

Page 18 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Short-Circuit Forces

880 80

fg f2

720 0

560 -80

f0

400 -160

240 -240

80 -320

-80 -400 f

-240 -480

-400 -560

-560 -640

0.00 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.20 0.24 0.00 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.20 0.24

Time Time

Short-circuit

current Short-circuit force

Siemens AG 2008

Page 19 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Outline

Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Effects on rigid conductors: analytical approach and practical solution

with IEC 60865-1

Effects on flexible conductors: analytical approach and practical

solution with IEC 60865-1 and FEM

New features in IEC 60865-1: 2009

CIGR video

Siemens AG 2008

Page 20 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on rigid conductors

2y y 4y dx

m dx 2 2 m dx E J dx 4 F

t t x l

F(t)

dx

x

I

2y M E 2y M 3 y

m Q Fd 2 E 3

x 2 E Z x

2 x x

Siemens AG 2008

Page 21 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on rigid conductors

continuoues beam

Fm l

m v vr Fd vF vr Fm

8Z

Siemens AG 2008

Page 22 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on rigid conductors

Supports and fixure methods

Single span

A and B A: 0,5 1,0 1,57

supported B: 0,5

A B

B: supported B: 0,375

A B

tensioned B: 0,5

A B

Multiple spans

with equal 2 spans A: 0,375 0,73 2,45

support B: 1,25

spacing A B A

more B: 1,1

span A B B A

s

Fm l

m v vr Fd vF vr Fm

8Z

Siemens AG 2008

Page 23 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on rigid conductors

Supports and fixure methods

Single span

A and B A: 0,5 1,0 1,57

supported B: 0,5

A B

B: supported B: 0,375

EJ

fe

A B

A and B

tensioned

A: 0,5

B: 0,5

0,5 3,56

e2 m'

A B

Multiple spans

with equal 2 spans A: 0,375 0,73 2,45

support B: 1,25

spacing A B A

more B: 1,1

span A B B A

s

Fm l

m v vr Fd vF vr Fm

8Z

Siemens AG 2008

Page 24 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on rigid conductors

Siemens AG 2008

Page 25 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on rigid conductors

Span lengths less than 20% of the adjacent ones shall be avoided

Small plastic deformations (< l/100) may occur

Siemens AG 2008

Page 26 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Outline

Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Effects on rigid conductors: analytical approach practical solution with

IEC 60865-1

Effects on flexible conductors: analytical approach and practical

solution with IEC 60865-1 and FEM

New features in IEC 60865-1: 2009

CIGR video

Siemens AG 2008

Page 27 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on flexible conductors

Fy

-z

x

gm y

2y y

E A y

z y

2 2

m' 2 Z Fy

' 2y

x x m' 2 Z Fy'

t t x

2 x

x x

2z z

E A y

z z

2 2

m' Z g m' 2z

x x m' 2 Z g m'

t 2 t x 2 x x x

Siemens AG 2008

Page 28 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on flexible conductors

F'

r 1 arc tan r

gn m's ns l

Siemens AG 2008

Page 29 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on flexible conductors

c)b) Oscillations

Rotations ofand

the span m span

dropsatof the 180 at 70 180

a) Oscillations of the span at m 70 m

Siemens AG 2008

Page 30 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on flexible conductors

spacer

during s-c

Siemens AG 2008

Page 31 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on flexible conductors

40 m 0,25 s 0,5 s

70 m 0,6 s 1,2 s

t2 .

Tension

t1 .

Fpi Ft Ff

Fst

Siemens AG 2008

Page 32 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on flexible conductors

D A E B C

G

A) horizontal strain bus connected by insulator chains to steel structures without droppers >>> IEC 60865 -1

B) horizontal connection between components >>> IEC 60865 -1

C) end-span droppers >>> CIGRE (Brochure 214)

D) jumper connecting two strained conductor section >>> CIGRE (Brochure 214)

E) vertical dropper between strained bus and apparatus (dropper) >>> FE-Methoden

F) dropper between strain bus and apparatus with spring >>> FE-Methoden

G) first span to overhead line..and all other structures >>> FE-Methoden

Siemens AG 2008

Page 33 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on flexible conductors

FE-Method

Siemens AG 2008

Page 34 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on flexible conductors

FE-Method

IEC

IEC: 24,1 kN

IEC: 23,3 kN

20,7 kN 22 kN

20.

Calculation

Test

0.

.0 .5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

Siemens AG 2008

Page 35 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on flexible conductors

FE-Method

with spacer

Siemens AG 2008

Page 36 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Outline

Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Effects on rigid conductors: analytical approach practical solution with

IEC 60865-1

Effects on flexible conductors: analytical approach and practical

solution with IEC 60865-1 and FEM

New features in IEC 60865-1: 2009

CIGR video

Siemens AG 2008

Page 37 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Effects on horizontal main conductors with dropper in midspan

Effects on monolithic foundations (stability)

Thermal effects for equipment deleted

New structure and a changed nomenclature

Siemens AG 2008

Page 38 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Outline

Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Effects on rigid conductors: analytical approach practical solution with

IEC 60865-1

Effects on flexible conductors: analytical approach and practical

solution with IEC 60865-1 and FEM

New features in IEC 60865-1: 2009

CIGR video

Siemens AG 2008

Page 39 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Thank you for your attention!

rights reserved.

AG 2008

Page 40 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Dieter W. Rder

Siemens AG

E T HS ENG

Paul-Gossen-Str. 100 (Erl S)

91058 Erlangen

Phone: +49 9131 7 34474

Email: Dieter-Werner.Roeder@siemens.com

Siemens AG 2008

Page 41 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG / Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

Disclaimer

This document contains forward-looking statements and information that is, statements related to future, not past,

events. These statements may be identified either orally or in writing by words as expects, anticipates, intends,

plans, believes, seeks, estimates, will or words of similar meaning. Such statements are based on our current

expectations and certain assumptions, and are, therefore, subject to certain risks and uncertainties. A variety of

factors, many of which are beyond Siemens control, affect its operations, performance, business strategy and results

and could cause the actual results, performance or achievements of Siemens worldwide to be materially different from

any future results, performance or achievements that may be expressed or implied by such forward-looking

statements. For us, particular uncertainties arise, among others, from changes in general economic and business

conditions, changes in currency exchange rates and interest rates, introduction of competing products or technologies

by other companies, lack of acceptance of new products or services by customers targeted by Siemens worldwide,

changes in business strategy and various other factors. More detailed information about certain of these factors is

contained in Siemens filings with the SEC, which are available on the Siemens website, www.siemens.com and on the

SECs website, www.sec.gov. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying

assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those described in the relevant forward-looking

statement as anticipated, believed, estimated, expected, intended, planned or projected. Siemens does not intend or

assume any obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements in light of developments which differ from

those anticipated.

Trademarks mentioned in this document are the property of Siemens AG, it's affiliates or their respective owners.

Siemens AG 2008

Page 42 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations

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