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Forces in Air Insulated

Switchgears

Siemens AG 2008
Page 1 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG / Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Outline

Mechanical loads and load cases in AIS


Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces
Effects on rigid conductors: analytical approach and practical solution
with IEC 60865-1
Effects on flexible conductors: analytical approach and practical
solution with IEC 60865-1 and FEM
New features in IEC 60865-1: 2009
CIGR video

Siemens AG 2008
Page 2 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Outline

Mechanical loads and load cases in AIS


Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces
Effects on rigid conductors: analytical approach and practical solution
with IEC 60865-1
Effects on flexible conductors: analytical approach and practical
solution with IEC 60865-1 and FEM
New features in IEC 60865-1: 2009
CIGR video

Siemens AG 2008
Page 3 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Mechanical Loads and Load cases

Leading standard for AIS is IEC 61936-1:

Power installations exceeding 1kV a.c. Part 1: Common rules


identical as far as possible with HD 637S1

For details HD 637S1 references to EUROCODE

Siemens AG 2008
Page 4 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Mechanical Loads and Load cases

Definition of an actions for the design of a structure EUROCODE 0


(EN 1990)
The design value of an action is given as

Fd : FK F

and consists of
a characteristic value of the action
and a partial safety factor of the action

The value of F is orientated according to the design situation

Siemens AG 2008
Page 5 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Mechanical Loads and Load cases

Design situations

are classified in

Persistant design situations (G)


Transient design situations (Q)
Accidental design situations (A)

which have to be combined in a useful way.

Siemens AG 2008
Page 6 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Mechanical Loads and Load cases

Combination of actions
(Loadcombinations)

Combining several action, the value of the partial safety


factor in the combination is orientated according to the kind of the
situation.

More than one variable action may be regarded by using a


combination value .

Siemens AG 2008
Page 7 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Mechanical Loads and Load cases

Fundamental combinations for persistence or transient design


situations (EN 1990)

Ed G, j Gk , j "" Q,1 Qk ,1"" Q,i 0,i Qk ,i


j 1 i 1

persistant transient other transient


- dead load
- tension load - Wind load
IEC 61936-1 ?
(- thermal - Ice load
expansion) - erection load
Siemens AG 2008
Page 8 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Mechanical Loads and Load cases

Fundamental combinations for accidental design situations


(EN 1990)

Ed G k, j "" Ad
"" 1,1 oder 2,1 Qk ,1 "" 2 ,i Qk ,i
j 1 i 1

one
persistant accidental transient
- Switch forces
IEC 61936-1 - short-circuit


forces
-dead load - earthquake
-tension load - loss of
Not to be regarded!
(-thermal conductor
expansion) tension
Siemens AG 2008
Page 9 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Mechanical Loads and Load cases

IEC 61963-1

The most unfavorable load combinations for the normal case are:

Load combination 1: dead load


Load combination 2: dead load + tension load + erection load
Load combination 3: dead load + tension load + wind load
in x-direction
Load combination 4: dead load + tension load + wind load
in Y-direction

Ice load on steel structures are negligible low. However, ice loads on cable connections and
tubes are considered and included in the above given value of the tension load.

Siemens AG 2008
Page 10 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Mechanical Loads and Load cases

IEC 61963-1

The most unfavorable load combinations for the exceptional load case are:

Load combination 5: dead load + short-circuit forces


Load combination 6: dead load + tension load +switching
forces
Load combination 7: dead load + tension load + earthquake
load in x/z- direction
Load combination 8: dead load + tension load + earthquake
load in y/z- direction

Siemens AG 2008
Page 11 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Outline

Mechanical loads and load cases in AIS


Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces
Effects on rigid conductors: analytical approach and practical solution
with IEC 60865-1
Effects on flexible conductors: analytical approach and practical
solution with IEC 60865-1 and FEM
New features in IEC 60865-1: 2009
CIGR video

Siemens AG 2008
Page 12 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Short-Circuit Current

is influenced by

Operation status of the network


Network impedance
Voltage status of the system before the short-circuit
Instant of time when the short-circuit begins

Siemens AG 2008
Page 13 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Short-Circuit Forces
Basics

Ampres Law
H ds j dA A
Magnetic induction

B 0 r H

Magnetic force on moving charges



Fm q v B

Siemens AG 2008
Page 14 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Short-Circuit Forces
Basics


d 2 F1 i1 (t )

ds1


r21
i2 (t ) Grassmann Formula

ds 2

Conductor 1

Conductor 2


0 ds1 ds2 r21
d F1 t
2
i1 t i2 t
4 3
r21
Siemens AG 2008
Page 15 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Short-Circuit Forces

F/F|
1,0

a .
0,75

F
l .
0,5

0,25

i1
0
i2 0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0
a/ I

0 l
F t i1 t i2 t
2 a

Siemens AG 2008
Page 16 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Short-Circuit Forces

l
1
F t 0 i1 t i2 t with i1 (t ) i2 (t ) 2 sin(t u z ) sin( z u )e
"
2 a k

l I k''2 1 2t
t

F t 0 e sin k 2 sint k sin k e cos2t 2 k 2

1
2 2 2

Siemens AG 2008
Page 17 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Short-Circuit Forces

l
1
F t 0 i1 t i2 t with i1 (t ) i2 (t ) 2 sin( t u z ) sin( z u )e
"
2 a k

0 l I k''2 1 2t
t

F t e sin k 2 sin t k sin k e cos2t 2 k 2

1
2 2 2

F (t) = f0 + fg + f + f 2

f0 = Constant DC component f = Time-damped AC component of


single line frequency

fg = Time-damped DC component f2 = AC component of


double line frequency
Siemens AG 2008
Page 18 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces

Short-Circuit Forces
880 80
fg f2
720 0

560 -80
f0
400 -160

240 -240

80 -320

-80 -400 f
-240 -480

-400 -560

-560 -640

0.00 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.20 0.24 0.00 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.20 0.24
Time Time
Short-circuit
current Short-circuit force
Siemens AG 2008
Page 19 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Outline

Mechanical loads and load cases in AIS


Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces
Effects on rigid conductors: analytical approach and practical solution
with IEC 60865-1
Effects on flexible conductors: analytical approach and practical
solution with IEC 60865-1 and FEM
New features in IEC 60865-1: 2009
CIGR video

Siemens AG 2008
Page 20 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Effects on rigid conductors

Rigid Conductors - analytical approach

2y y 4y dx
m dx 2 2 m dx E J dx 4 F
t t x l
F(t)

dx
x
I

2y M E 2y M 3 y
m Q Fd 2 E 3
x 2 E Z x
2 x x

Siemens AG 2008
Page 21 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Effects on rigid conductors

Approach IEC 60865-1

Simple formula from the statics of the


continuoues beam

Bending stress Force on support


Fm l
m v vr Fd vF vr Fm
8Z

Siemens AG 2008
Page 22 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Effects on rigid conductors

Approach IEC 60865-1


Supports and fixure methods
Single span
A and B A: 0,5 1,0 1,57
supported B: 0,5
A B

A: tensioned A: 0,625 0,73 2,45


B: supported B: 0,375
A B

A and B A: 0,5 0,5 3,56


tensioned B: 0,5
A B
Multiple spans
with equal 2 spans A: 0,375 0,73 2,45
support B: 1,25
spacing A B A

3 or A: 0,4 0,73 3,56


more B: 1,1
span A B B A
s

Fm l
m v vr Fd vF vr Fm
8Z

Siemens AG 2008
Page 23 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Effects on rigid conductors

Approach IEC 60865-1


Supports and fixure methods
Single span
A and B A: 0,5 1,0 1,57
supported B: 0,5
A B

A: tensioned A: 0,625 0,73 2,45


B: supported B: 0,375
EJ
fe
A B

A and B
tensioned
A: 0,5
B: 0,5
0,5 3,56
e2 m'
A B
Multiple spans
with equal 2 spans A: 0,375 0,73 2,45
support B: 1,25
spacing A B A

3 or A: 0,4 0,73 3,56


more B: 1,1
span A B B A
s

Fm l
m v vr Fd vF vr Fm
8Z

Siemens AG 2008
Page 24 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Effects on rigid conductors

Approach IEC 60865-1

Siemens AG 2008
Page 25 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Effects on rigid conductors

Approach IEC 60865-1

Further agreements when calculating with IEC 60865-1

Straight (more or less) parallel conductors


Span lengths less than 20% of the adjacent ones shall be avoided
Small plastic deformations (< l/100) may occur

Siemens AG 2008
Page 26 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Outline

Mechanical loads and load cases in AIS


Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces
Effects on rigid conductors: analytical approach practical solution with
IEC 60865-1
Effects on flexible conductors: analytical approach and practical
solution with IEC 60865-1 and FEM
New features in IEC 60865-1: 2009
CIGR video

Siemens AG 2008
Page 27 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Effects on flexible conductors

Flexible Conductors - analytical approach

Fy

-z

x
gm y

2y y
E A y
z y
2 2
m' 2 Z Fy
' 2y
x x m' 2 Z Fy'
t t x
2 x
x x

2z z
E A y
z z
2 2
m' Z g m' 2z
x x m' 2 Z g m'
t 2 t x 2 x x x

Siemens AG 2008
Page 28 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Effects on flexible conductors

Approach IEC 60865-1

F'
r 1 arc tan r
gn m's ns l

Siemens AG 2008
Page 29 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Effects on flexible conductors

Approach IEC 60865-1

a) Oscillations of the span at m 70

c)b) Oscillations
Rotations ofand
the span m span
dropsatof the 180 at 70 180
a) Oscillations of the span at m 70 m

c) Rotations of the span at m 180

b) Oscillations and drops of the span at 70 m 180

Siemens AG 2008
Page 30 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Effects on flexible conductors

Approach IEC 60865-1

spacer

during s-c

Siemens AG 2008
Page 31 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Effects on flexible conductors

Approach IEC 60865-1 l t1 t2


40 m 0,25 s 0,5 s
70 m 0,6 s 1,2 s

t2 .
Tension
t1 .

Fpi Ft Ff

Fst

Short-circuit current Time

Contraction maximum Fpi Tensile maximum Ft Drop maximum Ff

Siemens AG 2008
Page 32 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Effects on flexible conductors

Flexible conductors- Examples


D A E B C
G

A) horizontal strain bus connected by insulator chains to steel structures without droppers >>> IEC 60865 -1
B) horizontal connection between components >>> IEC 60865 -1
C) end-span droppers >>> CIGRE (Brochure 214)
D) jumper connecting two strained conductor section >>> CIGRE (Brochure 214)
E) vertical dropper between strained bus and apparatus (dropper) >>> FE-Methoden
F) dropper between strain bus and apparatus with spring >>> FE-Methoden
G) first span to overhead line..and all other structures >>> FE-Methoden

Siemens AG 2008
Page 33 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Effects on flexible conductors

Flexible conductors- Examples


FE-Method

Test set-up 110kV

KPW and KPO

KLW and KLO

Siemens AG 2008
Page 34 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Effects on flexible conductors

Flexible conductors- Examples


FE-Method

40m span 40.

IEC

IEC: 24,1 kN
IEC: 23,3 kN
20,7 kN 22 kN
20.
Calculation

Test

0.
.0 .5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

Siemens AG 2008
Page 35 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Effects on flexible conductors

Approach IEC 60865-1 - Examples


FE-Method
with spacer

Siemens AG 2008
Page 36 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Outline

Mechanical loads and load cases in AIS


Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces
Effects on rigid conductors: analytical approach practical solution with
IEC 60865-1
Effects on flexible conductors: analytical approach and practical
solution with IEC 60865-1 and FEM
New features in IEC 60865-1: 2009
CIGR video

Siemens AG 2008
Page 37 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

New features in IEC 60865-1: 2009

Effects on fixed vertical main conductors


Effects on horizontal main conductors with dropper in midspan
Effects on monolithic foundations (stability)
Thermal effects for equipment deleted
New structure and a changed nomenclature

Siemens AG 2008
Page 38 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears
Outline

Mechanical loads and load cases in AIS


Short-circuit currents and short-circuit forces
Effects on rigid conductors: analytical approach practical solution with
IEC 60865-1
Effects on flexible conductors: analytical approach and practical
solution with IEC 60865-1 and FEM
New features in IEC 60865-1: 2009
CIGR video

Siemens AG 2008
Page 39 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Thank you for your attention!

For internal use only / Copyright Siemens AG 2008.AllSiemens


rights reserved.
AG 2008
Page 40 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG/Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
Forces in Air Insulated Switchgears

Dieter W. Rder
Siemens AG
E T HS ENG
Paul-Gossen-Str. 100 (Erl S)
91058 Erlangen
Phone: +49 9131 7 34474
Email: Dieter-Werner.Roeder@siemens.com

Siemens AG 2008
Page 41 Oktober 2008 E T HS ENG / Roeder Power Transmission High Voltage Substations
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Siemens AG 2008
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