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FACULTY: ENGINEERING EDITION:

TECHNOLOGY
LABORATORY: FLUID
REVISION NO:
MECHANICS

EFFECTIVE DATE: 1/3/2014


EXPERIMENT: HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE TEST AMENDMENT
DATE:

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY

LABORATORY INSTRUCTION SHEETS

COURSE CODE BNQ 10304


EXPERIMENT NO. EXPERIMENT 6
EXPERIMENT TITLE HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE TEST

DATE 28 FEBRUARY 2017


GROUP NO. 2
LECTURER/INSTRUCTOR/ 1) DR NOR FAIZAH BINTI RAZALI
TUTOR 2) MOHD REEZUAN BIN MOHD NOR
DATE OF REPORT
SUBMISSION
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION/DISCIPLINE: /5%
INTRODUCTION: /5%
PROCEDURE: /5%
RESULTS& CALCULATIONS /15%
DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS ANALYSIS /15%
FOR LABORATORY DISCUSSIONS: /20%
REPORT: ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS /15%
CONCLUSION /10%
SUGGESTIONS& RECOMENDATIONS /5%
REFERENCES: /5%
TOTAL: /100%

EXAMINER COMMENTS: RECEIVED DATE AND STAMP:


FACULTY: ENGINEERING EDITION:
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REVISION NO:
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EFFECTIVE DATE: 1/3/2014


EXPERIMENT: HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE TEST AMENDMENT
DATE:

KOD ETIKA PELAJAR


(KEP)

JABATAN TEKNOLOGI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA

FAKULTI TEKNOLOGI KEJURUTERAAN

Saya dengan ini mengaku bahawa saya telah menyediakan laporan ini dengan daya usaha

saya sendiri. Saya juga mengaku tidak menerima atau memberi sebarang bantuan dalam

menyediakan laporan ini dan membuat ikrar ini dengan kepercayaan bahawa apa-apa yang

tersebut di dalamnya adalah benar.

Ketua Nama: MUHAMMAD LUQMAN B.

Kumpulan YUSOF

No. Matriks: DN160341 (Tandatangan)


Ahli 1 Nama: NURUL SYUHADA BINTI

AHMAD

No. Matriks: AN160187 (Tandatangan)


Ahli 2 Nama: NUR IZZATUL NAJWA BINTI

ZAKARIA

No. Matriks: DN160353 (Tandatangan)


Ahli 3 Nama: WENDY YEN WEE NI

No. Matriks: AN160208

(Tandatangan)
FACULTY: ENGINEERING EDITION:
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LABORATORY: FLUID
REVISION NO:
MECHANICS

EFFECTIVE DATE: 1/3/2014


EXPERIMENT: HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE TEST AMENDMENT
DATE:

1.0 OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the centre of pressure on both submerged and partially submerged plane surface.
2. To compare the centre of pressure between experimental and theoretical.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES

Demonstrate the ability to conduct experiments related to fluid flow by following standard operating
procedure effectively in a group.
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EXPERIMENT: HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE TEST AMENDMENT
DATE:

3.0 INTRODUCTION / THEORY

The hydrostatic pressure apparatus has been designed to study on the hydrostatic of an object immersed in fluid. It will enable
students to measure the static thrust exerted by a fluid on a submerged surface while allowing them to compare the magnitude
and direction of the force with theory.

The calculation of the magnitude,


3.1 Hydrostatic Forces Ondirection and line of the hydrostatic forces exerted by a fluid on a submerged plane surface is
Plane Surface
important in the design of structures such as drams, bulkheads, gates, tanks, submarines etc. The pressure which the force
actingConsider
over a unit surface
a plane area and
surface varies linearly
of arbitrary shape andwithorientation
depth. Thissubmerged
fact enables
in ausstatic
to describe
fluid asthe pressure
shown distribution
in Figure over a
1. If P represents
submerged surface. When the pressure is uniform over a surface, such as static pressure on a horizontal surface,
the local pressure at any point on the surface and h represents the depth of fluid above any point on the surface, from the the resultant
force basic
is equal to areawetimes
physics, the pressure
can easily show that andtheacts
netthrough the force
hydrostatic centroid
on aofplane
the area. However,
surface is giveninby:
many cases, such as liquids
acting on a non-horizontal surface, the situation is more complex. A general approach has been developed to estimate resultant
force and its line of action.

F PdA
In this experiment,
A the reliability of this approach is examined by comparing analytical values for forces and moments acting
(1)
on a plane surface with experimental measurements of these values on the same surface on a partially submerged and fully
submerged plane surface, but for more clearly to get the result of the concept

Figure 1: Hydrostatic Pressure on Plane Surface

The hydrostatic force on one side of a plane surface submerged in a static fluid equals to the product of the fluid pressure at
the centroid of the surface times the surface area in contact with the fluid. Thus, basic physics says that the hydrostatic force
is a distributed load equal to the integral of the local pressure force over the area. Pressure acts normal to a surface,
therefore the direction of the resultant force will always be normal to the surface.

In most cases, since it is the net hydrostatic force that is desired and the contribution of atmospheric pressure P a will act on
both sides of a surface, the result of atmospheric pressure P a will cancel and the net force is obtained by:

F g h cg A
(2)

F Pcg A
(3)
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EXPERIMENT: HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE TEST AMENDMENT
DATE:

Pcg is now the gauge pressure at the centroid of the area in contact with the fluid. Therefore, to obtain the net hydrostatic
force, F on a plane surface,

1. Determine depth of centroid, hcg for the area in contact with the fluid
2. Determine the gauge pressure at the centroid P cg
3. Calculate F = PcgA

Appendix C shows the centroid and other geometric properties of several areas. The effective point of application of force
which is normally called the Center of Pressure, CP of the hydrostatic force and this is not necessary the same as the
centroid.

The location of the resultant force is determined by integrating the moment of the distributed fluid load on the surface about
each axis and equating this to the moment of the resultant force about that axis. Therefore, for the moment about the y axis:


F y cp y P dA
A (4)

Applying a procedure similar to that used previously to determine the resultant force, we obtain:

g sin I xx
Ycp 0
Pcg A
(5)

Where, Ixx is defined as the Moment of Inertia, or


I xx 2 nd moment of the area
(6)

Therefore, the resultant force will always act at a distance y cp below the centroid of the surface (except for the special case
of sin = 0). Proceeding in a similar manner for the x location, and defining I xy = product of inertia, we obtain:

g sin I xy
X cp
Pcg A
(7)

Where Xcp can be either positive or negative since I xy can be either positive or negative. For areas with a vertical plane of
symmetry through the centroid, the y-axis (e.g. squares, circles, isosceles triangles, etc.), the center of pressure is located
directly below the centroid along the plane of symmetry, Xcp = 0.

For most problems where we have a single, homogeneous fluid and the surface pressure is at atmospheric, the fluid specific
weight cancels in the equation for Ycp and Xcp and we have the following simplified expressions:

I xx sin
Ycp
h cg A
(8)

I xy g sin
X cp
h cg A
(9)
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EXPERIMENT: HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE TEST AMENDMENT
DATE:

3.2 Hydrostatic Pressure On A Vertical Plane Surface

The following figure illustrates a hydrostatic pressure demonstration setup where the center of pressure of an immersed and
partial immersed vertical plane surface can be determined.

Figure 2: Hydrostatic Pressure Demonstration

Referring to Figure 2,
L = Distance between Suspended Mass and Fulcrum
D = Height of End Surface
B = Width of End Surface
H = Total Depth of Quadrant
C = Centroid of End Surface
P = Center of Pressure of Plane Surface
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EXPERIMENT: HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE TEST AMENDMENT
DATE:

3.2.1 Partial Immerged Vertical Plane Surface

Figure 3: Partial Immersed Vertical Plane Surface

Referring to Figure 3,

d = Depth of Immersion in Water


F = Hydrostatic Force exerted on Quadrant
h = Depth of Centroid from the Water Surface
h = Depth of Center of Pressure from the Water Surface
h = Distance between Fulcrum and the Center of Pressure

For a partially immersed plane surface as shown in Figure 4,

A Bd (10)

d
h
2 (11)

Therefore, the hydrostatic force, F (Equation 2) is simplified as:

Bd 2
F g
2 (12)

If the system as shown in Figure 4 is equilibrium with the moment of horizontal arm, then,

M fulcrum Fh "WL

Fh " WL mg L (13)

Substituting Equation 12 into Equation 14, we obtain,

mg L 2mL
h"
F Bd 2 (14)
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EXPERIMENT: HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE TEST AMENDMENT
DATE:

Theoretically, the center of pressure from the water surface, h is expressed in Equation 8:

I sin
h ' h Ycp h xx
h cg A
(15)

The orientation of the surface from the horizontal = 90 gives 1 for sin, then

I xx
h ' h
hA (16)

And

Bd 3
I xx
12 (For a Rectangular Surface) (17)

Where, I xx is the moment of inertia of the submerged surface (please refer to Appendix C)

The center of pressure bellow the fulcrum is finally determined by,

h " h ' H d (18)

Thus, substituting Equation 16 and 17 into Equation 18 will finally give,

d
h" H
3 (19)
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LABORATORY: FLUID
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EXPERIMENT: HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE TEST AMENDMENT
DATE:

3.2.2 Fully Immerged Vertical Plane Surface

Figure 4: Fully Immersed Vertical Plane Surface

Referring to Figure 4,

D = Depth of Immersion in Water


F = Hydrostatic Force exerted on Quadrant
h = Depth of Centroid from the Water Surface
h = Depth of Center of Pressure from the Water Surface
h = Distance between Fulcrum and the Center of Pressure

The hydrostatic force of a fully immersed vertical plane surface, F is determined as:

D
F g Ah gBD d
2 (20)

If the system as shown in Figure 5 is equilibrium with the moment of horizontal arm, then,

M fulcrum Fh "WL

Fh " WL mg L

Thus,
mg L mL
h"
F D
BD d
2 (21)
FACULTY: ENGINEERING EDITION:
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LABORATORY: FLUID
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EXPERIMENT: HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE TEST AMENDMENT
DATE:

Theoretically, the center of pressure from the water surface, h is expressed in Equation 8:

I sin
h ' h Ycp h xx
h cg A

The orientation of the surface from the horizontal = 90 gives 1 for sin , then

I xx
h' h
hA

2
D D2



d

D BD 1 3
1 2 12
h ' d
2 12 BD D D
d d
2 2 (22)

The center of pressure bellow the fulcrum is finally determined by,

h " h 'H d

2
D D2
d

2 12 H d
h"
D
d
2 (23)
FACULTY: ENGINEERING EDITION:
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EXPERIMENT: HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE TEST AMENDMENT
DATE:

4.0 EQUIPMENTS & MATERIALS

4.1 Description and Assembly

Figure 5: Assembly Diagram of Hydrostatic Pressure

a) Quadrant
Material : PVC
Total Depth of Quadrant, H : 200 mm
Height of Fulcrum above Quadrant : 100 mm
Height of End Surface, D : 100 mm
Width, B : 75 mm
Length of Balance, L : 300 mm

b) Reservoir Tank
Material : Clear Acrylic
Volume : 5.5 L

c) Balance Arm
Distance between Suspended Mass and Fulcrum, L: 290 mm
Set of Weights: 50 g/each

d) Overall Dimension
Length : 340 mm
Width : 130 mm
Height : 300 mm
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EXPERIMENT: HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE TEST AMENDMENT
DATE:

5.0 PROCEDURE

1. Place the Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus on top of a hydraulic Bench.


2. Make sure that the apparatus is installed properly as in Figure 5.
3. Level the apparatus using the adjustable feet facilitate by the spirit level attached.
4. Adjust the counter-weight to level the balance arm to horizontal position.
5. Make sure that the drain valve is closed and slowly add water into the tank until the surface just touches the quadrant
base, thus establishing a datum level.
6. Record the reading (datum level) at the scale.
7. Place a 50 g weight on the balance pan and slowly add water into the tank until the balance arm is again horizontal.
8. Record the mass of weight, m and depth of immersion, d in the experimental data sheet. Note: The new depth of
immersion must be subtracted with the datum level.
9. Repeat steps 6 and 7 with increasing number of weights until the tank is full of water.
10. Drain off the water after the experiment is completed.

6.0 RESULTS & CALCULATION

Height of Quadrant, D 0.100 m


Width of Quadrant, B 0.075 m
Length of Balance, L 0.275 m
Quadrant to pivot, H 0.205 m
Density 1000.00 kg/m3
Gravity 9.81 m/s2

Mass Depth of Immersion Thrust 2nd Moment 2nd Moment Error


m Immersion, d (Full/Partial) F Experimental, h" Theory, h"
(kg) (m) (N) (m) (m) %
0.05 0.04 partial 0.589 0.230 0.190 21.053
0.10 0.06 partial 1.414 0.191 0.184 3.804
0.15 0.08 partial 2.238 0.181 0.179 -1.117
0.20 0.09 partial 3.182 0.170 0.174 -2.299
0.25 0.11 full 4.056 0.167 0.170 -1.765
0.30 0.12 full 5.036 0.161 0.166 -3.012
0.35 0.13 full 6.122 0.154 0.162 -4.938
0.40 0.14 full 7.314 0.148 0.158 -6.329
0.45 0.16 full 8.838 0.137 0.153 -10.4588
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EXPERIMENT: HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE TEST AMENDMENT
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Formula
Partial Immersed Fully Immersed
Bd 2 D
Fg F gBD d
2 2
mg L mL
h"
2mL F D
h" BD d
Experimental: Bd 2 2
2
D D2
d

2 2
h" H d
d D
h" H d
Theoretically: 3 2

Properties of Plane Sections

Moment of Inertia Product of Inertia


Geometry Centroid Area
I xx Ixy
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7.0 DATA ANALYSIS

8.0 DISCUSSIONS & CONCLUSION

Approved by / Disahkan oleh :


Prepared by / Disahkan oleh:

Signature / Tandatangan :
Signature/Tandatangan:
Name / Nama : PM. DR. ANGZZAS SARI
Name/Nama: DR. NOR FAIZAH BINTI RAZALI
BINTI MOHD KASSIM

Date/Tarikh :
FACULTY: ENGINEERING EDITION:
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LABORATORY: FLUID
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EFFECTIVE DATE: 1/3/2014


EXPERIMENT: HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE TEST AMENDMENT
DATE: