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Chapter 7

Microsequencer Control Unit
Design

Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Copyright © 2001

Chapter Outline
• Basic Microsequencer Design
• Very Simple Microsequencer
• Relatively Simple Microsequencer
• Reducing the Number of
Microinstructions
• Microcoded vs. Hardwired Control
• Pentium Microprocessor

Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Copyright © 2001

Micro-stuff

• Micro-operations
• Microinstructions
• Microprograms

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Generic Microsequencer

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Generating the Next Address

• Current Address + 1
• Address specified by microinstruction
• Microsubroutine register
• Mapping hardware

Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Copyright © 2001

Microinstruction Format Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 . Inc.

Inc. Copyright © 2001 . Types of Microcode • Horizontal • Vertical • Direct Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Copyright © 2001 . Inc.A Very Simple Microsequencer Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Copyright © 2001 .Mapping Logic Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc.

Inc.State Addresses State Address FETCH1 0000 (0) FETCH2 0001 (1) FETCH3 0010 (2) ADD1 1000 (8) ADD2 1001 (9) AND1 1010 (10) AND2 1011 (11) JMP1 1100 (12) INC1 1110 (14) Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 .

Partial Microcode State Address SEL ADDR FETCH1 0000 (0) 0 0001 FETCH2 0001 (1) 0 0010 FETCH3 0010 (2) 1 XXXX ADD1 1000 (8) 0 1001 ADD2 1001 (9) 0 0000 AND1 1010 (10) 0 1011 AND2 1011 (11) 0 0000 JMP1 1100 (12) 0 0000 INC1 1110 (14) 0 0000 Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc. Copyright © 2001 .

..Micro-operations Mnemonic Micro-Operation ARPC ARPC ARDR ARDR[5.0] DRM DRM IRDR IRDR[7.6] PLUS ACAC + DR AND ACAC^DR ACIN ACAC + 1 Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.0] PCIN PCPC + 1 PCDR PCDR[5.. Copyright © 2001 . Inc.

Copyright © 2001 . Inc.Preliminary Horizontal Microcode Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Copyright © 2001 . Inc.Optimized Horizontal Microcode Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Control Signals Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc. Copyright © 2001 .

Generic Vertical Microcode Decoding Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 . Inc.

Inc. Field Assignments • Simultaneous micro-operations in different fields Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 .

Field Assignments • Simultaneous micro-operations in different fields • Include a NOP in each field Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc. Copyright © 2001 .

Field Assignments • Simultaneous micro-operations in different fields • Include a NOP in each field • Distribute remaining micro-operations to minimize total number of bits required Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 . Inc.

Field Assignments • Simultaneous micro-operations in different fields • Include a NOP in each field • Distribute remaining micro-operations to minimize total number of bits required • Group together micro-operations that modify the same register Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 . Inc.

Inc. Copyright © 2001 .Micro-operation Assignments M1 M2 NOP NOP DRM PCIN Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Micro-operation Assignments M1 M2 NOP NOP DRM PCIN ACIN PCDR PLUS ARPC AND AIDR Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 . Inc.

Micro-operation Assignments M1 M2 NOP NOP DRM PCIN ACIN PCDR PLUS ARPC AND AIDR Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 . Inc.

Copyright © 2001 .Micro-operation Assignments and Field Values Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc.

Inc.Vertical Microcode Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 .

Copyright © 2001 .Micro-operation Generation Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc.

Copyright © 2001 . Inc.Nanoinstructions Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Inc. Copyright © 2001 . Directly Generating Control Signals • Output control signals instead of micro- operations • No external decoding required • No external hardware required to generate control signals • More difficult to code Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Preliminary Direct Microcode Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 . Inc.

Optimize Direct Microcode Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 . Inc.

Copyright © 2001 . Inc. Relatively Simple Microsequencer • No changes to – Instruction set – Data paths – ALU Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Modified State Diagram Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc. Copyright © 2001 .

Microsequencer Hardware Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc. Copyright © 2001 .

Inc.State Assignments Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 .

Copyright © 2001 .Condition Values Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc.

Inc. Copyright © 2001 .Branch Types Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Copyright © 2001 .Branch Logic Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc.

Inc. Copyright © 2001 .Partial Microcode Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Partial Microcode (continued) Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 . Inc.

Copyright © 2001 .Micro-operations Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc.

Horizontal Microcode Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc. Copyright © 2001 .

Horizontal Microcode Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc. Copyright © 2001 .

Copyright © 2001 . Inc.Horizontal Microcode Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Control Signals Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 . Inc.

Copyright © 2001 . Reducing the Number of Microinstructions • Microsubroutines • Microcode Jumps Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc.

Copyright © 2001 .Microsubroutines Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc.

Inc. Copyright © 2001 .Revised State Assignments Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Copyright © 2001 . Inc.Microsequencer with Microsubroutines Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Copyright © 2001 .Revised Branch Types Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc.

Inc. Copyright © 2001 .Revised Branch Logic Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Inc.Revised Microcode Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 .

Inc. Copyright © 2001 .Microcode Jumps Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Revised Microcode Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 . Inc.

Copyright © 2001 .Microprogrammed Control vs. Inc. Hardwired Control • Complexity of the instruction set Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Copyright © 2001 . Hardwired Control • Complexity of the instruction set • Ease of modification Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc.Microprogrammed Control vs.

Inc.Microprogrammed Control vs. Hardwired Control • Complexity of the instruction set • Ease of modification • Clock speed Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Copyright © 2001 .

Inc. Copyright © 2001 .The Pentium Microprocessor Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman.

Inc. Hardwired Control • Pentium Microprocessor Images courtesy of Addison Wesley Longman. Summary • Basic Microsequencer Design • Very Simple Microsequencer • Relatively Simple Microsequencer • Reducing the Number of Microinstructions • Microcoded vs. Copyright © 2001 .