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Historical Period


School Of Thought/Beliefs


Ancient Rome (1st century BCE to 5th century CE) Seneca


Marcus Aurelius Stoicism

Emphasis on morality, virtue, calm and emotional fortitude. presented their philosophy as a way of life

Medieval Period (5th to 15th centuries) St. Augustine

St. Thomas Aquinas Scholasticism

Application of philosophy to define and explainreligious doctrinesmoderation and the sense of limit

coherence and interdependence

Renaissance (14th to 17th centuries) Petrarch

Desiderius Erasmus

Niccolo Machiavelli

Franois Rabelais Humanism

Emphasis on the human person; use of philosophy to understand society, nature, and humanity reliance on reasoned experience

nontheismand naturlism
The Enlightenment (17th to 18th centuries) Rene Decartes

Immanuel Kantz

Gottfried Leibniz

David Hume


Francis Bacon

Jean-Jacques Rousseau


John Stuart Mill

Thomas Hobbes


Reason and logic considered the basis of knowledge and belief; man has innate knowledge that can be accessed through intuition or

Knowledge is gained through the senses and experience; reliance on inductive reasoning to arrive at generalizations

Social snd Political Philosophy

Discussions on the ideal human situation and society; emphasis on individual rights and liberties mathematical knowledge

offers a naturalistic alternative to religious accounts to human nature

fundamental worldview

emphasizes the use of the senses

new emphasis on understanding the social contexts for political, legal, moral, and cultural questions

knowledge that inform problem-solving and desicion-making

generates visions of the good social life

Modern Period (19th to 20th) Friedrich Nietzsche

Soren Kierkegaard

Martin Heidegger

Jean Paul Sartre

Simon deBeauvoir


William James
John Dewey

Edmund Husserl



Michel Foucault Existentialism

Human experience is defined by the views, emotions, and actions of the individual


Emphasis on the practical use of knowledge and ideas.


Experience is studied based on the subjective viewpoint of the individual


Man will never understand the human condition and the meaning of life

Postmodernism, Post-structuralism

Analysis on how knowledge, ideas and power relations are defined great emphasis onones's self

individuals are entirely free

shows its deep faith in democracy

not believe in eternal values

experience as the source of attaining knowledge

withstand the acceptance of circumstances

justify knowledge with reference to awareness

explores the fundamental nature of the Absurd

to seek inherent value and meaning in life

no absolute truth, morality is personal, self-conceptualization and rationalization

way of studying how knowledge is produced

preserving central elements of structuralism's critique of the humanist subject


STEM 11A Joy

Eastern Philosophy
Historical Period


School Of Thought/Beliefs


Ca. 610 CE Muhammad Islam (West Asia)

Belief in one God (Allah); commitment to faith is shown through the practice of the Five Pillars: testament of faith (shahada), daily
prayers (salat), alms-giving (zakat), fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm), and pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca (hajj).
governs all facets of life

meant to bring peace to a society

Ca. 1440 CE Guru Nanak Sikhism (India)

God is believed to have created the universe and is present everywhere and in everything. women are generally treated

Ca. 400 BCE Confucius Confucianism (East Asia)

The contemplation of the orders of the things can lead to self-transformation. Self-transformation can lead to the betterment of the
family and society. An ethical and philosophical system

highly optmistic view of human nature

Ca. 200 BCE Lao Tzu

Taoism (East Asia)

Emphasis on the unity and harmony among opposing elements (yin and yang); individuals must seek to understand and act in
accordance with the natural order.


Harmony and balance are essential in maintaining purity.

He material and spiritual worlds are closely connected; rituals and traditions are a way to connect with the spiritual world
profound influence on Chinese culture

emphasize "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity

remains Japan's major religion alongside Buddhism

deeply rooted in the Japanese people and traditions.

Ca. 600-500 BCE Mahavira Jainism (India)

Rejects the idea of a Creator and considers the universe as eternal and unceasing; time is a wheel which goes through cycles of
prosperity and suffering.

prescribes ahimsa (non-violence) towards all living beings

every soul is potentially divine with innate infinite knowledge

Ca. 400 BCE Siddharta Gautama Buddhism (South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia)

Shares a number of main beliefs (samsara, dharma, moksha) with Hinduism attainment of the sublime state of nirvana

one remains in the cycle of rebirth to help other beings reach awakening

Ca. 2000 BCE

Abraham, Moses, various prophets Judaism (Israel, the Levant)

Belief in one God (monotheism), who has a role in the ultimate destiny of mankind; the Jewish people are God's chosen people.
unique relationship with each Jew

acknowledge God's presence in everything around them

monotheistic faith, which means members believe in only one god

Ca. 1500 BCE Hinduism (India, South Asia)

Belief in a pantheon of gods, with three main gods Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu

Belief in a cycle of birth and rebirth which is broken when a person achieves ultimate union with the Divine (moksha) world's oldest

Karma is the most powerful influence

world's third largest religion

no founder
Ca. 600 BCE no distinct philosophers Shinto (Japan)

An animistic religion influenced by Japanese myth and traditions.

Beliefs focus on the existence and power of the kami, or gods, that exist in the world, in nature, and especially in and throughout Japan

diverse and ancient set of traditional and ritual practices