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ground for intellectual and spiritual

interest and intercourse between India

and China.
The presen! work is a lrans}alion of a
sevenlh-century text Hao-Seng-Chusrt
(Biographies of Eminen! Monks) t y the
renowned Chinese monk-scholar ching
(a.o. 614-713). It consists of biographies
of fifty-six monks. Among the Chinese
pilgrim-monk-scholars who visitdd India,
Fa-hsien, Hsuan-chuang and l-ching are
the best known for having played the
greatest rofe in the history of $ino-lr>dian
cultural relation. However, the fifty-six
monks whose adventurous travels and
experiences are recorded in this book
are no less important as active promot
ers of the most cordial relations between
the two great countries
Most of these f^y-six monks came
out to India from China on Pilgrimage
and for colleciion of texts to enrich
Buddhist literature in their own home
land. In this book l*chif>g has also given
a vivid, though not full-length, descrip
tion of the premief University of
Nalanda, the seal o f Suddhrst learning.
The academic life and activities of
Nalanda attracted the Chinese monks in
a large number for higher studies.
Written with insight, realism and
c la iiy, l-ching's book is thought-provok
ing. All these features are carefully
preserved in this translation which will
no doubt evoke interest among scholars
as well as general readers

ISBN 8r*208 00ff2-1 Rs.175

C H IN e s e M o_ in in d u

EdU ed b y
a j .e x w a y m a n

E d ito rial A dv iso ry B o ard

J.W . D F J O N G

Biography o f Eminent Monks who went
to the Western Wodd in Search o f the Law
daring the Great Tang Dynasty





Fm t Edition: Dethi, t9 8 6
Btpnni: DeOti, J99S


AJI Rights Reserved


AUqavaiiabit <U:
41 UA. BungaJow Roadjawahar Nagar, Delhi 1LO 007
120 Royapeah High Roacl. Mylapore, Madras 600 004
165c. Mark's Road, Bangalore 560 001
Ashok Raj path, Patn2 800 004
Chowk, Varanasi 221 001

BU^M.OW ROAD. DLH) ])0(?0?
The Chinese are justifiably said to be food of, and adept at
historical records, such as the record h e translated by l^ h iri.
Ic is frequently claimed that the Indians were neither fond of
nor adept at such records. Even so, Chinese monks did not lose
si(h( of India as the spiritual fountain of Buddhism, Certain
native Chinese compositions by Buddhists were attributed to
Indian auehorship to lend the worlcs greater pm tigethus the
attributed authorship contradicts correct literary hutor/, despite
the fondness of the Chinese ibr historical records.
As long as the Buddhist institutions of India continued as
viable spiritual centres, they inspired visits by intrepid Chinese
monks, who braved all sorts of perils to reach ^non-historical"
India. And I-Ching wrote up the lives o f the eminent Chinese
monki who risked their lives to come to India to study, during
the Great T'ang Dynasty of China. He modelled his composi
tion called Kao seng-chuan after earlier and a large work of this
genre. Latika Lnhiri provides the first English translation of
J-Ching's treatise. Doubtlew, many a scholar will be interested
in this translation aad the notes thereto, as they previously used
the observations of India by the celebrated Hsuan-tiang. Indian
scholars alsodespite the ^on-historical* label, can be expected
to coniult and appreciate Lahiri^ translation.

New Delhi A u x W ayman

August 9, 1986
F o r tw o r d vi

P rologue ix
A b b re via tio n s xi
C h a rt o f C k iru s e D y n a s tU s x iii
I n tr o d iu tw n xv

B io g ra p h y o f E m i n e n t M o n k s W h o W M t to th e
W e s te r n R e g io n in S e a rc h o f th e L a w D u rin g
th e G re a t T a n g D y n a sty

C h a p te r O n e ; P r e f a c e 1
C h a p te r T w o : F if te e n M o n k s 62


B ib lio g r a p h y 139
In d tx 147

This work was started m 1958 when 1 was an IndU&n Govern*

mcnt schc^ar in Peking (Beijing) University. It was throu^i
the ii^tiativc of Dr. J i Xiaulia the renowned Buddhist and
Sanskrit scholar, now the Vice-ChanccUor of Peking Univcrsityj
that 1 imdertook this difRcuh but mteresdng task o( uanaUdng
Chuan (Biography of Emiaenc Moaks) by I-ching as
there was no complete English trattdatbn of the tcxL Under liis
able guidance I wdertooV the woik vdth much Katation. 1 am
extTemcly grateful to him.
Here I also record my gratitude to Prof, Fci^, An Did
a veteran retired professor of Indian Philosophy*
Tokyo Univcrwty, but for whose active support and generous
encouragement I would not have undertaken, this work. He
helped me in read u ^ the text with all^nccriey and patience. Old
and tra^tional Chiiui was revealed to me through him. H b
suggestions and encouragement were very hdpful. I remember
him today with sorrovfful h tart nrhen. be u no longer in this

I brought back che incompkte maauscxipt to India in 1959.

In India 1 could not find a bi-liiual scholar (Sanskrit and
Chixvese)who could htlp xt*t m completing the w o r t After jom-
ing die University of D dhi I had the oppornmity w get help
from Mr. Richard Vang who had then joined, this University asa
visiting professor. The work waa practically competed in 1969.
But due to various factore such as anavoidakk delay in printing
pre-occupations in service life, etc. its publication '
The object o f the present work. to make availa uxfor*
motions relating to historical, geographical and political condi
tion as well as Oie prevailing condition ofBuddhism in East Asian
countties ia general and in. XiKUa in particular <iutaig tbc seventh
and the eighth centuries. In workup on this text, ray attention
was not exclusively fixed on the specialists and scholars only.
X Prohgtu
In i^cent met the Buddhist Studies have become v o y popular
amoag ibe educated pct^Ie not only in India bu( also In couo-
Uies ocher than India. I hope this subject yi)receive increasing
aitmnon and interest from the studeau of Buddhism.
In ibe ibUowlag pagei I have transcribed the Chinese words ia
English phonetics and adopted xoouly the Wade-Gilcs system as
used in Machetv's Dutimusy. Modern China is frequent
chaises in the style of transcription of Chinese %vor<ls in EngCxsiu
I have adopted some importaite namc$ frequendy used ia this
ptiblicatioa according to Chinese pronunciation such as Fa-
hsicn Hiuazi-OiuAng and I-Ching^ tic.
The practice of adopting Sanskrit names on ordination prevail
ed among the monks in China as well a$ in die Fwr Eastern
councues. Some of the names of the fifty-iix monks of tbc tcact are
not given in Sanskrit which I have tried to crsmslate into Sanskrit
without any corroboration. If these arc not correctly czandated,
it is my ahortcoming.
I am greatly indebted to nay colleagues and friends Profesaor
Richard Yang, Professor Tan Chut^ of Jawaharlal Nehru
University, and PK>fc*sor Lokesh Chandra for their very valued
help aj}d coumgemem,
Lajtly I am deeply thankful to Mr. EHvijendra Nandi fS>r his
many helpful suggestions and editorial as well as othtr assiitance.
1 am also inddncd to my talented young grand nephew
Mr, Angshuman Bagchi for preparing the index, a talk o f great
labour willingly undertaken by him.
This is the very humble remit of my hard effort*. I f the publi
cation is able to satisfy even partially, the inquisitive readers and
receive their critical appreciation my labour will be more than
Delhi L atka L ahiri

A R B R P IM A A R ecord o f Buddhist Religion as Practised

in In d ia a n d M alaya Archipelago
BCC Buddhist Conquest o f C hina
CTT Chinese T rip itak a Taisho
H C IP H istory a n d C ulture o f In d ian People
K SG K a o seng-chuan
NC N anjios C atalogue

T he Hsia Dynasty 2205-1818 B.CL

T he Shang Dynasty 1766-1154 B.C.
T he Chou Dynasty 1122-255 B .C
T he C h 'in Dynasty 255-209 B.C.
The IZatn D ynasty:
(Also styled Form er H a n o r Western H a n ) 206 B .C .-A J). 23
T h e L ater o r Eastern H a n A.D. 25-220

The Three Kingdoms

Thft M inor H a n Dynasty A.D. 221-263
T he Wei Dynasty A.D. 2202-64
T he W u Dynasty A .D. 222-277

T he W estern Tsin Dynasty A D . 265-313

T h e Eastern Tsin Dynasty A .D. 317-419

Division between North and South

T he Sung Dynasty A .D. 420-477
T he N orthern Wei D ynasty A.D. 386-535
T he Ch*i Dynasty A .D. 479-501
T he Liang Dynasty A.D. 520-536
T he C hcn Dynasty A.D. 537-587
T he Sui Dynasty A.D 581-618
T he T ang Dynasty A .D. 610-905
T he L iao Dynasty (KKitan T a rta r) A .D . 9161-168
T he C hin or K in Dynasty (T a rta r J A .D . 1115-1234
T he Sung Dynasty A.D. 960-1126
The Southern Sung Dynasty A .D , 127-1278
Biography of Eminent Monks

Who Went to the Western Region in Search of the Law

During the Great Tang Dynasty


T he Km seng<kucn, "Biographies o f Etrvlncnt M o n k s ' writ

ten in the third half of the seventh century, by the famous monk-
sdioiar I-ching, is the prototype of earlier Buddhist compUa-
tions, I-ching hao seng~chtt<tn is undoubtedly an indispensable
source o f and an outstanding work dealing with the history of
Buddhism and BuddW Church in China, and the socio-political
and cultural history o f India of the seventh and eighth centuries.
I t is a brilliant piece oflitcrature o f the T ang period (A.D. 618-
907) I-ching*s poetic expression at the end of major and minor
biographic$ and his style tometimci excel even the famous wiitcr$
and secular poet o f that period.
T he compilation o f lives o f eminent monks h not an innovation
by I-ching. From the very tioary ancient days, x\\t Chinese had
shown their eagerness and keen, insighr to preserve their histor/.
T heir iovc for history and interest in historical records encoura*
ged the Buddhist scholars o f China to preserve the valuable
biographies o f devoted, intrepid, illustrious and worthy monks
from In d ia and Central Asia. Their lives arc included in Kao
seng-cftuan. I*ching only followed the tradicioti and tune honou
red convention, methodology, and more or less tbc same style
as adopted by his predecessors {ike Hui-chiao % Scng-
and othtrs. T he Aao ien^faiort1 (Cfcinwe Trifntaka,
Taisho Ed, Vol. 50, No. 2059 in 14 chapters) of Hui-chiao (A.D.
497-554) contains 257 major and 259 minor bi^jraphies of
em inent monks, from A.D. 7 to S19, thus covering almo&t five
hundred years. T he monk Scng.yU (who lived under the reign
o f the Emperor Wu o f the Liang Dy.iVD. 502-5^7), irt
the last three chaptcn of CVu-wn-ZJonjS Cki-chi1 iK s t e
K Ahur f.Vftight, Hui-ehutP^ Lutit of Sminmi Mtmis. SUw JuWlee
volume, Zinbun>Kftgtku Knkyti*yo. Tokyo Unirenity (Tokyo 1954).
pp. 383-4$2. -
2. Th oldest extant cU]ogue compiled by $ng-yq in A.D. 518.
xvi IntrodtKticn

ColWoKm of rvoirs conctmlng the translation o f Tripi^aka (T*

2145). gw biographsn o f 32 famous monks, m ainly translators
and excretes.
Tao-hian, the most famous Buddhist historian o f th e *Fang
Dynasty (A.D. 618*907), continued the series o f einincat monks
knotvn ds Hm-ke0 stnctm nFurther Biographies o f Em inent
Monks, which contains biographies o f 33 monks (C T T 50 No.
2060, pp. 425,65? c*658a). Kot only the biographies o f em inent
m onis have been preserved but Iso lives o f em inent nuns have
occupied, tbc same exalted position in the AW seng-<ku<m (here*
afeer abbreviated KSC). ft records the biographies o f 65
Eminent Nuos, Pi^dCm*ni chuan i f (C T T 2065)
compikd by Pao-ch*ang o f the L ia t^ Dynasty, All these intel
lectual elites* writings of lives of mineat monlu, o n account o f
their cxcHIeat qualities, both historical as weU as literary
u*ork, became the scandtrd to be foliowcd by future biographen.
I-ching tried to wHce within the convention an d tradition o f
Chinese hiscorlo|raphert. The historical biographies o f the re-
nowncd Indian Ac&ryas like Aivagho?al , NagSrjuna*, Arya-
dev&' and Vasu&andhu4 and the biography o f E m p ero r A ioka.
and others arc to be found in KSC. These b b g rap h ie s a rc u n
doubtedly an indispensable source for the history o f the early
gentry Buddhism and Buddhisi Church in C hina a n d are o f im -
incnse importance for their literary and social value.
The monk Hui-min of the Liang D ynasty (A.D.
502-557) first introduced the title KSC a n d gave the nam e to
Elis work. Hui<hiaot compiler oKSC w rote In his preface ...I f
men of real achievement conceal their brilliance then they are
eminent but not &mous; when men o f ^ ig h t virtue happen to
be in accord with rhcir times then they are famous b u t not
eminent, Thus hui*chiao has m ade a clear-cut distinction
1. Taisbo Ed. Vol 30 No. 2046, p. 183. Translated by Kumar^iv*.
2. Ibid. No. 2047, j>. I $4. TransUited by Kum&r*|tv.
3- !bM* N. 2048, p. 186. Traaslatcn by K u m ir^jlv s.
4. Xbkt No. 204$, p. I8Q. Translaied by P w narlbft abo otUcd
Gd^Aratoa from Ujjalo.
3. Ibid. Nol 2042, p. 9). Translated by a FsnftUan (PenUn) monk, An
m is .
$ Ibid., ^ 408.
Introduction xvii

between an eminent monk and a famous one. A famous monk

might be able to glorify his religion during his life time but an
eminent monk was able to set open a new vista and was to herald
a new epoch in Buddhism by his brilliant scholarship and exam*
pie, and his life would be he model to future gerieraitAns.
I-ching undertook (he difTicult task of collecting and compiling
the biographies of fifty-six monks who may not be considered
as im portant as Tao-an, HuUchiao, Kumarajlva and others but
their contribution is equally great in promoting and transmit
ting the light o f Buddhism. From his preface, from his KSC as
well as from his own biography, we understand his various motive!
which prom pted the w riter in compiling the biographies of
em inent monks.
His m ain objective was to immortalise those self-sacndcing
monks who rn zd t a stnking contribution to the propagation and
prosperity o f D harm a bequeathed by the Buddha. They were
the torch-bcarcn who would illuminate the posterity* I-ching
not only tried to establish the religious eminence o f the monk
b u t atso the prestige a n d honour they commanded from the
people, officials, kings>princes in China a i well in India. T he
austere lives, self-sacrificing and adventurous spirit, the briltiani
scholarship and wonderful accomplishvnem o f the Buddhist
monks would inspire the future generations. In this regard I-
ching's monks a rc eminent.
From I-ching*s account o f these monlu, we get a genera! im
pression o f the immense hardship and perils the pilgrims braved
during their travel, their indomitable ^ i n t and desire fwr learn
ing Buddhism in India. But in itc o f these difficulties they
never faltered, never wavered. This quest for spiritual knowl
edge gave them impetus to lake u p the perilous journey either
by land or by sea. (t is in fact, ap ath etic succession o f talcs of
woes and disappointm ent. Some of them withered away unre
cognised without sharing the benefit o f iheir experience and
learning w ith their compatriots in their own bomdiand. I^chii^
in the Preface said, No doubt, it is great merit and fortune to
visit the Western country (In d ia) in search o f the Law but a t
the same tim e it is an extremely difficuJt and perilous under
taking. I-ching gave his own experience in che same Preface.
M any days I have passed w ithout food even without a drop
xviii intToduftion
of water. I was always worried and no spirit waslefc in m e....If,
however, a monk happened to reach India after such perilous
journey, he would find no Chinese mQnastcry there. There was
no fixed place to settle down. We had to move from place to
place like a bbdc of grass swept by wind. I wish to fulfil my
desire &o that the future generations may know all about the
facts. I had heard with my own ears and seen with my own cy tt
the difficulties the monks had undergone previously.
He mentioned that on one occasion a monk with a very vague
idea ofBuddhisc establishment in India drew a sketch o f Jeiavana
Vihara but the sketch was far from reality- I-ching sent a plan
of N ahnda to acquaint the Buddhist followers with the real
Naianda of India. I-ching was very much distressed when he
found the Chinese government did not appoint any commission
to investigate the whereabouts of those missing monks. H e thou*
ght it reasonable and proper to write a comprehensive and con*
netted account of them.
Sino-Indian relation was established by the selfless Buddhist
monks of both India and China who undertook to carry the
message of love which Buddha delivered for th t suffering m an
kind. The cultural intercourse between the two great countries
was primarily initiated by the Chinese, hence, source materials
of its history are to be found in Chinese only. Unfortunately,
Indian history has not recorded the great achievements of those
noble Indian scholars who went to China with purely missionary
spirit and whoic names are interwoven with chf history of Bud
dhism in China. They were the torch-bcarcrs of Indian civili
sation abroad. The Chinese not only preserved the names of
those Indians but atso had preserved the record of the Chinese
monks who went out to India in search of the Law. These source
materials of spiritual and cultural intercourse between the two
ancient civilisations have not yet been fully explored.
Politically India was considered weak and feeble, being the
prey of frequent foreign invasions in the North, but the specta
cular cultural conquest which India had achieved cannot be
undcr-cstiiuated. Indian culture penetrated peacefully and glori
ously into various parts of Central Asia and East Asia enriching
their political, social and cultural life including art, literature^
and architecture. Sir Charles Eliot says, For the reality of

Indian influence in Asiafrom Japan to che frontiers o f Persia,

fhun Macedonia to Java, from Burma to Mongolia undoubted
and the influence is one.1 This idea o f *wacns$* removed natu
ral, political, social and religious barriers and united II these
countries into one woHd.
This cultural intercourse between India and China wax mainly
carried on through, important routes : one ovtr-land route thro-
ugK Central Asia to India; another, sca-route^ suiting from the
port o f Kuang-chou through the Soath O iiiu sea into the
Indian ocean.
Ttftc ovcr-land route was older and the sca-routc became popu
lar vrith the advancement ofscienoeand culture during the T'ang
Dynasty. T bc ancient route passed through one o f the cftravaii
towns and the Chinese tm ito ry o f Tun*huang outside the
G reat Wall, on the edge o f the Gobi d rt and then chroi^h (he
province o f Kan-ou to Chu ^ a n and Lo-yau^;. This over-land
route with its cities ami towm was incognito^ to (Ke Chi-
nesc till the second century B .C in the seventh and eighth
centuries, navigation became a Hecle easier and safer with Chivu
progreu in ship^buitdlng and mariners* compass. Such dat^cr-
out ro u to were used by the S r a m a n a s who built up the cultural
relation between India and China. T he immense hardsh^>
nd privation the monki had to face either by ancienc ovcr*Uad
or seA-route is still ft legend to us, living in the Space Age when
the journey to the Moon it no longer a myth. I-ching was the
pioneer who first took up the sea voyage from China.
After the introduction of Buddhism, the Buddhist imellec*
tualt faced a serious problem regarding the translation of Bud
dhist SQtras with their highly technical terminology. In orcUr
to popularise the new Faith and salvage the docriae from initial
vagueness and remove doubts, the sacred book* had to be made
available to the population. People had to be given an oppor
tunity to acquire correct knowledge of the philosophical thou
ghts of Buddhism and also have an idea o f the concrovenial
issues. The main concqnrration of the Buddhist communicy in
China, therefore, was on the translation and expEarxationof Indian
Buddhist texts. In this matter China was much ahead of time.*
//indvism and Suddhim. Introduction P* xi.
2. Chao Pochu: Buddhism in China, p. 1(3. t n. E. ZQrchef^-T^^ Buddhut
Con^vtjt Chinat pp. 202*204. E. J . Btiif. 1972. Leiden.
L<vyangf ihc capital city became an importani centre of a
highly organised team of translators. In this stupendous task
those whose names siiil shine lilce scars arc (he bi-tingual
scholars like a Parthian monk An Shih-^cao1, Dharmarak^a1
and LokakK^a1 oT Imk^Scythian origin and Kumirajlva* oi'
Kucha. They worked with a team of Chinese m<mk-scholars who
hrJped them la ehcir work. As a result of thU joint endeavour
about H53 Buddhist texts were tramfated into Chinese two and
a half centuricsafter the first introduction of Buddhism in China
in A.D. 67. Equally important arc tlie famous Chinese monk-
scholars like Tao-an*, Cbih~chicn,* and Hui-yuan7 who awake
ned a new ^>int and encouraged (he Chinese monks to make
pi%nmagc lo India. Before long missionary activities entered a
new phase.
The Chinese Buddhists were greatly confused by multiiarious
forms of Buddhism introduced in China from India and Centra!
Asia by importation o f missiooaries belonging to different schools
and different countries, by transiacson of Mah&yJuu Sutras like
Vimaiakiriitiirdda, Saddhannapun4ajikat Mahaparimrvdna and che
Buddha Avaiarftsaka ndma MafUSvaipulya SStra of rwo great Indian
schools of X g4rjuna and Asahga and by the translation of* some
Hinayana texts. Amidst this ever growing confusion and uncer-
ttinty the Chinese thinkers were _ in the dark for centuries
and thus k d to the departure of ed pilgrims ike Fa-hsicn
in A.D. 400, Hsuan-chaang in A.D. 629 and I-ching imA.D. 637
and others for India in search of genuine texts and the true doc
trines and to pay homage to the far-famed shrines of their rcii-
gion. The confusion cause ' neous translation of the Bud
dhist texu, the misunders f subtle and mystic ideas of
the fiuddhist philosophy ai disciptinaxy code for monastic

1. Oanesi Tt^ifduu T. Vol. 30, Xo. 2059, p. 323. Nai\jio*$ Catalogue

Appendix h, No. 4.
2. Ibid. App. H, No. 23.
3. CTT Vol. 50. No. 2059, p. 324, NC il 3.
4. Ibid. p 330. NC U, No. 59.
5. Ibid. p 351.
6. KCUf No. 18.
7. ir s c ,v .m i.6.
IntrodMition x%i
life pmmptcd the earnest pilgrims to undertake hazardous voya
ges across th e breadth of Asia to procure compkie and purer
sources- The eternal religious fervour of tlie monk to make pil
grimage to India, the holy land of the Buddhists, was nonethe
less important.
After the death of Tao>an (who was eager to send monks to
India) in A.D. 385 a large number of Chinese ^ramaoas was
ready to make pilgrimage to India. Fa*hsienr the able di5ciple of
Tao-ant the pioneer of al)started on the adventurous journey
to India from the western border of China^ with an avowed intca-
cion of collecting Buddhist texts on the Viaaya to that he could
be able to correct the misrepresentation and irregularities of the
Vinaya rulei practised there. Fa*hsien left an account o f his
journey of about sixteen years (A.D. 399-414) in the Fo-kuo chi}
(Record o f the Buddhist Country). He knw Sanskrit well and
succeeded in translating a voluminous work on the disciplinary
code of the Mahasanghika.
The period which intervened between (he visits o f th e two Gi-
mous missionaries viz. Fa-hsien and Hsuan-chuang (A.D. 629
645) of the Great T*ang period is known (or the viiits of Sung-
yfln and Hui-shcng* (A.D. 518) who left very short oarrauvn
of their travel.
The Sino-Indian cultural intercourse which was built by reso
lute monks during the five centuries, had a set-back. There wa*
a temporary eclipse o f activities of the missionaries nearly for one
hundred yars. But after this period of inactivity and stagnation,
a new era began in the history of Buddhism with the political
unification achieved under the Sui (A.D. 590-617) and the
T 'ang Dynasties (A.D. 618-907). During this new era of rcjuvi-
nation, Buddhism became more prosperous and flourishing under
the Imperial patronage.
1. U was translated into English by S. Beal ia 1869 1884; by H . A.
Giles in 1877. A notice by T . W * ttc n w as p u b lish ed i a the OktM Rsoisw
1879 an d [880 and one b f Prof. Ja m es L efg e i n 1886 (C U reo d o n Prras).
French T ra ru la tio a w u done by Re* m usm in 1936.
2. CTT 51, No. 2086 p. 866, VoL These two monks were sent by
the Empror o f the Nortiicn)>Wei D yoastf to Mail ihe rrlics o f the prince
SudAnm { 5ud&na KumAraraja Jatska) of DiuitalokagirL After their sbart
viaii to the holy Und (India) they went back to Cfaina iathe seco&d year o f the
Cheng^kttAng period (A. D , 519) o f the Emperor HsQwi-Wu.

Both the Sui and the T ang Dynasties made it a a Imperial

polio* 10 patronise the Buddhist esiablishment by innumerable
donations, by erecting hundreds of Buddhist monuments and tem
ples not only in th t Imperial capital but also in provincial cities
and towns. By then Buddhism had already acquired a glorious
past history of five centuries. Buddhism flourished both in the
Xonh and Sourh China. During the first two hundred ycari of the
the T ang, Buddhism flourished as never belore.
In the thirxl year of the i Chca-kuan period (A.D.
627*649) of the Emperor T'ai-Tsung, the most rtnowned travel
ler, the Great Tripi|aka-master Hsilan-chuaag secretly set out
on his long journey to the West in A.D. 629. His travel in the
Western regions and in India covered almost seventeen vcars
(A.D. 629*645). When HsQan-chuang returned from India, the
Emperor T ai-Tsimg gave a great ovation and public honour was
conferred upon him. He returned with a priceless treasure con
sisting of 657 sacred books, images of the Lord in gold and silver,
150 relies of the Buddha and good-will from India. Learned
monks were employed to assist him in translating the large num
ber of books he had brought, Hsiian-chuang prcMnced to the
Emperor the account of his travel k n o w n as Ta-T*ang-hsi-yH
(The Buddhist Record of (he Western World of the Great T a i ^
Dy.). The pilgrim-monk worked tremendously till his end came
in A.D. 664, and translated the mou difficult Mahayana texts
Vijiaptimdtrat^ Siddhz Sastra with Sanskrit commentaries, Maka-
prajna Pdramiia SiiSra, M&dfySnta Vibkaaga Ssstra etc.
The detailed and romantic accounts of (he JBuddhisc shrines
in India and other countries he passed through and his perfect
faiths devotion and love for lcamixi^ became a constant source of
inspiration to his contemporaries and posterities. I-ching, the
most important Chinese traveller after Hsuan-chuang and a
devout Buddhist, was greatly moved and inspired by the life o f
his illustrious predecessor.

I. h wa translaicd into French by M . Ju lic n , u n d e r th e (iilc

M tamnt sat UsCpmrtss pceidenuUs m 1857; H isfirt di Vu 4t Hu>ttnr
Thosongh another French traoilation by the sam e au th o r (1 8 5 3 ), AJbo see
ibe English (raitsUtion Tht Record i f th$ Wesum Kingdom b y S. B eal
a n d T h o m u W ji cs, 16S4; The U ft uf Hbm-Tsang ( a l n n a u ) by S. B eal,
1883; ThtO/e Hma*TsaMg by Qiincsc Buddhist Aococialioi^ Pieking, I9S9.
introduction xxiii

I-ching was born in Fan-yang (near Peking) in 635 A.D. when

the Emperor T'ai**Tsung was reigning. At the age of nine he
went to his preceptors Shan-yu and Hui-hsi who were living on
the mountain at Shan-tung. First he was taught the secular lite
rature and later on, he devoted himscir to cKe Sacred Buddhist
Canon. He took his Praoraj^a (Order) when h t was fourteen
years old. H must have witnessed the great ovation
extended to the great pilgrim Hsuan-chuang by the Emperor
T ai-Tsung. He cmertaincd the idea of vbating India from <arly
life, fcrnt he had to v a it till his thirty-seventh year (A.D. 671)
when his dream came to be true. He was very energetic, pairu-
takiag, persevering and loving to his friends and teachers.
After geding fully ordained by his Up&dhyAya HuUhsi, I-ching
devoted full five years to the study of the Vinaya, practised some
of the 13 DkMngas. All through his life he never deviated from
the teachings o f his preceptor.
I-ching had great admiration and love for his predecessors both
Fa-hsicn and Hs\ian-chuai\g. The former was much Ituerested
in the monastic code and the latter in Buddhist philosophy and
metaphysics. I-ching belonged to the Miila-SarvdstiuSda School
and his primary object was to collect the original texts o f the Vi-
naya like Fa-hsicn and to study the Buddhist code of discipHnary
rules in India. We get the idea o f the prevailing system o f dis
cipline in the biography of Shih-lo-po-p^, ^ la p ra b h a (One of
the 56 monks) of the T*ang period Many years had already
passed when th< great religion (buddhism) had flooded China
in the ast but the Institutional School has just startedat the
same time the Canonical texts emphasisir^ the importance of
monastic discipline arc also very rare."
While I-ching v?as m Ch5ang*an attending Ttligious discouncs,
he agreed to form with Ch'u-i, a teacher of the Law of Shen-si,
Hung-i, a teacher of $&stra of Lai-chou and two or three other
monks and make pilgrimage to the place known as Vultures
Pak (G r^^rakuta) in Rajagrha. U ltim atdy m w tof his compa
nions backed out for some reason or other. I-ching undertone
his projected journey with a solitary young monk Shan-hsing of
Shcn-si. He embarked on a merchant ship from Canton and
pvoccedtd towards the South. He thus parted with his friends
while he did not find a new acquaintance in India . He was
xxiv Introdwtinn

w ry much unhappy in hi) s^ h ary wandering but the m em orable

lini o f Confucius"An excellent General can r a is t the aggre-
tsiv t army but the resolution o f a gentleman will never change'*
afwayt consokd him, inspirtd him and kept h b spirit high. H e
took leave from hb preceptor Hui^wi who encouraged h im to
pnxecd on the pilgrintdgCp and blessed him to attain sp in tu cl
light. Before his departure, the devout Buddhist neighbours
caxnc to say good-bye to him and gave him fine p itc c s o f till^
brocades and ihousands o f canopies to be offered w ith devotion
to the holy &hrioes and Buddha images in India, on their behalf.
I-ching n ic h e d ri*vijaya (Sum atra) and stayed there for
couple o f months studying Sanskrit G ram m ar. Srl.vijaya becam e
one o f (he most important centres o f learning under the p atro n
age o f tt e &iilendra K ii^s. There he studied the practices a n d
customs o f the Buddhist of Sif-wjaya and other n c i^ ib o u n n g
countries I-ching during his long sojourn o f ivircnty^fivc years
(A.D. 671-695) travelled through more than thirty countries.
In India, this devoted scholar spent ten years learning Sanskrit
Grammar and Buddhism from profoitndiy erudite scholars o f
the premier University o f N^Iandd, the Alma mater o f Hsuaa*
chuang. N alandi was then at the zenith o f prosperity and fame.
I-ching had deep regard and sincere gratitude for his teachers.
Inching with utmost reverence and undivided m ind prostrated
before the image o f the Buddha and fin t prayed for C hina th at
the four kinds o f benefits must prevail in the Dkarmadhatu (in the
realm o f Law) among all the living beings there. After visiting
the Buddhist shrines he took leave to return home. H e sailed from
Tamralipti in A*D. 685 and reached the crowded city o f
vijaya. He itayed there ain for four years. From there he sent,
through one of his friends, a complete manuscript o f Nan-hai*
chi-kaei-nei-fa chuan (4A Record o f The Buddhist Religion as
Practised in India and the M alay Archipelago'1, A.D. 671-695),
the Ta~T*cng^si*yu*chiu-kcubseng chuan (B i^raphtcs o f C m iaent
Monks who went to the Western W orld in Search oi th e Law
During the Great T a n g Dynasty**) in two volumes which is

1. English craoslfttion by ebe learned Japanese ^chdUr J. T akakm

(Munshi Ram ManohftfUl, Delhi).
2. Ficnch Summary by . Ouvaimts.Vmmw rrw/iflw U
tM*Us mrnnts fii <Arrfer U iri dma ba
Intioductiort XXV

translated here, to C hang-an (mrxiern Si-an). D uring his stay

in In d ia he cam e across a large num ber o f C hiaesr monk-pil*
grims wh<^c accounts he recorded laier. Most o f them were
contem poraries o f i-cliing. H e a t the ca d has remarked, My
only desire is to icccivc the light handed down from lime to time.
I am satisfied th a t I, having learned the Law in the morning,
my d o ubt like rising dust is dispelled in (he m orning. I shall not
regret dying in the evening.'*
O n his retu rn to the Divine L and, he received official recep
tion in 689 A.D. T he later p art o f the seventh century was do
m inated by the Dowger Empress Wu a devout follower o f the
Faith. U nder the patronage of W a, I-ching spent his busy life
in C hina com pleting the stupendous task o f translating tbe texts
he carried home, w ith the assistance of some In d ia n monks like
Siksananda, I^vara a n d othcis. H e completed che inuislation
of 56 works in 230 volumes a n d 5 compilations in A.D. 700-712.
T h e Account o f T h e Fifty-six M<mks k one o f them . H e died in
A.D . 713 in his seventy-aim h year o f age. T his devout scholar
who braved all the perils o f journey to IruUa to collect oraginat
Vinaya text was one w ho decided 'n o t to live but to know*.
These fiAy*six monks were aH Chinese with a lew exceptionsof
K oreans a n d one from Sogdiana . T hey started their travel
with the commencemenc o f the glorious reign o f (he G reat T s u ^
D ynasty (hence the title o f the work). T hey cam e to In d ia
w ith a n insatiable desire to pay respect to the far-famed remains
o f the B uddha and to leam Buddhism in its birch place. I-ching
has described Che gifts and honour they received from the In d ian
rulers, princes a n d the Buddhist scholan during their sojourn in
Dr. Lo says th a t Prof. L iang C ^ i-c h 'a o 1 (1873-1929) after
m uch research had iound about 180 m o n k -p ^ rim s a n d m cn-
tioacd them in his essay o n Chineu students going abroad 1500
years ago m d afiawards*\ Most o f the em inent monks whose lives

pap eTtccidenfw par !*tsulg;vPaiis'1894 (Budcttust Babliogr^hy p. 115), Ihe

English exempt **Indiaa Travel of Chinese Buddfaista" by S. Beat The
Indian Anti^tiary vol 10. . p . 109.
t. Khirglz S. S. R., KaxakS. S. R .in U . S. S. R.
2. Chinese Sources for In<lsan History published by the NAtional
Archives o i lodla p.$3. Liaa^ CbVCb*ao, was great reformer aod
literary figure of modern pcnod.
*Ti Introduction
are rccordtd by l-chmg's KSC belonged to unknown families
living in poverty with an exception of four or five who belonged
to the gtKtry Thctr lathery grandfaihcre, were holding
Imperial posts. In the third and iburth centuries a new type of
Buddhism known as gtntry Buddhism was developed by a group
ofcutturcd, iDCeltectiuJ monks who excelled both in secular learn
ing and Buddhist scholtnhip. But in the sixth-seventh centuries
the scene chained and the Buddhism which was confined to the
higher strata of che Cbmcae society became known to the com
mon and by (he time o f the T^ang it was <ieeply rootd in
the society. It t$ because o f this that I< lra ^ did hoc know (he
secular somaincs of th t monks or anything about th d r famQ^
connccznns. But most of them were wdl vened both in nao-
Buddbisr and Buddhisi literature- Tbeir literary activity is
g m tly emphasised. Some of them having memorised Che Clas
sics* at an early age became proficient in writing pro$e and poetry
and in call^raphy-
The !ive$ of those iiAy-six monks throw a flood o f light on thdur
patriotic zea love for tbdr own homeland China, for its old
ways of social and domestic life. Wherever they went tfcey always
longed to return to China. The Chinese monks all throagh the
history o f India-Ohsaa ineercoune never thought sectllixg down
in India. The lendour o f India did not shake tbeir love for
tlittf own motherland. Their fecLii^s, their subtle emotions are
wcO cqmased in the foHowing liocs. O n one occasion, I*chixag
ak>ag with PntjAadcvs was on a visit to Grdhrakuta. They offe
red worship there and then ascending to the mountain top cast
their giaoces afar and seemed to see China (on the horizon).
Both were sorrowful at heart. I<hing composed a poem express
ing the feelings of the moment. Ir$ concluding tines are: ...You
go to India not for worldly happiness but for the Life Eternal.
Many of these liAy-suc monks after ordination took Indian
names. The Chinese tranicripcion o f the Sanskrit names o f seme
of them arc givn against (heir names. This transcription ts not
difficult to interpret but in many cases transcript ions o f Sanskrit

I. fir t ctxa Hi. SUM-fkmgt Shm-thmg, ami C^m Ofim

(IM M t Bock o f CMmgt, Boat R im b t AntMom mtd
Introduction ixvii
names arc not given. 1 have tried to translate those Chinese
names into Sanskrit
Arthur F. Wright has done wonderful and excellent work on
Hai-Chiao's Lives of Eminent Monks (KS) and thus set an
example for the future scholars to work ort the same scientific
line [Silver JubiUt Vol. Kyoto University).
The long history of Sino-India relation was founded entirely
upon Buddhism. This was possible a5 a result o f peaceful pcnc*
tratxon by missionaries and traders and not by force o f arms.
This reJation was mainly spiritual and cultural in character car
ried on by Buddhist monks both from India and China. The
Indian religion with its fascinating culture had exercised a.
profound influence over the countries in the East and the South
where it spread.
Biography of Eminent Monks

Who Went to the Western Region in Search of the Law

During the Great Tang Dynasty

Biography o f Eminent M onks
Who Went to the Western Region
in Search o f the Law
During the Great Ta*ng Dynasty
C haptcr 1


B iographies O f E m in e n t M o n k s W h o W c a t to T h e W e ste rn
W o rld 3 I n S e a rc h O f T h e L a w D a rin g T h e G r e a t T 'a n g D y n asty .
I S ra ra a n a 2 I-c h in g r e tu rn e d to S hih-li-fo-shih, S rI-vijaya3
in th e S o u th S e a fro m th e W e ste rn C o u n try ( I n d ia ) , a n d fro m

] , The ancient Chinese travellers always mentioned Iodia and neigh*

bouring regions lying to the Western border of China as Hsi*yQ, Western World.
Hsiian-Chuang*s travel is known as HsUjni du9
2. He, who renounces the iaznily, to foDow the Law is called Ska~mm
He has to observe 250 rules.
3. This name h&s been menttoaed many a time ia this text, Sii*vijaya
or Sumatra was one of the inr^>ortant islands in the South*China sa or Malay
Archipelago. I t was for a long time a renowned centre of Indian civi)isation.
I-Ching who made the voyage to India by seastayed in this prosperous and
flourishing Kingdom for seven years from AJD* 688-695 both on his outward
voyage to India and oa hi$ return. The record of his experieaccs contains
more information about Souih*Ea^t Asia than i$ (o be found in the official
n^h of dynastic history of China. rt-vijaya was the meeting pUce of both
Indian and Chinese pilgrim-monks proceeding to <^>posite directions as (he
Caravan town like Tun-huang was the resting place for the traveller monks
coming and going by the Caravan route. In the 222nd Chtian of the New
T^ang Dynasty Record^ there is a mention of Chih-li-fo-shih. It was commonly
cafltd Sri-Bhoga. From cast to west, it was one thousand li and from north
to south four thousand H with fourteen cities. Sri-vyaya produced lo($ of gold
and was famous for mineral products. See J . J . Takakusu, A Record e f the
Buddhist Religion as prat-Used in India and Malay Archipelago, p. XI. (hence forth
abridged ARBRPIM A); Chang Hsin$-lang, Chung-hsi chiao-i'ung Shih-
liao (The Materials for a History of Sta^Forafn Voi. VI, p. 374.
G. P. Pitz Gerald, The Southern Expansion o f the Chinese PeopU, Second Map
S. Asia.
2 Chitust Monks

there sent back the manuscript of (Nan-hai) Chei-Kun

chuan)1and the sketch of the Nfilanda, Na-lan-^a monast
Previously there were many noble monks in the Divine
(China) who bad gone to the Western Country (in search the
Law) without caring for their Jives. Fa-hsien, the pioneer of all,
went forth oa difBcuk and perilous route (to India and the neigh*
bouring countries), Hsiian-Chuang, following his footsteps,
opened (he regular overland route to India.
The earliest Chinese travdlers started their solitary journey
either by following high road, crossed the Great Wall (Western
froaiier) or they took the sea route to reach India. The monk-
travellers, while makii^ journey by land or by sea, remembered
all along the ceaces of the Buddha and prostrated before his Law
reverentially. They always desired to go back to their mother
land to report their experiences to the Emperors.
However, it was a great luck and fortune (to visit India), but
it was extremely difficult and perilous undertaking. None of
those who brought leaves, flowers and canopies (to offer), cou)d
produce any significant result and a few them could complete
their mission. This was due to the rugged stony deserts and big
riven of the Land of the Elephants (India), the blaze of the Sun
that puts forth scorching heat, or the sky kissing waves swelled
by giant whales, the abysses and the waters that reach the hea
vens. While travelling aloue outside the Iron Gate ?
T'ieh-mcn* (between Samarkand and Bactria), one wandered
amongst ten thousand mountains, fell into Ihe pit of cliffy moun
tains or while sailing beyond the Copper Pillar T*ong-chi^
had tocross thousand rivers *f ^ and, lost ones life
1. For detaih Vi<k I*Cfaiog** ovm description of N&Und4.
2 . ron Gate was th nunc of a mouauin pass at About nifity miles
aoutb-caic of Samarkand. The pass almost ioaoccisiUe. l<\ tKc Ta-T*ang-
ka-jA thit Hsuaa-Chuftfig hi4 mentioned the ttame of Iron Cate. He de>
cribed tliat on botb sides of tl>e pa there were pvcc<pitoa9 mouatains of Itcmi
coloar. Inaumerakle iron bells were on Che gat$ wKkh were strong and
impre^bk. Iron p m Dcrbeni near Badakshan.
3. During tlK time of tbe Eastern Han, A.D. 25*220, Ma-Y^an, (he wdl>
known cunmandei w sent to csbt the aunck. by Tibet&m. H icpdicd the
Preface 3

I had passed many days without food, even without drop of

water. I really wonder, how amid the travellers, under such
difficult conditions, keep up their morale and spirit. Due to this
perilous jourrtcy, the appearance of the pilgrims would undergo
complete change.
When I decided to leave China I had fifty companion$t but
finally most of them stayed back. If, however, a monk happened
to reach India after such perilous journeya he would find no Chi
nese monaitcry there. There was no fixed place (for us) to settle
down. Wc had to move from place to place like a blade of grass
swept by wind. Under such difficult circumstances, to study
Buddhism aad the Law was really a very great tusk. Tbcir since
rity and devotion were praiseworthy indeed !
I wish to fulfil my desire (to write about my e^>erience) so
that the future generations may know all about the &cts. 1 had
heard with my owa ears, and had seen with my own eyes, the
difticulties the monks had undergone previously* Hence, I write
this book according to the chronological order of chc past events.
I record fasi the biographies of those who were still living and

I . H L _ HsAan^cbao Fa-shih of T*ai-chou.

Tao-hsi Fa-shifa o CVUhou-
31 Shih*pien of Ch^-chou.
4* I t f A-It-ydb^pa-mo Fa-shih ofHsin*luo.
5. _ HOi-yeh Fa-shih of H$in-!oo.
6 ChNu-pcn Fa-ahih of Hs\n-lv o.
l | : Ksuan*tfai Fa-shih of Hsin*luo.
8 ;_ Hiiian-ko Fa-shih of H$in-luo*
9.-10. (j 5 other monks from Hsin*luo.

attack nd turned them back to the Western frontier. Later oo, lie coounM-
desd itie army to Ghiwvehih, modem Toftlun. The people of CSuxxhilk
tried to overthrow th Chinese MipFcmacr over them. But Mz-Yata defeated
the rebctUo^s people he&de4 by 4 wowitn. T commemorate tbu victory be
erected copper pttlars oa the excencive southern border. These were used as
m trk of dtmarcatioa be(wea the two councrtcs.
4 Chinese Monks

l . f l 9^Fot'o-pa-mo-shih of Tu-huo-luo,
2 % ^ Tao-fai^ Fa-shih of Ping*chou.
3 % A Tao-sheng Fa*shih of Ping*chou.
4.^-^% Ch'ang-mifi CKan-shih of Ping-chou.
5. I* G f - A disciple of Ch*ang-min.
6 . {] Mo-1i-scng-hc-shih of Ching-shih.
7. M? " 4 H^Qan-hui of Ching-shih.
8. ^ $ Chih-tuo-pa-mo-shi}).
9-20.pi- % *<4 ^ Two men.
i Lung Fa-shih.
22. 1 il ftp1 Miag-yuan Fa-shih of I cht>u.
23. . I-lang LQ-shfh of I-chou.
24.g^ i tf ^ - / < . A disciple of Lti-shih Lang.
25.jj . ^5 f ' i if Chih-an Fa-shih of I-chou.
26.^ ' ^ Hui-ning LQ-shih of I-chou.
27. 4 YQn-ch*i Fa-shih of Chiao-chou,
28.. _ M u < h a.ti-po>shLh of Chiao-chou.
29. 4 .4 K^ei-ch^ng Fa-shih of Chiao-chou.
30. 8>pHul*ycn Fashih of Chiao*chou.
31. f _ Hsin-chou Fa-shih.
32. ^ H -i ifo Chih-hsmg Fa-shih of Ai-chou.
h, ^ < 4 ^ * i f Ta-chang-teng ch*cn shih of
* Ai*chou.
34.^ S ^ f _ Scng-chia-pa-mo-shih of T ang-
35-36. s| ) Pi-anand Chih-an of Kao-ch^ang.
3 7 . | T'an-jun Fa-shih Lo*yang.
38. I-hui Lun-shih o f Lo-yang.
39*40*41. Three more men from China.
42. Hui-lun Fa*shih of Hsm-)uo.
43. +*) A ^ Tao-Iin Fa-$hih of Ching-chou.
44 i4 T*an-kuang Fa-shih of Ching-chou.
45. - /C One mere from China.
46. ij 'Mj j | ^ ^ Hui*ming Ch'an^shih of Ching-chou.
47- i Hsuan'k'uci Lu-shih of Jun*chou.
48. -g ft) 4 : Shan-hsing Fa-shih of Chin*chou.
h t/a c t 5

49. t 1 H Lin^-yurt Fa*9hih of Hstang-yang.

50. C W _ Scng-che Ch^n-shih of Fcng-chou.
51 .
g- % ^ ^ fi^Cliih-hung L6-shih ofL o-yang.
52.55 +*) # ^ Wu4>sing Ch'an^hih ofChing-chou.
33. 5jj ->) _ ^ Fa-chen Ch*an*9Kih of Chin^>chou.
54- ^ ^ if ^ tj, Ch*cng-wu Ch'an-shih ofChing^cbou.
5 5 . ^ _ C hang-ru Lu-shih of Liarxg-chou.
56 . Ta*chin Pa-shih of Fcng-chou.
There were fifty-six monks as mentioned above. The monies
whose names arc mentioned in. the beginning (of the list) were
all scattered- I*ching met only five of monks~Wu-hsing, Tao-
lin Hui-lun>Sei^-che and GKih-hung mentioned in this note.
In the first year of tht Ch'ui-Kung1 periodI-ching
with the monk Wu-hsing, the Dhy&iu-mastcr, bade {krcwell to
China and embarked on hb journey cowards Western regions.
Even "to-day* (at the timeof I*Ching)> no commission had been
deputed to find out whether they were Uvi or ihcy were dead.
Sramana Hsuar>*chao Fa-shihthe monk Hsuan-chao was a
native of Hsicn-chstng2 in T*ai*chou. Hi$ Sanskrit name was
t Fan-chia-shc-^no^ti, Frakasamati. He was
known asjftanaprabha in Chinsc. His grandfather and father
both were successively holding h posts in the Imperial
Services. But at an early age he cut his hair done up In a knob,
threw away (he hairpiris and accqpted the tonsure.
As he gr^w, he desired to pay homage to the sacred places.
For this purpose, he went to the capital city to attend discussions
and deliberatioiu on Buddhist $utra$ and S^stras. In the middle
of the Chcn-ICuan period, in the monastery of

1. In A.D, 685 the Dowgcr Empress Wu of (he T a Dyiusty dethtoned

the rightful sovereign and usurped the cbrone for herself twenty years.
To commcmorec this event, *h ttartrd ehi era and founded the Drastic
title of Chou instead of ihe T*ang from this dAtt.
2. la T*ai-chou Fu modem Ghe^citng, or Che-chiangt Lau 20*52*,
Long. 120 46*.
3. Ti-T*unf the second Emperor of the T*ang Dynasty tt&ttcd tbit r
in A.D. 627.
6 CMm u M m is

Ta-h$ing-sbnl 4 of Hskn-chang, he fim started

learning Sanskrit literature with the monk teacher Hsuan.
chaog. Thereafter, he with a mendicant stick proceeded t
wards the Wctt as a PmvrS^Mkmebemhing the memory of
Oiih-yQan> Jcuvana. Leaving behind CSiin-chou (Lan-chou)
(or the Capital city) he crossed the drlftii^ sands and passing
through che Iron gate ascended the snow-clad mouniaim. In
the frajprant water of the nearby bke be had his wash, bearing
in his miad to complete tht vow of (acquiriz^) profund know*
ledge. He climbed (he dangerous ^ .
Pam ir, a n d k e p t u p bis vigour a n d s p ir it. H e took a vow
o f achieving San-yu* T ra iW e y a ; h e c ro sse d

1. *Ttie Great goodnen-pTOTrotiag9 4Bhodndo9a' was one o f the ten

(ami>us T*ang mansaxctm of the capital Cb*an^an. According to
report dated A.D. 775, the capital had three hundred Buddhm hftlb rb wdl
ss thirty-three smsJl monasteries and an un cciflcd number of larger ones.
Vide The Chinese Tripitakc, Tftbho Ed. (Hence foith C .T.T.) Vol. 51, No.
2093, p. 1022.
2. The ioundex of the JetavAa-Vihira> in the vicinity o f S f iw f i, vnu a
famous and wealthy xaerchant Aa&thtpi^dika (supporter of dttiuite and
orphans) of SrAvuti. He purehMed. the pleasure-garden o f A e prince J r ta
by paying a fantastic price for the residence of th Buddha. AnAtliapui^ika
troniformcd the park into a SaAfh&rAms whkh developed into a large estab-
llihment and became &vourite retort of the Buddha and hii. followers. The
Jegend Bay thftt the Buddha had ipertt nineteen cVa$sa* period In
and delivered most of hii important sermons here. The cftriy Chinese travd*
I^Jcc Fa-haierx and HsUn-Chuans visited this piacc. ^a-hsicn lccorded
tnat "The JetavAna-Vih&ta was originally seven storeyed. The kings and the
pfoplc of the countries vied with one another in their offerings hanging up
about U silken streamers atnd canopies, scattering flowers, biuming incense and
lighting liunpB, so &s to make the night as bright as the day." Jamea Legge;
A Itteord tht Buddhist Xingdom (Translation) pp. 56, 57.
In A.D. 636 when HsUan-Chuang visited this place, he found that mott
of the buildiap had fallen into decay.
3. Pamir o t Onion range (Kizil rabat). It was known as the Xmftos to
ancient Greek geographers. Pamir Joins both the mountains, the T*ien*5h4n
(Celeitial Mountain) in the north and the snow clad mountain in the south.
It is popularly kaowrt as (be 'Roof of the Worfd\
4. TW/fffej. The three kinds of *bhmta%or exifttence. The $tttc of mental
existence in the realm of Kime or dcsite, K&maloka, the field of Hve leiues of
form or r ^ a - ^ a n c s d* meditation, rSpnfoka and beyond form orathe
Cum ca world correapoading to the ixigher level of Dkjfdm.
Prtfac 1

Su-Ii1 to reach Tu-ho4tto* Tokhara. Then he passed

through th t countries of the barbarians and re a c h e d ^
TTu-fim.5 He was very much favoured by the princess Wcn-
Chang of Tibet who gave him financial help Ibr his journey
to North India. He gradually reached f^T u -lan -fa,
It was an extremely difficult and perilously long journey.
Before be could enter the d ty , he fell in the hands of robbers*
There was no place where (he merchaals and travellers could go
and report ihc crime or could get help. Despairing of human

1. According to Hsuan-Chuwng*i Travd Su*ti ^ogdiana) was the place

between Itw city of Su-afac water and the country of KCasmia inhabited by
people- Su-Ii was not only the name of the place
iC but
b a t aalso of the
b a (he
pcopte, their language and literature. T h t Chinese character Su-li
used by Hsu^n-Chuan^ diffm from votd by 1-cWug. He bas
mentioned the Su-li people ai a genera! term for the northern cxtra-IadU
people. TaKcakusu thinks Su-li wm ia the W$t of Khgarh peopled by Mon-
gob or Turks. See Dr. P. G. Bagchi: M U and O t/ra/ A m , pp. 43, 44.
2. Tokharcstan, the Und ofTukhara people was great ccacrc of Indian
culture and religion in Central Asia.
To the ancient Greek it was known by the name ofTochari. Ia che
Chinese Annals of the Han Dynastyit is recorded as Ta.*hsia. In the secoad
century B.C. China Arse eUablisbcd contact with Ta-iuia. In the AeiW o f tht
J^orthem-Wei Dynas^ it i transcribed 4 T*u-hu-Iuo 1 . and ia
the *ang Annals it T*a-huo-luo c *JL, , in the Stanyuksdgma, Tou*
ha-lao Vjf in the SaiHkarma Smriyupasthdna Sutra Tu-Chu .
During the Mshomcdan period TokharcMhan war limited to the territory
between Badnltihan and Balk. But in the earlier period the geographictl
boundary of the country w u more cxtcr^sive than in th t Mahomcdan (>eriod.
According to HsUan-Ghuing, Tu-huo-luo was extended up (o the Oaioc
range (Ts'unf-ling) in the w t , to Feriia in the west, in th south i( touched
the snow-capped Hinduktuh and to Iron. Pass (Dcrbcnt near Badakahan)
in the north. According to Thomas Watters Tu-huo-luo of Huian*Chuang
was definite y Tukhw* of an cl cat geographers. See VVaUcw(Or Tuan
Chutong*s Trat/il in Jadia)f Vol. I, p. 103.
Aurcl Stein. On AnciitU Cittlral Asian Tracht p.107; Dr. P.C. Bagchi; India
and Central Asia* Chapter II; Ftng Ch'cn^ChuMi Tht Gt^rophical namts 4/ Uu
Wtst. Hsi-YU-ei-miiig: p. 72.
3. Tibet.
4*. JalAndhxnk in
8 Chituse

assistance, lie chanted u m c sacred words. In the following night

he had a drraun tliat fulfilled his desire. Suddenly he woke up
and found that the robbers were all fast asleep. Stealthily he
M t (he place and Bed away quickly. T h u s he averred the
He lived in Jalandhara for Four years. T here he was warmly
received by the king and all arrangcmcnta for his food and stay
were made. While he was living in Jalan d h ara, he practised
Sanskrit language and studied the Buddhist Smtas and ViiUyft
textsbut made tittle success.
Next be gradually proceeded towards south an d reached
M the M ahabodhi sangharama1
where he spent four years. He felt very m uch disappointed
that he could not sec ihe reverend Arya but he lucky enough
to pay reverence to the sacred vest^es o f the presence of the
Buddha. He saw the image of T*zu-shih M aitrcya* that

I Mahabodhi SaAghirtma was ntuatc^ in tht prent thrivinf viHtgc

ofBodh*Gayft(Ut. 24* 42% NS Long. 83QOi* E, in the District of CUyi Bihar).
The present Bodh-Caya grew &nd (levelled around the mdent Sambodhi
near the sacted vDtagc Uruvels, and this Sambodhi Uter oa with the entire
Buddhut establishment over there came to be known at Mtthabodhi. The
St^gharftina w trected during the Gupta period at the foot of tht Bodhi
tree. HsuauGhuang had left a vivid description, of this great c&tabtishment.
He law an image of Avsloltitesvara and Maitreya each n u d e of silver. They
wore above 10 hi^i.
de* R^jcndia 1a \ Mitra: Buddha C ^S;
W aters II. pp. US-136;
Dr. D. Mirra; Budi&ist Monwrunis, pp. GA-G6. *
2* Mention of tills Bodhisatton hs bem made la early Buddhist literature
like lAlUamtara, Oivync&dam^ MahMitv^ SadtfkamO'Pu^^aTika and Vtmaltb
kHrtimrdeiti S$tnt, The popularity of Maitreya Bodhisattva in China was enor
mous. The BucMhUt texts whkh narrsite the toty of Maitreya were cxtesxsi>
vcly trsnsltc<l into Cbincie* l a all these Sutru, It it said Khat durtog the rule
oTGakravaitl rulerpeace would spccUUf prevail in this world whn Macticym
the "Buddhist Messiah* would descend ln>m the TnfiU heaven, appear in die
world and become Buddha uodr Kag^rjuna open three successive xned-
m ff, j>rieach Uwt and 1
P rt/a c$ 9

had been carved ii> perfect likcue&s; tt exhibited the fiac and
delicate, absolute sincerity and carefulness (of chc artist), h
created more veneration. Deeply he studied ^ Cku^she,
Aoia,1 C huh^tui'Jit i.e . | j (4 Abhidlw ntc? and the Vlnayas9
See Latika Lahiri: *Lungmen Cave Imcriptiotu and bc Popularity M
Maitrcya Bodhiyauva\ Procetdings a f the Sem inar B a J A b m OKd
Jsinii , (CuttucV) |>p, 75-82.
1- Vaaubandhu, one of the three Asaiiga brothers who lived in the fotuill
ceatury A.D.was oac of the most prominent figures in the history of Buddhist
titeralurc. An erudite scholar, he was a SmdstioiMn bu< in late life ke was
g r tly influenced by his M e r brother Asanga and became a <tcvout Mah-
yasu$c. The chief and the mast celebrated work of Vasubandhu is th t AUis-
dharmakosa, a general cxpcdlioft of AkkMmrmm- T he prlgjaail Sanskrit it lost,
but extant la Chinese Cat. Ho. 1267 12 1270) and Tibetan,
Faramarcha, the biographer Vasubandhu transUted the
inco Chinese between A.D. 565^567. a the following century, (he renowad
Chinese pilgrtm scholar Hsfian-C3iu&ng also translated this K xi idlo Chiaae.
According to Param irtha this work consts of GOO verso (Xil/Mf). Ii deals
with the catire 6eM of Oatalogy, Psychology Ethics OaamcAogy And the
doctrine of Salvation.
See Enc^lopttidis qf JfUH^bn m i EtkUs Vol. I pp. 19,20; Wimrmu Vol. U,
pp. 35B*35d;
Sir Charles liot Vol. I I pp. 8Bt 89.
2. The third section of the Tripifeka, Abhidharma^it^* Buddhist Scholas
ticism. In the Affhasalini Buddhka;o defined Abhidhama ai higher religion or
exceUent religion. The prefix *Abhi' metni excellence and difference* and
Abhidiuirma according to him is Dharma which exceU and ii diffcrencLaccd fi om
other Ohftrma (Suitapiiaka). But ehe Buddhiie ichoUrft, at preientr do not find
much difference between the philosophy and Dharma u taught in thft Suita
pitaka. In the nineteenth century Europe there was an idea that the Adhu
dharma is the Buddhist metaphysics but the prcient scholars difTcr with the
i d d The only difference between the scriptures of the Abhi6harmapi\aka and
the SSttapifaka is that these works arc more scholastic, drier and mere circum-
tuntia) chan those of the Sucrapifoka.**
Abhidharmapifaka or Lunsanis like the SiUrapifaka, divided into Mahi*
ySnUt and Hinayanist texts. The books belonging to Abhidharmapitaka are
Dhammasaihg6fii MCompendium of Dhamma", the Vibkahga Classiftcation'
Dh&tnk^hd recourses on the Elemcats*', Pugguld PaHHatit "Dctcriptioa of
Human Individual** and Kathavatlhu Subject of Discourie5,r.
EncycUpoiSa o f Religion m d Etkies\ Winterait2 Vol.II pp. 165-173.
Prof. G. P. Maiaiasekcra. Ditcionary cf Pali Proptr Mantes. Vol. I. p. 138.
3. Discipline of the order, Vinaya is the name givca to etie *y*tcm ot
monastic Ufe or the disciplinary rule And precepts governing the Mon&chtsm.
The Vioaya i$ the fundameatal basis for the exiitencc of Bxtddhisc monasiic
10 C U m u Mmdcs

oTchr two Schods (MaKdyiaa and Hinayina) and became

very much cniifhtcocd.
Next he went to (he NdtlaAdd monasiery where he remaiocd
for th n r yar$. There be studied f C bm g-lim } PriS^a-
mSU &Uim like Saia SiUrd etc. with the (Indian) monk
Shcng*)cunftgv Vijayaraimi, a n d * Ya*ch>a*
shih-ch*i*(i SapiidaSabk HmU4str^ Ti9g4c4tyabhQmi% with Bhadanta,
the virtuous preceptor Ratnasirri/ut.
He learned (he different degrees of ?5p I1 Ch'an-mcn-
ting\ abstract contempUcion (so i h t t n d n i itself would be free

Efr. Vinay* I) (he rock bed of SahghA^ife* It contains tht following lex(
(I) Svita V ^ h ^ a comiiting of Mah4vibh^a and Bhikkunfpiiha ; (2) The
lCkafuiakas conjining of Mahdttaiga and Cullwgs^i (3) The Parin&ra. T h t most
encntial p v t of Vio*ya i) PifUnokkha tbc diKiplinry code of an Ordf
Piiimokkha fives a lilt of peoitl consequences of thete tran$freion together
with corre^cnding atonement.
Sec Wine^rAitz VoL flt pp. 21*24.
2)r. S. Duct. E&rfy Buddhitt
1. ^rdiitam^la or ^ri^amiiaMsirg CHtm^lun fiteralty means
diieourK on ^te Md^amika jinfrv. The great aponent of the M^Ayam^a
or the Middle School Bodhisattva Na^ijuna wrote this Saitra and NiUcal^us
0c was the compiler. Thk Work of wta tnnaUtcd by
Kmarajiva mi Cbinoe in A.D. 409. TH book of the Later Chin Oynastx
(A.D. 387*417 ) is n w available ooly in Chinese and Tibetan.
See MC. No. 1179.
2. Sa^to^aSM AmSitira- Yogit&fysbhSmi i$ one of tfac works of Asmigm
of the fourth century A.D. The kgnd $ay that 3T*jjntr_l was
<Cccatcd co him by M*(U^ya from Tufita heaotn.
TIm> Matkiyiitist woHc W both Chinese and Tibetan versions. Il was
iranslatcd by HsOan-Chuang in Chin^K (NC. No. 1170) In A.D. 646-47*
This ChiAeif version is ucril>d to Kiaiti<yaoieb and the Tibci^n vertion lo
Asahga. The Sanskrit (ext of tbe Saptadaiakhim consisu of 40000 iUkas.
It agrees with tb Tibetan (ext
The Doctrine of Yoga w*s firtt propounded by PfttftAjftli, the great gr^tn*
marian who nourished In the ttcond century B.C. Later on. Asahf& founded
a Y oga School in Buddhism kt the fourth c^tury A.D* Huan*Chung w tt
a great (Mtron of Yogicara system.
The original Sanskrit text of Tog^^raykSmiSistra hus been recovered from
Tibet by Kihul SAnkriiy*yan*.
9. Ia ihe Dictimvj t f dinese BtiMitt Terms iher it mention of Cb'vi-
mca and Ch'ftA*un( separately. Ch*4ii is a cramliscnotoa of Dhyinft in Sftns*
krii, jh&iu ia PUi and Zen in Jpne9e. The bfttic meaning of Chftn is
Pre/4C$ II

from all subjective and objective boadagea), earnestly gazing

ac ihe gate o fa precipice to get the bottom of the vast principle
or law.
Thence Ke pmccrdcd along the bank of the Canga. He recei
ved hospitality from the King of Shmn-pu1 countryto the north
of the CahgS. He lived in the m<Miastery of the
Hsin-che - Great Faith and other monatteries for about three
The cavoy ^ Wang Hsuan-tt^,* from the Court
of the T'ang Emperor, on return to China, gave a very good
report about the monk Prakiiamati, to the Emperor. Immedia
tely the Emperor sent people to West India in search of the monk
and ordered them to escort him back to the Imperial Capital.
On their way back they arrived in : Ni-po-]o,
Nepal. The King of Nepal helped the monk Hsuan-chao to
proceed towards Tibet. There he called on the Princess
Wcn-Ch^ng3who helped him with money needed for the journey
from Tibet to China, the country of the T a n g rulers.
So after trav d lii^ a longdistance in Western "Hbct he reached
China. In September, he k ft Shan-pu and arrival at

'nwdiUtion* Dhyina leads to Tuig-SamMhi. i> ih

metbod of meditation and Samidhi.
1. See Chang Hsing-lang, Qutn^hsi Ouao-Ctmg Vot VI p. 9 ^
No. S
2. He came to the court of K^nyalmbja, an av y of the Chinm
Emperor in A.D. 655. The King H&rvardhana dkd by thtx (inn nd the
tht one was usurped by Th< Ghmcac envoy Waag
HtQan-ts'e was not received with honour* He went b^ilt to Tibet raised
army and attacked the u su rer. Aru^iiva was taken as a priioner to China
and along with the captive a vast amount ot booty.
See R. S. Tripathi: History rfKarMi{} pp. 188*190. J .R . A, B. VI, p|. 69*70.
Herbert A. Giles, A Chituse Biograpfy No. 825.
3. The wife of the most powerful ruler Sraagiuu<G&ra|>o ot Tibet H
was so formidatie that he compelled the- En^xror of Q d tu to fivhim in attfri*
age a lady from the Imperial Court. She w a devout BuddhHt and brought
with her Buddhist religion and Buddha inuges to Tibet. The Ttbeiarw saty
that there were three other great KEofi outside China who w<r the suitors
for the princcas* hanHthe Klnf of Ma^adha, of Ttnix and of the Hor
(Turki trifaei)*
12 Chinese Menks

^ 1 Lo^yang1 in January. He travelled more th an 10,000

li in five months time. In LIn-te4 period the Emperor
gavehini a long audience in the Imperial Courl an d commanded
him to go to Kashmir to escort a n old Brahmin
turned A $ Luchia-i*tuo, L<Aaditya.
While in L o-yai^ he m t i m any v e n erab le m o n k s sumI dis
cussed mutudily the fundam ental princqslcs o f B uddhism . In
Lo-yang be took in han d the tra m la tio a w ade o f th e V in a y a
of tbc _ Sa*pp*iwhfmz SarvSsltvSda S ch o o l w ith
the assiuanoe o f the great V'tnaycmjyc ( V in a y a - m a s tc r ) Tao

1. T V city of Lo-yang (La* 30, 43* M Long- 112 2 8 f E .) in H o -a a n

witncBcd rise and fdU o f various Im perial OjmKUics th r o u fh o u t tb
hofovicai epoch of GKina. to -y n g w a s a great cen tre o f Bud<lhlit c u ltu re.
According CO the Chinese tKe first B oddhitt te m p le (fat C h iiu )
known u W hite H o n e Pagoda (Pat-nut-Siu) w u bm li i n L o - y a i^ b y th e
Emperor Ming o f the Eastern H an D y n a ttf in A.D. 65-67, t n h o n o u r o f th e
two Indian monki KAty|>ft M&ta^ga xod t ^ a m i a r a o y a . T h e g re trtt
linperial patron of the new td if io n (Boddhism ) w ere th e N o rih e m -W d
rulcr (A.D* 336-534), T h e Buddlibt csve-templcs a t L u a g -ra c n n e a r Lo*
y a n ; contain iomc o f che Rneit rtitic rem ains o f early Ohiftese B uddiusm .
Under the Emperor Hsuan-wu, some fam oiu tem ptet w ere c o n stru cted in
IiO*yAQ|i the Yun$*nuog templeth e Q hlnf^m ing tem ple * o d Y ao-kaftttf
temple. T he most outstanding Buddhist activity c trH e d o u t b y D ow ager
mprcs$ Ling of the Northertl-W ei, was (he c o iu iniction o f tb c V ung^nung
tcn ^ tc by spending a fa n tu d e Amount o f m oney. It ii aaid t h a t in L o -y a n f
hrc wccc 1S67 Buddfaiit temples.
See, Ytng H tQ ui-diih. Lv-^ng Cfua-lnHhi (R ecord o f th e M on asteries in
Lo^anc), CXT* Vot MNo. 2092, p. m J.R . WARE. W4t~Sh
BvMi5KT an g Pao. SO, \9^%,
2, The Entpcroc EU o-Ttuns o f ilic T m ( Dynasty sta rte d thi e r a in A .D
664> fourteen years after Ki accession to the d u o n e.
S. T he SarvdxtinadK school is one o f the eaHiest schools o f B uddhism .
T he history o f Khis School begins wich the K a th iv a tth u o f M ^ g a l i p u tt a
T o n in B.C. 140, who presided over the A IM a's C ouncil. T lie d octrine
o f this school is ^Sarvam Aajr* E verythinf exists.
Tbts matcrialiMic ard m Us^k school appears Uuer on as th e V su b h lsik a .
Three hundred y ean after tke Prinicv4? of the Buddha, K ity&yazsiputra.
conkpilcd the jHafimihdna Svtr9 which is the fun<Umental work (be
SondstwSJw. T bc Q uncae iraveller Fa-hsictt (A.D. S99-4H) w h o c am e to
India in search o f the Viaay texts say* that th is srhcol was fb
iow ed a t P^tali*
p u tra as w d as in China. Sarv&sciv&diru were located in Ceotnk
North India, North*Wtem frontier, Kashgar Udy&oa etc. Kam
Preface 13

and D h a rm ic iry a K uan etc. the | Ching^ai1 tem

ple. But &T(er some time he proceeded towards India in
obedience to the Em perors command. His long cherished de
sire, thcrcftwrc, was n o t fulfilled; he had to leave all the Sanskrit
manuscripts behind him in the Capital.
He travelled through the drifting sands, passed over steep and
precipitous mountains. H e trailed down the side-way of a steep
mountain path where a plank ay across a dangeroos precipitous
point) found the trace of the slanting path and was successful to
cross through. H e cam e to a river. There was a lu n g in g rope
bridge but he swam across the river. Thus he averted the danger
from the robbers o f T ibet. For the tim e being he was saved, he
was again attacked by the dreadful tribes b u t fortunately this
time also he narrowly escaped. After m uch travel he reached
North India.
On his way, he m et a Chinese envoy sent by the TTang Em
peror who had Lokadiiya already under his scort. T he envoy
commissioned HsQan-chao, who directed them to accompany
ihe band of travellers who were going to S | ^ Luo-ch*a,
Lata country* in West India, to collect medicinal herbs for
longevity* I n the course o f journey, he readied the %
2| N a-p^p^i-ho-Iuo, Nava V ih ira. It was known as
Kain-Ssu (N ava Sahgharam a ) ^ in Pu-he-luo ^
Bukhara.* H e saw a washing bowl and other relics of

a greftC adherent of this school who convoked the fourth Buddhist Council.
For the Sandsiit*d4in doctrine ice E.J. Thomas: Th* Historyq/ B uddhist TTwugM
(Loadon 1933), pp- 164-174; A. G. Bann<rje: Tht Sarviitivdda Liter^tur..
1. In the period of P*u-t,ung (A.D. 520-527), this temple was built by
(he Emperor Wu of the Liang Dynasty. Taking as a model of the great Indian
Emperor A^oka, this Buddhist monk-cnpcror of the Liang Dynasty ventured
upon the plan of constructing Buddhist temples and monaaterics. Ainon^ th
nucncrou9 temples he coostructcd, the most bmous was the T^utig-l^ai tcrap!.
See: C T T Ed. Vol 51p 1024.
2* Southern Gujarat. Inching here meaUons L i ui West Io<iia together
with SindKu. See J. Takakusu: p. 217. Additional Note.
5. According to Htuaa-chuans Nava Sang/tdrdma of Balhika was only
Buddhist estabtbhment to the north of Hindukush. It was a ^rat centre of
!4 Cfdnm Monks

Tathtgata.1 Next he reached Chia-pi-shih

Kapiia, and worshipped the U of T athigata
Ju*bU-ucig-ku. The pilgrim paid reverence to the UfnUa by
ofTering fragrant flowersburning incense and there he inscribed
He again resumed his onward jouraey towards L i(a country
io Hsin-tu.* He received very warm welcome from the king of
the country where he stayed for four years. Then he proceeded
towards South India. From there he sent various medicinal
herbs to China.

or^itMlBuddhiAStudics. He \m given a vivfd de$criptioa of the dtyofBalkh

whicb was Imown as Kttlc R&jagr^A because to the follower* of Buddhist fidi
over there, fialth wac m important as in India. The largest
monastery was the Nava S^Aghftrima was dtuitced outside the city, built
by a former King. The main hall of (he monastery contained the 'washing
basm of the Buddha aod a beautiftal image of the Suddh*. The name of N*vn
SaAghvtma is abo known from Arabic sources, where it was mentioned as
Nawinhar. If was destroyed by the A rabs in the seventh century A.D.
M t li ft very commoa bdicfin Iodift that great ccuchcrt pear rcguUr
intervals. In Chinote, Ju-lat mean; 'one who has comr thus* *THe Chiooe
triuulation leemi to prove that Tathftgata is equivalent to TathA*l|ata and
not to T&(hft*gftti and the meaning must be, he who h u come in the proper
manner. It ii the highot title of the Buddha.
2. It wai known tt Ki-pai or Chi-*pai (Gandhara-Kashmir) In Chinete, It
was to the louth t^Pimir and about 12^200 li from the capitftl of the Chinese
T he R ecord ny> th a t K a p ija w u 4,000 U in c irc u it w ith m o w c la d m oun-
tiln on the n o rth a n d the ranges o f tb e H indukush o n all th e o th e r th re e tidei*
A ccordlnf to the R ecord, the m odem K afristaa was K a p i ia o r K i-p a i o r Kl
pin. In the H tttory of E arly H a n D y n u ty , it was n a m e d as K a p U a a n d m odern
K ashm ir was described as ancient K api^a. T h e n a m e o f K ftp iia u n d e rw en t
m m y c h u ifc s during the tim e o f different D ynastic rulers. T h e r e il a n in terei-
ting account o f Kapi^a. D u rin g the sixteenth re g n al y e a r o f th e T * an g Em
peror T ai_Tsung, th e Icingo f K i-pai presented h im m a ttr e il a n d raon-
lo o se w ith ih arp teeth a n d a red tail. I t could e t sn&kes a n d g e t th e ir im d l.
U pMicd urine on t h t spot where a p a tie n t was b itte n b y a sn ak e n d u toon
M it p u ie d urine there the p a tie n t was cu red o f sn ak e-b ite.
See Chang Hsing-lan^> Chung-hsi chiao-Cung Shih-liao. "The Maleri&b
for a History of Sino-foreign relation. Vol. VF, p. 93.
N. C. Sen: ^Account! of India and Kashmir in the Dynastic Hiitorles of
the Tng period", VtSva Bharati, Sandniketan (1968) pp. 5-8.
3. Sindhu.
Preface 15

While he was touring in the cowitry, he reached th t

Chin-kang-tsuo, Bodhimanda1 where he stayed for some time.
In the Nalanda m<Hiasiery I-ching and this pilgrim met each
other. The long cherished desire of such a meeting was fuelled.
They made an agreement to meet again in China,
The road from Nepal to Tibet and the road through the coun
try ofKapisa to Tuo-tic* remained biodced; travel was extremely
difRcuk. So to take rest he proceeded further towards ihe Grdhra-
ku(a mountain3 Chiu-feng (Vu!turc*s Peak) and the
Vcnuvana (Bamboo grove for which he had great respect
and attachment. Though he had an insatiable desire^ yet all
bis hopes were shattered. Alas ! he laced immense hardship but
he could not fulfil his vow* Mow he wished to ride on cloud and
to descend to M id-India with wings of birds ! A t ihe age of sixty
be fell side and died a t A-mo-iuo-pvo (bha-va) in Mtd*India.

!. Diamond scat where Buddha attained Buddha-hood under the Bodhi-

Tree on the bank of the river Lilsjan (andcoi HairaAjana). This ground k
said to be as hard as diamond. I t is bdicvcd that the Emperor ^iok& made %
gift of the poliihed sand stone teat
Vajr^svu andr the Bcxlhi-Tree during his
pilgritnagc to Bodh-G^ya.
2. Tajjiks, Tumasik. Tuo-ti is Tat-shiK,
3. Grdhrakdfa (Vulture's Peak) mountaia was much associated yntk
the 3ife of the Buddha. Gtdhrakfita is on (he Ghhahata hill at R^jagrHa
{modern R^jgir in the Patna diitrict of Bihar)* It was one of the favourite
resorts of the Buddha and b one of the five acr<d hak surrounding the city
of Rijagfha, the capital of the powerfol state of Magadha. From the foot ol
the GfdhrftkQu to the top there is % road supposed to be constructed by the
King Bimbisara, in order to reach the Buddha and listen lo his preachings.
It wai here when Dcvad^tta, the cousin of the Buddha a t te s te d on his life
by hurling a rock at him. The hill has many natural caves where the Buddha
lived and delivered the Fa4iua.chingt Snddharmapu^4^^a Stara According to
the Record of Hsuan-Ghuang.
According to the legends, the Buddha lived bi one of these cavcs and unolhcT
was occupied by his disciple Ananda. Mar taking the form of a vulture &(>-
peored before Ananda and tried to disturb tva meditatioa. When Fa-bsin
visited this place, he says that the foot prints o f the vulture were stall vbible.
4. Vcnuvana (Bamboo-grovc) at K^jagrha, modem R&j^irLat. 20*
2 'N, Long. 85 26-E., was one of the favourite resorts of (he Buddha. He
once went to Magadha when he was received with highest honour by the
King Bixnbis&ra. The King then made a present of hit lavouricc park Vcou*
vana (Bamboo-grovc) to the Buddha*
]6 C ku u se M paks

To mourn his dcath I-chin^ composed (he verse.

*\Vhat a tnurertng aspiration he bad ! A man of great intellect
and wisdom, travdied &r and wide, much beyrad the boundary
of Ws own inoiherland. He stayed in the Vcnuvana and cons
tantly enjoyed the sight of fluttering bamboo leaves. He had a
great passion for studying Buddhism, and an insadaAIc desire for
searching tbe MLaw.' Me cmistandy bore in his mind the desire
to return to China. Uc remained virtuous to the end. To raise
chc moral standard of the pcof^e of Kb land, he wanted to pro
pagate the Dhamma. But aias ! he failed to fulfil lus lifes ambi
tion, as ius life was cut shoart. His bones were inmicrscd in two
big rivers there. The river Pa-$hui remains lamoua and cckbra*
trxL How pcacc&Uiy he held oa even to deatb,
j _ Tao-hn Fa-shih* T h e D h arm acary a T ao-
hsi belonged to the d ty of 1 Ch*i-cbou (Shan-cung).
His Sanskrit lum e was ^ ^ S h ih - I i- r t- p o , S ndcva.
He came from an aristocradc family. T hey w ere tra d id o n ally
holding official posts in the Im perial C ourt.
From hii childhood he wa5 Wrtuous and kind. He studied
metaphysics and was greatly influenced by the Buddhas rd i.
gion. At the tame time he had an indomitable spirit of adven-
turc and a longing to visit Mid-India.
In the course of his travel, he had to climb lofty mountains
but he never cared for his life. He proceeded towards Tibet but
he found the road very dangerous. He was a&atd to follow that
route Co Tibet. He diverted his rou(e and proceeded towards
west where he had to lace many more difEculdes. After passii^
through many countries he reached the Mahabodhi Sangha-
r&ma. He spent a couple of years there in search of the Buddhist
SGtras and worshipped the sacred rdics of the Buddha. He
spent some time at Ndlanda and jp Cbu-shih1) KaL
TbekingofAn-mo-Iuo p*o welcomed him with great respect.
He seriously engaged himself in the study of the Maha/ana,

1. V M nvd ia Uitar IVadoli, is a. very anrinu city vrhcre the Buddha

wm bom mntny a frmct in hxs previous births.
Prtfact 17

Ta-ch*ang Sutra*1 at the N^landa monastery. He

lived ia the monastery of Shu-pVpan-iu
or Nirvana, the monastery of Great Salvation, where he
studied deeply and thoroughly the Vinqyapifaka and the Sabda*
tndyHshaira Shcng-ming.3 He was a renowned calli
grapbist, and a man of literary genius. On a slab of stone in the
monastery of Great Enl^htcnmcnt^ he inscribed memorial (ablet
in Chinese language and ia the monastery of Naianda he left
more than four hundred volumes of old and new Chinese SiUras
aad S&stras.
I*chiog could not meet him in India.
Srideva was living at Aa-md-luo^f>*o where be fell sick anrldicd
at the age of fifty or so. After his death, I-ching came to Amraka
and paid respects to the room where SrTdva had lived. He wzs
grcady moved by seeing the room and felt very sad for (he monk.
There he composed a verse containing seven words, This monk
encountering much hardship reached India alone. He was
honest at hearthis only ambition was to propagate Dhamma

1. It is difficult to ascercaitt who firat xt&rtcd this late form o f Buddhist

(lognu and it i* equally hard to arrive at aay certain opinion as to the exact
date. But after the reign o f Asoka, a great chtngc came in Indian Buddhism.
The new form o f Buddhism ts c]led Klahayina or Great Vehicle to coatroM
with lliaayana or Small Vehicle. MaMySna Buddhism has a concqition of
CteriuJ Buddha, or Buddhahoocl as eternal (A<il Buddha). Its main doctrine
i$ not concerned with p m o a a i {xrfcctioA or individual salvation but the
happiness and salvation o f all creatures. A great man who strives for this may
become a Buddha in some future birth and such a is called Bodhisattva,
P'iMa. ^ . According Co tbis Makdydna Buddhtsm, Buddha and some
Bodhisaicvas are supcrmundaae. It belicvo that fnith in Buddha, c^>cci^ly
m Amitibh* can secure rebirth in the Western Paradise. Hinay&na t $ometir
docribed self*b<nc6tng whereas M al^yana is said to worlt /or the benefit
of oihcr.
Mahayana it generally known as N<rrthcrn Buddhism ia contrast with
Southern Buddhism. T he former system U prevalent m JVcpal, Tibet, Chioa,
Japtn, Korea and the latter in Burn)a, Ceylon, Laos. Cambodia, Thailand.
For details vide N. Dutt Aspscts e j Mahaydna Bttddkim tad iu uUfion to
Ht^avana {C4lcu<ta Oriental Ssries 23. I-u*ac &. Co. London. 193Q).
2. The science of gram m ar; it is one of th five sciences tiu g h t in
ancieiU Indift. T he science o f gram m ar expUins words and their meanings.
id Chinese Mpnks
but be could not lit the tight (of Buddhism). He never reached
back home. He died oa the way*
f Sluh-Picn Fa-shih Sri Kaia. The
Dh?rm5c^rya Picn was a native of ChM-chou (Shan-tung).
He thoroughly studied the Sanskrit language and Vidy&manixa
Om^n-hs'un> He followed the previous monk
Hsuau-chao to North India and then from there proceeded
towards West. They reached the city of An*mo-luo-p*o,
Amraka and received warm hospitality from the king. While
living in the X Wang*Ssu, Raja Vihara, he met the
Dharmac^rya Tao-hsi. They belonged to the same place in
their country. They became very close and intimate friends.
The monk Picn could stay only <?nc year together with Tao-hri.
At ihe age of (hirty-fivc he got ill and passed away while he was
living with him (Tao-hsi).
A*nan ych-po-rao, Anandavarman
was a native of Hsin-luo.a During the time of
Chenkuan period (of the T'aag Emperor) he began
his journey from Kuang-hsieh (a small Rajagrha)
of the capital city of Uh*ang-an* in search of ihe Truth
1. Protective magical charms, collection o f numtras, Irt ihe
BMsaiOMSuti (Chapter X V III, p. 185) As^^tg* explains ttxe term Dhirapi.
It me&ns (hat Bodhiiattva must proerve In bis memory D harm a, i u artha
and mantras [or all tbe time to come.
2. Ancient *ume of Korea.
3. Ch'tng-an (modem ciiy of Hsi-an in Shcn-si.(Lat 34 1 7 ^ , Long.
1066 58E) like an ancitru capitftt d ty of Lo-yang w icneaed rise and fall a t
m tny Empire! It the capital city of the Earlier Ha&> L ater Ohin and
Northern Chou Dynasties. Cft'ang-aiv the capital o f Che largest ^ n p ir c of
the worW, utidcr the T*ang, was (he greatest eentre n f Buddhism m
Tbe city was teeming wilK peoplr from alt over Asia. T h e glory o f Lo>ystn
tlie ancient Kroo^iokl of Buddhism in Hortbf China, was ovcrddow cd by
Ch'xng-ui when it catered into a period of unprecedented dcvelopm eat. T he
popnUtior of the capitil cily during the Dynastic rule o f th e T*ang rose to
1,960,186. The city was studded wilh Buddnist icm pks, monasteries, pagodas
constructed by the devout iuleis of the T a n g D ynisty.
The grei
Chinese traveller Hsuan-CHuang started on his tn d ia w a n l jour
ney from Ch'kng-an in 629 A.D. H ie g retl T tu-en mooastery was built there
in AJ[>. 6^8, whore T tip i^ d H suan-O iuang translated Bud
dhist saipturfs into Chinese after his rseurn &om India. T h e T-yen Pagoda
fr t f o c e J9

oTBuddbbm and to pay respect to the sacred relics ot the Buddha.

While staying at the Nalandi monastery he took much care in
studyii^ the Vinayas and he copied a large number of Sutras.
It is a tragedy that h could not fulfil his hearts desite.
He started his journey from the eastern border of
Chi-kuei1 and died in the west of the ^ ^ Lung-<;hvuans
or Dragon lake or spring (at Nalanda) at the age of more d u n
seventy. His mortal remains rested in peace in that monastery.
Hui-ych Fa-shih. The Dharmacarya HQi-
ych, jftanasampada also belonged to Korea. In the Ghcn-
kuan period, he travelled ia Western r^ions. He lived in the
Bodhi monastery and paid great homage to the sacred relics
of the Buddha. He ^pent some years in the Nalanda monastery
where he studied Buddhism and devoted much time listeniz^ to
the religious discourses-
While Inching was reading and checking up the Chinese manu
scripts he suddenly discovered the manuscript of
Liang-km.* At the end, ii is said chat the Korean monk (Jflana**
sampada) Hui*ych recorded it, sitting under the shade of the
i Fo*chih-mu-shu the Buddhai Tooth-stick
tree,1 After making inquiries from the monks living in that

w ai constructed in. A.D, 652 w hich was designed b y the venerable m onk
H&uan-Chuang him self to ito re up th e B uddhist scriptureain GK*ang-an. From*
the last part of the fourth century, th e In d ia n mc^ikt like SaitghabhQii, G au
tama S a/ightdeva, Kumftrt^jW*, V&^a atl liv ed a t Ch*ang-An nd co n trib u ted
a great deal for the p ro p ag atio n o f B u d d h a 's teachings. Ta the seventh century
there wcr< th ree In d U n astronom ical choob in th e c ap ital city,
1. K orea. Kao*mei w u th e a n cien t iu u n e o f Chi*kuei. C hi in C hinese
raeatu chicken o r fowl a n d *Kuei* h o n o u ra b le . C hicken i$ w orshipped in th a t
country a n d people used to p u t its feathers o n th eir h ats for decoration. In
Sanskrit it ift *Kulckuteivara. So th e n am e o f the c o unlry was given C hi-kuci.
2. D ragon spring, according to H su an -G h u aag , w as in the M ^ngo grove
to (1m touth of th e N a lan d a m unastcry.
3 Articles belonging to th e L ian g D y n asty (A .D . 502-557), ral d fifty*
five year* a t N an*chin^ (N anking) #
4. A ccording to H itjan-C huang,, th ere w as a m arvellous tree n ear Ch*io-ls
Tope near th e D ragon lake a t N a la n d i EstaWislimcrM. N iU nd& is associated
with the im all in cid m ts o f th e life o f iKe B uddha. X his maurvcllous ttc c which
has been referred to by th e C hinese p ilg rim m o n k , h a d grow n o u t o f th e tw \g
20 Chinise M$nks
( Nalanda) mofia^tcryy it was known that he died hcr^ at the age
of more than sixty. Whatever Sanskrit texts he copied> he left
behind in (bat monastery.
i < ri Hstoa-tai Fa-shih. H e was also a
native of Korea. His Sanskrit name w a s
Sa-p'o-shcn^jo-t'i-p'o, Sarvajfladeva. (He was known as
I*chich*chih.icn- in Chinese.) During the
Yui^-hui1 period, he reached Tibet and from there he came
to Mid-India via Nepal. Hr. made pilgrimage to the Bodhi-
Trce, (he Wisdom Tree* aiui studied the Buddhist SUiras and
^dsircs with great paias. >nsited many places in the eastern
rtgion. On his return journey, be reached T*ttu-
hurt,3 turfoid valley where he met the monk ^ Tao-hsi.
Both of them condnued their journey together. They proceeded
towards the monastery of Great Ealightenmeni and bom there
to China. Nobody knows where and how bis (HsQan-t'ai) life
r Hsdan-ko fz-sh ih , ParamapQjyd. The monk
HsQan-k^o belonged to Korea. In the Chen-kutn period,
thro%v&on the gromd by the Buddha afcer using it as brush to cle^m his tcetfa.
HfUn*Chuang ilI s o menUoAed a b o u t another Buddha* Toftthtick tree at
Pi*sho-ka or Viloka. He described th treehe saw at NTilandft ai Van|-
chlh or Wow branch1* The next pilgrim Inching found the tim e tree and
cwidcrcd it not to b e Willow.
I The third T fang Emperor Kao*Tung started thii tr% in A.D. 6.10.
2. The Pipal tree (aivatiha, Ficus rtUgtovx) under which Guitama ichie*
vtd altgh(nmeat or Bodhi. Aflcrwar<ls it came to be known M Bodhi tree.
The trea around the tree Inter oa became famous u Eodb-Giy& fmoiu
Buddhist place of pUgiimagc. A cutting of the Bodfai tree w u eveo carried to
and |4antcd in as &r as CeyloA*
The pre*et Bodht tree which we find now At the back of the Mah&bodlki
tcm{>te, has grows out of the root or seed of the original one. It tprm $ up in
A .D . 876.
Tiyyaraknci, the queen of Kiokz, it it said, attempted droy (he tree
out of jealousy of her husband being deeply associated with the U . In tbe
beginning of the $vcoth century $ai&nka, the King of Bengal And foUowcr
of m cult according to Hsfiftn*chuan ahnnfi destroyed the tree.
S. Lob Nor, Lap Nor or Lou-Un b one of the fertile oasis m. she SoaUicfQ
sUte oTTarim buifw Under the former lisas, tliis regioa was kn^wn 9S
In. Lob Nor wM situated on the oldest route liokin^ Ceatrft] Auk with
G hioa.
Pre/ac* 21

he, along with the Dharm^carya Hsuan-chao, left for pilgrimage.

Tbey reached the monastery of Grcal Enlighteament. He paid
great reverence to the vestiges of the Buddha but some days
after-wards he fcU sick and died at the age of fifty.
There were two other monks from HsinJuo (Korea). No
one knows their origin and names. They lcfc the Capital city
of Chang-an and reached the South Sea. They started
their voyage to Srivijaya and fcf S PVlu-shib1, the
country cm the west of Srlbhoga, fell ill and died xhest.
A Fo*to*ta-mo, Bodhidharma belonged
to Tu-huo-shu4i. He was very big-built
and strong enough to undertake the journey for the pil
grimage. He studied the Hlnayina Buddhism. Sometimes he
begged his food. He was a l^hc cater and it helped bhn to move
easily. Me reached Shcn-chou, D m ae Land (China) and, it is
said, entered into a monastic life in I-fu. He was very fond of
long journey^ He travelled a lot in Chiu-chou* (China) and
visited many places.
He went to India; there he met I-ching in the Naiftndi monas
tery. After some time at the age of fifty he left for North India.
He was little more than fifty.
4 _ % Tao-fang Fa-shih. The Law Master
Dhatmade^a was a nadve of Ping-chou, He 1R. home, crossed
1. Prof. Chavaanes, on (be report in the 'Pang Dynasty Annals (Chap.
CCXxxiiOf identified the island of P*o-lu-shih and Marcopolo'x Ferlec (Par-
!ak) with %country called Lang^po-lou-ie, the western pari of ^ribhogft as
mentioned ia the Annals. Marcop^o in his account mentioned che eight ktn^
doms of wJava the less ot of these he hts given graphic descriptions of the
six Kingdoms. Dr. R. C. Marumdar it of opinion {H M i GohnUs). firms.
K. L. Mukhopadhyay>Gakucca, 1974) that Ferlec (*?ArUk), one of these
six Kingdoms mentioned by. M^rcopdio, must be on the north-euc of *'Java
tbt less**
also narrates the stocy of two Korcaa mon)c$ who went to (he ubuid
of PVlu-shih, west of Sribhoga. 1^o!u-shih or Ferlec is one of the i^tnds
menttoned by I-ching, in the south Q)tna seft.
2. The Nine divisions of China under (ht Emperor Yu, the Grcal.
3. It was one of the twelve ancient Province* of China. The area varied
from time co citnc under different Dyaastic rules. This place was aiso known as
T tti-yOaA Fu. It was in Shcasi.
M Ckmese Monks
deserts and mmmuins; then reached Nepal. He reached and
remained m the monastery of Great Enlij^iteninent ftnr a
couple of years as the head of the temple. Later on, again went
back to Nepal where he stayed on till the time of I-ching. Thii
monk was very much ifidisciplincd and seldom studied the Bud
dhist Sutrt. He was quite old.
t Tao-sheng Fa*shih. He wai also a native
of Ping-chou. His Sanskrit name was Chan-
u4uo*t'i-p*o Gandradeva. He was known as YCteh-ficn
ifi Chinese.
In the last year of the Chcn-kuaa period, he followed the route
to libct. He went to Mid*India. Thereafter, he reached
the Bodhi monastery where he worshipped
A*i, Ccitagrha1 with great reverence. In the Nalandi
xy he was the youngest student. So hewa
leousl/ treated and honoured by the king. After twelve
yojanas to the east from this place, he got the t $ Wang-
Ssu Rajavihara.* Every resident of che zno&ascerywas the follow
er of the HInayana faith. He lived in the moaascery for a
couple of years where he studied the principles of Hlnayiiu
Buddhism and the essence of the Tripifaka Santis
1. I a Chinese th e S a n sk n t w ord C aiiy^ P4Ii C ttija h a t b een tran scrib ed u
O hijH i ,O iih tu o o r G hih-c'i. T h e te rm
derived from tb word *1^ , funeral p y t c . I t was g e n era Jlf used b y th e Bud
dhist in (he tense o f 1
raound o r timoH. A C aitya o r stQ pa is a nuuso-
Jum where the relics o f the B uddha ^urira (D hatu-^arbha, ^structure conttin*
iag within its wom b garbha, corporal relics*) w ere Jc^>t. I n PSli it is DhAtu*
gabbha a n d in Ceylon it is known as dagabsi. I a these C ctiy a g h aras, congrc*
gstioni) p tay e n and worships w ere conducted before a st&pa o r % Buddha
image. Cai^as o r stu p es w ith their surrounding p assages fo r circ u m am b u lttin a
became an o f juprem e veneration to th e B udcihistt.
For details set D r. D. M itra, Buddhist M onumitts, p p . 2 1-30.
2. W c find a mention of a R a ja -V ih ara, e v id en tly e sta b lish e d b y a King,
in aouth-eastem Bengal (present fia n g la d e th a ), in th e G u n a ig lia r pl*te
iiucription (13 mile co the aoith-vfcsi o f Com iilft, d iM rk t T ip p e r) o f the
G upta ruler V inayagupta dated a.d . 507.
3. TrifitfMka, UteraUy mcaos 'Three Baskets*'. The three divistona of the
BuddtuU cvioitG) bosket of the tu tw or doi^rine, (ii)
ptfskm or basket of dbci()liac or Aystcm to be followed by Ihe mpnlH or by tht
Saaghai, (iS) AhkiAmm^igaia ot basket ofthe iugher aubtlctic* of the doctriac.
P reface 23

He carried with him many Buddhist texts, Buddhas imagen and

his teachings to his own country. When he reached Nepal on
his way back home, he got ill and died at the age of fifty. There i
the decree of Heaven at the age of fifty.1
f Ch'ang-mirt Chan-shih> Nityadaik^a
Dhyinacarya. The monk ^ Chang.min came from
Ping-chou. In his childhood, he cur his hair, threw away the
hairpins and (accepted the tonsure) wore Buddhist robes. He
was very diligent. He had an insatiable zeal for studying Bud
dhism and reciting the Sutras. The Acarya yearned for the joy
of the Western Paradise. With a view of being born there he
devoted himself to a life of purity and religion and used to chant
the name of the Buddha always. He had a very strong religious
foundation. He was bom with many good and auspicious signs
which arc simply difficult to describe.
He visited the capital city of Lo-yang and devotedly enhanced
the cause of Buddhism. For the propation of these venerable
ideas he was determined to write the whole o f he
Pan ching, Prajnd Sutrasi in 10,000 chuan. He was desiring co

\ . C o n fu ciu s said, A t ] 5 m y m in d if b e n t on learn in g , a t 30 I stood firm,

a t 4-01 h a d n o d o u b t, t &0 I know tb e decree o f H eav en
Lun j u Book I I , C h a p - IV .
2. A corpus o f 16 Prajfia SBiras w ith a n o n /m o u s a u th o rsh ip is kaoM/a
MahUprajnipdramitds Ptra I t i believed th a t in ih e Mahdjfina SHtra like Saddfnrm<b
p u ^ c tik a , Lcvkdoal&ra a n d th e Prajtia S^tra higher sp iritu al teachings a re ex
plained. T h e r ic h collection o f M M y d n a S ra w hich c o n u in s Prajfiaftdrami0-
sittra w ere g re a tly esteem ed by th e C hinese. Al! th e S&trai belonging to th e
PrajRd school w ere tra n jU te d in to C hinese several tim et, b o th in a com plete
form a a d in cx tracU . T h e longest sAtra o f MahSprejM pAramtd in GOO fu cico li
equivalent to 200000 Hokas {K a n k is) w as first tran slated into Chiaese-
Lokaksem a, a n In d o -S c /th ia n m oult was cred ited to in tro d u ce the M ahay Ana
Buddhism in C h in a . H il p a r tia l traru lacio a of Aff&sdhasriMd Prajffd-Paramiid,
based on m a n u ic rip t fro m I n d ia b y G hu Shuo-fu, sta rte d a new ep o ch in the
history o f B ud d h ism in O b in a . T h e n follow ed various tra n sU tio n t o f shorter
version like F ryfld P dram iti Hrdaya SClra etc. T h e re a te six tra n s la tio n
of the VajrarchdiJtd PrajfUt Pdramila Sutra (D iam o n d S d tra ) by celebrated
K um arajiva a n d H siiA n-C huang (in 600 c h u a n in A .D . 6 5 9 ). I t iis a id
th a t w hen K um & ii^iva v a t living in th e N ew m onastery a.t K u ch a, he
discovered a m a n u sc rip t o f Lhe Pancainr^tiatisahasrikd FrqjH Pdramita from the
adjoining old p a la c e o f K u c h a . T h e D ia m o n d S u tra w u io p o p u la r in C h io a
24 Ckinest Mcnks

go on a pilgrimage to India and offer his devotional homage to

the sacred vestiges and th t relics ofT athSgaia; thus co secure for
himself the greater merit with a view to a birth in heaven. That
opporiune moment camewhen he went to the palace and sub-
mitred his huntbie petition requesting the Empcror^s permission
to vhh the nine states to propagate Dharma and write Prajhd
S&tm tht grace of God> he was perm itted to undertake the
journey. He crossed many rivers, travelled atl over south China.
During his slay in the southKc copied the same Sutra with
sincere devotion. He expressed his gratitude to God who had 90
kindly fulfilled bis long-cherished desire.
Thereafter, he went to the sea coast, embarked on a ship and,
sailed for _ Ho ing-kuo, Kalixiga.1 From there he
again sailed for Mo-luo-yu-kuo.* His aim

that the entire ecxc had been carved on a stone Iab by Sung Hsiao-crh during
the reign oi'Wuchow (A D. 684-705) in Fong-i!ian county. PrajftA uthc^xth
of the Six PiramiUs with the hdp of which one reaches the other short of ebe
N. C. PrajUdpdramitA Lit.1-22.
Die PrajlU^Afamtia LiUrature, J.R.A.S.
J . M atfum oto. IW 3 . p . 17$.
Ziirchcr The Buddhist Conquest C him (L eid en E. J Brill 1972.)
pp. 124*126.
CXT. Vok, 5, 6, 7>8.
1. It is one or the islands in the South sea mentioned by l*chin^. The
Indian name Holing is KaliAga, on the coon of Bay of Bengal. According to
the 7ht <YraAmoIs cf th$ T aug (A.D. *>t8*907), Book 222, Part tt| Ho-Ung it
another name for Java. In the Chinese Annals of the 2nd century A.D. it was
also mentioned as Ych-tiao.
While Fa-hsicn was returning to China after his pslgrimftge to India, he
pused iKtou^hJava which was a great centiv ofl-Tindu religion and culture in
the fir)C Kill)' of the Bfth eeniuxy A.O- la (he seventh rntury Buddbtsm tlso
flourished there.
According (o Chinese History, Ho4ing or a pail ofJava had trade relation
v^ih th< $4>u(hcm coast of India anH Ceylon.
Prof. Chavannea placed (Ho*Iing) on the Western Pari of Java &nd
according to R. C. Mtzumdar it is in Central Java. Sc< C. P. Filtgcrald, Tht
Suithern Bepmsian Chmu Ptoplr Second Map (at the back).
2. The Indian name of Malayu is Suvar^adva , Dr. R. C. Maziundar,
in bis work bearing (he tiile $uvar^advip, shows tibat it was the general term
for Sumatra, Java and other inlands of the Eastern Archipelago.
P re /M 25

to rcaeh Mid-India. Accordingly, he boarded a cat^o vessel

carrying heavy merchandise. The ship kf) the shore but coukl
not make any headway due to a sudden typhom tlu t lashed the
region and made the sea very rough and turbuknt. Within a
few hours, the ship started sinking. In great confusion and panic,
the sailors^ the merchants on the ship began scrambling for
gening accommodation in a small junk for safety* The captain
of the ship was a follower of the Buddha. He himself boarded
the junk, loudly called the monk to join them fi>r safely. Blat the
monk Ch^ang-min refused to go. He said you may lake someone
th e in my place. I will not go. He did not join them fbr the
cause of others. He remained silently absorbed as if his short
span of life was agreeable to one possessed of the
P ^V u h st^ BodhtciUa.1 Forget yourself, do good to others. This
is the true spirit of a grcatman.
Then facing towards west, clasping his hands in adoration, he
kept fervently praying and chancing the name of ffc

MttUyu, one Of Ihe islands of South sea. mentioned by I-chincwjtf an m*

dependent kingdom in Sumatra dll Uic seventh century when was conquered
by formed a part of tbe Icingtlom. TM modem name o f Malayu
lit SumMra Is Jim bi. The nam of Malayu was changed Bhogat or Sribhoga
jmc before time or during hh way over th m . inching h u KMiitioiiecI
txany time) the change of an ind<pn4cnt Kiacdom* name of M^Iay^
to Bht^a.
Ill the C.P* F itrgcrald,s map {B u m at Intb-Otina and the AioUy Pemnsulo)
M aU yu u located to the South o f Sumatra.
For details J . Takakusu, ARP1MA. xxx>x*xlvi.
1. The mind of the Buddha. The HAh&y&na Buddtuun m China, JapAa,
Korea nukes use of such tcrzns a%the Bu<ldh In the hearty Ac Buddha mind
and (he Bu<ldha nature. Bonlftkmryioatdrat work of $4ntidcv extant in onginl
SAnikril(Chapl. I called prazsr of the 6odhkitia)>describes Bodhicitia as**the
initial impiihe and motive Power of the rdigiou$ life combining intcOectual
nimniiiation and unselfish dcrotion Co the good of othcn/ Accoiding to the
Miha]ra>iist view every man and woman, whether n monk or a Uyman who
cultivates the Botfftkiiia (Directtoa towards Bodhi) has the potentiality to
attain Buddhahood- By developing Bodhkitta, one can be free from his Fftkag*
See Santidcya*s Badkicaryiaaidra. Chapter one.
DuCt.AsptUt p f Mahayina Baddhism and its iUUtbn b a
pp* 2 4 H
26 Chmes4 Monks

A*Du-(*o-fo Amit&bha.1 W hile he was still chan tin g the

great name (he ship sank quietly. H e was m o re th a n fifty when
he died.
had only one disciple w ith him , a b o u t w hom very little
was known. He wept bitterly, invoked w ith tc^rs a n d also chan*
ted the name of the West. W ithout him ev ery th in g was empty
and meaningless* H e received belp firomhis com panions. This
sicry wa narrated by the survivors o f th e w recked ship.
U was hm entable chat such a g rea t m an (like Ch*ang-mift)
passed away so early ! H e sacrificed his life for th e good of
others. He was pure like a m irrorhe was priceless like a jad e
of i H o-trcn-yu, K hotan.1 He w ould b e steeped in
a dark fluid without becoming d a rk . H e m ight be ru b b ed with
out getting tlun. H e devoted his whole life for acq u irin g the

I. There are variatiozu of the nara of Amitftbha. They Are Amida,

Aouta, Amiiayu% Amitayur. Amltafaha means boundless light.
Therr is controversy unong the Indian scholars over the time when worship
of Amitabha Buddiia was first introduced in India. Some we of opiaion that
Asvftghoit wat tbe fir&t exponent of Amitiblu co)t; others believe It was Nagar-
jiiM. Thew ii no authentic mformatioo about the origin cf chts do^ma. Sit
C. Eliot and E. J. Eitel contend that without any d e tr m ttc td e a t iti India it
may be tuppottd that it originated in Zoroutrian mythoiogy- This ide of
Amllftbbft had greatly influeaced Bud<ihbm in Kashmir Nepal aad clic
dogmt mebed Chin* from one of theie countries whn Takhariiui prince
took the first AmifMa S^ira to Chifi*.
Amitibhft, the saviour of all, is mott popular in China. T he prioct|>al
doctrine of the faith it th tt salvaiioa is achieved only by absolute tnisi in invok-
tog the aame of Amitibha.
A new school tturtcd is China whkh w u known as Sukh&vati or OHing*!*^
the Pure XjtAd( t)tehomc of Amitabha. It Uiituatcd (o the of oar world
wlierc spring is eternal and rebirth tz k tt place in locus. The followers of the
Ptsrc Land school chaiu the name of Amitlbha many a time, <i*iring to be
bom again in the Wcitcm Paradise. The venerblc H\it*yu%a of Ibe fifth ccn-
laTy was the founder of tlus school ift China. The veaerable Tao-luan of the
sixth century and ShaD-lao of ibe seventh century were the important pro-
pagaton of this school. SMmwtf-VjufiA S^tra wt translated Into Chinese
by Kum&riivft in hX>, 402, by Gui>abhdr* in A.D. 420*429 *nd by Hiqvi-
Cbuang in A.D. 650. The popularity of Amit^bha in China due to proUfic
tramlations Amiidjni Sitras or the Sutra ot Infinite age.
2* Shih-chi Gh&aa S \, B iograpfy <tf Lin S h im g ^ Ssu m a^C k*w i, (Record
f Great Histarian*-Wuca).
Preface 27

highest Prajfla* H e channelised his wisdom for a noble cauw.

In his own tand he sowed the seed of good Karma and outside
his couuiry he achieved the reward. He voluntarily went for.
ward in the face of a very dangerous situation in which death by
drowning in the sea was imminent. He immediately made up
hb mind and sacrificed himself for others. ChVng-min's disciple
btcamc friendless.
His filthy, useless body was disintegrated in the sea. By pure
meditation he reached the heaven. Dhamma would never be
impaired and the flow of virtue could not be restrained. He dis
played the brilliance of charity, compassion. Finally the Kalpa1
of continued mortal existence came to an end for a new one.
Mo-ti-scng-ho. Matisijnha. He was known
as Shih-hui, Prajnasiinha in. Chinese. He came from
Ching-chao.2 His family name was % H$ing-fu.
His pftrsonal name was not known. He travelled far and wide
with the monk Pien.
They reached M id-India and lived in the monastery of Great
Faith fl[ Hsin-che-Ssu. He had some knowledge of
Sanskrit but did not learn the Buddhist Sutras and dslras in
detail. He decided to go b^ck to his own land but on his way back
he breathed his last in Nepal a t the age of forty only.
i f ^ Hsuan-hui Fa-shih. He belonged (o the Capital
Cily of China. H e was said to be che son of the General An
Following the overland route to Northern India he entered
into K >c-hsi-mi-las Kashmir. He was assig*
I An aeon of incalctilaMe time. Four Ka^>a$ comtitute a Maha Katpa.
According to Hindu mythology a Kalpa consists ofone thousand mahiyugas
a mahiyuga being a period of four yugas viz., $atya, Trcia, Dvipara and
2. A district of C3i*ang-an modem Hu-an in Sbcn-ai province under (he
Han Dynasty. Peking was also known as Chkng^hao onder the Republic.
3. Kashmir was one of the most importaat centres of Buddhist Sanskrit
learning and the Centre of the moat powerful BudOKUt sect, SarvSstivdda,
Kashmir played an important role in the trtuismission of Buddhism to China.
The Chinese traveller Ou-K*ang or Wu-K.*ong while visiting Kashmir (A.D.
759-763) had seen about three hundred mODatcrie$. (CTT vol. 51No.
2089. II, p. 979).
28 Chinese Monks

n t i a job 10 look after the royal elephants by the King of Kashmir.

H<* rode on a royal elephant accompaaied by royal music.
Everyday the King sent food to the Nagahrada Parvata Vihira
Ii t ^ Lung-ch'ih-shan-Siu1, where the monk H$uan*
hm was Five haadred ^ Luo-han2, Arhats
received royal ho^picalily regularly here. This was the place
wher the venerable Madhyandka, cfac dtsctpte o f Arya
Ananda, converted the dragon-king. The King of Kash
mir was so much impressed by the pilgrim monk that he reveren
tially proclaimed gracious pardon inside the country* There
were more than a thousand convicts who were condemned to
death buc by royal clcinancy the convicts were set free. He had
frtt access to (he royal palace ^icrc he spent some years as a

1. According to the locat reports, Kashmir was originally a dvagon-Uke.

M&dhyarttika, an Arhat and a disciple of Ananda, was perfect w *x
ipiritual attainments ( t^Liu-sben) and achieved A H ^vim ok^
Madhyantika heard Buddhas prcdictioa that be would build a new city. He
was very b^7py, came h ctt and took bu scat in a forest on a high mountain
where he performed a series of miracles. A dragon, appeared before him and
wviced to know hit desire. The Arhat wanted a place to put hii kiices in xht
lake where he wtnicd to iit cro*s-Icggcd. The dragon granted hh request by
rcmovirtg \vter but Macihyantikdf by suptr-natural powr enlarged hifi body
tl\\ th t bVe %vas completely dried up. H< lived in north-west of this place near
lh lake.
In the Chien-shih mi-chuaa ^ iof the Ifew T 9ang shu, tbcr<
b reference of Mah&padma lake, the present Volur, H ie N iga-hr^da^arvata
viK&ra might be vtiy close to thin !ke<
See Chang H9ing*langr Ckaxg-ksi CkUnhtang shifi-ii, (TTic MateiiaJt for a
HUcory of Sino-Foreign Relation). Vol. 6, p. 375.
2, A saint, perfect maa of Hiiuy&nau The Sanskrit technical Urm Arhat>
Chinese Lo-han or A-lo-hn U applied to th<at who have rescued the Eight-
IM path and enjoy the fruiti of it.
The fiisc Buddhist SQtra 'The Suira in 42 crtkles* translated by Kdsyapa-
mitanga. and Dharmiraoya kuo Chinese in th< bginnuig of Ohrisiiaa era,
Has defined the term X^ohftn. (Arhnt^. Thus, Ke who has left th world in
pursuit of the Law is rama?a. He h$ to follow 250 rules. By various endea*
vourt and <fforu he wxll acquire the purity and will attain four degrees (Aiya),
The highest degree that of Lo-ban c^tfers the power of flying tn chc air and of
UoiuTomung one's self at will.
See Encytbp<udia 9/ Reliiicn and Etkits. Vol. I. pp. 774-5.
See 2urchcr. BCC (Notts) Vol.II Nos. 62, 63.
h tjm 29

royal guest. But after some time he was very much disappointed
and left for South.
In the monastery of Great Englightenment he worshipped the
Bodhi Tree and spent hours gazing at | ft Mu*chen*
ch*ihl, Mucha ioda lake. While he was residing there, he often
climbed the Grdhrakufa mountain, <ook stroll on the^ 1 *
T$un-tsu-shan Kukku(ap^dagiri% (Cock-Foat mountain or
Sage's Foot mountain) His knowle^c was very deep and pent*
tTating. He had diviae sagacity of a sage, and had skitl and drxtc-
rity- Despite the many drfBeuUics he had to encounter, he mas
tered Sanskrit pronunciation in a short time. He acquired very
little knowledge in Sanskrit Sutras and religious thoughts. So
he decided la go back to his own native country. On his way
back (o China, ^cached Nqpal where he unfortunately died at
chc age of thirty odd years. Nepal had some poisonous herbs.
Many people who arrived there died due (o those herbs.
There was a man who along with the Chinese envoy went to
% Fu-kVIuo, Bukhara8 by the northern route. In

I* H siU tK h u has mentioned the MucKalind% take which was new

ihe Bodhi tree to th e ca tt o f the Indra urtk at Bodh-Cayi. The l>ke belonged
ic the Dragon K ing MucHalindn.
After attaining Balighteiunent, the Buddhc. sat near the Bodhi tf<f in bbs-
ful contemplation for four wcks. O n the sixth week he went to MKhUioda
where he was protected from ih a w tn o f ra in wi(b seven co tli ofhis body aad
with w w rftl extended hoods.
2. K uU cutapidagiri-V ihira named after KuUcutap&da-giri, a bill of
grc^t parity, mentioned both t>y Fa*h)ien and Hitkvt-chuang, b u been identi
fied by A. CanningMim with th modern'village o^Kurkihar (Lat 24* 49*N;
Long 85* J5 % District Gaya, Bihar) 3 m iks to the north-east of Wuirganj
and 16 m ik ) io the north-cast ofC aya. H e Is ofopinion than the present Kuefci*
bar both in nam e and position is the fornous Cock*s Foot hUI <ftht Buddhists.
Thia leered hilft> i^itb three peaks, was the abode oS the venerable Mahik&syapa
who was entrusted w ith the duty and re^>oasibtlxy o f protectktc tike auions
by the Btxldka. T lie triple peaked mountak u abo known a) Catup&dagiri.
3. T h e re U a. diflTerence in Chinese transcriptioii of BaSch. Hiuan-Ctni-
ang's transcripiioo h Fuho ( &} wharras !-chtng has iraaft*
cribed d i Fu-k*o-lxu> ( ' ) Bukhara. In Balkh or Buklura,
one of th e u a tc s o f Tokharw ian* Buddhism was ihe predomiaant reltgioa.
HsOan*ChuAng h a s given a gtapM c description of the flourishing condition of

the Hsin Ssu Navasangh&rama where the principle

of little vehicle were tai^hc> he became a monk under the name
of % fJi ^ Chih-tuo-po-mo, Gittavarman. Having received
the precept, he declined to eat the three kinds of pure food.
The master of the Navasang^ar^ma said, the Great Lord
Tathagata himself took five kinds of food ccmsidcrcd proper for a
monk ( i Wu-chang).1 It is not a crime. Why should you
not cat ? asked the abbot. It is not the rule observed by the
Hinayinist. Therefore* I cannot change the old habits n o w '
replied the monk. The abbot said I have established a practice
here in agreement with the thrc pitakas; I have never read such
a rule. If you so please you may find out a suitable preceptor*
I can no longer be your jMrcccptor**.
Cittavarman was thus reluctantly compelled to cat the food.
He broke his vow and took food in tears. He conveniently fol
lowed the commandments of the monastery. He knew very little
Sanskrit. He followed the northern route on his way back (to
China). No one knew where he went. His story was narrated
by Indian monks from North India.
There were other two monks in Nepal. They were the children
of the wet nurse o( the princess of Tibet. At a very early age
they left home and became monks. One of them later entered

Buddhtxm tlicre. He ha mentioned that there were about 100 Vih&ras with
more than 3000 monks. This city was knowit as Little Rajagrha. vrith tbe Kar*
gcst monastery Nava Sanshiriiixa. Duriqg Hsuan-Ghuang's travel, Balkh was
under Ttirk itile. The Tories vrevc Ac loUowcnc of Buddhism. They
bwiH a huge Vihira ckwe to the Sogdh rivr. In their language Vib&ra was
iutown Buihar. $o the name of the place was Bukhara.
See Sir Aurcl Stein, On Cenbal Atian Traeks, pp. 321-330; P. C. Bagchi,
Mtfia and Central Asia. pp. 34-35; Rahul Ssmkrityayana, fUsiary o f Central AsU,
p. 71.
1. PaAcabht^aaiyamthe five lunds of food considered proper for monks.
These are oTtn mentioned in ilw Vnya. or tlie Sikfdsamuctaya
dcab with the regulating eating and drinking of a monk. tL Wu*
Chan^ is an old translation. A <ompar(ive]y recent trandaitloa is j&. ^
Wu*tan-shihu T h t dup(er on Meudic&mcnts says, O Bhikkhns, do not
tngly cat meal of an ai.imal killed fof that piuposr. Wfaoscx^vcr does so, b
ftiiliy of a duklchaia S tc ^ P itim M k a , P ik 37,
See Sacfd Books of Ihe E ^t. Vol. xvii, p 81. ^ 0. 117; Vo), xiii p. 40.
PrtftUM 31

th e fam ily life ag ain . T h e y lived a( th e g re a t R ija v ih ir a (Royal

m o n astery ). T h ey m astered S a m k iit language a n d Sanskrit
texts. O n e o f th em was thirty-five a n d the o th e r twenuy-ltvc.
fk . H ^ Lung*Fa shih G au rav a d h arm a. T h e native
place o f the m onk L ung w as not know n. D uring the C hcn-kuan
p erio d , he leA hoiuc an d followed (he n o n h e m route (to reach
I n d ia ) . As soon as he arriv ed in N o rth In d ia , he w anted to
w itness th e transform ing influence (o f the D octrine) in M id-
In d ia . H e h a d a w onderful style o f reciting th e :
Fa-hua-ching,1 Saddhamapwtdarika SiUra in Sanskrit.
H e reached C hicn-t'a*luo, G a n d h a ra k w here he
fell sick a n d died. T h is inform ation was g a th ere d Ctchq the monks
com ing fr<n N o rth In d ia.

1. T h e lotu s Sulrat one o f Ihe earliest MahdjFamt S iU w . is composed of

both procc and versesthe prose is in pure Sanslait and verses mixed 5aa>
krit. T his Sutra contaios twenty*seven ch s^ ers.
Wintcmiu sayt(4 Histw^ of ItvSan Lisergtmt V<J. U p. 302) that ii WdifB-
cuk to 5cert8iri the date of the componlioR o f <his iwti. !u Jcciions belonged
to various epochs. I>r. F. V. Bapat has placed che work in the fint-cenlury
A.D. Utor than MohAocstu and
Saddharm apuo^rika w m very much p<^Hilariscd in Chin and
Tht school in O iin a and (he T endai, Nitchircn Sect in Japan consi-
dr the Lotus Sdtras as the most important Buddhist text. U has made great
coniribMltoa to Buddhist art and sculpture in China and Japan.
It was translated into Chinese several limes . T h e earliest Iranslalloa w$s
done hy Fa^iu Dhanoaraksa o f ibe Western Chin Dynasty in A .D . 2B6, in
28 Chapter*, then by KiimiLr^lva and by JiVsnagiipU and Dharvnagupta
o f the Sui Dynasty (A .D . 589-61B) NCNoft. 134-159.
T h e title o f (he Lotus SSirQ (in Chinese) according to Dharmarakta i
Cheng-fa-hua Chiog, and according to Kum&rajiva MUo-fit-lien-Hu* <hinf.
Kum2r^{iva*s version contains 28 chapters and agrees with the Tibeian vnion.

m , _ riters, Candhara w m th territory between

modem Lamghan and Jalalabad on the west, the Sw*t hill W the north, (he
Indus on the cast and the hilb oTKalabag on Ihe south. Bui accordtr^ lo Indian
liUrary aourcca, the term Garidhara denotes an area that included Pu?kftl&vati
and Takfa&*l&. Puskal^vali has been idcnlifsed wi(h Ghtmadda (about 16
miles north-east of Peshawar) in Pcihawar district and in Kawl*
pindi district ui Pakistan.
These places were visited by early Chinoe travdlcf$ like (Vhticn, Miian*
Chuang. Gauidhara was at xconJ holy land of Buddhitm where a had ^ou*
rished contributing a great deal to (he histot y of WorW art.
32 Chinese Monks

54 i l i ^ M in g -y a n Fa-shih. T h e m o n k b e lo n g
ed *0 ihe c i t y o f C h ing in I-c h o u .1 H is
Satiskru nam e was Cint&dcva, C han-to-ci-p o
H e was also known as S z u -lia n in C h in ese la n g u a g e .
From childhood h e received religious e d u c a tio n a n d as h e g rew
up he becam e very virtuous. H e w as handsom e^ rcsp e c ifu l,
dignified, covmcous a n d was fond o f cerem onies. H e w a s g re a tly
respected in C hina. H e w as co n v ersan t in ^ C h u n g * , P a i*
M d d h j w n i k a am i ^ a t a i d s t r a respectively. H e h a d th m a s te ry to

expound (he discourses o f C h u a n ^ c h o u ,4 ( t h e g r e a t C h in e se

^ p h ilo s o p h e r).
When he was young, he travelled many places in Hu-nan

1. During th t lime of the Western Hans, I-chou was comprised of some

pjuts o f S^u-ch^uan and Yiia-nan.
2. The MMydna system nf thought is divided into Mddhysmtka and Tagd-
tird. The founder of the M&ihymika school was Bodhisattva N asarjuna who
lived probabl/ in ihe 2nd century A*D. The most famous work of N&garjurut
ii M^dfyamika^Kirika. He wsi followed by many Midhyamika tchoUrs such as
AryiKleva (Third century A.D.)Buddhapftlita (Fifth century A.D.) ta d
Candrakirti (Sixth ceatury A,D.),
The ri 5stra itct in China was formed oti the basis of the Msdkyami/ca*
Sistr^ .^ata-Mru end the JDMa^tnikdja ra which were translated by
3. One of the three &Utra of the Midhjamika school, In Chinese *Pi'
means hundred. Thw Sasira contains oac hundred verses with <ach one com*
pnsed of 32 words. So the Aime Setlo ^islrd a given. It was written by Vasu-
bandhu in Samkfxt and translated by Kusnarfjiva in CJiiiKsr. But this version
diflfef* from (he ortguuJ $askrit.
. D.T. Suzuki, in ihe Introduction of ^Tke Text 9/ (translated by
J*mcs Lcg^c) sayj: ...C3wian^>Tzc was the greatest of the philosopher^
poets, and literary emyisis ia Ihe entire history of the Taoist Schoolmore
than (ht, perhaps in &H fteldx of Chioese litcraturc.w (p. 3).
ChuAng-Tte belonged to ihe feudal of China when China was disintcg-
raied into number of small states. The great hinorian Ssu-ma Ghica ia
the second century B.C., notes that Chuang-Tze came from An-hui. His
pers<ml n^me was Chou. He was a sincere devotee o f Lao-Tze, the great
philosopher of the sixth cetUury B.C. Chu*rxg-Tte propagated and expounded
the way of life** or the Tao against the materiaUttic, ethical concept of life
propag&ud by Confucius and his followers.
fn jw 33

( x. Ch'i-chc)1 and in the area ( San-wu*) east

of Yang-tzc river valley, in search o f knowledge. Later on
he studied seriously che Buddhist sutras and sastras and practi
sed meditation. Consequently, he spent the summer retreat in
a lonely, quiet top o f the mountain Lu .
Since the magnanimous sacred religion (Buddhism) was al
ready in decadent state, he ( with an idea of restoring it) became
a mendicant and arrived at extreme south. From here he sailed
and reached Chiao^chih.4 He crossed the vast sea to
reach fvj KLoJing. From there he went to fef Shih
Uu-cho>$ Simhala. While the King of the country was
worshipping, the monk conccalii^ himself in a private
chambertried to rob the Tooth-relic with che in tendon of carry*
ing it back to his own country and worshipping wieh great reve
rence. He am ccaled it in his hand and was taking away when
i( was detected. T h e T o o th-rdic was then snatched away from
him. This was a great humiliation Ibr him.
According to the Gcyloacsc story, the Chinese pilgrim went to
South India and it was related th a t ^ i l c he was proceeding
towards the monastery o f G reat Enl^htenm cnt, he passed away
on the way. How old he was, is not known.
1. Present Hu*oan province. See Ott'u*T*zxt-juon, Vol. I p. 10, foKo 3.
2. Area cxieoding over tbe ease of Yaaag-tzc valley. The tbxtx places,
Su-cbou Chvang-chouv Hu-chou arc known as San-wu. Ibid. VoL I, p. 15,
fbUo 1.
3. One of th t sacred mountains (for kht Buddhbts) o i China int northern
Chiazig-si. From very ancient tintes the moufuaia *La* was hatlowcd by
Taoist and Buddhist traditi^n^ Many miraculous and supernatural events
are associated with Ihe mount *Lu*. T he famous Chinese monV Hui-yuan
(A.D. 380) stayed on tjbat beautiful raouAtain. He left adctaiJed description
of ihe mountain known as Lu-shao-cbi. This mountain has btca compared
with Gr<lHraluita moualain near Rajagrha India. Sec C T T Vol. 51. No.
p . 1024.
4. Tbc Iroriler o f China today b oot the same as it was durirthe time
ol (he T a a g and the Sung. Ghiao^hcb, the modem Hanoi near Tonkin,
the heart o f North VieitkSkm waa a Chinese province for about nine centuries
from B,C. I l l to A.D. 939. This area became ptut of the H an Empire and
was known as commandcry of Jihnan.
5. S ic p h a la ~ C e y lo n or p resen t Sri L ank a. I t w a s a lso know n m R atn a-
dvipa, Isle o f Jew els.
34 Chinese Monks

After this incident, the King of Ceylon kept ihe Tooth-relic

in a safer place. It was carefully guarded in a very lofty tower,
the doors of hich were very firmly closed. This room had many
sets of heavy doors. The locks of the doors were covered and
sealed tightly whh mud by five officers. Opening of the doors
(of that particular room) would start the automatic alarm in
the town and outside the city gate.
Everyday offerings weTC made and incense was burnt. Flowers
were offered all the time. When taken out, the Tooth was placed
on a golden flower and its sparkling glow everywhere diffused.
The tradition goes that if this country loses the Tooth-relic, the
country would be devoured by Luo-sho, R&ksasas.1
On account of that, the Tooth w a s very c a T c t u l l y guarded and
protected to avoid such a calamity. I t is also said that this Tooth
relic could be taken to China only by the Divine Power and not
by human contrivance.
_ I-lang Lu-shih Artha<fipta. The Vin
aya-mastcr I*!ang belonged to ^ _ C h cng.tu* in % 'Kj
I-chou, He was well versed in _ Lu-tian3 and in
interpretation of YO-ga, Yoga System.4 H e set forth
from Chsangan with the monk Chih-an from his own
native place and an eminent man l-hsuan}for pilgrimage^
While he was about twenty years old, he realised the T ru th
from the teacher. He studied the Buddhist scripture and he him
self was a good writer. He desired to pay a visit to the sacred
shrines of the Lord Buddha with his disciples. They were like
his own brothers taking care of each other. Soon, they develop cd

!. The demons with terrifying looks, with black bodies, red hair and green
eyes are supposed to be the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka.
2. The CApitftl of modem Sru-ch'uan province. (Lat. 20 34*N, Long.
3. The Vinaya Canon.
4. The principk of Yoga (ihe ccsutic union of individual soul with
Divine soul) was first propounded by PfcUfijali in the second century B.C.
Aiahf?a in the fourth century A.D. {bunded a almilar $choo! of Yoga in Bud
dhism. Hsuazt-Chuang was a foUower of this school.
Preface 35

very deep attachment for each other in (he course of ih d r jotir-

They reached the country Wu-lci1, and embar
ked on a merchant ship. Tossing over thousands o f high waves,
th t ship passed through ^ Fu-nan4, anchorod at
i$!Lang-chia3 where he was entertained with valuable
gifts by the king. The fe]iow monk Sf Chih-an fell
sick and breathed his last there. Lang was very much grieved
at his death. He along with his fellow companions sailed for
Ceylon where they secured new religious texis and worshipped
Lord Buddhas Tooth-rdic.
Gradually he reached the Western country. I-ching cc^lectcd
this information. No one knew his h e reab o u ts. The people of
Ceyion also did not see him again. The pe<^>lc o f Mid*India.

) Present Cb*in-h5<cn, north-soath o f K uang-tung island. D u ring th e

T ang period this region was know n as W u-lei.
2. The original name of this country i t not known. It was known to the
Chiaese as Fu-nan upto the r ly period of (he T*ang. Fu-nan, the precursor
of Cambodia was colonised by the Indian settlers and alon( with ihcir immt-
gratioa the Indian culture and religion ahrv spread.
During the period of tbe Three Kingdoms Fu-nan or Camhodia was visi*
ld by Chinese envoys an<) in the subsct|ueai years there were several Chinese
embassies lo Fu-hah. We can get details and full account of Fu-nan only from
Chinese sources. Ia the third cealury A.D. (he southern most part of later
Cochin*Chlna was Fu-naa territory. In the early T*aag period a great change
took place in Fu-nan, when the name Fa-nan disappeAfed from the Chinese
record and thenceforward il was known as Chcn-La. Chcn-La hftd very cor
dial And close relation with the T ang rulers. Watters has sdcniiHcd i*shcn*
na-pu-!uo Isanapura of Hstian-chuang with Fu*nan.
K K in g in the Ute seventh century ^aid that though Buddhism was estab-
)i5hed in CheivLathe founder King of the place persecuted the Buddhist in
of the .^arnts sect of HinduUm which had firmly prospered there.
H suan -ch uan g in his accou nt has given th e nam es o f sU countries
beyond Sam ata(a (Low er Bengal). O n e o f these six cou Airies is
w h ich in all probabUity is L ang-C hia or Lankasu m en tion ed b y l-c h in g . It U
said to b e id en tical w ith P egu a n d the d elta o f Irawadi> Or. R . O. M azum dar
also thinks Langkasu o f I-c h io g lo b e Ihe M on country in Lower Burma and it
m ay be th e sam e as Tenasscrim . In th e H istorical R ecords o f ihe L iang Dy*
nasty (A .D . 502-537) a country is m entioned as. JLang-ltasii. (Book 5 4 ) .
See G .P . F itzgerald. 77te Southern Expansion o f tbe Chints* people. MajM. 1, t .
36 Chhus$ Monks
did not hear anything about him. Most probably h t died in a
foreign land. He was more chart forty when he died.
Hui-oing LCk*shih Mabibhiiayanavinayft-
carya, also belonged to Ch*eng*tu in I-chou. He was a very
precocious and intdligcnt child. A$ a young boy h t visiicd te n s e s
and monasteries in pursuit of knowledge. At an early age he
renounced the pleasures of tbc world and was admitted 10 the
Order (Provrajy&). He studied profoundly the Buddhist Sutras^
Sastra* and the Vinaya canons. H u desire to know the Buddhist
Law inspired him to visit the Western country*
In Lin-te period1, (A.D. 665) he with a mendican( stick IM~
changx reached the South Sea from where he sailed for KVling.
There he lived for three years with a well reputed monk flp
Ju-na-po-to-luo Jflaiubludra. The pilgrim then
translated a portion of the Agoma wilh Jftinabhadra,
concerning the last ceremony held after the M ahspanxm a^
1. Started by the third Empcrt* fco-TsungofT*inI>imasty in A.D. 6M.
S. A monk's Kick partly made of metal with metal rings. They m^ovnHt
thftir arrival for bcggirig by shaking thse rings.
3. The general term Agama has been used for collection of
tatt^ There arc four Agamas, yix. Dfrghdgana (Ch*ang-a'ha9)p Ma^fkimdgama
{Cha^a~han)f Se^puktagama {Tu^bkan) &nd Ekottardgama {Tun^~4^kan).
Eacfa of time Agtmas has iu cofreppoiiciing Sfitras in f^U canon such as Dfgka~
Mqjfkima-ttikijNt, Sat/^uUaniidya and AAguttara^nik^a.
A Parthian monk An-shib-kao arrived at Xo>ytfkg in AJ>. !48 and fu$t
trtixsUtcd the Dirghigauta into Chinese durinf tht time of the stero Hn
(A.D. 25-220) in 2 &seiculi. Fk^ttarigama was tr&mUtcd ituo Chinese by
Dhamumandi in A.D. 384-385, and MadhyafMtama by SaAsfaadeva ki A.D.
See Nanjto's Cat. Nos. 542, 543, 545, O. P. Malalasdzra 244*246
Emytl^aOia rfBjMim (d.> Vol. X, 2. N<. 542478. CTT V 1,2, No.
4 Dharmmkfa of the Northern, Kingdom, at the beguAans of
the fifth Century translated the Sutra oa the gret demise of the Lord or tbc
Mahdpannirvdfa S&tra into Chinese in AJ). 42$. *ITe monk Hui-ning of ilie
T*ang Dynaity with the ltdp of Jn&iubhdr tnaaUied the SUtrm a$an in 2
fiudculi(NG V c u HS-125). The MM^rimrwmiut of tbe Hinayinlst was
first translated, into CKinoe by Po F-tu in A.D. 290-S60, and by Fa-Hficn
becwooK AJ>. 417-420 ia tiie &maus moDastcry Tao-Ch'ang.
The Chincac Tnpifaia ooouini three traAdatiom of Use Mak^arvarvi^a
of the Hmayftna acd seven translations of tbc Maliiyftoa.

ot Lord Tachagata. his work does not agree with the Nirvana
of the Mah&yana Sutra. But the venerable I-ching could find
the Ntrvdrta Sutra of the Mah&yana consisting oi about 25,000
iio k a s. There were more than iixty chdan (raiu)atcd into Chi
nese. He wanted to collect the entire Sutra but could not suc
ceed; he got a collection of the first 4,000 ilokas of the Mahd-
sHAghika Tibdamg-pu.1
Hui-ning translated the Agama SGtra oniy. He then ordered
his disciple monk Yun-ch*i to go immediatdy to
China and present the Sutra with respect and h<mour; be retur
ned Co Chiao-fu* from where it was taken by horses assigned by
the Government. Yun-ch*i then presented the book to the Em
peror in the royal palace and requested him to propagate this
book among the people of Tung-hsia* (China)* Yan-cVi left
the capital and reached Chia<M hih H t told (he

After (ramUtkm of the Satruy tfac Buddhist

world in China became very much interested m this text which ttrcncs the
eternal, joyous, pmoaal and pure nature of Nirtraoa. Tbe Mrvd^to tcboo) in
Chiaa is based on the <ioclrines of (he S&lra.
Sw C IT V d. 12, No. 374;
WUlleriUtz* Hiftwj of Indian UUratvt. Vol. IIt p. 235.
1. According to the Buddhist canoniral tradition, shar|> difTrence broke
out among the monks regarding the ot>serviag of crtun Vinaya rules, just
hundred years after the **Oreat Demise**. T h e two different groups pUccd
their demands for darifkauon before tb^ second Council u V aisaii. A section
o f (lie orthodox monks rt$ardc4 the Vwuya rules as the very IbuncUtioa, the
rocU xdofthevnoA M tielile. The n!* must l> entirely preserved and foUwed*
There were some libcal monks w ho opposed this view. According to (he Ccy*
loncsc C hrooicks this was not t^ v td the Council; instead, it w**
foQowed by *Grcat Schism' (M ahihheda) wHkb split the order into two scboob
the Therau&da and the MchisiAghika.
*Tbe Makasanghika becsune the startjnf point of tiic development of the
Mahayana by thdr more liberal attitude and by some of their special theories
(Edw&nl Ooozc, Buddhistni its Essmu end tHodopnuiUi Oxfofd^ I95lp. 121).
At its inc^tioa, this school had u t imocMtaiu centre at Later, Amari-
vat! and Nag&rjunalcop^A became tbc impocunt aad popular centres l&e
2. T ht refion of modem Kixang-tung, Kuang-ii and An-nan.
3. The voters sometime* caU whole China as Tung*hsia
aad sometimes oniy the eastern part of China. Tung-bsia is modern Yea*A&*
Duriog (be Noc*ben-Wi period ic waw Tuog-haU r Gbm-nuog.
38 GkhusM M om ks

bc!ievers and non-believers of the Faith that he got a gift of

hundred pieces of fine shining silk from the Court.
When he returned to Ko ing he reported to Tc-
chih^hsicnt also known as Jiiinabhadra, that the monk Hui-ning
wanted to meee him. Just then Hui-ning left for Western
country. Yfln-ch'i stayed there for some time anxiously waiting
to know the whereabouts of the monk Hui-mng. He looked
fonvard to meet him, made inquiries about him. He sent mes
sengers to Eve Indies J ? Wu-t'icn1 in. search of him, but
no information was uvailabtc. He had probably died by then.
I( was really a matter of great regret.
Hui-ning travelled all alone in search of Dharma. His heart's
desire was (o pay a visit to the land of Buddhism; he just com-
pleced the first leg of his travel. Finally, he reached
Pao-chu* and temporarily lived in Hi Hua-ch*eng.*
He died but his Dharma still survives. He is immortal and his
name would be remembered by future generations.
He propagated ihe Will of Bodhisattva and thus his name
imprinted will last for ever. He died at th t age of (hirly-four or
if VOn-ch'i, Kalacakra. The monk Vun-cb*i
was a ftfttive of Chiao-chou. He all alon^ travelled
with | T*mn-ning. He was ordained l>y Pu-
chih-hiien. He returned to die South S e a Nan-hai,
where he spent more than ten years. He was well acquainted
with the language of ihe people or Kun-lun* and

] India was known, as Sben-ti>4oa or l^o-luo^n^T'kuo (Lvu2 of B rib -

mina) to the Qxinese duriag the time o f the Him niler. The name India as
Tien-chu. became popuUr during the time of the Tang Dynasty (A*D, 018
907). India had five disdnet divisions viz., Eastern India* Wc*t India,
South India, North India and Mid India.
See C1T Vol. 51. No. 2067, p. $75, Uod foUo. P.C . Bagchi M mnU
Snum Vol. X IH J948 (Beking) Amewa O om x mames r f M i4 . pp.
2. Ramadvip&.
Tfcc magic *tf in Kbc *L4>tus Sdtra*. I t mcac teraporary N irv i^a or
iaipcrfect Ninraoa of tfac Hiaayiitisis.
4- The Cfciocsc name uS Polo Coadare is K'tn-San. ft b idcaticl with
K*u>luat Ka-lua. The Arab trawUert of ninth ^ntttry called groiq> of
Preface 39

acquired some knowledge of Sanskri( language. Later on, he

retired Co lay life and lived ia ^rx-vijaya up to the time of I-
A sudden change took place in him; he was greatly moved by
the Law of the Buddha and again he travelled over the island
preaching the religion in the city. He propagated the religion
among non-bclicvcn. He breached his last when he was forty.
'A K'uci-ch'ung Fa-shih. The monk Kuci-chung
also came from Chiao-chou. He was a disciple of Ming-
yuan. His Sanskrit name was Chih-ta-lo*ti-po,
Citradeva.1 The monk with Ming-yOan embarked ^ ^ upon
a ship, crossed the South Sea and reached Ceylon and thereafter
proceeded towards Western India. There he met the venerable
monk Hsuan-chao and with him reached Mid-India
He was very honestsincere and intelligent. He was good in
reciting Sanskrit Siktras. Wherever he went he collected Sans*
krit Sutras and recited them with tunes and actions. He ortcved
his sincere devotion to the Bodhi tree < Pot i-shii.
He reached the Bamboo Grove (j] Chu-vCian in Rajagrha
and stayed th c r t lonjf. There he fell sick and died at the age of
thirty odd years.
H ui-ycn Fa-shih. T b e m onk H ui-yen^ f ^ ^ P r a j n a r a t n a
was a native o f Chiao-chou. H e was the disciple o f X
Hsing-kung. Accompanied by his teacher he reach ed
Scng-ho-luo-kuo (Sirphala). He stayed t h e r e . t was not
known w hether he died or he was still living.
? Hsin-chou Fa-shih, No one knows the native
place of the Dharmacirya Hsin-chou. His Sanskrit name was

small and big iilandk by the name Sundar or Sondor and Marco Polo by
Sundur and Condur. H e has not sai<i much of them. Tbe people belonging
to the place were o f dark coiz^>texicm with wooly hair. I-chiiig has said thit
tiucountry with peculiar mhabitanu accepted Buddhism to ^orac extent an<l
be bas mentioned a monastery over there.
See J. Taknkusu*ARBRPIMA (Mtuwhi R a m Mam^iar LalDelhi) pp.
xUx*l. Tht TrauU of Afarej'Peh (Translated by Manuel Kamroff) p. 272.
1. In the te x t the character ii B ut 1 think IfS- is belter rcadiag.
40 Ckines$ Monks

Sraddhivamun. In Chinese
he was known as Hsin-chou, Sraddfaavarman.
Following the northern route, he reached the Western country.
lived in che Monastery of Faith and made offerings there.
On the top of che monastery he built a brick chamber and dona
ted it for (he use of all who retired from th e cares of public life.
After some time he fell sick and before his death, oac night he
suddenly shouted saying that Bodhisaltm with outstretched hands
was beaconmg him to his beautiful abode. lie received the offer,
standing with folded hands, breathed a deep sigh and passed
away at the age of thirty.ftvc.
' i _ Chih-hsing Fa-^hih. The Dharmic&rya
Chih-hslng was a native of "g ^ Ai-chou.1 His Sanskrit
name was Pan-jo~ti>po Fraji^adeva. In Chi
nese he was known by the name of Hui-t'ien which
means Prajfiadeva. Sailing from the South Sea,he reached West
Indiawhere he worshipped the sacred relics of the HonouraUc
One. He then proceeded to the north of the river 5^ ife
Ch*iang-chiaft thcGftAg^ (the Ganges)* He lived in the Monas*
tcry of Faith and died there at the e of iifty.
fe f , t f Ta-ch'eng-teng Ch'an-shih. Dhar*
mOcirya also came from Ai-chou. Hh Sanskrit name was
Mo>ho>yelMiapo>tK po, MahJkyazu-
pradipa. In Chinese he was Imown by the name of IV c h ang.
tcng which means Mahayanapradlpa. While still youngs he
sailed for Tu-ho-lo*po-tP with his parents.
Here he renounced the world and became a monk.

I. It w Ai-cliou during the time o f tke U ang Dyna&ty. M odem Tuaiy-

ching chou.
One oT the longest riveis in th e w orld. R m n g fro m th e m oun-
U in o f ih e H im alay a, this river meets th e B sy B engal in th e e a tt c o v erto f
b o u t 1 $00 m iles. G an g a u tfac most aacrcd riv er o f (b e H in d u i.
3. T'o-lo*po-ti has been restored as D virlvk ii. Dvir&via3 fak W est Tbai-
iMnd (Siam) b identical wish Ayuthya(or Ayudby)the o d e t capital of
Slu n. According to Ptof. Ouivmnca Dvur&wQ Is the Sanskrit nme of Ayu-
<ibyftnd tccor ig to Reginald Le M xfD vM vfttI i (tUAtedbetween modern
Burni* Sttd Gmrabodia. Sec A C$meu$ A n U Sim ^ p . 2 $ .
Prefact 41
AAcr that, he foliowcd i f T*swa-s3 the envoy from the
Imperial Court and reached the capital. He lived ia (he moius-
icry of TVu-cn1 Mahakaruru, tbe ^neat compas&ion
monastery tbc vcncrblc Tripifaka master Hsuan-chuang
lived, here he ( Mahaya^a-pradlpa) was ordained to (he
Buddhist (ai(h. He stayed in the capital for a emipk of
y tan, studying th t sacred Buddhisi Sutras. He always
thought of the sacred vintages of Buddhum and cherished che
great de$irc to w i t the Western country His love for (he Faith
and magnaaucnity was inherent in him. At (he same time he
kept his moral principles high.
He carried Buddhist images, Buddhist S&tr^s and Sistras$
crossed ihe South Sea and reached Ceyion. He had a glimpse
of the Buddhas Tooth and made his oScrir^s to that sacred
relic. He passed through South India and then reached Eastern
India. From there he proceeded towards Ta-mo-
U-ti-kuo, TamradxplL* As he reached the firth of (be river,
hi$ boat and olhcr valuables were robbed and destroyed. Only
his life was spared by the pirates.
He Landed there (Timralipti) and spent about twelve years
having perfected himself in Sanskrit Sutras. In the course of
his studying and recitinghe read the Lu*

Dr. R . C. Mazumdar thinks that the kingdom d l>viriv(i mcatioaed by

Hsxiftn-chuang comprises the lo w vrllcy of the Meaaim river is probably
tocated near Nakon Patkom, 40 miles to the west o f fian^cok. (R. C. Mazufn*
das, Hindu CotonUs, p. 226)
I n the by C. P. Flczgcrakl [The Souifum ExpamiM, rfihe Ckittue PnpU)
Ayudhya (D viravatl) has been placed io the north*wcst of Bangkok.
1 This monnsteiy was built in A.D. C48 at Ch*an^an, modetft
in Shcn-si province, on lh 22nd year oT the Cht-kuan period o f the greai
T*ang Emperor T'ai-Tjung. In this moMstcry o f M a h ilo r u ^ Hsusn-dtuang
tnuulatcd Buddhist scripiures into OiiaM c, after his return &cm the Western
2. Timvafijptk as modem Tamluk m (he district o f Midnapur in West
Bengal. An port, TSUnral^pti situated cm the flacwith o f the
Rupnmrftyan, wat Iumkwu at Tamalites to ihe O rtxk xaflon. It w u b a in^>ar-
tant port oo Ihe cart and played Cfy iwportaiu part in the ecnaomic bhuxy
42 Chinese Mtmks

shcng-ttng thing NM na SStr^ and other im portant txts relating

to Buddhism, and eniertd into an ecclesiastical life.
He joined Ac company of merchaitu and with chc venerable
monk l^hing reached MkMndia. They first visited Nilanda;
next proceeded (owards 4 j Chin-kang-tsa Bodhi*
man^a and moved towards H$ich*$u-li Vai*
^SaC* nd lastly they vcited Kufiiiagarai Cbu*5luh-na.4 Tbe

Lu In Chinese mcam Fr4t$^0 CoavteUon. 8u< according the

Vit mem Mac^opcratici( ousc, the coacurcnv occasion of
event as ^san^msiked from iu proximate cause" M.W.
^Hdina. can b t cxphined b f ^ f^ ShiK-erh yin*W, 12 causes
of lawteftcc. T h b i$ th t u td admirable principle of Buddhist
tboughK wftiich cxplsins the 12 clutu* Th< formula of I t N hJ^rss
xpUins ongioaiion and cemtion.
The fundamental dogma h *'of aU the obieccs whkK proceed from a cauk,
tbe Talhftfau has explained the cause id Be h cxpbtned (hetrccnation $hoi
Uus b the doetrioc the Oreftt SrAmaoa/* (TrjMislaced by Frof. OJdaiberg
and Rhys Davidt.)
The Buddhs has ccplaincd kHc origin of lUe't suflTeringi by natural causa*
tion known as ProtltyoMfftm^bia. If there are uSb'iags (hrc must be 90RU
causes. Suflfereing in life b due to (1) Wu-mtn^*Avidyi, ignorance, (2)
Hsing^ajjw^lrd, conception, (3) ShtliPv'jUm^ comciousicss (4) Miftg'yt,
J(dmrOpaname and form, (5) Liu*ju ^a^dyatttna, u x sense organs, {fi) Shou-
V^dani^ fe^Ung, (7) AlTmS> desire (8) Yo~Momv being, (9) CKu-
Updddnat grasping, (10) Shcng birth, (I I) Lau*uuJtfr4 iruirmt
infirmiiiet and death.
Thi* J'fidina 3ifttra of Ullahghana was transtated into Chinese by Dharma-
gxipc% in A.D. 607 &nd Pratit/csmutpida of ^uddlumattt by Bodhinict in A.D.
Sc Am IntroducHon b fndian PhiUsopfy9p p . 22, 124; M. Duti. E^rfy MonasHc
Buddhism, p. 215.
2. Modern Buarh (Lai. 25# 59* N Long. H y 7EDistrict Muza^farpur,
Bihar}. 22 m ikt loaik-weM of MMlfrpur in aortb Bihar k chc ancient
Vais&fidie capiul of Lkhh^vU. TIk Buddha vititcd this cnAAy tinaet.
Sec Dr* D. Mitra, Buddhist Mmanents, pp. 73*75.
3. The name K usinagin or K uiiniri fun been traiucribed dirmly in
Cbinoc. It h either Ku*stiih*iu or Oui-sfaih-ru or Chiu*>hiK etc. The name
Kuiloagara hss bem auocUted with the focpel of tKe Buddha. The
pwiftirvina of the 3U*4 (ookpttc b a t between the two ^&ta crn on the bank
of tlie ancient ffir*9yav4l(.
Trmditkm that Kufiftlri w built on the tuim o f the ancwnc city c t
Ku vu. Kusnftri, ih t capiul <lty of %he Mailt tribe*, u identified with xhc
Preface 43

Dhyana master Wu-hting together with them visiicd all thtne

The pilgrim always remarked with si%h and expreMed his
desire to achieve Dharma and 10 propagtlc it in his owa land,
China. While he was nearing hi< rad, he that if he
co u ld not achieve it in this life, he would then accomplish the
same in his next life,
He studied history seriously that would help him lo visit the
home of k Tzu-li, Maitrcya. Everyday he drew the
pictute of one or two branches of Lun^-Hua, Ndgtipuspa
(dragon flower) to express his sincerity.
He lived in ihe same old room where the monk Tao-hsi lived
before. When he reached there, the monk Tao-hsi had already
died. The Chinese and Sanskrit texts (cm BudtUim Sutras and
Sastras) the monk Tao^hsi studied, were silU seen there. With
a very heavy heart he looked at these books, shed tears and Umcn*
ted for him. Previously ihcy alw a^ moved together, disciuocd
Dharma together at Ch'ang^an, tmi h t could no longer *cc him
in this foreign land. The room was vacant (he was no longer
The Dhyana master died in the Parlnirv4na*vihara, Pcn?ni-fan
in Ku^Inagara.
Seng-chia -pV m o M .f Sarig
havarman w^s a
native of K ,ang-kuo> Sogdiana.1 From childhood

modem town of Kasia (Lac. 2644*N; Long. 8355*E) iA Deoria district of

Utt&r PrndcMi; 22 miles north-east of Deoria and 34 miles eait of Gorakhpur
and 180 milct north-west of Patna (Bihar).
1. Prior to the sixth crntury A.D., Sogdiana w*u a kingdom which U now
known m the Kirghiz S.S.R., and the Kazak S.S.R. covering the* regions of
preieni Samarkand and Bokhara.
Ancient Sugdik, Sulik waj situated m he north of Tokhrcttt T*in-
ham mountain. Gradu iily the Sog<3ians moved lowardj entcrn Turktstin.
They were originaUy a hrunch of Iraniau people; their langiugc was al.w
Iranian. The people and their language have long UUttppm0; but romc ol
ihe Sogdi&n trans1tions of Buddhist lexti have been uncarthrri* from Kstm
Tuikistan by .vchacologisu.
44 Chintu AUnks

he was a wanderer; he iravclled through drifting sand on foot,

then reached (he Imperial city. His passion for religion was
During the Hsien-ch^ing1 period, he was order
ed by che Emperor togofor a pilgrimage to ihe Western country
along with (he imperial envoy. He reached the monastcrv of
Ta-chueh Grat Enlightenment. In India he paid
offerings to Bodhimartja. The monk lighted tbc lamp for seven
days and seven nights a$ offerings to the Council of discourses on
Dharma. Again under the Aioka tree Yu-$hu* in the
courtyard ofBodhiman^a he carved out the image of the Buddha
and Kuao^txe^tsai, Bodhisattva Avaloklie^vara.
Thereafter he went back to China. He received an Imperial
order again to go to Chiao*chih to collect the medicinal herbs.
That was the time %^en CbUochih wasunder the grip of a severe
famine; people were dying in laige numbers wi(boul food. He
prepared Food and drinks everyday lor the &mine-strickn peo
ple and distributed them in the afternoon. The {nlgrim was very
much grieved at heart and shed tears profusely at the sight of
this miserable plight of the distressed people. Therefore, he was
known by the people of that country as Weeping Bodhisattva

The Sogdians had clowr contact other p%rts of Central Asia and tndi*.
Buddbism spread there from Tokhre*tu. Sogdiaa monks played great part
in (he transmission of Buddhist culture in China. Ttic two important m onb
from Sogdiana tnuislaied the Buddhitt Sfltras into Chinese. Hiey known
by the names of SaAghavarmui tnd SaAgh^bhadra io the second and third*
ccatury A.D.
Scng-hui an tllusttioui monk from Sogdiana worked in South China in the
third century A.D. In ChiixM Sosdianm $ K'cng-chu. Their names we di$*
tio^uiahed in Chinese by adding prefuc K*ng. Sogdiana ha$ been identified
with Sakadvlpa b y S.C. Vidy&bhan. {J.R.A.B., Pa>t I 1902, p. 154).
See Rabul Sunkrity^yaAa Hiimjt r f Central Afict p. $57; Luce Bou)noi
(Tr. by Ocoois Chamberlun), Tht Silk Chap. on Sogdian p. 149;
P.C. BagchiIndia M i CtrOral A$iay pp. 36.40.
Inirodi^cd by ibe 5rd Emperor K&c-T$ung o f the T ang D y n a u y la
AS> 656, six yew s After hit accession lo the throne.
2. Jonesia Asoka Koxb Gauum Buddha was born under this tree at
Lumbiai. It is very much Associated with Samktit IUeratur of India
P u fm 45

incarnate** Some tu n e afterwards^ he goi sllghtty indsspoetcd

and died inunediatdy at (he age of sixty.
>4A^Fi-an Fa-shih, Dhann&dirya Nirvana,
C9iih-an Fa-shih, Jfiatiap&riti. Both1 (htsc monks were the
natives of Kao-ch'ang, Turfen* They weal to the capital city
che, ishlng the idea of beconung monk. They were anxious to
visit Mid-India and to witnos wilh tbcir awn eyes the traxu-
formiDg influence (of the Doctrine) that had taken place (here.
Tben, Pi*an and ChQi-an with the Chinese envoy
Wang lIsuan*kruo boarded the ship. O n bcurd tbey fell skfc
and died. M any copies ofBacldhist Sutras andSastias in Chinese
translation, texts on . YurcKa, Yoga bdoogxng to
them were kfc in the country o f S rf^ a y a .
| T7aihj^m Fa-shih, Mc^hasUua. He came
from Lo-yang. H e had proiband kmrnkd^c o f die art of
txordvtn 1L Cho-diu9 and metaphysics. Thoroughly
t. I^IW Pfc-ahilx, Ti* ia Gbincae means "tiuu*iacoetrtii with
Pi*aA meuxt thM world beyond this world, Yondersbor^, I have trantbted m
Min6$a master and Chlhran as JAinap&rin.
2. Turftf) was situated in the cut of che T'ien than in the north of
Kftnuhar or Agoidesh in Central Asia. It was doer to the Chinese periphery.
It wai on the ovcriaod route to Izxiia. Turfen, though a nziall ouU atate in
Central Alla and a rcstiny place fo*. the monk travdlcf^ was not u importaat
u Tun-huang.
In the beginning of the fourth century AD. tbc name of the southern part
of the territory was changed tato Kao-ch*ug by tbc Chinese. By the middle
of the sixth century Western T^rks occupied the entire region of Ccn&aJ Am,
dominated previously by the )^>thalite or While Huns. Turfn ftko came
vndcr ihe ascendency of the Western TurJ. I( was 'wrested wy from the
Western Turks by tEe T^ang Emperor Kao-Tuo(. This place was under the
Vigurs and next under the Mongols in the Uiiriecnth century.
Wang Yen-te, the Imperial envoy of China left an account of the Houriih-
ing c<mdition of Buddhism there. Buddhikm was prevalent m Turfan iiU che
lirst half of the BAeenth century* Severn Buddhist nuuiutciipt &Agmencx in
various langunRcsSanskrit,, Iranian, CKinefie, Tokhtrian, Sogdtan were
discovered here.
SeeStein C^Tt pp- 256-26$ Qstm Hcng-wtftg, <Ssn^2r CmgmfAj r f C&fiu
(Physical of Oiioai)
S. Art of cxorcinn includinf mystical uid nugical forrouUe used ia Yog&
tyttem. D ifkrtnt type* o t cxorcxsm Kavc been described ia Cbe Dhifmols or
^Sfotcctive ipcUt".
46 Chinese Monks

he studied the Vinaya texts and practised J-mingCikilsi

Sistrn (science of medicine). He was perfect in manners and
bearings, thorough and careful in judgement. He dentuastrated
his keen desire of serving all the living creatures.
IVexthe gradually started his voyage in the South Sea and
retched Chiao-chih where he stayed ane full yearleading
very simple and admirable life. Ht again embarked on a ship
from the South, sailing for West India. On his voyage to India,
he reached K'o-Iing, fell sick and died at the age of thirty at
Po-pen1 to the north of K ^ling, Yavadvipa.
it# I-hui Lun-shih. Artharasmi Sastracarya. He
was also a native of Lo-yang. He was exira-ordinarily bril
liant, reserved and a man cf profound thinking. His mam
ambition was to attain scholarship and Truth. He listened
to the discourses on She-Iun. Satftfiarigraka Sdstra^
I ^ Chu-suy KoSa etc. and acquired profound knowledge.
But the monk had found much discrepancy in those texts. Conse
quently, he longed to see those original Sanskrit texts and hear
personally the discussions.ThcrcuptMi, he arrived in Mid-India
with the hope of returning to China. Butalas I like a tender
planthe withered away before he could attain his maturity.
When he arrived at gp Lang-chia he suffered from minor
ailments and died at the age of thirty odd years.
There were three other monks in China. Followii^ the n<x*tlv
cm route* they arrived at Wu-ch^ng, Udyana

\ . According to Talcakusu mod/r\ Pembuan P*o<p*cri situated on the

south coast of Boroco.
See ARBRIMA., p. xJix.
2. It muse be the Msh&ySna Samparigraha or the Mahdjdna Samfraha (Com*
pcndlum of phitosophtcal treatises on the M&hiyana system). This written
by Asaiiga and was translated into Chinue by an Indian monk Param^rtha
in A .D ., 563, during the time o f che Uang D y n a sty . The s&me $&cra with
the same title was translated into Ghincse by Buddhasinta ia A.D. 531 during
the Dynastic xrtiod of the NorthcmWi.
See M Nos. 1183, 1184.
3. The principal overland route that passed through Central Asia if known
aa uSci India**.
Pri/ace 47

country,1 They heard that in Udyana the relics of the Buddhas

skull were kept. They worshipped the relies. Whether they were
living or not was not known thereafter. I-ching gathered this
information from the monks who came from Udyana.
i f HuMun~shih) He was a native of Hsin-
luo. His Sanskrit name was Pca-jo-p^mo PrajA&varman.
In Chinese it is known as Hui-chia which means
armour of wisdom. He renounced the world while he was in
his own motherland and inflamed with desire, left his c o u n tr y to
make a pilgrimage to the far-fitmed shrines of his religion.
He started his voyage and arrived at j^fj 4^ Minych3 in
China. He travelled a long dilt&ncc to reach Ch'ang-an. The
Acarya then received an Imperial order to follow the steps of
Hs&an^chao who had gone to the Western coun
tries and having found him to assist him there. Thereupon,
he left far India to pay homage to the sacred places oi his religion.
He lived in the Monastery of Faith in the city <rf
Aa-ino*luo*pa for about ten years. g<mig to east he visited
the nearby Tukhara Sangh^rima l Tu-ho>
luo*$eng belonging to North India. This Sahgharama had
originally been built long before by the peopteof that country for
the accommodation of the Buddhist monks from Tukhara. The
Sahgh^r&ma was very rich and had an abundant supply of all
necessaries and also comfort of life. No other monasteries could
surpass it in this respect. The name of the monastery was

1. Udyftna me*m garden or |>ark in Sanskrit. Fa-hsiu visited this place

and mentiooed that Buddhism was in flourishing coavution, where 500 moitis
Uving in Hsuan-chvang's transcription of U d yanah Wu-
>. Wu*<K'ang or comprises <4the four districts o f Funjkora,
tr, Swat in d Buntr of present day.
See Walters Vol. I, pp. 2Z5-227; Cunntngliam, Axciot Gmgrtpky v f M * t
p. 93; James tegge's (Translation) A ^Btuidkist Kiitdgtbms, pp. 28-29.
2. S. Beal Hu truulated (txtract) th e lives of two monks in Amii*
quary, p. 109> 1881. T noticed some lines ar missing in hia translation.
3. Modern Pu-Kicn or IWchicn and part of Chr-kiai^ or Gbc^hiong.
4. S. Beal hai rendered this word ai Amr&vat (or AmarabAd?). Inm
Antiquary Vol. p. 1101881.
48 Chinese Monks

< f t ^ Gandh&ra Sanda, Chien-t><>-luo-shant,u.1

Th piigrim Hut-lun remained there for the purpose
of studying Sanskrit language and became well versed in KoJa.
When the author came there, the monk Hui-lun was forty
years old.
The monks coming from north and living in that monastery
were the masters of that place. To the west of the monastery
the Great Enltghtcnment, there y w another monastery for the
people of Chia-pi<4hih. This monastery rose even
to greater prosperity and celebrity for its moral virtues and high
standard of learoing. The brethren living in that mcmastery
were all Uinayixusts; th^ tr&veUer monks coming from north
also lived there* The name of the monastery was | *jr
Gupacarita Chd-fia-che-lt-ta.2 in Chinese that vms
known as Te-hsing che meaning of M^iich i* Punyagati.
To the north*eitst of the monastery of Great Eolightcnmca^
there wai another monastery at an interval of two yc^anas known
. ife as C^u-lu-kc* (chia) Calukya. This monastery
had been built by the King of Calukyft Dynasty of South India.
Though the monastery was poor and simple, yet was famous
for a highly disciplined and religious life of its inmates.
Recently the King 6 Jih-chQn, Adityasena4 built again
U Sft&ghiclma. BeU Km v**latod this m *Cwdh4nk Sand*
p. 110.
2. Ch& U *Ku* or 'Ou*. It ia OuoacArita but the meaning of the Chinese
n u o e is PupyatfAti.
3. The C&tukya Dynasty was (bunded by Pulakc^a 1 At Badml or Vttapi
(Bijapur Strict) Mysore), in tht middle ofthe sixtb century A.D. The Cilukya
rulK like other Hindu mlers of Iodia were tolerant to all rcUgiom, (bough
they were Brahxnaxucal Hiiulus. They crctcd many beautiful teMplct and
excavated many cAve-templcs like those of the Bud<lhist mUrs. Tlu$ S6$h&-
rimai w* donated by the ruler of the Calukya Dynasty for tHe Buddbilt znoiUu
of South India.
4. The deftth of Hatvardhaaa of Kanauj in the beginning of A.D. 647
was Immedfftteiy followed by gr^At political i^pbcavad and chaot in North
India and Magadhft- But in the last quarter of ihe seventh century and ia the
flm hdf of the eighth ceruury A.P. Mkgadha again rose to ft position of Impe
rial jTMttvm wAxt the Uir GuptM of Mag^lha. The Aphn^ inKr^>tioo
{near, Bih*) fives geneaolo^y of the Later Guptas. Ia the geneUofy, the
Pfrfaa 49

by (he side of that monastery, a new one which was just

completed. The monks from south general!/ stayed chcrc. Every
where there were monasteries. So the monks could* coirnnuni-
cate with their own countries. But Shan-chou1 did not have a
single monastery in India to live in. This caused a great hard*
ship for the traveller monks from China.
About forty yojanas to the east of the Ndlanda Vih4ra along
the down scream of the Gadga, there was another Vihara
known as 0< '^fMi-li*chia-hsi-tVpo-iw> Mfgas-
thlpana.2 In Chinese it is known as LU-yuan %^iich means
the Dccr Park (monastery). Not very far from this monastery
there was another monastery which was In ruins; only the foun*
datioQ was visible- It was commooty known as *
Chih-na or Chinese xnonastexy 'udiichit was said, had been
built by the great King Shih-H-chi-tuo Sri-Gupta.s There were
more than twenty monks from (he land of the Great T*ang.
This Chih-na was Kuar^-chou (Canton). Mah&china
Mo-ho^hih-na was (he it was also
called T p*o.fiihtaa-!o Devaputra

name of Adityascna, the son of Mjkihava-Gtqxa and Ihe grandson of Maha-

scn*Gupu %* mentioned. AdityAsena assumed (He Imperial titk f Mikhi-
r^i&dBitrAja. The Chinese monlcHere mentioned the name of King Jib-
Chun- In Chinese che word Jih is Aditya (>un) *ftd Ctiim mexts Sena (aimy)
The monk probably mentioned the King Adxiyasena bdonging to tbe laier
Guptas who ruled Magadha assumtog title tKe death of
aidhana. Like other Hindu rulers be wta abo toterwu to otber rdigioa.
C h in a .
ZL H ii# M pgasthipana znooaisterv described by I-cbiium tl
and eighth century, has been irfentifica with Mrigasth&pana ScQpa a
la PknmA-aUttmi {Kortfoem B^figal) by Fouchr. An illustrated manuscript
of AJ>. !(>I5contaiHiiigpemii*ig of tb t same siupc has b<tn kepi m Cambridge
See I > . N . R . Ray, Sangaitr hihast p. 811; Dr, D . Miira, Buddhist Mom-
mentSt p. 235.
3. AccorcUng (o D r. N . R . R a? Sri-Gupta and Ma&ftrija-Gupca the great
grandfather o f Sftmudra^OtfpU o f ihe Oupt* Dviuaty is the one and the same
person. $ri*Gupu was a great supporter of Buddhism though he hioisdf was
a Hindu.
4. The Bn^erors and rulcn o f the CreaC Roman. Empire, Persia, India
ftftd China where the great civili$Atioiv prevailed used high sounding (itlcs
like Kais4r& (CiKsar), ShaKxtvthikK, the King o f King , M aM rljl and
DcvapuUa rapectively, which U suggestive o f tbe Divine theory of Kingihip.
50 C^iusa Mmih
which mcam Chinese He son o f Heaveo. P u rity hit vitk
there were more than twenty monks from Ohuu* They CbDowcd
the track kjtown ta Ko-yang, passed through ^ Sbu-
eh'uan (modem Sze^huan }and reachi the Mah&bodM
Sangh4rim paid oflcrings Icthe sacred traces. Tbc di$tace
between Sze*eh,uan and this Sa^ghirim a was more than fi^e
hundred yojtuas.
lV y were received by die Kii^ with great respect for tbeir
piety. Tbe king donated them a village of coosidcrable extent
mod made *n endowment of twenty-four village fot their main*
A^crwards all ihe Chinese monks died. Hiis village was
partitioned and the land came Into pocssi<m of alkns- When
the pi%riin vuiiedthe place only threevillageswer la th^pones-
sion of the Dcer-IVk (Mrgaschipftiut) monastery. Five hund
red years had already elapsed since the CSilh-na monastery had
been built At that timemeasuring of land etc. was done with
utmost eve. T^is land then (during die time o( ihe P0grim*s
visit) belonged to f TVpVfxwnoDcva*
vannan*, the king of Eastern India. Tbe King returned this temple
! Bnido the Central A s ia mule; there were two mors over4nd routes
from China to Iad. One, dtrau^i Vttswua Ktiviace, Upper &xana and
Assam, w u not common^ owef. Aaotbcr wm thxou^i Hbt aad Nepal t
2. To. (he accoimu of ChiiaaM monki I<Uof tad Sw ^ , mcntioii l
mtde of n Buddhitt Dyzuuty nUing at Swrotaia. Hub Dynatfy ia uodoubtedif
iht KJia^ga Dyna*ty of Athn^mr (90 nalci nortl-eat of D*cca,
Bangladesh) inscriptions. There faronxe vodve ftp* akmigwlA two
copper plates were found. In those twe phrfct, tfan nnw> cf Kha^fodyuiui,
Jitakiia^ga, Devakha^gft and fasve bcca mczuMed. Om
tbe pcdtaul ttoD Ima^e of goddeM Sm i^t *1 Deolb&<U to TSppera,
pdesul of *ta
the Pnbb&vafl, tbe wife Devaklu^f and mother
tfac name of Pnbbfti
R^3prjiahhw> has been 1 eafrnved. Idiinf here hm C
ying 0envarnun of F _ r m m i Scnf-chi has wcadoeed
mbdc t H Mia. & HimMMii K in f Sw w tnta,
Hr. N. ILRxyDevftvaraun ut I-cfcfMf m af or mmf aot
oftlc K h a ^ DyruMf
Dyrmtf but
Krt R^ablut* t Sen^cU is
ta C the AthttSpnr copper plale inacrqptkm.
Dr. N . R. Roy MtgiHr 1 pp. 45MS4; Ntlini r NaiJi Dai^upi^
t gtfwflfctAmwi*
Prtjau Si
and its land to the villagers to avoid expenses as pilgrim monks
in large numbers were coming from the land o f the son o f Heaven
(China). He also said, It is easy to make a nest like a magpie
but to find a fortunate one to enjoy itis realty very rare .
O ne must strive for worlds salvation. Now someone should
represent the Em peror requesting him to how his magnanimity
for this sincere and worthy cause.
T he Chin-kang-tso, V ajrisa n a and th e M ah^bodhi (emple
had been erected by the K ing of Ceylon. I n olden days the monks
coming from Ceylon always remained in this ten^>!e
H ie N alanda m onastery was about seven yojanas to the north
east o f the M ahabhodhl which was b u ilt by a n old king nam ed
Sakridity& % M Shih It - shuo - chieh - luo-
tieh-ti for a Bhikni . _ Ho-luo^she-p'an from
N orth India. T h e foundation of the building in the begin
ning w aso n a small scale but* later on, this K ing's son an d succes
sors successively continued this noble work on a very large scale.
T his marvellous building surpassed all th e buildings in grand*
cur an d artistic workmanship. I t was one o f the most splendid
ones in India. I t h p retty difficult to describe the artistic skill
and beauty o f this temple. However, the description is given in
brief: T h e shape o f this S anghiram a was four square like a city
w ith vertical eaves on (he four sides; an d w ith a lofty enclosing
wall all around. T here was a long corridor around th e monastery.
T h e three-storeyed building had brickpaved rooms. T h e build
ing was m ore than on Chang* in height. T h e rooms had wooden
cross-beams, ceilings had no tiles, the roofs w ere brick paved.
A t the back o f the tem ple, there was direct road b y which one
could conveniently w alk ro u n d the tem ple. T h ere was open
space a t th e back each room, w ith a high and stifT enclosing
wall. T his imposing monastery had a thirty o r forty ftc t high
enclosing w all w ith rows o f well-modelled stucco figures.
As usual th e m onastery consisted o f a num ber o f monks
cells and they were nine in rows. T h e floor-space o f each cell
wa feet. T h e windows wr on the

back wall facing the cornice. The cells had a 6xcd, high stnglo-
leaf door without screens so that through one door all che cclh
could be seen. Going out of the room, one could dearly see ihe
four sides. The monks would rattier impact each other than to
a!!ow any privacy among them.
At tht end of the four comers, four big halls of brick-work
were buiit. It is said that tbe fihadanta Buddha Ta
te1 once lived here. The main entrance was on the wcit wail
through a large portico of whidi the roof rested on pilbtn* The
wall was skilfully and marvellously carved out with curious
figures and figurines. The entrance was connected w ith ail the
cells but originaUy there were separate gates. Going forward,
there stood four pillars erected at a regular distance of two steps.
Though the door was not very big, it was very strong. Evcrytimc
during meal hours, the doors were dosed In order to protect the
sacred place my irregular and unpleasant happening.
The inner ard of the establishment was more than
thirty PuJ paces in area. Thliwas laid with bricks; the smaller
one was either of seven or five paces in length. The floorback
and front wills ai well as the eaves were all mosaiCi nuule ofbricks
Urge and smallsome as small as dat^s and peaches. They were
plastered thickly with a paste which was a mixture o f finely
powdered lime, earth, jutc-fibrcs, oil aad jute-fluif.
This paste was kept for days together to soak and then it
was used for plastering the bricks. The gretn grasses were put
on the plastered bricks for three days. After the paste dried %xpf
the polishing was done with soap stone and coloured with vermiU
lion or red juice or s<nethii^ like toat. Finally, it was rubbed
and polished with oi!, which gave to th t brickwork the look of a
mirror* The flights of stairs o f the hall were also polished like
this. After completion, people would walk over themno crack
would appear even after ten to twenty years. The colour would

1. Bhadanu moit honourable term for Buddha o r lo r a monk used by

the HlnayAQtsci.
2. A Und meaiuie of 5 Qiinese feet 240 sq. being equal to one mow
or 733-1 iq. ywdta.
Preface 53

surely lade away if the Limcjuicc was not applied. There were
about eight such temples. The tops of the temples were evenly
connected and similar plan> uniform, designs were followed all-
through. T o the cast of the tcn^>lcr it had either one or three
rooms. Right in the foreground were the Buddha images; at
the back and front of this tcn^>le !arge and small images could
be seen.
A separate structure was erected for the image of the Buddha
at some distance outside th t tempi
The big courtyard outside the h-west of the monas
tery was surrounded by innumerable big and small
votive stupas % Su-tu-po1 and Caityas Chih-ti
which were known in olden days as ^ I f L ^ T*a-chC'
o-Iuch, Dagoba and Cbih-t*i-chc-o respec
tively- These were about hundred in number. It was

1. Originally a funeral mourui erected by the Buddhists to commemorate

the sacred site or to enshrine the relics (Dhdttt) of tbe Buddha or of his principal
disciples. Much before the inCroducticm of images of (he BuddhastUpa *ym-
bolised the PariairviiriA of the Buddha. Later on, st&pa became the symbol of
the M u te r himself in the eyes of the devotees who satisfied their rdigiom
cravings by wonhipping the stupa as a representative of the Buddha. This
practice o f si Spa worship continued even when imagrs of the Buddha were
The M ahapahnir^^ SQtemta szys that just before the death of the Master*
his principal discip!e>Ananda, was instructed by the Lord (o erect stUpa over
his ashes on the cross road Uke a stCpa of an universal monarch. So the practice
of comtruciing stupa was pre-Buddhbtic. Many important stupas were built
on the relies of the Buddha and on the sites which were very closely and deatiy
associated with th e life and the activities of (he Lord.
N ot only the K m f Asoka as it is narrated by Hsdan-chuang, erected
84^000 controversial) in India, but also the common people, lay devo
tees built m any stupas and this was considered as a n act of profound merit.
T be shape of a stUpa is Hke a hemi^>heric dome with a harmikn (square box)
crowocd by an um brdla on the top. T h e passage round the stiipa i$ meant for
drcumambuiatioi\. T h e stiipas wcce built as an object af worship buide Caifya
For details $cc Percy Brown Arckit ture. H.CJ.P. Bharatiya Vi<lya
Bhawan, Vol. 2 (The Afjc of lja^>crial Unity) pp, 487-493; Gtunwcdcl Gibson
and Burgess Art in India, pp. 19*26. ; D r. D. M ilraf Bu4Mst
mads, p p . 21-30.
difficult lor the author to recollect the vast number of sacred
relics over there. These were erected over different sacred vestiges
and adorned with gold and priceless lustrous stones.
The monks and their disciples liad to observe the rules and
ceremonies of the monastic life. The rules and precepts of the
monastic life have been narrated in the Chung*
fang-iH1 and ^ Chi-ktui^chuan,
The oldest man, irresj>cctive of his leamii^; and attainments,
was regarded only as director. Every night, the main gate was
to be locked ^nd the key was handed over to the head of the
monastery. There was no sub-director known as Karmadana
or VVci-na3. But the founder of the establishment was,
in fket, honoured as the master of the templeSsu-cha. In Sans
krit he was known as & Pi-ho - luo -sha-mi4,
Vihirasvamin. The person who was in charge of announcing
imc and circulating informatian regarding the affairs of the
monastery to the resident monks, was known as
Pi*ho-luo-po-luo, Vihftrapala5; which means one who
protects the monastery*'. The person supervising the mess was
known as Chleh-mo-t^o-na, Kdnnad&na which
means administradve staff, in general, i( is Wci*na.
If the monks had some business, they would assemble to discuss
the matter. Then they ordered the officer, Vihirapala to cir-
R m r4 Madhjadiia*. The name of the book referred here pre>
*umably is the wort of t-c)ung. Takakufu could not find this book ir toe
India Office collection. But he thinks it nuy be fouod <ither in the Buddhist
UbfAry Ghicia or Japan or Korea.
2. I-ching while stayiat $ri-bhOga ii A.D. 692, sent the manuscript of
a *Rucrd o f the Inter law sttU hamtfrom tht souihem
through another Chinese priest Tao-csin who was retumiog to China.
The work wa translated into English by the mott celebrated Japvses scholar
J. Ttkakusu.
Sec J. TakftlcusaARBRPIM A pp. xvUl-xxL
3. A director of duties, who wai (he Jecond in rank ia the admin inrad<m
of a monastery.
4. Tbe patron or (he bestower o f monastery was knowm as ibe master
o f the moziutery or Viharasw&min.
5. The guardian o f a monastery w u known as th protects o f the monat*
ttry or Vihara|>aU in SaiukAt*
Preface 55
culate and report the matter to the resident monks one by one with
foMed hands. With the objection of a single monk, it would not
pass. There was no such use of beating or thumping to announce
his case. In case a monk did something without the consent of
all the residents, he would be forced to leave the monastery.
If there was a difference of opinion on certain issue, they would
give reason to convince (the other group). No force or coercion
was used to convince. There were some monks who were in charge
of the treasury of the monastery . veo if there were two or three
resident monks, the officer (in charge of the monastery) would
send monks of lower rank with folded hands to ask their permis
sion for spending money. With their unanimous consent, they
would be allowed to spend. Without the coiiscnt of all the resi
dent monks, nobody could decide the affaiis of the monastery.
If anyone used the money without giving explanation, even if it
were a quantity of rice in husks, that person would be expelled
from the monastic life.
In case a monk bragged and used others belonging , he was
sarcastically and jokingly called Ohii-lu-po-ti
Kulapati.1 The translation of the word is Chia-chu, the head of
the family. He was disliked not only by the adherents of Bud*
dhist faith but also by God. The decision taken by anyone with
out the consent of others was regarded as a sin against ones
religion. This might be ibr the welfare of the monastery but it was
Anally considered as committing a grave sin. A wise monk would
never do such things,*
Previously, there were ninety-six schools of heretics but during
the time of I-ching's visit, only ten sects were left. At the time of
any religious meeting, the monks holding their own faith would
sit together. Generally the monks and nuns would not quarrel
fwr front or back seats. The residents of th monastery, profess
ing different faiths, would not move or sit together at the time
1. A head of a family. A householder who practises Buddhism without
becoming a mook. Th use o f this term for a mook was coxwdcted to be an
2. $ D . P . Koutmbt, Tie Culiun and CmUsiiion qf Ancuni p. 17$.
56 Chinest Monks

of study. The rules and regulations of (his establbhment were

very strict aiv* austere.
The officers known as Tkn-shih and Tso-*hih,
inspected the dormitories every fortnight and examined the
rules and regvlations observed by thm. The names of the
monks were not entered into the official roister*1 In case an
inmate did anything wrong, his ease and mode of punishment
given to him were decided by dll the fellow monks. Consequently^
all the monks and the disciples were afraid of each other. Al.
though the ordinary comforts of life were denied to than, it
(this type of life) was extremely beneficial for the good of others.
I-ching- recollected one incident while he was in the capital.
He had seen a man drawit^ the picture of Jctavana vih^ra
without real knowledge. In order to acquaint a large number
of people with the real fact>he jusc gave a short descripiion of
the monastery (Nalandi).
In the land of five Indies i.e., all over Indiathere were innuzne*
rablc bjg monasteries. The King of the country ordered
bis subjects to use i ^ Lou-shui> Clepsydra* or watcr-
clock. It was not difficult to measure (the length of) hour of the
day and night with this instrument. A night was divided into
three pans*the first and the third were occupied by medita
tion and chanting.4 During the middle hourthe monks could
! Qiina had n unique custom of maiAtaining an oflfktal ro iste r of the
clergy of the country The fiuuous monk Q uh T a llin protested against tbb
fyitcm in a written letter to the Emperor in AJ>. 399.
In T*ang China, tbe p r^aration of the monks' regitlratioR sta te d in AJ>.
799. The con^Uation was done once in three yeart and recorded in 4 copie*
one to be kept in local prefecture . one with rhe Bureau of Nttiooal Sacrifice
and the third one with the Court oi State Ceremonials. Such a regiitration
helped the slate to fcave an idea of the txuct popuiatj on of the clerics.
2: The Ciepsydra was at contraption coosniing of a small perforated bowl
flooring ift a Urge one fillcd with water, time being noted by adi
of tbe amaJI bovrl and announced r^alarfy0 S . Dutt, and Mmtastenu
m ^ $35 )
This mstrume&t of water dock was not only used in rhe Nilanda monastery
but it was onivemily u^ed in Ug znon^steriei of InHia. I<hing hax given ft
detailed description of thia watcr^clock in bis famous woHt J/an^hai-ehi-kuei*
See Talukutu. ARBPRIMA,. 144-145.
, 3 . , Praifuona TdmOf Manama TiSma, Paicima Timat first half of (lie
midni^c, and last hatT of
4. TtJcalEuia, ARBH1MA, (The Ceremony of Chantinf) pp. 152*166.

take rest conveniently. Innumerable devices and methods (of

regulating lime) had been elaborately described in Chi-kuei-
Though he made a humble attempt to describe the plan of the
monastery in. shorthe apprehends anyone coining here may not
be able to understand properly the plan drawn by him. He
hopes there will be no hurdle to visitors coming to this
monastery. If he appeal? to the Emperor, requestiag him to
construct a monastery according to this plan, then Rijagrha
would be in China without much difference. Hence it was
necessary to draw a sketch of Niland^.
The name of the monastery Shih*li-na*lan-t*o-mo-pi-ho-Iuo
Sri Nalanda Mahavihara was translated inco Chinese zis
I H Ghi-hsian^-shcn-lung - ta - chu *ch*ul the
lucky dragon spirit palace. The kings, high officiab, their family
membersbig temples in India used the appellation i'\
Shih-li* before their names. The meaning of the word Shih-li is
_ Chi-hsicn, lucky omenit means honourable. N4-
landi was the name of a Naga3 ( Dragon). In the vicinity of the
J. NSlanda (Lat. 25* Long. 85 27*Edistrict Patna, Brhar) lies
7 miles to the north of Rajgir. Har^avardhana of Kanauj (A.D. 606*647),
a great patron of Buddhism donated revenue of a hundred villages for the main*
tenance of this great cstftklishm^U. Nalanda Mahavihara by this time became
the prtiaier Buddhist iostitution not only in India but iu prestige as ait educa
tional ccntr of iuj>rcmc importance became known throughout the Buddhist
world. I u fame and honour continued till tbc cod of the twelfth century. The
Chinese travellers like HsUan-chuang[, I-ching stayed and studied in thii insti-
eution and they spoke of a high standard of learning disciplined life of the
inmaCes and briUiam attainments of the icputed teachers of the monastery.
T h e students who *stolc the name of NManda were U treated with r ts p tct*
wherever they went.
During the time of the P&la ru lm (ei^ith-iweirth century) HMandi. rose
ever t o greater prosperity and One of the himinari^* of the university,
Padxnafiambhava went to Tibet and founded Lamaism th a c.
After Hsii3n<huang, Inchingmany more Chinese and Korean monks
visited Nalandi.
2. This it a popular appellation used as a prefix to the names of various
deities and meo. ir t in Sxuuknt means beauty or pr<|>erity or luck. The
goddess Lakfmt it also known as
3. Ia Ghinoe mythology NAg or Pr*goa is a fabulou* serpent with
58 CMmst Monks

temple here was a dragon (Naga) by the name

Na-chia-Ian-c*^ Nrananda. So as the name given to the
f i Pi*ho-luo means CSiu-ch*u (dt^sa) dwel
ling place. The name Matandi was not correctly translated
All the seven monasteries were very similar in general
appearance and lay-out; if you see one. you have seen all the
seven. The road at the back of the monastery was a public tho
roughfarestnt^ht and even. One could have a clear picture
of the entire csUbUshmeat from south. The real view o f the same
was always available through western door. Hundred pacei
(20 pu) to the south was a stQpa (Su^(u*po) more than hundred
feet high, where in olden days the Honourable Tathigftts re
mained for three summer months. The Sanskrit name of
the stupa was Mu*luo*chian-t*o*ch8*ti,
Muta-gandfaa^kup1. I( was known as i Kan-pen-
hslang-cicns MUlagandha (monastery) temple in Chinese.
More than fifty paces ( pu) to the east the door of the temple,
there was still much higl^cr stSpm thsin die Mfila-gandha-katl.
This stspa of brickwork was erected the King B
Yu-jih-wang, B&ladicya.* The omanicntatioii of the stupa was

ftipemarural power. /Sfgs or tc ^bo pU)>s aa. pait la Xadua

mythological stories. In tbe rfO iim u BtdAid temx (p. 247, A).
Soothhill has dcxribrd 4ta$ drafoa it rqvacnis ^ie d a tf of Otc scs!y reptCtes
it can disappear or cm be manifert, incrcMc or decrease) 2eagtha or shrunk.
In spring it mountf in the iky and in winter ii enters tb earth. Dragoos v t
regarded bcnc6cent bfxoging tiie rstiu ind fiurdinf (be heavens^ diey coiw
Irol rivers and Ukes and h te in tbe dep.M
See Anthony Oirtstie. Myik^hty* P* UK
1. The rooc tonple a 4ihe chief ihriae of the Buddba% tfct foot and fra^-
u n t residence df tKc Buddha. M<UA-f4ndba*lcuti VUifirA w*$ efcled in these
pUco like Sanuih, NaUxxU, Viiil4 wherever tbe Buddha spent his time.
2* He belonged to the l^ te r GupU Dynasty ^ ic n th t fmfcfUl pomtr
was cosnpicldy oiiintegrfttcd <tuc to internal struggle and foregtn invasion.
Narviiiiha-gi^u assumed (he titfe oT Btiidicya, v ^ o ccot4in% to iiuiKii-
ctuiang defeated tbe Chief, Mihir^kuliu About he time and identity of
BMiciitya, there are controvenies. According to ome scholars Kum^rtt-gupta,
tbe son of Nvuiih-gupt was kn&wn i Bildditya. Dr. Roy Ghoudhuri
i<kntii>e this BiUHtya wiitk BhAnu-Oupou
Preface 59
delicate and superb. The seat in the hall with mosaic floor was
made of gold and was studded with jewels. Offerings were made
generally of rare and precious things. The hall had an image of
the Buddha Tath&gaia in Dharma-cakra'Pravartana-mudrd1
(turning the Wheel of Law).
i^ a in , to the south-west, there was a very small caiifa of more
than ten feet high. It was here that a brahmin holding a bird in
his hand was coming to ask the Buddha many questions.
So it was known as _ Ch*uch-li-fou*t'u Sparrow
stQpa.% To the west of the Mula-gandha-ku^ temple was
the Buddhas tooth-stick tree ti Fo^ch^h-mu-shu
and not willow brands. Again, to the west this temple was an
altar of precept ^ Chich-fan9, more than ten square
feet in area.
lilce the early G upta rulers, KU&ditya was a great patron of Buddism
though be was a fotlower of BrahnxaJCiica! faith. Under the active patronage of
the Gupta rulers and in the atmosphetc of toleratioa, BudEdaism 6om ished in
India. BdUditya a douor of (be Nftfandi mona&ccry; he built a three store-
ycd morastery and terzq>le. H e marked the occaaon by a relt^ous c<mvoca*
tion and invited some Chinese monks to attend the function.
SeeA* Ghosh. M lam fa, 4th cL p.46, H.CJ.P,y Bharatiya Vidya-Bhavan
CUssicol A^e, pp. 42-43; S. Chattopadhyaya, Early History o f Jfotthem fndia,
pp. 222-224.
K Before iznage->vor>hjp came into existence, symbol-worsbip was very
popular in the history or Buddhum. In the beginning of the Christian era,
Bhakti movement started in BuddKism. The Buddha waj ao longer a teacher
or a superman. He was drifted; theimage-wor*hip of the Buddha could some
what satisfy the craving and devotional impulsei or the masse*. Before the
introduction, of image-worship,, a #ymbo! Ukc Bodhi tree, Wheel of L aw repre
sented variotis pieces of the Buddhst*s life. TKe Buddha delivered his first
sermon at Sam&tb ana thievent i known as Dharm^^akra^prosartana or moving
the Wheel of Law*.
The pilgrim refers here an image of the Buddha in Dhama-cakra-pravartatta-
2. Hsuan^huang while describing the Nalanda establishment has refer
red to a tope (jiu p a ) at (he spot where a Tirtbik* holding bird in h i i hand
ajeked the Buddha about life and de^th. Uching also bas mentioned the Sparrow
aUpa more (han 10 ft. high on the same spot referred by HsQan-chuang. Accor
ding to Kimit was erected outiidc the west wall neta the tank of N^Undi.
Set Watters, Vol. 11, pp.170-171 (Reprinted in Peking, 1941 >
3. T h e a lu r where novice receive tbe commandmcAta from the prc*
60 Chinese Monks

The compound walb of brickwork were, however, plain and

more than (wemy feet high. The wall had a niche, five Chinese
feet high, with a small caitja. The eastern comer o(the akar
contained brickwork baset inscribed with sacred fiuddhist Ktxts.2
In breadth it was two chou5and ia length either fourteen or fifteen
chou and was more than two chou in height On ii blooming
lotuses were carved with white lime. These lotuses were about
two inches high and more than one foot in circumference* There
were fourteen or fifteen flowers manifesting the traces of the lotus
like footprints (or sicps) of the Buddha.
Going from this temple south to Rajagrha was thirty li The
Ch'ia-fcag and Chu-yOan Grdhrakuta or the Vulture Peak and
Venuvana, Ramboogrove were all in the vicinity of the capital.
Going south-west to the Mahibodhi Sasigharama tcvcn yojanas3
direct to the south was the Tsun-tau-shan, Guru-
padagiri4 agc.s foot mountain. The city of Hsieh-
shc-li Vai^alt was situated tweaty-five yojanas to the north
of the Nilandi. Safigharama and the Deer Park or Mrgadava*
Some rr&gmefttary brick inscriptions have been found from the core
of a votive stSpa of the main Ccm|.lc Nalandi. These iiueriptions contain
the tenets cpUomixintbc teachings of the Buddha. It follows;
Ye dharmS hetu-pr&bhavu hetum tcsam Taehftgatohy&vacUt.
te^ith ca yo nirodbt evarti vfldi Maha-sramaQta^.
^ath&gau has revealed the cause of thoe phenomena which spring from
a cause, also (iht means of) their ccttation. So says the Gseat Monk*. These
inscriptions contaia (he JiiMna-SHira or PmUyasmnatpdda SUtra (the of
the Chain of causacioa).
2. Cubit.
3 Indian measure of length. It was described as one dftya march of roy!
army in ancient India. Two &iglhK m iln make one Indian XfoSa und 4 Kroiat
make i.e. 8 English miles. Tojana b nearly 40 or 30 or 16 Chineseli;
according to Miiui-huang 40 Chinese li was equivalent to one JTr/o.
4. The mountain of the venerable preceptor M ahikiiyapt. Cunningham
ht idcnUficd thii place with the three rugged &nd barren hUU near Kurkihftr
(Lsu. 24 49*N; Long. 85!5fE District Gayi, Bihar) a small village, !$
mites to the north-cut of Gy. Dr. R. G. Ma^umdax idenufic* th t place whb
a amiOl hill Gurpa oft the south-east of Bodh-Gya in Bihar. The present name
ol' Gucpa is the tmc as Ourupidagiri.
S c JJ?.^ .,V o l. l l t 1906 pp. 77-S3.
5. Sftrn&th (tat, 25 22*N; Long. 83 VZ. District VArftoaal, Uttar
Prftdnh) 4 nulci to tKc north of i$ tlic site of ncia( Mrjpuiftv
Pre/ac4 61

twenty yojans to the west. The city of 5

TimraSipti was sixty or seventy ^o ja n a s to the ast. It was
situated on the mouth of the sea from where one had to sail ibr
About three thousand five hundred monks were living in the
Naianda monastery. This establishment was in possession of 201
villages. The kings of successive generations had donated those
villages permanently for the resident monies.
I is translated into Sanskrit as Tu*shan^nat yo ja n a .
The infinite ocean, the home of dragon, and the river
Lo1, the home of (he holy tortoise arc divided by the Heavenly
river. On the long dist&nt track for horses across rhe desert, not
a single traveller would be seen. Consequently, very few people
could have any real picture of the utuation through hearsay.
The image made by the artist though corresponded to the origi
nal, siill there was somethii^ lacking in it. The drawing ofehc
ancient theme would always Inspire tlie new generation. Ali the
visitors wouki reverentially remember the Lord Buddha and
thus their divine souls would be elevated.
The first chuan of Eminent monks who went to the West in
search of Law during the Great T'ang rulers.

Samaih is one of the lour sacrd places for the Buddhists. T V Buddha prechi
hit iirtt Sermon or moved Che Wheel of JLsw at Sftmath. This event is lenown
For details see D r. D. Mitra Buddhist Mwumcmts, pp.
I T h e river !> dd lvcfed lo Yii the Great, Emperor o f the HU Oyrnuty
(2205 B.C.-1818 B .C .) a crtncendeat tortoise. This divine tortoiie had the
numbers from one to nine the badt.
See tbc chapter Ku-ming of the Awuls f and SHu^hini, 47.

Written bv the Tripi^aka Master I-ching

_ Tao-Iin Fa-shih. The monk Tao*Im was a

native of Chiang-ling in Ching-chou.1 His
Sanskrit name was Shih-luo^po-p*e, Stlaprabha.
He was known as Chieh-kuang in Chinese (Sila-
prabha). When he was very young, he renounced the world
and resolved to become a Buddhist monk. At the age of twenty,
he fervently searched for an able teacher and the Truth. He
collected the Vinaya Pifaka ^ L&-TVang, controikd his
passions and acquired profound knowledge*
He spent most of his (ime in meditation and thus quietened
down the waters of the heart, to behold the Buddha as the moon
reflected in still water. He was endowed with very good qualities
of heart. He was o( pure and humble nature, refined, modest
and iruthfuJ. Taking oblations in ibe pure and crystal-clear
water of the fountain, he calmed down his mind, washed his
mouth with pure water and thus w x r tv tti his inner soul. He
seldom retired for rest; major part o f (he d a / and night he would
sit and study. He took his meal only once in a day.
Many years had already passed, when the great religion (Bud
dhism) had flooded China in the East* But the Intuitional
School2 had just started, yet at the same time, the canonical texts
\ , It comprised the modern lutes of Hu-nant Hu-peL Kung-si Kuei-
chou and Sz^ch*uan. One of tbe 9 <hou$ or divisions of tne Empire m*de by
tKe EmpeTor Yu.
2. Tmg-nwn: The system of meditation of the XntuiUonai School. I t w*
foumled m China by Bodhklhartna, commonly Icncvwn as Ta*mo in GJiineie.
Different date* K9ve been recorded ior his Arrival in China. ThecaHlesi source
material concerning Bodhidhanna is Ue Lo-yangchia^laii-cfei by Yang Hiilan-
chih (C T .T . VoJ. 51, No. 2092, p. 999) tam pletcd in AJD. 547* A
date n<l time of his arrival is given in another source Hsu-ka^-um^-<kmn
(JFtriim Bioirtphks o f Bmintnt moists) (C.T*T. Vol. 50* No. 2060 p. 425)*
15 Monks 63
emphasising the importance of the monastic discipline were also
very rare. So he eagerly longed for visiting the fer-off India to
procure the sources and the history of the canonictl rulei of the
Vinaya P ifa k a ,
Then, he with a mendicant stick, reached the South Sea in m
foreign ship and from there set sail for India. O n his way be
passed through copper pillar 'Pung-chu and arrived a l Lang,
chia. H e crossed Ho-Iing and ^ Luo^kuo^
to reach India. He received very warm and aficctionatc welcome
from the kings of those countries be passed through. He fp tn t a
couple of years there and then he reached Tan-2M-I ti T im ra-
lipti in East India. H e spent three years there in studying Sanskrit
!a Uc of the dH crsm ccs of opinion, be presumed Uuu Bodhidbacm
was in GhiAa tn the second kaVcftbeaixUfe century A.O.
However^ Bodhidharma was tm im saUy considered as the real Hmmckr ol
the contemplative Ibrm oTMah 7 in or e n e s k school in Ghma. l l b known
m Oh'an from Saiukrit Vfyina which b said to bean Intiaithrc School. Ii does
not depend on canon or txu. T h u ich o d loUonn an bmnediate way instead
of gradual mediution* Hui-neng the sixth patriarch of the cvenih-righth
centuries populariacd th b Khool. Till the eleventh century thit was the maa
prevalent school m Chisu. Indian Dby&na, Chinese Ch**n, Japanese Zn.
I. 4Luof in Chinese means *fuked' Luo*kuo or Luo-je*kuo meant
the lv id of (be naked people. I*chmg> on hit way lo India, paswd tIUs iiUnd
(in Bay of Bengal). H e has $Wen h t t t graphic description of the island
(Nicobr)tKat agrees to $omt extent with the Venetian trtveller Marco Polo'*
account of this place o f the thiriecnth century. Bui Taktluuu ihinks the <1-
cription o f the A rab navacaUcors of the ninth ccrm ry very much tfcc
cnptioD given by I*ehmg.
According to the Arftb9 the isUnd of Nkobar is l^nsabsuu or Lenikfcebabis,
very thickly populated, wlicxc men and womca go out naked. They bauto
d^ ir c<vnmoditie$ of cocoa-zuds far inm^
According to Marco Polo, cKe two id w d t o f Nocneran (Nicobar) M d
Andaman arc situated about 150 miVs am ty firro tlie o f Lvabci.
The inhabitant* of thetc islands arc almost savage; mn women go out
naked without covering any p art of the body. These placet are rich in forest,
and grow cocoA*nutt, a variety of dntgt> *nd jandnf wood>red aiui white.
(Revised from M u td e n 'f translation nd edited by Manne) Kotftroff. Tht
Ttovtis r f Marco Poh^ New Yoric, p. 281 )*
AH these three accounts of (he 9eventbf am th and thirteenth cectturk* arc
more or k u l b e A g rw p ol iiln<U known Ai Andunftn amd Nicolr h
^>ieid in tbe Bay of Bengal. Ukc extreme north poiai o f i&e Andamans Uein
64 Clarme Monks

rejected the old precepts, accepted the important ones and

studied thoroughly the Vinayas of I-ch^ch-yu-pu Sm>^siitM a
school. Not only he studied the canonical rules of the Vinaya but
also tried to make a synthesis of Knowledge with Dhy&namcdi
cation. The pilgrim spent much of his time in studying carefully
I t 9/l Tan-chu-t'sanj DhSra^i Pifaks,x
He next witnessed the changing influences (of the Law)* that
took place in Mid-Indiapaid offerings to the sacred shrines of
Chin-kang-yii-tso, fiodhiman^a and performed sacred cere
monies to the image of Bodhisattva. Then he proceeded towards
the Nalanda monastery where he learnt the real significance of
the Mah^ydaa and Astras. He spent many years there, and
completely mastered (saturated with) Abhtdhatma KoSa. Next
he visited the Vultures Peak m o u n tain , J) Cbang-
iin-shan*yQan Ta$tivanagirix and Ku-shu, Wild goose
13 34* 3*'N And extrem e south poin t o f the N
cobars is 6 45* N . See
/mpiriat Gamtktr oj IndieNew Edition (Reprint) V<J. V* pp. 350-4.
1, DhafO^t it tynonytnous with the word rk9&, Pali*ParitU-
DhdranU arc protective charms, spells, mantrt> exorcism agamu
bad omened $tarj, poison, snakebite, for recovery from diseases, loogivicyandt
speUs foe rebirth in the Western Paradise etc. There &re numerous Dhdra^s
smd this collection of Dham^is may be called DKira^i PifiJc. The DhiraftU
constitute a lar^e part of literature. TKesc are very peculiar kind of
Buddhist Uienturc vrfai arc (UaxaetncxUy to the origirval teachings
trf iKe Budriba- If any one rcpeaizs (he mantras or IM ra^s for a long time, it
will surely produce lome mystic pownr.
The five Dhmrapls known as MPaficanUc?iT, arc extremely popular tn Ne|>a).
TH tte are (I) Maki-Pratisari., (2) Mah^$ohsrapfamardisdt (3) MttHA-MMy6rir
(4) Mahd-SU090tf, (5) MahS-ManMbvtsiriid.
As erly u third century, Dhamiffs constituted portion of che Sfttra 2ite>
rture but were nude popular chieily in the et^ith century when the Tantrxc
(cachings of Yogicira tyitcm was introduced in China by Subhikanuiipha,
Vajra>bod)u and Amofhavajra* which resulted Id Che growth of (be Tenlra
school tn China.
Sec VVintemi^, HIL Vol. 2, pp. 380-386; Binoytoih Bluttftcharya, The
Indian B ^h U t Icmcgrapfy, p. J4; C7T. Vol. I, No. 1034-1036, I070*1072A
1073. 1071092.
, YuMivaaa (Jethian) Me six milci to the $outh*wct of KAjagrha. The
Buddha. vHited this place and Aioka is said to have built a Udpa there.
HiiUn-chuang nwrates thftt more thaa 100 Ii to th t east of theBuddhavaaa
mountain there was a dcuse forest of bamboos. This was Yft^udvana or stidc-
wood forest. I-cJuag, hre, says it wai stsckpwood park or a hill parlt. Gian-
M M orAs 65

forest (vrna)1. W hile he was Ii^ a g there, he with great respect

and sincerity developed his honesty, loyalty and spirit. H eira-
velkd all over South India In search of* Hsdan*mu
T h e n h e p ro c eed e d to W est In d ia w here he spent h afd ly a
year a t Luo*cha , L a fa c o u n try . T h e re he established a n a lla r t
got ac q u a in te d w ith M ing-chu* V iiya. Som etim es he
tried to ex p lain th e teachings o i (h a t &Mra.
G e n e ra lly th e m c a n ia g o f M ing-chu in Sanskrit is
| Pmt*o~!o.pi4m<Ma Vulyddhara
^ PV-l A^dya has been translated zs ^ %
Mtng-chu. T^o-luo in Chinese means Chih f4hara\
^ Pi*kan-chia is ^ Tsang, Pifaka. Thus, it is called
Vijj6dhara Fifaka.2 TIe Sanskrit text, it is u^d} coataiocd
100,000 ibkas. I t might have ben tramlatcd into Chinese
three hundred chSans, (chapter, fasciculi). N<m (at the time
of Inching) most o f those translatiom were lost, ooly a few
were extant.
After th e M ohiparim m dna o f che G re a t Sacrd O n e (BudcUia),
A A - I i - y c h * n a - c h i a - h o - s h u - n a A rya

Aingbam y th tt thii pUce is modem Jalthti^an (fadian ArUiquary, 190J, p.

621). According lo B.C. Law it is About two mile firora Tapav^uia in Gmyk,
Bihar (Geogrt^r / Eer^ Buddhism, p. 45).
See Wttep Vot II, pp. 146-148;Mah&pagga, p. $5, R. $$
Aurd-Stcia: Mian AKtiquay, 190l p. 621.
HsUi-Chunf nw a. Haxnsa tope or Wiki goose u^c on the eastern
pealt of the Indra A>guhft (identified with Giriyat) at Rijagrha. The Wild
goose tope WM erected there to conunemoratc the incident when a wild goose
down to Mt!l[y the hunger of the Hinayftnist monb living in the monastery
on the eastern peak of the Inclra a&la-Kuhi. I-ching presumAbly mentioned
the wood on the CAItfm peak of the mountain where the incidcut took place
And the wild gooao tope was built.
2. Mantras of mystic knowledge.
3. Vi^Adhara pi(aka9 according t o La Valiee Poussin {JRAS p. 433, f)
jl another name of Dhdrafti pifaka or Mantrs pifaka. The literal meaning of
Vi^idharapitaka b a collection of mantraj for the purpose of excorscsm, tortus of
which arc included in (he Harhmyuits pifaka. It eoasu of different d&ara(iUy
n'tfyi marUras, tantrasfiyotat Unt/as etc.
66 Chhuse* Monk
Nagaijuna1 that is N^tgaijuna Bodhisattva preserved the true
spirit if the Pitakc.
One of his disciples, known as 1* N an -tV , Nanda,
was a brilliant scholar, and was very much proud of hi* know
ledge; he paid special attention to this text. He spend twelve
years in Western India, wholeheartedly studied the Vidya or Spel]
and acquired great knowledge of the my sticmantras. Every meal*
time h t chanted the mantras and food would fall from the $ky.
1. W do not have any precise iofonnatlon about the life of Arya Nlgiijuna.
Scholars arc of different opinion about the date of his birth, Ius native p!u
etc. Dr. P. C. Bafchi (hinb N&girjund was a contemporary of lOtniska,
(A.D, 7H 0I}, the Kufioa King, who convened tKe fourth Great Bxid-
dhist Cound). Traditi associated him with a galaxy of renowned teachers
tilce Nigarjuat, the great exponent of Madh^amika Philosophy, Aivaghoia
ete. Accor<iing co Tibetun ttAdidoit, Nagivjuna, the famous Mahiyazia scholar
of the second century A.D was the hifh priest ofN^landa. Commonly accep
ted view 1$ that ht was a native of South India or Vidarbha (Nagpur).
The founder of the Madhyumika phihscpfythe compo$cr of Ma^amikof
K inki(Vene* on the Middle Path), tbe Na^arjunt Bodhisattva was a mystery
and wondei* in the Buddhist history. As a profound philosopher of the Mddh^a^
tnika system, be *'crctcd a revolulum in Quddhiam aod through that in the
vholc range of bidian pfulosc)f>hy<" {T.R.V. Murti> The Philoscp^tf
BydAiswt, Pncftcc). Nigarjun* phOosophy is known a s 4Middle Way* bftween
the Sanisiiedda iadividual realism and the Smimitric universal klealnm,
between uscrtiaa and n a tio n . Ht$ philoaophy is also known as ^SnyaoAda Of
the phtlosophy of voidnc.
Kumlr^iv& translated the biography ofNagaijuna in A.D* 405 into Chinese
and also the three treatises known as Chung*lun (Treatise on the Middle),
PM-4m (XreatiM in oa hundred vme*)Fand (Treatise on che
Twelve Gates) and Kumirtjiva has described Nagarjuna as a great magieian,
an alchemist and a great sorcerer. Through his translation Kum&rajlva estab*
Kshed an importtnt Mahiyina school in Chizu fawwn 99 San~Um or th t School
of thtec Treatises.
Tlie P4remiia SStra or Abi b the largest of the works of
The Santkrit origina) i$ lost but preicrved in Chinese in 100 fiwei-
culi(Nyio*i Cat. No. 1169). This is known in Chinese as Ta^chih-ta*lta trans.
latcd again by Kumirajlva.
See Wintemiu H it. VoL I l t pp. S41-351; Wattcn Vol. II, pp. 202-206;
Or. P.C. Bagchi, India and C&mc; T.R.V. Murt The Centtai Phiiosopfy of Bad~
Atun P* C. RoyWtftorr of Chmistsy w Amimi m d M tdiaml (Indian
Cbcnucal Soc , CftScuttft !956~pp. 116-119); Life and Legends of N&fir-
juna,H JRAB, 1882 Pftrt I, pp. 115-120; CTT Voi. 50, pp 185; Lift of
NigSrjuna) by tr. Kum&rajiva.
2. I can neither find nor suggest ideseiftcatioa.
15 Monks 67

sky. No sooner did he recite the mantras and ask for food with
m&gic bowl than he obtained it from the sky. He could get all
the desired objects with this magic bowl in his hand. Supposing
the memtras were not chanted the bow! would vanish in no time.
Therefore, the great monk Nanda was afraid that his know
ledge of the VidyS would be of no use if it was not practised regu
larly. He collected 12,000 Hokas which later on were compiled
into a separate school of thought. Each and every word of the
printed text was carefully compared. Although the language
and the words of the book were samc> the meaning and appli
cations were completely different. Until it was expounded orally
no one could understand and realise the significance of the
Later on> when the Sdstrdedrya ? fip Chen-na D in n ^ a 1
studied his works, he was astonished to find his lofty and nobte
ideas, profound kaowl^dge and his extreme attachment to the

I. J>innaga*s life has been recorded by T iran ith , the Tibetan hrstorian
Bu*s^on and others, Bu-ston^s history present* a whole series of life sketches,
(bough mostly lcget\dary> of Nagftrjuna, Vasubandhu, Dinniga and others.
Their accounu say that Du^naga was an illustrious pupil of Vasubandhu-
Diiinaga belonged Co ehe end o( <he ffiUi century A.D.
He was born in Kanchi (modern. Gonjevaram) in (he touth, in aBrihmin
family He came to the north and became a disciple of Vasubandhuthe most
brilliftat teacher of this time. About the celebrity of the teadier, F. Th. Stcher-
batsky reror<U* Among the grat names of later Buddhism, the name of Vasu*
bandhu occupies an exceptional position; he is tbe greatest among the great.
He U the only master who wgjvea the title of the second Buddha. Hi* teach
ing was encyclopaedic embracing all the sciences cultivated in India at hi)
dmc . {The Baddhiit Logic, Vol. I, p. 32.)
Oihn^ga's early works consisted of a summary of Abhidhama-Kofa^Marma-
Prcdfpa, and of Affa-Sdhasrikd-Pr^jfi/l Pdrdmitd*SHtra. But as a founder of Bud
dhist Logic {J'fy^ya) his name is remmbred throughout the ages. His main
work in Buddhist tcgu preserved in Tibetan, b Pramaffa-Samuccaya* Another
work JfyAyafnttkha is octant only irt Tibetan and Chinese, aad
FravtSa is extant only in original Sanskrit.
The work of Didn?iga wai translated into Cbineie by HsCtan-^Kuaitg arid
I-ching in A.D. S49 and A.D. 711 rctpectively.
See F. Th. Stcherbat$ky, TTu BuddhistLo^c\S.C. Vidyabhushan,
School of Indian Lcgic (Calcutta University, 1909).
68 Chineu Monks
Touching the Sutra aflfectionatcly, he said with a deep sigh
uI f he (Nanda) attains perfection in Heiu Vidy^ could I be
compared any longer with him in scholarship ? Not Ortly a wise
man could ocomprehetKl the range of his knowledge but al&o a
stupid one could understand his profound scholarship/* This
Dhdrat^i Pifaka was never very pc^>ular in China.
Consequently Tao-lia desired to protect his mysterious Sihra.
Because this DhSrani Pifaka says, one may ascend to heaven
sitting on the dragon-drawn vehicle, one may order hundreds
of gods as onft's slaves* Onc^ desired object may be achieved only
by reciting the mystic gestures and formulae**
While I-ching was at Nalandi, he regularly went to the alt&r
and wholeheartedly tried to study this Siktra; he worked quite
hard but could not attain fuil success. His primary aim was to
propagate this idea among a vast multitude of heterodox people.
So he wrote down only a general outline.
Tao-lin proceeded towards North India from Western border.
He visited and saw the (rarisforxning influence (of Doccrinc) in
K*c*hsi-mi-luo, Kashmir and then he arrived at Wu-ch^ang^na,
Udyana. There he searched for proper guidance for meditation
and collected Pan-Jo*^ PrajHS^SUira.
1. H$fu Fif or Lo^e, ont (he live n&fds (Wu-minf), was indodtd m
iKe syJUbrn for Indian childr Tbc other lour w f y is were Sa^da
mJfi (Grammar and Philology)* OkiUd tnd^ {Science a( Medicine), Si(p&^
sikina PufyA (ArU and Cra/b)f and AdkjOinm nifyd (MctBphyucs)* The know*
ledge of Logic Helped tbe students to sharpen ihcir mental thus enab
ling them to debate and deliberate ia accordance wilh logical rules.
l-<h iag s u tc s that fter acquiring p r o f i d e n q r ia oiifyd m ToonX scholar
covM devote him self to JL^ic aad AbhiAama-Kaia,
2 . PreglU SStra or Pn^jMd-Pirarmid S itr a constituccs an im portant and
vohunincwa section, o f tbe Mah&yizia literature. T h e growth and d e r d o p m m t
o f the M ahayina was very in the firs* nd second cenCury A .D du e to
tke loreign influence y Keith when foreign I>yzusty was ruHng in In<lia.
T he foundatioa o f i h t M a lu y iiu , in a sense, b yugHA-P^ramiSd or Perfection
Wwdom. Keith calls PrajtU the Mtwm-astcr o f Suphia or Gnoais of Asiatic
Greece {A-B. Keith: BuddkUt Pkilmphy, p. 216).
*Hi earliest group of Mahayina SOtras is known as PrqjM-Pdramitd SHtra
in Saurukrii. It enablea one to reach the other shore of the world. There are
fiv Uigc recemxms m Svukrit: Sela SskasrikA PrajM^Piramsii in Z00,000
vewcs, ?0co9t9iiolttd Sdhasrikd ia 25>000 vewcs, 18,000, 10,000 and 8^000
15 Monks 69
Nexthe set on his journey for Chia*pi-shih where he offered
great reverence to the sacred lotus skull1 ; Wu*shuo
nKsha> UsnUa of the Loni, (it was the cranium of the Buddha).
After the expiration ofT ao*Iiaand Inching who would be dcpu-
ted to carry on this m bsion ?
I-ching ncxi arrived a t Kedah C hieb^chV in che
South Sea. I t was n arrated later on, by some foreigners from
north, th a t he m et two monks in Hu* country (cither T a rta r
or Mcngcriia), agreeing iix description with some o f his friends,
one o f them was T ao-lin. H e (T ao-lin), with another monk
% ^ Chih-4iung, was returning to his own country. I t was
verses respectively. T he earliest o f these SQtras b A sia^hasriii Fdrmiid
A s e a rly a th e H sm D y n asty , Asfa SShasrikd PrttjMd-PAraimtd SStrt w as t r a n s
la te d in to C hinese b y O iih -c b 'a s i. T o w a rd s th e e n d o f th e th ird c e o tu ry , tw o
tran sla tio n s of25> 000 W isdom SO tras w ere co tn p lc te d b y Z ^ a n u a r a k ja in A .D .
286 a n d b y M o k ^ ata t a A .D . 291. T h e P r a jn s school wa d o m in a n t m C h in a
througK out th e fo u rth c a n tu ry w h en th e S u tra s w ere re a d , discussed a n d deba
ted b y t h e B u d d h ist rnooks liberal! of C h in a.
See Wintemitz^ of. II, pp. 313-317; N.C. X>utt, MakAyim
Buddhismpp. 43-44; . Z&rchcr9B.C.C p p - 100*10 124*126.
K In Sanskrit the meaning of Uf^tisa Ueither a turban or the hair doae in
knob oa the top of the head. But here it means differently. Xching*s monk
paid reverence to the Ting.ku or Cranium of tbe Buddha ht Kapiia. Wattcrm
considers that a &ew meaning has been given to the term. The term Ufrnid
here meani 'Cranial ProtuberanceKaroU which ione of the thirty-two signs
of Great man, Mahapuru^at Tat-ch*en*iU.
F*Hsien aha says that the d ty of Hil possessed the UUa of the Buddha.
HU during hb time, wa* a <t|>ndeny of Kapba.
Hsuaa-chuang xurratot that Uu$ relic was kept m a cukct in the tope at
Hilo. Hilo has been identified with Hklda. l-<hg's pfl^rim paid of&ring to
this >acrd rdtic of ihe Buddha in K^pUA that must be Hilo, Hadda or Hia.
2. The Ghola rulcn of South India Had dirtct rdation with East Asian
countries, specially wich the ailendra ruier of Sri-vQaya (Sumau*)* The
najncs of the countries conquered by Rijendra Chol (A.D. 1014-1044) arc
mentioned in the imcriptions of A..D. 1024 and 1030. The most prosperous
iiland that the CholaA conquered b $ri-vijaya and the last is Kadata, the
chief strong-hold of the S^lendra ruler* at th it time. Kadara or Kftt&ha U
identiiud with modem K^dah or Chieh>ch of the Chinese, in MaUya.
See RegmaUS ! Mayt Tht Buddhist A r t irt Siamp. 37; R. C. Maaumdar,
Hindu CotMiest . 37-40.
$ Zc is a general term applied to any fozdgntr by (he Chinese. Ori|inaUy
*Hu* Was & Ce&cral Asian nomadic tribe, either Mongols or Tarur*.
70 Chtmu Monks

said that on his way back home, he was prevented to advance

further by highway brigands. So he had to come back again to
N rrth India. He was fifty-six years old.
T'arx-kuang Lu-shih, Kr$9amegharami
was a native of Chiang-Hng in Ching-chou. H e renounced
the world, left his native place and reached the capital city*
He became the disciple of the V inaya m aster Ghcng.
He (Pan-kuang) was a man of great literary taste and an elo
quent speaker. He studied the classics of both of his own country
and of outside countncs too and with devotion and respect ob
served the canonical rules of discipline. He was always extremely
courteous and polite.
He reached South from where he started his voyage, crossed
the vast boundless ocean, with intense desire for worshipping
the sacred relies of the Buddha. He first arrived in Wst India
and therefrom he went to M Ha-li-chi*luo
Haiikela1 on the eastern limit of East India. No one had any
information or knowledge of the whereabouts o f this strong-built
and middlcagcd monk. Probably he was trekking at that time,
cither over the mountain or on. the river. There a t Harikcla, il
was told, that he met a monk from the land of the T^ang rulers.
He was fifty years old a t that time.
He was very warmly received by the king o f Harikela and was
appointed as the head of the monastery there. He procured
many sacred sutras in original and Buddha images. He was
fond of beating (the monks of the monastery).
He fell sick here and passed away in foreign land.
~ Hui*ming-shih. PrajA&jnapti. The monk Hui-ming
also came from Chiaog-ling in Ching-chou. He was a man of

HzrSkcIa was one o f tibe renowned ocatres o f learning in Eastern India

in iheseventh ccfltuiy.
< X-duQg^s Ha4i-chi<luo has been kkatified wilh
The Chinese monks who yisiusited thi$ place were greAtly honoured by
rulers who were ardeoi Buddbista.. H arikda has been idealiBcd with Caiidra*
d v lp a , B ^ k h arsan j SubdiviitoQ (B angladcih)
an g lad esh ) cozz^rismg
cozz^>rismg m^jor p aatts
tts o
i f eastern
Bengal iftcludixig the c o it a l region.
N_ R . Ray,
S e e: Dr. IHAdf9 pp. 139-140.
IS M o n kt 71

bone$t and afibcdooatc dispos tioii, o f high n w a l principle and

of d e a r undem anding. H e not only studied the classics of China
but also o f o u tad e countries, l i e had a soaring im bitloc. He
Teposcd in the hope o f seeing the sacred river* and directed h h
mind towanii Vcnuvana, iflHbtich always in su red his thought and
imaginatkm. H e started his voyage for i Ghan*po, Oham pM
In his voyage, he had to undergo much distress d n t to tyj^ioon
in tbe sea. H e reached the copper pillar o f Ma-Yuan, took rest
in the capital and tben vrcnt back to China.
_ Hsuan-i^urii Lo-shi Viaajn master
H$^an-k*uei Mahamax^a was a of QiiangHuag
k in 'Hj Jun-chou.1 Hte bdoaged to a very nobk
and honourable clan Hu He was well vcracd both
m Mstory and literature. He himself was extremely courteous,
righteous, devoted toDkarma^nd respectfid coMrardsfellowmonks.
A man of great reputation for hb broad and extensive oudool^
1. The itncleot NairaA]inft river, m odem Lilajan. I t i$ consklerrd very
eacred a t O auU m a Buddhft atU incd Buddhahood oa the bank of th b river.
2 The ancient Hindu Kingdom of CHampa comprised the modem tMM
of North and South Vletnami or sonrhem poriion of M Anntan- I t at>o com*
prised the t n o 6 t m provinces of Qjuang-nam in the north and Kn-ThuAA *m the
tatxth. I t extends &om 18 to 10 of N. latitude. The elegant name of Chvnpft
wa derived from the name of the people of ihe land, Chama. The position of
CKunpi Mrve<i $ a connecting link between India and China. The northern
bouiuUry of Champs reached the Chinese JEmpire. The cxtcne of ChampA
chanted from Cisnc to time. In the second century A.D. the Hiodu colooiien
ftlreftdy started reaching the coast of Aafiam either by sc* or throufh
Cftnboduu Cham ps was the first Hiodu kingdom founded in this area.
T h t Chinese pU^rim I-ching In the last year the seventh oentuty had
mentioned thenam et of those couairies who greatly revered the *Thrcc Jcwds*.
In the list he included the name of Champ& coo. That Buddhism got royaJ
patronage tn d had good hold on. the people of Chaim, is proved by the &ct
[Chirust AmuUsf Ma^>cro, T'png Pact )910,p. 514) that in A.D. 605 a Chiaese
Qcnenl carried off 13S0 Buddhitt manuicripts til Hwritten in a script of Indian
orjffnftfler a military conquest o f Champfi. See Sir Charier Bllot, Hinduism
m d Bmdihiun, VoL H I, Ghipt^r X K XIX , pp. 137-150; R. C. Mazumdar,
fM u C3hap. IV, pp. 149-174; Dr. P. C. Bagebi, India and Cfttad. pp.
21*22 C. P. Fitz Gerald, 77ie Ssuthera Ej^ muom o f Quixse teaplts pp. M . 28-30.
S* D uring th e tinae o f Sua rulers it ws knowm as Jun-chou and in the
T*ang ptriod Tan-yang in Qiuuig-su, (Kianzg-su) Lat. 32* J0*N, l^oag. I t y
29B, one o f the port* open to foreign traders.
n Chinese Monk
(he Vinaya master left home when he was very young. As b<
grew up, he commanded respect and honour. His progress and
achievements in the field of religion were unprecedented and
unparallcIJcd. Not only extensively he studied the Vinaya texts
(Book of Discipline), but also he had specialised in meditation.
He observed strict discipline which was rare am ong his friends;
he always attended discussions and deliberations o f the Buddhist
jQtras and did make special study in H siiaa-I 1 A
man of great literary merit, he acquired mastery over andcnt
Chinese calligraphy. The Vinaya-mastcr Hsuan-k*uci used only
three garments8 (like Buddhist ^ranuu?a). H e took- the right
corner of the robe and put it over chc left shoulder wicKouc Jet
ting it stay on the arm.
He had the habit of caking off shoes as he entered the temple;
but on his tour, he always used them. He cared very little even
if people laughed at him. He never relaxed in b ed ; he spent his
time in sitting and meditating. W hat did he care for a aMnfort*
able bed ? He refused to have food in large quantity. H e lived
on by begging only. He would always avoid the big eating house.
Everyone is fond of scraw-shocs and knows the rt o f making
them but these tear out in no time. During his long wandering
UTe, his feet would be exposed. Afas, what a suffering {
He had coimnon ideals with his companions but he had great
power of reasoning. He could bring a storm in calm water. He
waj noc dogmatic and conventional as the comm people were.
He was the only one was so much cofiscioas and alert about
th< Truth. How could he associate himself with common people
who were In darkness ((^ignorance) and intoxication (of attach
ment) ?

1 T V (eftdungs of the Buddha w ere systnm aticalty organU ed an d deve*

io{Md OR (he basis o f Indian scriptures ancf cxmuneitM fies venerabte
m onkChib-i (A-D. 538-597) and or this basis h e eitablished the fam ous T'ieo*
tt i sthoo) m China. H s0an4 is the m ethod of teaching of th h scho<d. See
SootfahiK^Dictioury pp. 19i-ld5.
t* T h w type* o f garments cofiectively caDed T ritfM ra w liich every monk
xnust useThe KaUya, ie . or tbc double cioak'; The OttardsaAg^
1 5 A f d U 73

He travelled from place to place nd then reached

Tan*yangl ; there he made an agreement wilh a man to go ttt
India on a pilgrimage. Immediately, he bade good-bye to his
elder brother and friends in south. How sad was the scparatitm
from his brother and fViends ! But he cherished the lofty ideal of
propagating the religion which dominated hi$ life and thought.
With this aim in view, he reached Kuang-chous where he was
down with pneumonia. Onoc he &lt that he had been tid up
with (he disease and he posdbly could never go to the Far-off
land. He was very much disgusted and disappointed and weni
back to his native place of Wu* and ( Chu4. He was
only twealy-five or twenty-six years oJd.
Later ona monk named Che reached India and told
people that Hsuan-K'uei, a famous Chinese monkhad felkn
sick and passed away ! Alas, hav/ unfortunate h t was ! His life
haH provedhow difficult it is to achieve one's own objectives !
He had a sincere desire and hope of acquiring the doctrine of
reality, beyond limitation of positive and negative, the substance
of Dharma; but all his hopes were in vain.
Again he had the hope of bringing back the gift (the Law of
the uddha) from India. He fsn&tly had to abandon the desire
for Lung-shu,ft NigArjuaa^ doctrine.
So, I (I-ching) comment with profound emotiont(Thc sage
had passed away I Who would come to succeed him ? What a
bad luck that he had such a short life ! Alas I his towering ideas
were shattered into pieces. Like budding flowers he withered

1. in other three editions It i> instead of yang.

2. Modern Canton.
3. The province of Chiang (Kiang)-su. Wu was one of the three-kingdonu
from A.D. 229 to 280. The state of Wu comprised Che*kiang(Chiang)pt oviace
Su-cbou being the capital.
4. Chu was the aame of a feudal state which existed from B.C. 740 to
B.C. 330. It comprised the Provinces of Hu-nan, Hu-pei, part of Kuei<hou
aivd extended upto An-hui, Chiang*si and Honan.
See Chou Yun.hsiThe first Aiop Ancitnt China to Transition.
5. I n otber two c<litioas it is Lung.
74 Chinese Monks

away. To understand a higher ideal is easy, but how difficult

it i$ to put the same into practice in life !
He had all the blessedness of Karma and virtue at the young
age. He had passed on the lamp of Truth to the posterity. He
had strong determination and aspiration. I, I-ching like to keep
his Illuminating and brilliant life immortal by writing his bio
graphy so that he would be remembered by the generation! to
come, for many long autumns.**
Once the monk Hsdan-kuei said " I will leave Kuang-chou
(Canton) for Kuci-lin,1 As % token of remembrance
I compose thfj poem for the monk.
The verse consists of five characters, My heart goes to the
stcred land of Buddhist temples. I dre&m tmove in the land
of the Buddha. I suffer from illness from young age. I, however^
could not accompany my friends to India. All my high aspira
tions and hopes arc dashed to the ground. Once the leaves fall
from trees they c&n never go back to their ordinal places. My
hearts desire of the ptst had never been fulfilled* Will that aus
picious day ever come when with ehe help of a cup or bowl1
only, I shall be able to cross and reach India ? Shall 1 be able
to witness tbc magni^cienc flow of Dharma in ladia V*
I-ching spent tbe first year of the Hsicn-heng period* in the
Western capital4 in hearing and studying religious discourses.
At that time he had in his company a teacher of the Law
of Ping-pu,4 Hung-wci, a teacher of the &Utra of Lai*chou4 and

1. Kuei-lin mountaia in Cantoa. It also mewu monastery.

2. There was a monk in China, in the fifth cntufy who could <ro
rivf with tfte help of a cup or bowl. Our author mu&c have referred to the
5. ThU era was started in A-T>. 670 by the T'aog Emperor Kao-Tsung,
4. In ancient Cttinrse works Hsi-chin; (Witer*> capital) was known s
Gochiti-Ghifu. Thi name was also given to varioui cities under diffe
rent Dynutict. Gh*ang-an, Lo-yaoy, T*ai-yuA& and even Kyoto In Jftpan
were tometimes known as Westcnk
5* F{o$pu ift Shan-si.
6. LU-chou (U t, 37IO'N, Long, 120 !(!}lo Shsn-tung province.
15 M onks n
two or three other Bhadanlas also. They made an agr^Rtnt
together to pay a visit ta the Vultures Peak mountain (Grdbra-
jcura) and set their heart <m the Tree oC Knowledge (Bodhi-
drum a).
The old age of the m other o f the venerable monk Yi and h b
lave for home in Ping-chuan1 forced him to return home. Hung*
wei, on the other h^nd, on meeting Hstian-chang at Chiang-
ning,3 set his m ind on An-yang*, Sukh^ivati (The Pure Land).
Hsuan-k*uei accompanied (Inching) upto Kuang-fu but like
others he also changed his m ind. O o l/l-c h in g started his journey
wieh a young monk Shen-hsing from Chin-choa.4
U nfortunately, he parted wieh his own (Heads in the Divine
Land, who followed their own way, while he did not have a
single new acqu^untancc in India. I f at that moment he hesita
ted (to take a journey) his desire would not have been fullilled*
Being very m uch grieved a t heart in his lonely life o f solitary
wanderings, he composed two verses imitating the one on the
fourfold sorrow, * tl had passed through thousands o f di^ferene
stages during m y long solitary journey. The threads o f $orrow
had disturbed m y thought hundred-folds. Why did the shadow

1, See No. $.
2. In Chiftng (Kiang) *su provirce. Formerly il was an Imperial rsi.
dence aad was called Nan-ching.
$, One ha to recite or chunc (he name of Amitibba daily to be bora in
the Weitcm Paradise or the Sukh&v et
4, The province of Shaa-i. Il was a feudal state under tbe great Cfeou
Dynasty (B.C. 1122*256 B.C.)
5. I-ching composed the poem imitaUng the poem wnlten by Chan^-
heng (A.D. 78-139). During the rule of the Han Emperor Shunti (A.D.
126-145), ^ Chang*bengfs fame is a great hbtoriograplier spread
far and wide. He wa$ abo a cdebrated nutbtmAttcian and asuonomer. He
constructed an Uronosphcr^ whkh was comidcred as cdotia) globe. He
incurred di!easure of the Emperor who denounced him as a magician.
A pair of odes on (he eastern and western capital* (^aag^an, Lo*yang)
was written about A.D. 87 and the third ode foUowed in A.D. 110 during ibe
time of his temporary retirement.
See Nccdhanst Josqifa Vol. IV, 3, p. 86.
76 Chinese M^nks

of my body walk alone on the borders of Five Indies? Then again

I console myself. An excellent generatcan resist an aggressive
army but the resolution of a gentleman will never change.1
If I am sad for short span of life and always cornplain of that,
how can I fill up the 1 Chang-chih long AsaAkheya
age1* ?a
In the third year of the Hsicn-heng period, I-ching kept the
summcr-retrcat (Var^a or Vassa)3 in devotional exercises in
Yang-fu. In the early autumn he unexpectedly met an Imperial,
envoy Feng Hsiao-ch*uaa of Kung-chou4 With
his help I-ching reached the city of Kuang-timg, and fixed
the date v ith the owner of a Persian5 ship to sail for the South.

1. Coqfucius AnakeU* Chapter IX* 25. James Lcggc*s translation. The

Four Bitok Arthur Waley'* translation You may rob the three armies ofthdr
commander-in-chief but you can not deprive the humblest peaaant1# opmioa**.
See Arthur Walcy, Ths Aiudtcis ojCot\fmxa (Third Im prc^ioa), p. 144.
2. I-ching here has given the reference of Bodhisattva who Hal to pass
through A&anichya a on charily.
S. Hie ibSud chapter the Mahavagga deals with the age old custom of
retiring of the monks during the three vnonths of the rainy season. Accor<img to
Uut rulethe wftfidering rcKises had to remain in %fyud p h c t and they w ae
strictly forbi<i<icn to (ravet without any local babit&tion. T h u h
known as ^Vasiaviaa*. The monies spending the rainy*rctre&t had to observe
Ctftais ruKc&and regulAtioo and to devote their time in devotiooal prayer and
In China, tbe Buddhist monks also followed thU tradition. This retirement
was known in China as simitncr-retrcat and the first retreat according to their
cslendar start* on the <fiiw day of the d u k half of the fifth moon and the second
sumsncr*retreat is on Uic first day of tbe dark half of the $ixth moon. The first
summer-retrcat tndt ui the mixlcile oC tbe eighth mooa while the second ends
in the middle of the ninth tnoon. Takskusu, AHBRJMAt p. 85,219).
4. During the period of the Sung Dynasty, Ping-nan wa known
a Kung-diou. It was ia Kuang-si (Lai, 23 S2^N* Loftg. 1 10* 03fE).
5. In ancient time, foreign trde K&d been conducted mainly by camel
caravan with the Roman Empire (hrough the Central A5ian silk route. But che
T a n g period (A.D. 618-907) ushered a new era in the history of ChlnVs mari
time trade with foreign countries like IndiaMalayan countries and ?enia*
In f4c<, ovci teu trade China was at first in the hands of Persians and Arabs.
Occ^Aic trade between Chinn and other countrici resulted in an unprecedented
]5 Monks 77
In the meantime, he accepted an invitation from the envoy Feng
Hsiao*ch*uan and went to Kuang-chou.1 The envoy
again became I-ching's Danapat^ a patr<m. The cnvoy*s younger
brothers % t i t Hsiao-tan and % Hsiao-chenboth Impe
rial envoys and ladies Ning and Pcng and other members
of the family gave him parting gifts. Before his departure, they
gave him excellent food and other necessaries (for the journey).
Evcrywic of them tried their best to help him so that Inching
would not be in difUcuitics during his voy^c. But they were still
worried and apprehensive of difficulties he might face in a fore
ign land. H e could feel the parental affection'm thcm> giving
whatever the orphan desired to have. They all became his great
shelter and refuge and gave all possible assistance to visit the
wonderful rt^ions.
The power of the Feng family enabled I-ching to make the
pilgrimage (to the Holy Iand) Irrespective of the monks and
laity, all in Lin-nan* were extremely grieved a t the time of hi*
departure. Even tbc learned scholars of north felt sad at their
departure, thinking they would not be abie to see them again.
In the eleventh month they started their voyage looking
towards the constellation ; P and ^ Chen4 and leaving
Pan.yCi* behind them. Sometimes (on his journey)
I-ching directed his thought towards far off Mrgad&va

prosperity of Chin* tmder the Tang rulers. During ihe hat part of the seventh
century I-ching mentioned the Pci fisui ships coming in and going out from the
port of Canton.
1. Kuang-chouCanton Kuat^.tung; comprised two Strict citiw
of Naiuhai and P*an-yd, the capital of ihe province; Lai. 23* 08 N.11J*17*
B. During the time of the Wu Kingdom it wa known as ^ 'Hj p'anchou
and at the time W ihe T*mng Ch*ing-hai.
2. South of Plume Range i.e. Kuang-tung and Kuang-ti.
3. One of the 28 Chinese Zodiacal conatelUtionft. Its corresponding tc-
mnt is firt and the animal U make. According to lodian astronomy there
are 27 ZfxHtxtA constellations.
4. Another of the 28 Chinese Zodiacal coratellations. Its corresponding
elet mal h carth*worm.
78 Chinese Monks
the Dcer Park and sometimes he was engrossed in thought of
paying a visit to the Cock-(oot m ountain (K ukkuiapadagiri).
That was the time when blowing o f the first monsoon jus<
began. The ship, with a pair o f ropes suipcndcd from a hund
red cubit long mast, proceeded towards the Shu-fajag, K e i
South1. Lcaviag behind (he constellation Qai* (as the ship
proceeded) her two sails, five lengtiB (canvas) each w ere blown
away. While they were p lo ^ h in g through the vast ocean,
breakers looked like hugfe m ounuim on tbe sea. J o in ii^ sideways
with a gulf of stream, the huge waves seemed to be da&hing against
tbe sky like clouds.
It was less than twenty days journey to reach Bhoga where he
disembarked and stayed for six nvrnths, gradually learning
Sabdavidya Sistra (Grammar). He received help from die
King who seat him to M alaya (which has now been corrected
as Sribhoga) where he spent two months a n d then he left for
Cbieh-ch'a, Kedah.
In the twelfth month, he embarked on a royal ship Gram there
and set sail for Eastern India. From K edah it was a little more
than ten days sail towards north to reach the land o f the Naked
People (Insulas Nudorum). Looking towards the cast, the shore
one or two U In extentcontained nothing b u t Ycb-
tzu (N arikelacocoa-nut) trees, dense f o r m o f betcl*nut^
and bctcl-patms. I t was pleasant to look at.
As soon as the ship advanced towards the shore, the natives,
seeing the vessel, came rushing in hundred small boats. They
reached the ship with cocoa-ntus bananas, areick s m ade
canes and bamboos and wanted to barter t h a r commodities.
The most i lortant thing they needed was iro n ; tn exchange
for five or ten cocoa-nuts they wished togct a picccof iron as large

1. Sec Takakusu, ARBRPtMA, pp. 8, 9, faA

2. A Zodiacal coratcllationSagittariw, Dhanu. I d Qunese it is said,
S^iiUrius loves wind and Tiuina ^ u ll or Vfaa) love* rain. **CUi*h>-Caig
J. Arcca, nuts gencratty arc used by (he Indians with betel leave* for
15 A ien ks 79

as two fingers. T he men of that place were all naked, the women
covered their bodies with leaves. The merchants in joke offered
them clothes but they showed their unwillingness to wcai* any
cloches by waving ihcir hands.
I t was said that this counu*y was in (he direction of south-west
of Szc-chuan. This land never produced iron; gold and silver
were not commoa. But the m ain products were cocoa-nuU and
tubers, on which the natives lived. Paddy was rare. Therefore,
iron was regarded by them as most precious and valuable. Iron
was known as ^ Lu-ho,1 Loha in th at bland.
Ceneralty} the natives of this place were not dark. They were
of medium height. They were skilled in making canc-baskcts.
No other country could beat them in. this skill.
I f anyone refused to b a rter articles w ith them , they would
immediately attack him w ilh poisonous arrow s;cvcna single one
would prove fatal.
They sailed on for about h a lf a m onth in north-west direction
and then they reached Tam ralipti which was the southern limit
of Eastern India. I t was m ore chan sixty yojanas fi om the M ahi-
bodhi Sa^gharam a and N&landa. Here I-ching met for the first
time, the teacher T a-C h eng.tengM ahayana PradTpa and stayed
with him for one year, studied Sanskrit (the Iangtuge o f ihe
Brahma) and practised Vy&karao^ (Grammara treatise on
words and the structure Sanskrit).*
Next, I-ching with che teacher Tcng took the road straight to
the West, and hundred m erchants accompanied them to Mid-
India. From the M ahabodhi V ih ira a t a distance o f ten days

\. Lauhft in Suukrii. ^ %
2. TbcreadtaROf tbe text (Taisho E d .) is
H$0eh*fan-y&} bsi-sbecg-wcn-luu. But in the thfet editions of the
Sung, VOan artd Ming Dynutles, the syllable Wen k omitted. Accord-
ding to (he Taisho^s reading the translation wifl be* he Ml*nw Svukrit (The
!ngviage of the Brahm4) and practised tlie ^Satraa of<he 3riv&kais or (he
Hlaayinft. But 1 thiak the reading of ihe three editions better, T&kakusu
alia CfMMlaeed as *prsctised the science of words instead of Hiiu)dna
$itra8.* (Takakusu AHBHP/MA, p. xxxi).
90 Chifuji Mppks
journey, they cro%scd big mountain and bogs- This dangerous
and perilous road was difficult to cross. I t was better and safer
to travel in a company of men rather than alone.
All throughI-<bing was very weak and tired due to various
seasonal diseases. He wanted to avail the company o f the mer
chants but as he wa very much exhausted and tired he couk)
not go with them. He still continued Co move oa, after walking
for akout five ii, he found that he required long rest and liked to
stop for hundred times. There were more than twency fellow
priests of Naianda with them. In the company of those priest^
the veaefAble Mfth&ylina Pradlpa proceeded in advance. I-cbing
was left alone to walk in the dangerous pass. When ihe sun was
about to set in, inuncdiately bandies and robbers came down
from the mountain and surrounded him. Placix^ arrows on their
bows, they shouted loudly, and one by one they glared at him
and insulted him. They first sndtched away his upper garments.
Then they stripped him off his lower garments. Even the girdle
which was with him, was also taken away from his naked body.
At once he felt that he was on the point of death and he would
not see the world a^ain. If he was pierced by their arrows and
Uncsall bis hopes to visit and pay offerings to the sacred land
would be dashed to the ground. 4A man o f iair complexion*,
according to tbc sayings of the land, should never be spared and
he should be sacrificed before the altar. The story of this dreadful
custom ma<k him more terrified. Then he entered into a bog,
besmeared his body with mud and covered it with leaves. He
resumed his journey slowly with the support a stick.
The sim had already gone down. It was quite dark and the
inn was quite far off from this place. At tlie second watch o f the
night, he met the company of his felioMT travellers. He could hear
the venerable Tcng calling out for him r<Hn outside the village.
When they metTcng ofTcred him clothes to wear. First he took
him to a tank and then aflcr a wash they entered into a village.
From there they moved on towards north and after a couple of
days travel, they ^rst reached Naianda where they worshipped
the MulagandhakufI, the Root Temple.
15 M^nks 81
Next he w ent to the V u ltu m ' Peak mountain and vititrd the
place w here heaps o f clothes were kept foklcd. Uatrr mi, h r paid
a visit (o the monastery o f G reat Enlighi^nmcnt. M.^oabciHtii1,
where he w onhipped the real ima^e o f the Binldha.*
T h e priests 2 nd tbe laity o f f Slum-tung2 (at the- time
o f his d c p w ta rc from C hina) had prcsciHcd him piecrs o f Unr
and thick silk. H < O tia -slu , K ifay a4 using
those silk pieces of the of Tath&gata and ollered m with
great veneration to tbe image. The Vtnaya-nkastcr Hsuan of
Pa-<Ami^ had given him hundreds and itxnciands of
cand ies to be offered on His behalf, at the ahar of tbc Lord.
The Dhya*-natttcr An*uo of _ iyo-choa*
had requested him to wonhtp the image oT the Buddha
which he did. I-chuigwiih inmost rtvtrtnccand undivklcd mind

K The M hlhn<m S i% harw a wa orv^naflr built b f ft GcytaAre

monk. According to the rvpott oC Wang H sfiaiH V, (lie Klmc M c^luvantu
ent an envoy to the court of the ramow Sunudra.C upta (A.D.
of the Oupt% Dynasty. Samudra-Gopta immedia d y fv |*rrminion u buikl
monaitcry the accontmodaiUm of ^te CeytoneK munltt mmI
The Chinese tnrvcllcmFa^xiieD and Hsiiart~chvan(visi(f^ this SainghArJwfta
during the fifth and the seventh cMnry ropcctivdy. Both of iKem uaid that
t M t Mfthftbodhi San^i&rSina was contracted ouuidc of t l x aocih f^te of the
Bodhi Tree.
See S. aT .T . Vot 51, No. 2085. p. S57.
Beni Madhav lUrua, CM m i At <CftlcuU 1934)* pp>
180*18) Dr. Dclnla IGtm, BadMa M n^m H (CikaitU !97I) pr. 60^3-
2. Hsuan^dhixaiigbc>r<llheitorYfcarvini|QfaniMafcof ihe RuddlMin
true IQtcntvi b f Maulrcya. Once in thb temple f IktUiAbodlu, M^iircy*, in
tb guise of a Bnhmin, suned(Am anuucewtthsctntcil <UyuA4Um|
iniide the closed door of the lenvk besuliCbt imafr of the
Buddhft in Kmc likcnci** m Nttk k lhau six romtbes. i-rhiof and lKf two
pitgrixm Hiuaa-chaoand Gfaih-hung w thb bcattfKitl the monacTy.
t-<hinf altufif* to this event.
S. ApramneofmcMlenaChii>ai,aiCwatc<1n tlielow^r fiver riten.
4* One of the Itatc Givjiru or robe*.
5. Sham-tuni. Lat. 35* Umg. IIS* $TR.
6. Dislricl ia Ts*ao<&ou Fu (StuiivtMnc). la t . $4* 56*
* Formerly it wai Itiiifdom in Shan-tung.
82 Chimu Mmiks
prostrated hiim df (the kneesthe elbows and the bead touchily
cbe ground) before the image. He firsi prayed fow China
that tKe four kiods of benefits1 may prevail in the Dharmadh^tu
(La the realm of the Law) among all tbe living beings there.
He wished to meet the honoured Maitreya under the N^ga-
tree* aod Codetermine the true teaching (of various schools(be
teaching which the truth of Bhuttathatft) and to attain
uzKxcclIed and perfect wisdom fk Wu-sbcng*chib,*
vAach is not subject to births.4
Next be visited all tbe sacred pUccs, passed through
Fang-chang$( in Vail&U) and (hen reached Kuilna^ara. Where
ver he went, he was sincere amd devout. He entered into the
Migad&va, Deer Park, climbed the K u k k a|ap id afin t CocUhot
mountain. He spenc ten years in the N41and4 monastery smd
collected the Stiiras*
After some ttmc be retraced hh steps (o go back and reached
Tamralipti. Before he reached there again he met a band of

I* Four kinds of benefits confeired by FareoU , teachers, d d e o w i4 tlw

monki, or by t , the Buddha, 2. K in ^, 3. P are n ts a n d 4 . b cae^torM*
{ d i m m M A p. 196, IVu 3 ).
2. Tlie tree of Nagapuspa will be the Bodhi Tree of M aitreya UM *Bud>
(Shilt when he will come to Chc earth. Mcsua roocburfhil, Roltteru
tuUocorca piper belct. Aptc's Sanskrit English t)ictionary.
3. The knowktdgc of immortaltiy, the knowledge wiiich helpi t a A rh it lo
be free Irom the chin of transmigration.
4. The four forms of birtbs ( t ) birth from wonl^
Taa-dxeng, A^^aja, birch from eggs, (J) both
from moisture, (4) Hua-sheftg, Anupap&dhikft^ birth by trsmMforta$&m.
See Vajrafehetlikd S Q. (Translatloil b y K u m ftr^ V ft).
C T T Vol. V III, p. 749.
Engtiah translauon by the Rv. S. Beal, Gha^ain R^N., 1863.
5. Fanf^cbang means ten cubits in Cbmewc. OrigfaiaUy
a wealthy merchant, a great devotee aod contemporary of the Buddha had a
room m which was measured after many centurks by tha Chinese
envoy Wang Hsiian-tse m A.D. 645. The xncMurement of th room w*t ttn
cubiu in length and hieadth. So the. room ofVimalakirti c u n t to bo known ai
Fang-chang. Later oa, the abode of & head priest and even monisterief were
known as Fan^chang.
15 Monks 83
robben. He narrowly escaped the fine of being killed by their
marauding swords. Thus he managed to exist from morning to
night. (This only expanded the span of his life.)
He sailed from this port (o reach Kedah carrying more than
500,000 Slokas1 o f the Sanskrit Tripitakas. Out of thest, about
some thousand Chuan had been translated into Chinese.
On his way back he stayed in the crowded cily of $rl-vijaya.
-J* fj Shan*hsing. The priest Shan-h^ing, Sugftti was
a native of Ghm-chou.* At an early age he left his own native
place* for Tung-shan4 (or monastery) to inquire into the Way
As he grew, he studied the rites on Discipline and expressed his
feelings to learn Vidyamantra, spelts. Mild and humblefrugal
and simple by nature, he became the disciple of 1-ching and
followed him to SrI-vijaya but always remembered his own court-
When he got ulcer, he took a small boat and returned to China
at the age o f a little over forty.
:i Lu^*yvln. The monk Lin^-yun came
from Hsiang-yang.* HU Sanskrit name was Praj54deva. A man
of strong will and determination, of uncommon qualities he
renounced the world at an early age. He was inpatient to pay
homage to the <4sacrcd relies^ of the Buddha. So he accompanied
the monk Che in his voyage. They reached India after crossing
the South Sea.
He studied thoroughly the Sanskrit language. He was exemp
lary to others. He commanded great respect and honour from
the king and the people wherever he went.
I, Sung hymn of praise. A stanra of thirty two syllable other in four
lines of eight each or rwo of sixteen
2* I comprises most of Shaiv-si province.
3. Sang-t .u. Native place. Mulberry and Lindera 4King of tree**. These
two n>xncs indicate tbe native place. These arc generally planted by p*rcnts
around hcMnc.
4. Eastern hills. Near tike district of Ht>-hsi in V(Va-naft Province. Tuag*
h.n atso means monastery.
5. Prcfcctural city in Hu<pci. Lat. 32 06'N, Long. 113* 05'E,
84 Chmet Monks
He sketched the image of Maltreya which was an exact replica
of the image under the Wisdom Tree. The size was in conformity
with the onginal one. HU superior artistic designs excelled even
the skilful woi kcn. Later on, he devoted his iifc to (he caus^ of
Buddhism in China. He possessed a rare abHity to translate the
Buddhist texts.
f f Scng-chc Ch*an-shih. Bhik$u Darsana
Dhyanacftrya. The Dhy^na*niaster Seng-che was a native of
r-v\ Li*chou. From childhood he was hemes digni
fied, pure and was inclined to Buddhism. His power of under
standing was very great He was sharp in debate, clever in ai^u-
ments and an eloquent speaker; il seems he was always in the
banquet He was serious and quiet by nature.
He deeply and enehusiatdcally studied (he different collections
of the Vinaya and mastered the entire system of Dhy&na. He
finally raised that general outline of both the Mdtifyamika and
Sata ^9sirat which wer in h\s opinion indispensably and entirely
connected with Chuang and Liu.1 He had an absorbing passion
for making pilgrimage to the sacred places. So he set sail for
India. After reaching the Western land, he crossed through
(many places) begging a ms as a Buddhist priest.
Visiting many sacred places o f surroundiag countries he
advanced towards Eastern India. He reached Samatata,
vti San-mo-tan-t'e.2 The king of the country was
I. One of the most celebrated philosophers and historians of ancient
China (B.C. 80-9 A.D.). He was the author of the Han-shu or the Mtstotieel
Record t f tfu Han ^nasty (B.C. 206-220 A.D.). He starred the modem style of
hjtorica^ eomposhion. He served Jbc Impcriul rulers from young age xad held
various offices under the Han Emperor Hsdatvd and two of his succesiOfl. He
wai inclined toward Taoism and supematuralism.
See Willi&m Frederick Mayers, The Chiness Readers Manual (Reprinted in
China, 1939), p. 140, N a 404.
2. Hstianchuan^ snys, MThi# country (Samata{a) whkh was on the se&
sid and w u low and moist, was more than 3000 Ii iu circuit. It had more thftn
30 Buddhist monasteries and above 3000 Brethren, all Adherents of the Sthnvtra
school. There were about 100 Deva>temples, the various sects lived pdl-mcll;
and the Digambara Nirgranthas were very nuTOcroiu1* (W tttcr^ II, p. 187).
\b Monks es

54. -C Ho-luo-shc-po-fo.1 The king was a great

adm irer of Three gems ju ^ San-pao* and was a zealous
W u-po-so-chia, Upasaka.3
The Dhyana-mastcr was a zealous^ enthusiastic and sincere
adherent of Buddhist Faith. His love and perfect devotion for
(he Faith was rare in the past and so would be in fuiure. Everyday
he made one hundred thousancU of Buddha images according 10
the model of the Lord with clay and recited one hundred thou
sand 51okas from the Maha^Prajfid-ParmitS sQtra. Same amount
of fresh flowers were also offered to chose images dail/ by him
self. The heaps of flowers gathered there would sometimes reach
human height.
At the time of royal outing, the royal carriage would be ready,
the image of Avalokiieivara would be carried in front of the pro
cession. Tbc flags, festoom and banners would flutter and sound
of drums and music would fill the air. The image of the Lovd
was carried by the monks and the lay devotees at the head of the
procession^ ioliowed by the king. More than four thousand
monks and nuns dwelling in. various cities received oHerings for
their madntenaxvee from the king. Every morning an officer was

Samaufa of cbU passage has been identiBed with iKe site o f modem Jcnore
in Bftngladetb. (Cunningham AGi.t p . 501) j and Vi/Mttn identified il with the
modern, district of Farid^ur in BangUjdesh. According to Dr. N. R. Ray
modem Tippcra was a part of Samatata from Cbe sixth century to (he twelfth
century A.D. azui the entire land cxicndia^ from the bank of the
Qftnges and the Bhigirathi to Ihe mouth of tht rivr Meghaa was known as
Sec Dr. N.R. Ray, lU lngdlir hih&st pp. 141-142.
) . Chavamics has rendered the name of the Kiog Ho*Iuo^lie*j>At*o u
Hftrfabhata. But thu King has been identtHed by some <chdars with
r^jsbhata, the son of Devalcha<lga of the Buddhitt Ka^lga Dynasty who
extended his power over Samata(a.
Dr. N. R. Ray thinks that the lung mentioned by our author is dc&Utely
the same as king R&jaraja (bha(a) of th t two A^hr&fpur cper place inscn|>*

2. The Buddha, tbe Law and the Order.

3. The term for a Buddhitt laity who foUxmred (K commandmcau.
86 Chinese Morth

sent to the monastery who would go from rcxwn to room with

folded hands to ask about the welfare of the resident monks.
Th offiocr, on behalf of the kingfwould inquire whether vener*
able monk Qbc passed the night peacefully. The mwik in turn
would bless the king by saying May the honourable king be
free from ail diseases, may he live long to raise the prestige and
honour of the country and tm y he rule the country pcacefaUy^.
The royal officer before returning from the monastery would
discii&s the affairs of the State.
The intelligent, virtuous and wise men of India had cxteasi*
vcly studied the StUras of the eighteen schools1 Shih-pa pu (as
existed in India) and they could explain clearly the Five Learn
ings, Pafica Vidyi and great Sasttas. These men of letters and
eminent scholars from every comer assembled there in the capital.
It was the popularity and kindness of tbe kmg which spread far
and wide that drew a \zrgt number of people there. He was
ft jewel among all the kings.
The monk Che was living in this RAja-vih&raft recving special
honour and respect {irom the king* He studied and
gradually improved a. great deal.
1. The Ent schism in the Buddhist resulted in the <ftvcloptTKftf of
two sects,~the Thcravftda and tHc , Tairr on* thert 3kppArcd
eighten schooK, even bdbffc tbe time of Asobt. Ten schools amon^ them
gradually est^liihed dictr ownt positions and devdoped their otvn liuraitMrcs.
TheK priadpaS sects are koamm as Stiumr^dm (Tker^Bida), IMaima^Ua, Dharma
tvpta^ Sanistimdm^ Mato-jereSstiBfl^Sowdt^w, Mah^
^angftika and Ijtk^Uorso&da. An account of eighteen schoob of Buddhism Iron
the original treatise of Vasumitra was translated into Chiooe by three
rent suthors. The Tibetan and Chinese translatioat aT VasumitiVs viork (ive
di^ereixt accouatt oT tKe Great schism.
See 2530 Tears ^ Buddhism (Miniitry of Communication and Brosdouiing,
Govt. qC IsuiU, 1 ^ 6 .). pp.97-122;
Rhys Davids, The Sects of the Buddlutts, J M H 1891, pp. 409-22;
Rhys lHvicUNotc on. J8 schools I892t pp. 1*7.
Indim Antiqaaj 1880, December pp. 29^-300; A*C. Banrcijcc, Principe
Schovls and Sects BudJkism.
2. The Gunaighar (18nukt to the nortfc-wMt of ComUla, Bangladesh)
coppcr-pbte inscription of ^A ayigupu, the Oupta. ruler dated A.D, 507
retert CO* monastery csUcd cvideaUy badt by kiog.
15 Monks 87

Inching could not meet Ihe monk Chc. On h b arrival in the

monastery he heard that the monk who was over forty, once
Hved there-
Hsuan-yu, the disdpie of the monk Chc came
from ^ Kao-li. He accompanied hi$ teacher to
Simhala where he was ordained as a monk. There he lived for
the rest of his life.


Chih-hung Lu-$hih, Mahiprajfta. The
Vinaya-mastcr Chih-hung belonged to Lo-yang.
He was the nephew of Wang Hsuan-t^se1 who
had been sent by the Emperor as an envoy to the Western
world. From diildhood Chib-hung realised chc unreatity of
this world. He abhorcd the company of the rich, frivolous and
the worthless people. He preferred to jive up thb life of enjoy-
and settle down somewhere far from the crowd.
left home> went to Shao-lin m<ma5lery, xand
lived mainly on roots and fruits. He derived great pleasure from
classics (Chinese)* He himselT was a good writer. He did not
1. M Tuan* iri, a scholar of unrivalled eruditionbelonging to the 4<cJia-
ing period of the Sung Dynasty (A.D. 960*1279 A.D.) and the rising of the
YiiaD Dynasty (A.D. 1280-1341 A.D.) recorded an important event, whn the
T*ang Emperor T*ai-T#ung sent Wang H*6an-t$ a head of a nw mission
to tbc court of Harsha, the king of Kanatj, India^ in A.D. $4). He again
5t as tnvoy m A.I>. 643. In the next missioa m A.D. 646, W*ng HsOan*tfse
arrived in India, when. King HarshavardhaAa kad already died. The envoy
received a ch^ck at the hands of Arjuitft or w h o usurped the throne
in A.D. 648. Waag Hsuan*t*se went back to Tib^t and wicK he he^> of che
famous King Srong-btsan-Gampch defeated Am v&and took ham to China
as a priaoocr-of-war. This story oTthe Chinese cavoy has little hUtorical v%lue.
A very cordiat and iacinmtc relitioa was established between (ftdift and China
just after Hsuan*chuang*5 return to China from India.
2. ShaO'Iin monastery is situated on the Sung tnounuift in Hu-nan
Province Thi# trvonastc.ty is ^ccially famous for its nine yeart association with
Bocihidharm&(Lo-yang-cKia-Iaa.chi) who first starred the Intuitional school
(Dhyaoa or Ch^an) in China.
88 Chintst Monks

like the noise and hubbub of the woild. He liked the quiet and
peaceful life of the monks and sages.
He left t % Pa-sKoi1 for S&n-Wu where he
relinquished cvtrythingput on mcmk*s robe and became a
mendicant under the guidance of the preceptor
Ts0 "clian, DhyinarasmL He wanted to imbibe the wisdom
of his venerable ceacber, but could not succeed. After trying for
many years, he learned the Doctrine of the Lord. Hereafter,
lie went to ^ ^ Chl-chou5 where the Dhyinamaster
. Jen was living. Under his guidance, Dbyanara^mi
practised purifying his body and mind but could not awslcen
his soul.
Next, he crossed the ;|p Hsia4 river, passed over the
Hcng-ling4mountain, entered the Kuei-lin monastery
and hid himself in a solitary place for many years studying
the religion. There he became the disciple of the Dhyanamascer
Chi. He stayed there enjoying the beauty of the mountain and
river. The solitude and natural beauty of the vase forest enaiooii-
rcd him. So he wrote (directed his pen) poems describing his
inner feelings aroused by the surrounding gloomy fountains and
hills. These poems expressed, his extreme soft feelings for bu
for-ofF home.
Then he acquired excellent knowledge from the teacher of
San-wu and learned many things from the talented $cho]ars of
Chin<hiang. He was of very pleasant character and was never
affected by anyones flattery.

1. A part of Ho*nan and Shn-si. Eight riven S ^

C hcn S, Gbinff, : Wei, Feng , K ao, :
Liao , ChQ also called Farch'Oftn. T ie Vuan V ol. I ,
p . S2 folio 2.
2. Tan-yang. Vttrmg the time of tbe T an g , it comprised parts of Cbiang*
u (Kiai^-su) and Anbul.
3. Chi*chou ia H u ^ -d a o u Fu. Hu-pci (JU t 30 03*N, Long. 115*,
25 ).
4. A ]ar^6 tributary of the Yang-tie. It flows through MuAan,
On oT the five sacred moontftios la central H u>qxa.
IS Monks 89

He left China with a fervent desire to visit and pay homage

to tbe Western lands. Fortune favoured him ; he happened to
meet the D hyinam aster Wu*h$mg and came to an
agreement with him (to sail for Western countries).
He reached ' He*p'ul and sailed for the boundless sea.
Due to unfavourable wind he could not proceed farther and
remained at Shcng-ching.*

He resumed his journey again and reached Chiao-chou where

he passed the summer retreat. Next, at the end of winter, he
embarked a ship from the port, reached Srl-bhoga in South Sea.
The experience they gathered in their travel was recorded in the
narrative o f the Dhyana-master Wu-hsing. They passed two
years in the monastery o f Great Enlightenment. With pious mind
and sincere devotion, he worshipped the Lord. There he practi
sed and recited the Sanskrit ^ascras. Thus he improved his
language gradually. After teaming the Sabda $&stra (a Treatise
on words and their meaniags)>he acquired (he ability to under-
siand Sanskrit scripture). He also studied the rules and cere*
monies o f the Vinaya texts and Abhidharma. He already could
expound KoSa and achieved great proficiency in HetuoidyS
In the Naland& monastery he specially learned the Mahayana
and sitting on the B o d h im a^a of the monastery o f Faith, he
learned the H inayina. As a &mous monk, he was very strict
and rigorous in foilowing the rules of the Orders. Being a very
diligent and mindful student, he never wasted a single minute.
He also studied the Vinaya Sutras composed by the monk
Tc*kuang PuQyaprabha. He was talented enough
to translate (into Chinese) itmnediately whatever h t heard. As
a traveller, he possessed nothing but notc-books. Very seldom he
reposed; always he kept sitting. H e haH no desire. Pure, simple
and honest, he was not only respectful to his superiors and elders
but also polite to subordinates and yoi
t. A district {ormiag the prcfectural city of uan^^tunf
21* 39*N; Long. 108' 5&*E.
2. Sec ARBRPJMA. p. 12, fa. 4.
90 Chinete Monks

He visited the Vulturc*s Peak mountain near Rdjag|^ia>

Mi^adava 01 Deer Park* Jetavana Vihira , T^xcn-
chieh1 Deva Sopana, Amravana1 or Mangogrove and the
eaves for meditation.
The loogchcrhhcd dreams of visiting these places were realised.
He cjq>rcssed his deep gratitude and reverence for these places.
He always offered his own garments and food to others. In the
Nalanda monastery best food was served and Rajagrha supplied
ail the necessities of life.
After living in MklIndia nearly for eight years he advanced
towards Kashmir in the North. Kashmir was as if his own home.
The monk Lin.kungv it was told, was the compa
nion of Chih-hung. The whereabouts of the monk was not
known to the writer. However, he contributed in translating
sacred texts into Chinese.
f Wu-hsing Ch'an-shih. The Dby&na-
snaster Wu-hsing belonged to Chiang-IIng in Ching-chou. In
Sanskrit he was known as g Pan-jo-t#i-po
Prajfiadeva. It means Hui-tiVn (Prajft^dcva)in Chinese.
He was a man o ( gentle, humble and pure disposition. He
possessed the culture aad refinements which be inherited from
his birth. Extremely virtuous and kind, he had great ambition.
His love for learning wa$ great, from childhood he frequently
t. Hsuau-chuuxg describing bis visit to Sankasya narrates, tf, .Within
tbc endoMng wall of the Monastery were Triple stain of preciotts substaacci
in sl row south to north, and sloping down to east, whcrcju*lai descended from
the Trayastrirhia, heaven' Watters suggests that the district SaAk^iya took
the name of DevavatSra or Dev&vataraoash, which means in Chinese 4<FJacc
of Dcva* DmccjU". lchiny has u>ed the word T'icn*chich> instead of T*!cn
hii^hu*. Tien-chieh in Sanskrit isOcvasopin or Dcvivam naih. Sftnkiiy
<m Sanlussa U in Parmkkabad district* Uttwpnuiesh. Here at the
Bu<idha descended m the company of iakra and Brhm& by meant of a stair*
case from the Trayastrimsa heaven. Thii event is fcnown as the miracle of
2. Not much before ihe Patinirva^a of the Buddha Amrapili, the famous
courtesan U VatiMi made a formal performance of offering mango*grove
for the Buddha and the brcthicsv. The Buddha Accepted the gift from Kcr,
S h t changed he> Ufe and became grat divotec of the Lord*
15 Monks 9
visited the library. At twenty, the prime of hi lift, he was
honoured with an Im perial officers post1 Chm*roa*inen.
H e studied thoroughly the classics o f hundred schools o f philo*
sophcrs* and three Chinese Classics.3 This genius and talented
monk was reputed as che most learned man in his province.
The glow and radiance of his pure knowledge illuminated

1* Chin-m.*v-mn or the Golden Horse Gate means the Han-lin*yOan or

th t Imperial Actdcmy or the Board of AcAdemicianj.
In ancient Chinese burc*ucr tic system af education the Han-iin
Academy wa th t highest educational institution whtch prepared scholar*
to get an entry into the Imperial services.
The Emperor Wu-ti of the former H an Dynasty (B.C. 206-A.D. 23) placed
a bronze horse In front of the Imperial Academy. So it was known as Cnin*
2. During the Warring states period, specially from B.C. 500, 4Hun<trd
Schoob of Thought* ovcr*Uoodcd China by huAdrcd of pliilosophm with
different ideas nd tboughu. The most inrq>ortant schools were (he CoAfuciao,
the Taoist (Lao-Uc) and the MohUt. The school of Mo-fte profxmaded the
philosophy of Universal love% utilitarianism and pacificism. During th middle
and the later pxrt cf the Warring states period, another group of philosophers
aho known as the ^School of Names* (ng_chi&) included the Dislecticians,
whose thinking wa much tike that of the sophists of Greece. In ft4C. 280-233
another group of phitosophcrs came into existence; Ihetr school wa known
Ihe 'Legalist school*. The Legalists have been called totalitarians by modern
thinkers. Late tn the same period, we find another school known as the Dip
lomatists or T*iungheTXg*chta. The emergence of the Hundred tehooh with
different view* did not create any conflict among themselves. They were tolc-
fMU toward* one another. 4<Pai*huJi Ch'i-fang, Pai-chi* Chcng*ming**. Stc
Fung Yu-lan, HiU^ry of Chintu PhiCas^fy, (trawu. by Dcrk Bodde> Vol. 2
Princeton . 55.
$. A new theory of Myrtcriotw lcaMrning,* or Metaphysical achoot was
introduced by the schoIar-ofitcimU of the teudat rulers during the lat part of
the Han Hyrmty &&a during Uic period of Three Kirigdom*. .*TKb was one
of the scholastic philosophies combining idealism and sophistry andin foim.
ic followed ihe traditions of T&oism and the school of Namet, interpreting
Confudan clawtes in terms of the philosophy of Lao-uc and ChuAdf-tze'*.
Hou Wai-!u, A Short History Chinese Phihs0ph>> P- 31. The Three Claiakt
included tbe tiircc works of Lao*t 2e, Chuang-itc and Book of Changes (I-chang)*
92 C k m u A M ts

the entire San-chiang1 and seven Uk-$ He was a ibuntam-

head of knowledge that watered the different riven. He enjoyed
che fraiu of his previous Karma.
He had great admiradoa for the Buddhist doctrines, the door
to enUghtenmeat.
Fortunately, he met five eminent men who guided him io hi$
pursuit of knowledge. He lived in the Tcng-chieh monastery
and for the fim time started studying Buddhism with other dis
ciples sitting on the a) car of the monastery. The monk Hui-ying
(Frajfii^ra) of the K H j W TVfu-tkn monaatery became his
Up&dhy&ya (teacher) which in Chinese is knorni as
Chin-chiao-shih, one's own teacher or He*sheng.
Prajft&deva became the best disciple of the p weep tor ^
Chi-ts*ang (Srtgarbha)
Each and every generation is marked by great men. He con*
ccmrated on the study of the Law and thus he devoted his time
in dwelling in Dhyana. He left domestic life and lived outside
the society. He bad th capacity to discuss and expound subtle
metaphysics. Though Ke was young, hts fame even surpassed
that of his elders.
Along wilh more than twenty people he, as a fully ordained
monk, received tKe entire Goramaadments at the altar. Among
all the disciples rcGoving imtructiom, be was iodispatayy tht
best* There was nothing left to add to hi$ rwge of extensive
knowledge* Rsiding in the dadc caveof a mountain, he recited
_ Pa-hua-oha^-ticn SotUharma-Ptt^^arSJea and
other Mfth&y&na S&tras. He did not require even ope month to
complete the seven rolls3 (chuans) of the S&tras.
I. Thet* are v%riou> explanations of the term Sftn>chiangCniree R iv e n ) ;
but feneraUy it indicates tbt vick n t mouths o f the rivet Y*x^-tz. T he three
fivers of VangcKou (i) Wa-tunf, (u ) Chi'cn-t'ang river In Chiang
(iii) PV yafig.
5. 1ft aodeni time. U wto *&id that tKcrc were seven lakes im ( I e su tc o i
15 Monks 93

it has been rightly said: A bamboo fhhi trap is a means to

catch fish; similarly searching for reasons is a means to reach the
Truth. He must search foi a real preceptor with great spiritual
undersianding, who would be able to direct him to practise
Phyiina and thus would help him to be free frenn all (he worries
of the world and to achieve salvati<m.
Therefore, he with a mendican(*stafT went to Chiu^hiang1
and from there reached San*ychx. He travelled
over the mountain Heng* and settled down in :
Chin-ling.4 In the peaceful surroundii^s of the monastery on
the Sung6 and the S Haa# mountain he re tir^ and
recited th Sutras for long.
He travelled all over the big mountaim in North. His sole aim
was to acquire perfect knowle<ige and wisdom. He wanted t<v
carry with ham the principle and system of intent contemplation

1. Chiaiig*$i it 0 a b o (fie (fisirict city o f IV iiu a ; Lat 29 4 T N to n g

I I6*08*;one o f the ports o f the Yang-ize. T hisregionw as known asC3uu-chianf
(Nine R ivers) during th e time of O iin Dynasty. According to W .F, Myr, it
m caiu th e entire region through wht<H t h t nine b ra n ch o f the river Y ang-ite
flow (CJtM, B. 362).
2. T h three principalities of YucK in the second and first cenltiry B.C.
(I) W u, the jn o d n a Chinag-su (K iang-sv) and p a rt of C bc-ehiai^, (Kiang)
H} m odem Fu-chien (K k n ) and p a rt of C h ic h ia n g (K lang iii)m odem
Kuang-(ung and p art o f Tonkih,
3. KeQg*shan in central Hu*nan, on of the beautifut m o u n u in *pot,
was considered as one of the five sacred mountains of China. It is also a district
in Heng-chou Fu, Hu*nan Lat, 27 M^N, JLong. H 2 S8'E.
4. M odem Chiangnlng province. Formerly an Im perial rdcricc v id
therefore eUled Nan-ching or Souihem capUal. L&t. 32* 05*N, L o a f. 118
47*E. Originally it was Chin-lin^ but k changed i u name during the T a r
period; it was called C3faiang-nmg. At present Ctiin*1ing Buddhist Txt Sockty
ac Nanking preserver more than i 20,000 prinling Mocks o f Buddhirt tcrap(ur*
(Chao Pu-chu> Buddhism m <^iaa, p.2Peking I960).
5. Loftiest o f the five j^eaks of the Tnountain in Ho>nan.
6. T he m ountain H ua in Shen*si province on the west. One of the sacred
mountains of the Chinese Buddhbts. The H ua m ountain it the abode of
garbhft Bodhisattva.
Ckmese Monks

to North* His crate was coimbibe the knowledge and perfection

in zomute details of the freac Dhyanamasicr.
He crossed dte damgerous mountains of the West and reached
the East where he studied chc pure an4 genuine knwoledge of
the eminent Vioayamastcr Tao-hsfian.1
He listened (o the (discussion <^) the old and aew Astras and
Sutras, discussed all th t ancient and modern ceremonies and
His knowledge was like boundless, fathomless ocean and high
p^cipitous mountain.
Later on, Wu-hsir^with th^ fellow-monkChih-hungstarted on
voyage. It took only a month to reach SrI-vijaya in iavourablc
east v^nd. The king of the country welcomed him with uunosi
cordiality, scattering golden flowers and grains {in front of him)
as he was a. very honourab]e special guest. The four necessaries'
Szu-shih of a monk were offered to him.
knowing the monk had come from (he land of the great T"ang
rulers, (he king showed him extra respect and honour.
rhe monk Wu-hsif^ reached Mo-Iuo-yu in fifteen days on
royal ship. They took another fifteen days to reach Kedah.
1* Tao-hfuan (A.B. 596-667) contemporary of H^Un-cbuuig,
a n ie n t monk and cclcbnted Buddhivt hiltorian of the T*mnf Dynasty,
w the sutHor of agfat worls (NC App. iH, 21). H impomn< worltf art
Hsibkm-w^tkmm {FwlMer Biogtd^fues of Bmmeml CTT. 50. Ho. 2060,
42S-707), Xtmg-iimg-maig-cbi (Further collectiona of EiMyt on Buddbism,
CTT 52, N. 2 03, p 97), and Fo'ioo itm-hen^ (Essays on tiie controveny
betweoi Boddhien and TAOttm* CTT> S2 372a).
Tao-hsuan was an importvtt perion id founding a new VliuyA 9ehool
Lu-tsuE%or (he Di>ripliftry scbod on the bts of the Caturvr| VUuya of
the Dknmgapia scbool. Th sect it sdmetime* caUd Nan-bii or Souttcm
KwiRtala, beonoc Tao-h0it Uvtd in monawcry on Qaung-nan ioounuio
new Gh*anx-an.
2. Tlie fin aectssirim Me, (I > p<0^yulopa-(>lkC^ium(UkiOf food by
begging only}, p ) pamiukutoavaram (tnaof rag cfechmgs collected lrm Am
he*P)> ttlaseiiarum (unim$ or uMder trX(lv)
(vtiftf ocilf txcttm m n and urine * medkiwe)
S ccH D iK ^fv^ Ed_2, CUcntt^l97l,^.
1B9I, pp. 47C-77.
15 Monks 95

At the end of winter, he sailed again for the West. Ie took

another thirty days to reach Na-chia-po-t*
an-na1. From there it was two days sail for Ceylon,where he
saw and paid offet4r^s to the Tooth of the Buddha. He sailed
from Ceylon for the north-cast by ship and after about a months
sail reached Harikela which was situated on the east of Castcm
India. It was a part of q Shan-pu-dbou, Jambu-
dvipa*. There he stayed for one year and then moved towareb
Eastern India gradually imth his constant companion Chih-
' mmg.xi V 6 a i H n niAorc tnan d nuikir^a y'c^anas m>oi 'cncre.
After resting for some tlmc9 he advanced towards (he monastery
cf GreAC nlighcczzn>ene.
nol only made all. arrangements for his stay m the
also hcMiourcd him by appointing him as the
monastery which was highly esteemed in tbc Wc$t
The abbot only had the right of discussion whereas the resident
monks could only get boarding and lodgingchat
Next the Dhy&na-mastcr turned towards Naiand re he
heard discourse on Yoga &nd learned Chung-kuan.3
He made a special study o(Kofa and the canonical rules of the
Vinaya with great interest.
Again he advanced towards Ti-luo-ch'a Tila-
dhaka monastery,4 two yojanas west of Naianda monastery.

1. Nagapattinom was an important cealre of BuddhUm. Dhyanicirya

Wu^hsindaring hil travel in India, visited Nagapattiaam (Lat. 10 45'N,
Long. 79 50*E, District lluuijavurv Tanal Nadu). It was a port opened lo
foreign trade*
A BuddhiJt temple wa comtructcd at the request ni CSiiitoe ruler for the
Chinese Buddhists during tbe time of the Palbva ruler Narasunhavarmwi II
(A.D. 69^*722). Il Is said lhat C3unc*c udutcct and designer wm emplo
yed for the comtructian the temple.
2. Indi*.
$ Chunf-kun If one of theS^n Jiuns ( ^ ) It i* the via media
between tbc kkM of voidncs* and unreality of cvcryxlnns.
4, 1-cbinf, herei places the mooaatcry of Ti-}uo-ch*a or Ti-lo-l'u in
MafMiha about two y<gaxui west of N&UndA. Accordia^ io Cunnin^iam,
96 Chinese M m ks

The great monk o f (be m onaucfy could cxctdlrarty oqxnuid <bc

(L o g ic ). ttii on the fragrant bam boo m a t, he oAtn
studied ihe works o f D i i ^ g a and D h a rm a to ti1. H e was perhaps
able toopcn the sombre door offiuddhism an d u n v til th e mystery
of i
He lived on begging alms only once a day Hi* w ants wcr<
very few. H e always IWed as If he was beyond the re ah n o f Uus
world o f mortal beings. In his finee tin x ix : translated
A^hi~mhchingt Agama SUtra and n arrated th e events o f
the Mahaparinirv&xta Ju-lai-ni-fiui o f Tm h4-
gata. This was the summary consisting o f three chuans. Be
fore his return to China, he completed the translation o ( the
Vinayas of the Sarodstwdda school. Though he could n o t make
much progress in translating other S u tra s , his translation
(Vinaya) agreed with the translation done by che m onk Hus*
nbg* The splendour o f Iad la could not shake W u-hng,i low
for the Divine Land (C hina). H e always desired to go bade to
China taking the route through N orth India.
A day after, I-chSng came from N&land& to sec him olL Both
of them travelled about six yojanas towards case. T h e n w ith a
very heavy heart they bade farewell lo each other. T h ey wished

Ti*tu&-ckfa o f Z'cHng is tlM ttm e mofiaitery o f Ti-luo^Kili*kft n v n ttcd by

HsOan-chuAn(. Ounningham su tct thMi Ti-!uo-hii>-ka i$ the T S x ia b i a^.
m<yi<jm Tittara. Fergusson is of opinion, (hat it was in the BarabAr liUk in
dittnct Gaya.
See Cunaia^jam AGlt pp. 521-523; Walters 11, pp. )0S, 106, 107.
K Dharmakirti was bont in Bra.hrain fiumly oCSouth Irxiia ifi A D . 635.
IntcUigcnt and tkiKul, be atumcd gwt proficiency in 6ve %r%$, sft the Ved*t>
Vedanfas as wdU as in grammar. From childhood, lie altcivied the dbc<iurs>
on Buddhism. Later on, he bcarac an ardent, devout Buddhist o f brilliant
Intellect. He was ordained by Dhamu|>aU o f N alandi. In logical ditcmmcs
and debates and un<Urstanclmg Ke evca surpausad DianAga. DbaraMfcirti k
th ftutbor of many moainnaBta] wtvfts. H b the Prtm i$a tiriiks*
M kdt arc x n c o f hb wodD <ja Iokic. is extant in
orifkul Su ulrit. He may be placed m the cvcatfi century since
dutinf hb trvd in IikKa AJ>. 671-695, has praaul Dharmatirti as
lofkiaM After DimU^a.
15 A M b 97

lo sec eacli o th er again. They parted w ilh tears. I t was really a

w y m o v ii^ scene. T hey wiped off their tears vm h sleeves o f
chcir robes. T h e monk Wu-hsiog was years old a t chat
His perfect feith ia and great devotion lor the Buddha was
rem ai^ablc. I t was a g reat pleasure for the Dhyana-xnauer to
watch th e Wisdom T re e in foliage a t (be advent o f spring every
year, a n d to enjoy bath zd the D r ^ o n lake, Lung-ch'ih during
that season. T h e Bamboo grove would be fresh yellow. H e
loved to collect flowers and offer them to che V ulture's Peak
D uring the spring tim e, generally1all assembled together to
celebrate the festive occasion.1 T h e Buddhist bretlirci), laity in
myriads from fer an d wide poured spontaneously into this place
and sprinkled w ater c u the Wisdom T tcc.
In sp rii^ , tbcVuU uxcs Peak m ountain would be flooded with
palm sized yellow flowers th at kx^bed like pure gold. Everyone
would rush to the m ountain to pluck fkm crt. T bc wild forest
was aflame w ith abundance o f ydloMf flenven kxfeowm as
Gh^un-nA-hua, V asanta Ma]]ika.ft
Once, 1-ching w ith the Dkyana-master Wu*hsmg climbed the
V ultures Peak m ountain and m ade devotional ofTerii^s there.
They felt c x tra n d y grieved a t heart vfh m they looked towards
their own lan d from the top o f the m ouatain.
T<hing coxaposed tlbis poem expraaang his feelings in mbced
We vntnesi the tram form ation o f the sacred mountain peak
and glance a t tbc ancicxit city o f RftjagHia. Thousands o i years

1. During tfac reign of ibe King Blmbbara, arious fdtiwah aad foin
were arranged ia tfac oapctaL Oae such type of waa known as
Sunajja. The vratd Giragsa means, as the co*mnc*tator says, the festival on
the top of mountain. It mbo means that wfaicli arc scan from ihe top of a
mountain. Even acmv, <mevery ftJI moon Say ia the month of Kirtfta Lc.
Oct^efNovember,fair b bddl at the vObgc Gtryak.
See Dr. Amulya CHumdnt Se# 0 MiUmH.
2. **Hving blossoms m Spring**: Gordi LttUbUa Monicr WUIIama,
Stnskrit English Dietmwy, p. 930.
98 Chmes* M ctih

had already passed but the water o f the lake remains pure and
d e a r as it was before, and the Bamboo ^rove remains evergreen.
The vague reminiscence of the past had thiown back its reflexion
on the hard roads (of the city), but everything is in ruiiu.
X 1 Gh^i-pao-shan-t'ti Saptaratna r?> sopana is
the dung of past now. Previously when the Lord preached the
the heavenly flowers o f variegated colours were scattered
bekw. Now there Is no dripping music o f the flowery rain.
These arc the past events now I W hat a pity I was not bom
then P W hat great pain I (eel (when I think) th at this world is
a burning house which deceives the w w ldly people. How sad
that the island o f pearls and gems is always obscure like the high
peak o f the mountain !*
I have travelled beyond the boundary and in imagination
I have crossed tbe Seven Sas and also the %^iolc universe.
The three disturbed realms arc sinking into heterodoxy and
falsity. Things are all in disorder and coniuaon. T here is no
real Truth. Its complete comprehension can only be achieved
by compassion and generosity. By removing the Ch'an*
{six gu^as) and calming down ones desireone can discover
the profound Doctrine. When one sacrifices ones own body
and seeks complete annihilation of onc*s own being to initiate
the mind,4 this param ita is known as Sbih Dana,

1. The same feelings overwhelmed the great poet Rabindra Nath Ttgore
when he visited the templr at Bodha*Gay&. 'Why was I not boin when he,
at the touch of whoc Rxi the whole universe was lanctifted, personally waUcd
through Gays; why did I not directly feel the ucred impact of his presence,
with my body and toul T
Rabindra Nath Tagore, BuM^Agva^ Rabinira Raehmdndi Vol. II, p. 469
(Centenary Edition, Govt. oT W t BengftI Publication, Calcutta, 138 fi.S.)
2. Accordinto Indian mythology, IndU it encircled by seven sea* vb.
LavAO&> Suri, Sarpi^, DxiUu, Pugdha, Paya^i. J ambuplak|&hvayau*
dvipau ^lmalilc&paro mah&n 1 Kuia^ Krauflca(atha 3aka(i Pu^c&raiouva
Saptamah // Ete dvipah Samudraistu Sapta Saptabhiravrt&l; Lava 9ek|i2
surisarpirdadhi dugdh^alaihsazaam f f Agrupurdna 1 0 S , -3.
3. In S&nikrit it means Secondary element an attribute of the "five
elrmenu>\ These ^unas arc thoic of tight"cak?u} sound karpa, nidi
n&sika, t&itejibv&f touchtvak thoughtmanas.
ThoughtManas* It is explained as matoria), worldly things.
15 Monks 99

Charity.1 Putting all the different passions under restraint and

devoting to the Commandments like pure white pearU, is known
as Chieh, moral conduct. Patience as armour protecting
firmly againit all e ^ ls, known as % rcn, En
durance. O nl/ by observing uneiringly these three (piramit&s)
one can traverse tfac two vehicles.
By forgetting ones cc^l, and overcoming innumerable obstacle!,
ceaselessly labouring in tbe interest o f ones pursuitsis known
as C hln Vlrya,4 Ibrdtude. W hen one is deeply ab
sorbed in m ediU tioo and lost in tram cendental thought it is
known as T in^, S am idhi Abstract meditation. T he
tword o f wisdom th a t cut< away the illusion o f thick fogs and
frost (ignorance) is known as H ui, PrajM W sdom .
Ta^chichj M ahakalpa lime is etemaL O ne may
cultivate (these p& ram itis). O ne may change ernes heart
by observing da3y these six cardinal virtues or pjtramitas,
( Liu-shih). Thus oae will attain complete annihila
tion (ofdcsire) and will rqxioeoa the bank o f the rlvwr Hira^y^*
CKn-hCj eternally-
They chanted a n d expounded SQtras temporarily in the Kuk-
Icufa grove for achieving all-round merits. T he sound <rf preach
ing th e T iu th by lhholy disciples still rcvibrated{could bheard).
They had entered into the dragon palace in the deep sea in search
o f abstruse and mystical books*; they had stayed in the hermitage

I2*3. First three of the six PirftmHis.

4. The fourth of the $ix P^ramitlf.
5. The fifth Paramiti. Abstract meditation which ultimately leads to
6. The >lxh Piramiti-Prajfil or WiIom. It U the only w&y v^hicH hel|
men to retch the shore of NirvA^a.
7. The FariAirvBos of the Buddha tooli plftce in the suburb of Kuilnagar
or Kutlnira (District Dcoria, Uttar Pradsh) on the bulk of Wkdent Hirpy^
VAt! (mockra G&ndak).
8. N&gftijuna, the founder of the Mldf^yamika philosophy and ooe of tlie
myMict of Uter Buddhism, is said to have gone deqs Into tbe tea to collect
Htemturcs. Inching is perhaps referring to thii *tory.
100 Chmtu Mmks
in the hiib for (he T ruth. Due to propagation o f th e Law gene
ration alter generation, Buddhism is still in existence.
T h e pathway o f desert, river and snowy mouncaios is m distinei
even in the early morning. T he vast beach o f limitless ocean b
greatly disturbed even a t night. T o save one life, one has to
sacrifice thousands c t lives.
T he great knowledge o r the lam p o f T ru th had been transm it
ted from the teacher to the disciples from gcncraticm to genera
tion. Though the long journey was perilous a n d hazardous but
great panorama would enchant the travellers who encountered
such great difficulcies.
The two vintages o f the Nu-luan raoantain w ere still visible
in the cast. T he three turns o f the Wheel o f Law _
San-lun1 (which the Buddha turned) in the D eer P ark in the
west, still flashed (in his eyes). T h e lake* o{ th e city o f Srftvastl*
was still there and could be seen in the north. H e greeted the
sacred mountains with eaves an d five e k g a n t pc*lt$* arkl hundred

1. The thrac wfaccls sujp|MMcd to be the <bx<b o f A c B<Mh* <

mouth or dbcvsiom , mind or ideas. T he fiist roUms wm o f the W bed
of lh< Isw.
2. A tope was h d t ao die spot where fiw bmdred SAky maidens were
fowUcAand wirtitaUiciliylbeKIng tfccwft f PrHAjit of Koiela.
Later on, thnwc xn^dmi were purified oA^htcaed by (He Buddha. Voy
done to tbc tope tkcrr w mb v p dried pond where VarudbslEB
C*u0t fire mnd <fied %dule he wan pyiymg tl boat riding ike Udic* of
cKe Ioxcsl. 1-difaig is p n M U f referring ta event
S. &AvjaC, A ycuai o i ihe btfcrfAc (modem
of die kin^doanof Koifthi ^Ondh) was one of iHc mow favouritt rooru of the
BuddktL The Ansuttacra Nik&ya gives the namet of tk pltCM M v^lch the
Buddha wkh his followers pul vp or took liis retreat diuflnf the three xnoncln
ofVaita. Tbc great estabKfthment ofJctavaiu^vili&ra was (iAed to the BcukDu
by the weU ImowD merchant Sudtt-An&th^>in4'1u r$rAvttt. The Buddha
puied maximum numbers of Vmm atjciavanft 2nd delivered most of hit ser
mons here,
6rftvtiiIhbcco identified with the modern villages of Salieth-Maheth {Lat
27* 30*N, Long. 82* 2*E> in Pistnctt of Gonda and Bahrfticli, Utttr P m d d
SetT. W. K k f JMAS p. m
4. Tht five sacred mounums MsociMed life oC the Bvddhau
( I ) V a O ik in , ( ? ) ( 3) I d r (4) G plhralcA ia, ( 5) S m |m ,
15 Monks 101

tank5 around the cily. T h e brilliant fresh flowers brightened

every com er. T h e Bodhi T ree looked glorious w ith the advent
of spring.
W ith a m cndicant-stick, he proceeded towards the m ountain
and walked slowly in the Jctavana. He visited the place where
the Buddha discarded his robes and also the m ountain delivered
by heaven.
I-ching offered big golden flowers to the shrines o f the Buddha.
W hile he was circum am bulating the Buddha altar and was
w atching these old shrines he felc as if he was very near to the
T h e city o f R ajagrha in In d ia still carried in its bosom the
reminiacences o f the past activities.
I am far away from my m otheH and; pang o f separation makes
me very m uch grieved. I always rem em ber my home when the
cold w ind blows on the V ulture's Peak an d the NairaAjnd river
flows by. I listen to chc discussion o f the Law happily. I never
feel that I am grow ing older day by day. M y aims and objectives
in In d ia have been fulfilled. Now I muse return co the Divine
L and (C hina) carrying the stick an d the Sfltras.
^ Dhy4iia-mastcr Fa-chen Dharmavikam*
pana cam e from Ching-chou. In personal appearance he
was a tall, handsome m an wilh elegant maxiacrs and was kind
in expression. H e washed his feet in the waves o f m editation,
remained unperturbed and purified himsel f ia the w ater o f ocean
(D h y in a). To be respectful an d dignified was his guiding prin
ciple. H e was a constant follower o f Dharm a. H e recited the
rules a n d precepts o f the Vinaya and the Sutras. $cnetimes he
lived on the hills or a t the bank o f rivers.
H e had insatiable desire to visit the W estern regions without
delay and to pay devotional homage to the sacred shrines. He,
therefore, w ith the Dhy&na-mastcr Ch'co-wu and D hyanajigra-
t&yana, another monk o f his own native place, C hcn-ju, ihe
Vinayam aster o f Liang*chou studied throughly the sacred books,
o f his own country and o f outside countries too.
102 Chinese Mcnh

He was not the only one who possessed merits but in his travel,
he was accompanied by friends with common ideas and objectives
and merits'like him. The monk therefore, left San-chiang with
two friends, embarked on a ship and arrived at Shengftching
and from there they rtmmed their wyagc to reach the north of
After travelltng over many places and crossing many
islands they reached Kedah.
After a short while, the monk Chen fell sick and pasted away
at the age of thirty-five or th;rty-$ix. Some days after, a man
met those two monks; they set sail together and returned to the
east. They hoped to go to Chiao-chih. They reached
Chan-po, Champa Thb country h known as Lin-p (Chinese
name of Champ4 w^icre the monk Ch'cn-wu ^ c d v
It was told by the people of Chaxapa then that the monk
Chen-ju alone went back (o his own country. He was greatly
esteemed and admhtd by everyone though he fiiiled to fulfil
his objectives.
These three monka went oat of their coantryf but vAy none of
them succeeded Hn reaching India) ?
_ # lThc Great Vinaya and Law master
belonged to Li*chou tn ttttd into an tcclesiastkai lift at ao
early age and grew simple, auMore> honest and frugal. He had
very few wants; iberefore he lived on begging alms and pcHbno-
mg the duties {of monk). H t hoped to pay offerings to the
sacred shrines of ihe Lord and a visit to (he sacred city of
Everytime he said in despair 4<l would not be able to see S&kya-
muni, the fkther of Mercy (Karui>imaya). The idea of Maitrcym,
of T*ien-kung, Devaloka (T u^u heaven)inspires my
heart. I could neither the Bodhi Tree nor could I watch the
glorious flow of the ^ Kskn.hc Lucky river. How
1. tn ehe Sung edltloo. nd in the Imperial It<cor<t, it is LQ r%A
not and in the Sunf, Ming and tlie Yftn Dynasties u if
Fa-shih mnd %ot sKsh only.
Pardte, the Iwrih Devaloka whre $U the Bodhiuuvas
wrc to be bora before ikey finally ppeard oa the
15 Monks 103

can I gather together all the emotioiw arising from the six organs
of senses and practise to attain (six p&ramitas) in three AsaA*
khycya,x San-chih f f without visiting those places .
Thereupon, in the second year of yjc |.Yung*shun (Ch'un)1
period, taking a monks staff, Ke voyaged in the South Sea with
many companions in the beginning, but later on, they decided
not to proceed further. He was, therefore, left alone. R t follo
wed the Chinese envoy with the Buddhist SQtras and images*
They embftrked on a ship and reached SrI-vijaya Island after
more than a months voyage, and remained there for a couple of
years. He could not understand the language spoken by the
of Kun-lun. He studied Sanskrit books thrc.
led a very pure and simple life and vnth one heart and
mind received the whole of the Commandments, Yuanchu.
I-ching met the monk here only. The monk wanted to return to
China vwth the hope of requesting the Emperor to build a monas
tery in the West that would serve the great purpose of human
welfare. So he uder(ook the perilous sca-voyage.
Thereupon, on the fifteenth day of the second month of the
third year of *Faen-5hou he set sail lor Ch*ang*an.
He took with h h n ten c h iia z K of misccllaneoas Buddhist Sfiuas
and Sastras newly translated, four chuan of M
i$ Nan4iai-<i-kuci-nei*i-chikan {Rieord of the inner
law m religion sentfrom the South Sea country though one who rttums)
and two chuan of Hsi~j^Mttifihkat^sheng^huan (Memoirs of
eminent monks wKo visited Western region or India and its
neighbouring countries in search of Law).
1 In every Maba Kalpa. there rc three Kalpas: ( I ) Period of desinictftou
(Prftbya). (2) Period of fonnatioa (Stliiti), (S) Friod of reproductwn
(Srvti)* In order to become Buddha, every BodhisaUv* attaint 9x PlramiUs
\sx three AsaAkhcya auod 100 Kalpas to attain 32 sigo^
This ora. wata started by Ihe chinl Emperor of T*ang Dy
nasty in A.D. 6fi2.
$ TJw I>owagcr Empress Wtt of the T*ang Dynasty usurped the ihrooc
for twenty y e m . Sbe ch d ^ ed tike Dynastic title and adopted the title Chou
ia A.D. 690. I a otfikr to commemorate th event, be begaa a new era m tbe
104 Chinese Monks
Eulogising, i( is said "since childhood you have insatiable long*
ing for Dharma and very firm determination. You had already
travelled all over China in search of the Truth and went to
Western Land (India) as well to collect more information (about
Buddhism}. Later on, you went back to the Divine Land to pro
pagate the vastness and extensiveness of Shih-ia1 Daia-
dhannft1 for the welfare cf the living souls. Th of
autumns had away but you have not grown
The four m nks qualified to be included in the Record
of the South Sea (Record of the Buddhist religion a$ practised
in that region)*
Pi-eh*u-chen-ku Lii-shih. The Vinaya-mastcr Bhiksu Qicn-ku
WM known as 4 Sa-luo-chi-tuo, Salacitta in
Sanskrit. Tbc translation of ic in Chinese is Ghcn-ku> firm and
erect. He belonged to t M l Jung-ch*van m Cheng.1 His
family name was Meng. From his childhood he grew kind
and compassionate and directed his attention towards Hui-
yuan.* At the age of fourteen he lost hii father.
He realised the unreality of life and that the Law of the Buddha
Alone is real.
Thereupon, self-possessed and mindful, he desired to pay a
visit to the sacred plaoes. With this aim ia view he went co the
monastery of , Teng-t'ze-Ssu*the monastery of

1. TK powero f Buddht bestowing correct knowledge. T he Power

o f (1) im dcntaading between right and wroai{ (2) o f knowing what is the
lUrxnd o f evevy being (3) different stafes o fD h y te * Uberaiion, (4) the power
of giving moral direction to living beings, (5) of knowi&g actual conditions of
aU bangs, (6) of giving direction and rciuttant cooacqumccs o f U laws,
(7) o f knowing alt caciMt of mortality, (ft) power* mnd faculties o f all
be^tgs, (9) end o f all beings and (10) destruction o i a!tt illuilooi.
S W. . Soothhil!'il Dktwaaxy of Ckinest Bud^ust TViw.^ p. 46 (b). 51a.
2. A leu<U3 state under the Chou Dynasty. Modem K*2ufeng In
uan (L*U 46*N, Long. \ \ r 56*B),
Z. A cclebnted monk of thd Tang period (A.D. 618-907), lextcogiaphr
compiled a dictionary of 3ounds and meanings of the Buddhavat^xbsaka Sdtra.
MC No. IG06.
4. This temple wm eonstmetcd during the Qieri-Ktum period (l>,
6rt*50) of tKe T*v\% E lector T*d-Twajf in Chft'og-vx.
15 Monks 105

Universal Compassion where the monk Yuan was living at Fan-

shui1 : K He extended his services to the abbot of the
moaastciy. The religious fervour in him was greatly heightened
and thus he achieved the ability to rccile the great Buddhist
Sutras. Unfortunately, his preceptor passed away aiicr three
Later on, he visited the ^ Lin-lti and other monaste
ries in 4^ Hsiang-chou* to seek a teacher for religious
guidance. He wished to unveil the myatcry of mcditatioa. He
could realise that his comprehension of the Law was not enough.
His power of discriminacion between real and unreal was very
much limited.
He again proceeded towards the Kingdom of (the
Eastern Wei rulers) TunWei* to hear (the discourses) and study
the text "ft Wei-shih, Vijnaptim^traid,4 Next going to
1. Accorcfing to Han Djfnasty record Fan-shui was the narae of a river in
Ho^n&n During the Sui Dyxmiy thb was the name of a place in Ho-nan.
Modern name of the place K'at-feog in Ho-oan.
2. Hsiang^hou is modem Ghang te (Lat 36 07*N, Long. 114 30*)
in Ho-pei province. During the Wc Dynasty, it was known as Hang-chou.
3. The Eaitem Wei Dynuty ruled only for $\xucn year* from A.D, 5$4
co 550. Their capiul wm at Ych in H o -n a n province.
4. Asahgat, the elder brother of ViJubandlm, wa rctpomible for converting
Vasubandhu from Hlnay&iu to Mah&y&na. TKse two brothers initiated and
formulated the doctrines of the Idealistic school in India. The scholftrs differ
about thir dates; some auign them to the fourth eeatury, others to the fifth.
After his coavrsion to the acw faith, Vaaubaadhu nude a suprme contribution
to the VijA&nav4da by writing the monumental work Vij/iaptimAtraU*Sid<lhi,
He propounded hts philosophy of Vijftinav&da in two classical treatiseft
tiJ^d aad TrtrniaftJed in. twenty aad thirty verses respectively. HU philosophy
repudiates all belief in the reality of the material objective world
suppot ting that the Citta (Vijfiana) of Gittamitra (Vijfi&namitfA) is the
o lity.
am&rtlia or Chen-ti, & native of Iadia, first introduced the idealistic
tetchings of the Indian masters Asaiiga and Vasubandhu tr the Chinese Bud*
4hi*t world by traoslatirxg the SLtra belonging to (he VHMAavddin school.
During the T ang periodthe Salakfo^a, Fa-hsiang or the Idealistic school was
developed by Hsiian*chuang and Kueichl. H^tian-chuang traiislatcd the
VijHapti-mdiratd-Suldhi with all the Indian commenurict into Chtocsc. Later
on, he summarised all these into one work, with l^iarmaipAla*t commentary,
See Winlemitz, HIL Vol. 2, p. 360. f.n.4.
106 Chinese Monks

A n< W he s u id ie a $ F ang-teng* under the Great

D h y in a * m a ste r Y u.
Some days had passed by, a wonderful form suddenly appear*
ed before him. Again he left for Ching-chou, passed through
many mountains and rivers still seeking for perfect knowledge.
He wanted to know what was not known before.
Next reaching Hsiang*chou, he met the Dhyiina-mastcr Shen-
tao and received from him the knowiedge of victorious deeds of
AinaUbha. Then h t left this impure and corrupt work! and
desired to takt shelter in heaven, the abode of eternal tranquil
lity and virtue. He always thought of receiving the same pain
and agony as was felt by the Ta-shih, Mahasattvas. Why
does not VijflapUmitrati change into Pure Land, Ching-iang ?
Next he proceeded towards the monastery of Great Enlightcn-
mem, chc place of Dhyana-master Pradlpa, where he received
instructions from his superior. Even at the teacher's utterance of
half a word, he could grasp the whole meaning. He made an
exclusive study of canonical rules with che Dhy&na-master.
He carried on the important responsibility of (preaching)
Wu-tc of -It Shih.tsun, the Five Viftuex of
Loltc^vararaja,4 the World*honoured One. He deeply studied
various Sutras and Sastras. At that time he was a strong up
holder of \ts ffc Szu*i Caturiara^a.6 He was anointed with
1. An*chou Fu in P*ing-an.
2 . T h e V a ip u ly a SiUras o r th e S a tra s o f in f in ite m eaning* t r t th e M t h a -
j&nft S A tn u , supposed to b e p re a c h e d by th e Buddba. before be first m oved Ch
W heel o f I a w . A m ong th Mah&yftn S a tra s th e is m e S u tra s a r c o f greAl
m e rit a n d re g a td e d a s th e m ost im p o rta n t o f a ll tex ts. T h c w a re th e Ajfasdfuu-
H AA'pr^jnS^tam itd, th e SatUtHorm ika Sutra, th e LatitM istara; the L a A k ^
Mttfrft, th e Su\iarpaprabh6sat th e C y a, th e TathHgcla*gu)\)fekat th e S a m i,
^tiraja a n d th e DaUtbhihniivara. T h e se a re c alled th e *VaipuJya SCUrV.
3. At the end of three month's rainy retreat, every monk had to conftu
or had to acquire five virtue* at the Pjr
v&rap&ceremony. These are : F r o
dom from prcdilcciioti, from aagcr* from fear, not to be euily deceived, dis*
cemmenk of thirkcrs of confession .
Sc N. Dutt. Earffr Maaastie Buddhism, Vol. I, p. 293.
- #Thc Lord of the World', 1Woridhoaoured One*, %^ich hat been the
cptthcl of every Buddha.
5 TKe four rqui$ite (Catupccyft) of Bhikfu. They w usually given
15 Monks 107

the principle o f ' Pa*chich, eight stages of mental concen

tration, as{a vimok5a l that greatly influenced ihe different sects.
His prodigious wisdom and profound knowledge of \ Liu*
six was high like the crest of a mountain. He was
not confused with five earthly dirts (that taint the (rue nature)
Wu-ch*cn.2 He was undisturbed by nine dutres$cs
YL Chiu-nao* and excelled outwardly >n the four currents
vso Szu-liu4 andinsidc he lie the knowledge of ^ Santing.ft
He was greatly respected by monks and laity both equally and
was regarded as the Chief of the Sect. He was specially invited
and pcrmUtwi to enter the divuic capital. He spent many years
in the Pflrv^rama Tung*Ssu* under the Dynastic rule
of the Wei. The monk K u was a little more than twenty years
old. TKcrc sitting at the feet of Dhyana-mastcr, he acquired
brilliant scholarship in complete CtHnmandments ||{

in the Pili texts zs Cl vara, Pin^ap^ta, Sen^sana, and ^lan-paccayft-bhcssyja

(Majjhim*Afikdyt I. 33). But in the Dfgha 1155. ghastacchadana for
the fint two.
1. Liberation or Release in eight (bnm The t^rm vimok^a is explained
in the Abhidhama-Koia- Vydkhyi as that which remove the veil covering the
higher meditation. Its another meaning is that it makci the adept* turn their
face from the phenomena world.
N. Dutt. llu Early Monastic Butfdhim, pp. 268-69. fo r the eight stages of
mental concentration see Abhidhama-KpU Vydkhyi (Japanese Edition} pp.
2. The objects of five sen*es are rflpa r&sa gandha> iabda and iparia
which being worldly or dirty things, can taint the true nature.
3. The nine dutrcsscs vid< ^ Chih-tu-hin. Commentary on the
4. (i) (Uuior\ due to impetfct perception, (ii) desire, (iii) cxiitencc,
(iv) ignorance*
5. Thre forms of Samadhi; (i) fC'ung mind made empty of
*mc (ii) Complete removal of the idea of form <iii) free
dom from all desire ^ WO-yflan.
6. The monastery of Eastern grove wa built by the authorities at the
request of a Buddhist m o n k Huwyunj at Lu mountain. The name was PQrva-
vihara. There wa a similar notable monastery, POrv&rima to the north-ctuc
of Jctavana-Vih^ia in India. It was so called because o f ita utuatiOQ on
tbe east of the city of SrivaiU.
108 Chinese Monks

Then he took only one year in learning the general outlines

concerning the aws of the Vinayas.
Again he advanced towards An-chou, spent thrcc-
years with the Vinaya-master Hsm studyij^ mindfully
written explanations by the Vlnaya-mastcr Hsuan. Not a
single question remained unansw-cd by him; he excelled even
4f < U-po-li, Upili.1 He Had gone through ihe five
P^cn.* He abo received lessons from a Bhikfuru, nun
Pi-su-ni. He had perfect comprehension of all that is abstruse In
^ C h9i < h ^
According to the rules of Vin%yaf he became a Parivrajaka,
recluse, at the age of five; he was ordained before he attained
maturity. Ten years had already passed when he left his own
hearth and home. He achieved his goal, before he was twenty
The Vinaya*rruster Hsiu was the best disciple of the Vinaya-
master Hsing (Abhyudaya) of _ Shu-chOn.4 At
the age of twenty he wai fully ordained and continued his
stay at Szc-chuan. There the monk Hsiu studied the Vinaya
for four years from a monk teacher. Next Ke wnt to Ch'ang-an
where he became a guest of the monk Hsuan and settled there.
The monk like a domestic goose drinking only (he essence

1. one o f che mast cmin^it cfisciptcs of the Bud<iha belonged to a

barberfamily. Detnf ordained hy tbe Buddha, h< became a monk and de-
ilxtd to meditate m the forest- But au the advice of th t Lord, he stayed among
men Mid got hi* Itssoas. on Vinaya directly from the Buddha. He regarded
Up^Ii as one o f th< most rtnowned VlnayaklharAS. In the first council c t
R&jagrha. he recited iHe whole Vinaya and <led4d all the regard
ing the V iiuya. li w u a great privilege to Icam Vinaya from Up&Ut even
w htn the Buddha hiimelf was living.
Htt Upili Va^a, Ah^idiax-}<tikAym.
t. (i) P&rijilu, (ii) Sanchavmscsa, 0) PriyaiciMa* (iv) Pratidofanlya,
(t ) Dufkrta.
3. Tbc five above and two man(i) Sth&lalvftya, () actioa and
K vm a and Vic.
4. The modem province of Sxc-chuM^ the Gh*^n*tu wta kaown
u ShQ-chOn in arctent ime^
15 Monks 109
from a vessel o f milk m ixed with water,1 collected the essence
of Perfect Knowledge foe ihe happiness o f the Paradise (Sukba*
vatl), the isles o f Blessedness. In sixteen years, he never left the
He studied thoroughly ihe discipline of numerous schools of
thoughts. T he Commentary o f the Dhyana-master was carefully
preserved as a fundam ental text o f the sec t Then he went to
San-yang in Pa-shui, and from there again proceeded to Kuang-
chou, his birthplace, to report the achievement he had made.
Then he moved to An-chou where he propagated the great
and magniRcent ceachii^s o f the Vinaya. T he princes with all
the grandeur welcomed hsm w ith honour and tespect. The
ancient V inaya says thac though there arc diHerent schools, yet
the rules o fV m ay a are followed uniformly by each one o f them;
there is no difference.
H e lived in the D alabala monastery Shih4i Sso.
H w ent to the abode o f p^ace a t the age o f little more than
He was very simple and pure by nature. His eyes aad cars
wie always alert to bring every m atter to the notice o f a superior.
O h 1 w hat a gigantic pillftr he was in the realm of the Buddha
during th at period ! H would be regarded as the greatest man
by the posterity.
I t is tru ly said th at the pearls from the river*
H an and
jade of $] *Cbing arc from diflferem places Imt both arc
attracdve a n d fascinating. T he twigs o f cassia and the leaves of
orchid have the same fragrance though they grow in different
1. This idea might have been taken ftom (he famous Suukrit Slok of
PmuUantra Ka^Utmt^chm'.
Anantspirdrn kila Sabdaiiatraitn /
Svalpaiji tathayurbaLhAvafca vighn&l^ "
S&ram t*to gr&hyamip&kya pjulgu /
H*i?airyaik MlramivimbuvnadhyK //
2. The BOuth-eastem lea board between Yang-tze Md Pearl fivers h u
many shorter rivcrt; the river Ham i*one of (hem fkiwing Erectly to the lea.
3. lt comprised the province of Hu-^iaa, mot ofHu*pei uid part of Kue*'
no Chintse Monks

The monk Ku obtained the Vinaya texts and thoroughly

studied them. With more efforts he studied the SQtras and
Sastras, Moreover, ht recited thousand times the Saddhama-
pftn^arika Sutra (Lotus Sutra), Fa-bm-chingand Vimolaklrtinitdeia-
SHtra, Wei-mc^chin^1 He regularly attended the prayer with
sincere devotion and always remembered (the canonical rules).
Though the monk Ku believed in San-ych, Trividha-
dv&ra (karma) stilt he had equal interest in observing the four
ceremonies Szu-i.*
Next, he went to Hsiang-chou and stayed there withamonk.
Here he seriously listened to the discourses on ^ pj Su-
tan-Iuo, the Sutras (sermons of the Buddha) and searched for
(he mystery Tui-fa-tsang, Abhtdharmapifaka. He understood
fully the deepest thought of Abhidh^rma and followed a very tcm.
perate and frugal Ufe.
Resting in the magk city3 lb ^ Hua-chang (illusion)
finalt/ one reaches Ratnadvlpa4 f ( Pao-chu i.e. after

I * Vimala if one of (he outstanding work of BuddhiM

literature. St wa* extremely popular Mahiyana. Sdtra among the Chinese
gentry. During die epoch of (he Three Kingdoms, Chih^chien
translated thU Sfltra. Later onduring the period of the Ghin (A.D. 265-317)
Dharmvik^a and the Indian Upasaka Ghu-shu-lan undertook the trans
lation of the same SQtra before Kum4r*jW* went to Qv*ang-an. The original
name of this UpUika if not known. Dr. P. C. Bagchi h u rendaed thit riAme
su ^uktaraina and Matsumoto, Sa^ghamkya (ZGrcher, BCC. 1IA pp. p. 346.)
VimalaltirU was a ^rcftt devotee of Chc Buddha, man of praTouod wisdom
and of enormous wealth- Vmulaklrti^ famous householder of Vai dbcussed
the 4Gte of Unique Law* sitting side by )ide with Manjuisi. This scene has
been depicted on (he Lung-mcn cavc> many * time. Thebc*t tr<uutatioii of the
SQcia was done by Kumirajlva and ti$ commentary was written by Scng-chao.
t Wd 4hu-shib-lao*d>ili).
SaMmma pum^artka S$tra was a favourite scnplurc of the large masses of
tbe Buddhist society during the period of the six Dynasties but l^maCakfrti-
/iifdeia-SStra was much more popular with the Qiincse intellectuals and gentry
2. The four rieoaU or ceremonies taught by tbe Master Confucius: (i)
Litetaturc, (ii) Personal Conduct, (iii) Being on^s true e>f, (iv) Honesty
in locial rrlatioitihip.
1$ Afffidb 1)1

resting in impetfcert Nirvana finally one achieves the goat of

perfect Nirviumu
Crossing the river Hsiai^-shui1, ihe monk Ku advanced to*
wards Lu-shao1 d* H e admired the noble principle of
che Lord that relieved the world.
He lived in the Tang-lm monastery wbcfe be propi^ated hi$
He had a passionate desire to pay a visit to Ceylon to have a
glimpse of the Buddha Tooth and other sacred places. In the
*4 Ch^ui-kung period,* he went to Kei.lin with mendicmnt-
stick and followed the principles of the Buddha vdicrtvcr he
travelled. He gradually arrived a t a distant mountain valley
where he was graced with the blessings of the Lord lo coatinue
hit jouraey. Next he reached and stayed at P^an-yO in Cantoa.
The Buddhist disciples living there requested him to teach tbe
Vinaya treatises. T h at was tbc glorious age when th i tt
dhy&yas (Buddhist erfBeer*)* were appointed by the great pious

K The Upper reaches of the stream are known as Tai*f>ai rivr. The
river Hdanf<ihui li lo the south-east of Fao-chi in Sh^i-Si.
2. The monnt Lu it situated io the $outh*west of the district Hsing*tte
in Chiuxgoi (Kiang-) and to the south of Chiu-chiang, a port on (he Yang
tze* The mount Lu i famous for its natural beauty^ and it was very popular
centre for toe Buddhist teaming. A monastery wiu buili on the eastern slopes
ihe mountain called the Tui^-liii-Ssu (Monastery of Eastern grove). It
was finished in A J>. 386. Sanghadev^ a Kashmirian m otk who tr^nsUtd tbe
liUrciuri into Chtnese> lived m Lu*shan.
SdnAsiivddin liUraiurt
See 7C77. Ltt-shan~kt>Vol. 5tf p.
j 1024, No. 2095.
S. Thii era was started in AJL ,685 by the Empress Wu of tbe P a n g
4. These officers seem to be like the Dharmam&hinUtras, class of offt*
ctabf erected by die King Asofca. Tike mention of Dharmantah^matrsu is
found in the Rock Kdict V. The activities these ofQcials were manyfold.
TKe mftin idea of Asoka was to promote the moral w^fare o i hU subjects. So
h e appointed DhamiamaHamalias t o sprcsud Dharma, t o bestow grants, and t&
look ftftrr (he wel&rc of the dUTercnt c o a tcn ^ K m u y sects like Buddhists, Jaaxa9
X^vUuts and others. The activities of che Buddhist ofiflmls a^xnnted by the
T**ng ruler were mainly to promote Buddhosm, to propagate moial Uw ad
jutkc io the country.
112 Chinfse Monks

P a n g ruler, with the hope to kindle again the Buddha-Sun that

removes the darkness o f ignorance. T he B uddha-truth, like a
barque, ferries men out from the sea o f m ortality to Nirvi^ia.
In the end, this imposing and dignified monk became a symbol
of Vinaya. So K u commanded respect and was very much sought
He discussed and expounded the teachings of p
Pi-nai-ych, Vinaya, at Tripitaka Bodhiman^la *
San>ts*ang-tao-ch*ang for nine years and completed ieven P*icn,
chapters (P&rijika, Sanghavaiesa, Prayascitta, Pratido^amlya,
du^krtaKarma and Vikaction and speech). He not only
excellently taught the Buddhbc disciples but also properly guided
ihe Uity.
Tlie A cirya (Preceptor ) Tu-li o f the J g Chih-
chih monastery was greatly respected by everyone o f th at
period. Silting on the platform, every time he encouraged his
disciples with his excellent method o f teaching and with untiring
zeal and sincerity.
The Acarya with a lofty and high m oral character, left home
at an early age. Even at the age of seventy, he observed respect
fully the rules of Wu-p'Len. Only the blessed one can attain the
highest wisdom.
T he able guidance o f the Acarya helped him in crossing the
waves of D hyina pond and led him to reach the deep ocean of
the Law to attain Nirvana. After surmounting the rocky height
of thought range one can reach the lofty peak of the highest
prajfta. H perfectly realised the illusory nature o f the world
jind was aware o f the fact that mind Is the fundam ental source o f
all TKough everything in the universe is unreal, the deeds
o f beings produce results. He played the supreme role o f a bridge
across the stream (of life). His continuous w riting on the Sutras
pi (aka served the purpose o f providing m ental nourishment to
all. In fact, his exposition on enlightening knowledgej had great
influence on mankind. He advised conscientious people to com
bine the highly esteemed Vinaya with Teachings.
15 Monks 113

Taking leave o f his disciples, (he monk K u retired to mountin

valley* H e desired to dweU a* a recluse under the pine trees and
Co cultivate mccUtation, the object o i his heart* desire. he
abbot o f che Mcng*cb'icn temple specially went to
meet the head o f th e ^ Pin-yang monastery and
told him th a t the young monk K u was aui embodiment o f the
highest tru th , knowledge, compassion and forgiveness. Day and
night he selflessly served the people an d respected th d r view
The monk K u wished to enter into a E feo f rest and meditation
in a monastery. H e cherished the desire to build a baxTack (for
the monks) with a long corridor having direct connections with
roads an d steps and to fcconstrud the foundation (of the build
ing) and to dig a pond round the moaastcry. His s<^e asm was to
propagate the p u rity and richness o f A$^avimok$a, eightfold
path of liberation. A t thattinkc, be constructed a platfomi where
he hoped to explain to the people the essence o f Chi*chu Seven
precepts. H e also w anted to erect a mausoletim for the ashes of
Buddhist priests1 and behind it a MahayAna Bcdhiman<la M the
back o f ehe a lta r i Chieh-t*an to cultivate and practise
the purity and richness of Sam^dhi Fa-hua*san-
wei * Though he had firm detennination to carry out his
plan, yet a t the end he never succeeded in his pursuit. He conti
nued to observe the reles and ceremonies c f ^ ^ Pu*sa#
U pavasatha& and had already made the general nktidh (of the

( A cemetery where a. generation of monks had left their shet eao be

seen down below the Kraaagtn or Kanheri cves in W$tem About
twenty five miles from Bombay.
2. S a J A s rm x ^ ^ n lk a SStrc mcntkned the names of jbtceen
such aa DhvTij&gTa KcyCira, Saddharma HaVfaktru&ja vikrdiu
Set H. Kern. Tht Lotus t f the Trm Lam (Trns!atioi>), Ch. 23, p. 393.
3. The Buddhist rite ofUpva$Mh or Upotb U marked with the cit*
Iton of the Wtimokkha on every full-moon m d new-moon In observing
these sacred tiny* the BuddhUt monks should nuk se)fexaminatioQ and con*
fmiors. They keep fasttog on these days. Hence these day) arc caQed Upa>
vasatha. It Is not an innovation ttftited by tbe Buddbiits. oa the
114 Chmese Monks
buildi ) . Though he stayed w ith m any preceptors, he was not
sure w hether to advance o r retire.
I-ching went to the ship a t the m outh o f the riv er Bhoga to
send letters asacrcd cn tiai to K uang-chou through, people request
ing them to m eet h b friends and ask them w ho em barked on a
ship and to keep ready the papers, ink cakes etc. Ibr copying
Sanskrit Sutras and a t the same tim e to find some m eans to hire
scribes. T he merchants at th a t time stiled in favourable wind
and raised their sail to the utm ost height. T hus he (I-C h in g ) was
carried back; even if he asked to stopthere would have been
no way. H e realised from this th a t InHuence o f K arm a which
determines the fate is beyond hum an planning.
Next, on the tw entieth day o f the seventh m o n th o f the Yung-
ch*ang period (A.D. 689) they arrived a t K uang-fa. T h e monks
and laity as well, m et and received him w ith respect. H e sighed
and said to the resident suonks o f the f l GhiK*chih (The
E dict)monastery th at he (I-ching) w ent to the W estern country
with a prim ary hope of transm itting and spreading ( the L aw ).
O n his way back he remained in the Island of the South. Sea.
H e took along w ith him (from In d ia) texts containing more
than 500,000 ^lokas o f the T rip i|ak a. I t was absolutely nescessary
Chat he must go there onee again. But he was m ore than fifty
years old; while crossing the running waves once m ore, the
horsci th at pass through cracka1 m ay not stay a n d to protect
the life would be difficult.
If the time for the morning dew comes suddenly, to whom
should these books be entrusted ? T he sacred canon is consi
dered to be the im portant doctrine; vfho would accompany
him to collect these ? The right type o f person who could easily
translate the Sutras must be found out. T he assembly unani-

moon *nd ncw-moon days obterved In In d i* even in e a rlio t ticae. (SatO'

patkd U K T he 0ariap&r9*nUba, Sacred Books o f Ute Vol.
X U , ? m I .) .
T be Up*vaaath<!ay ceremony in Cluna diH m (rotayth^X il it in India,
1 . } See TUituu ARBPSHSS p . xxxv f.n.
IS Monks US
mously told him th a t a monk nam ed Chen-ku, liWng not very
far from th at place, had studied the Vinayn from early age vrich
absolute sincerity a n d perfection. I f he was available he would
be the best fo r him (I-ch in g ). After hearing thU, be sak) that
Chen-ku w ould b e the rig h t type o f m an whom be was looking
or since long.
T hen, he sent a le tte r requesting Chcn-ku to accompany him
o a his voyage roughly nilonm iig him about their prepauration.
Chcn-ku a b o opened the le tter an d a g irc d ta his (MOposal. H e
took leave o f the q uiet f b r a t o f Pines a n d scream (the solitary
abode o f th e nionk) w ith Jcy. I n front o f (he hilt o f the Stone
g a tc (n o rlh -w tst o fK u a n ^ -tu x ^ ) h e tucked u p his sleeves raised
his sluit and e n u r e d th e G hih-cblh (The E dict) temple- They
began to like each o th e r a s d shared their feeling to rcmo<e the
worldly dust. T h ey surifioed their five limbs tb t cause o f
religion). T h e y concluded in friendship as i f from ages they were
friends. Though they did not m eet each other belore still tbey
were cherishing common aspiration and common dciirc. In ihe
pleasant night they discussed various m atters relevant to their
future plan.
The monk Chen-ku said, when virtue wishes men to meet
they unite w ithout any introduction. W e arc naturally united.
TTlmc has come when no one can stop it even if they want. May
J then earnestly propose to propagate and spread the teachings
o f the T ripi(aka together and thus help you to Ut thousand
W hen they proceeded towards the m ountain H$la {near
Kung*tung) co bid farewell to the abbot C h ^ n and other resi
dents o f the temple, CKUen, the head o f the temple, decided to
perform every rite and acted accordii^ly. He never intended
to keep them any longer with h im ; on the contrary, after knowing
their aims and objectives, he extended his help and shared ihcir
happiness and joy. He was never worried for wliat he might be
wanting for himself. H e was sincerely giving assistance to other*.
Moreover, he lavishly provided them with money and other
116 Chinese Monks

necessaries so th at they w ould n o t be short o f anything in their

T h e priests and ihe lay followers o f Kuang-fu gave them enough
money and food. T h e n on the first d ay o f the eleventh m onth of
the same year (A.D. 689) they sailed by a xnerchant ship for
Fan-yu.1 From there they advanced towards G h a m p i aim ing to
reach Sri-vijaya after a long voyage so th a t they would become
the ladders for every sentient being, o r like a boat they would
help them to cross the vast ocean o f passion. I t was a real joy
for them th a t their long cherished resolution was goii^g to be
fulfilled. T hey hoped n o t to fall in the course o f their long
journey. T h e m onk Chcn-ku was th e n forty yew s old.
I t is said th a t a wise m an performs deeds d u e to his K arm a of
previous b irih . A t young age, he purified his thoughts anrf strived
only for blessedness. T o receive knowledge and kindness he was
passionately searching for a renowned, superior and real prccep-
tor. H e was unconcerned a b o u t his own affairs and m aterial
gain. T h e m onk K u h a d only (hirst for virtuous m en and price-
leas things like T ru th . H e received a n d grasped the knowledge
o f the classics o f th e wonderful D harm a C h aoticn*
a n d understood u n c h a t^ e a b le reality an d iu tru e meanings
hidden behind all phenom ena. H e was extrem ely virtuous and
honest ac heart, unblem ished ia c h aracterprsosperous and fear
less. Being indifferent to w orldly glory and position, he longed
to discard (this body) like old shoe. I f he had to live in g reat
difficulties he w ould not grudge for it. And he travelled all over
like & busy bee in search o f Sc* and | Hwang4, R upa
and G andha.
G iving up the comforts o f life, he proceeded alone in search o f
Chinese cultural heritage. T he philosopher K u devoted his

1. I t was a prefecture (district) on th e S o u th ^ e a in Ku^og-G hou (Caa

to n ).
2. SAtras of the Mahy&n School.
$. O oeof (he 6ve skandhas and oae of tbe six Bihya-iymtanas.
4. One of the SadiyatAna, six lenses.
Monks HI

attention to voluminous literature to seek the knowledge of (he

Vinaya and thus he could succeed in discovering the principlw
of the network (of the V inaya). Further, he made much pro
gress in deep mysticism.
His long cherished denre was to extend his feliciutions to the
distant Wisdom Tree. Thereupon, with a staff o f chcnopodium
be reached the K uei-lin monastery. He w u delighted in climb
ing the valley and it was a great joy for him to know the things
o f the w orldFinally he followed the traditions of China. The
monk Ku was again pleased to know the new religion that spread
speedily in the South. H e hoped to prcacb and spread the religion
which was n o t done before. Congratulation for such stnig
determ ination. He could sacrifice his own self for the cause of
The monk became a good companion of 1-ching and both of
them reached t Chia-chou.1 They had the determina-
doi) for noble action Fan-hsing (w^uch ensures a
place in Brahmaloka). O n this basis, they became very good
friends. Like brother he helped 1-ching throughout theJr jour
ney, cither by sea o r by I and.
When the aim and hope of lighting the lamp of preaching
(Buddha's teaching) would be fulfilled in his long life, then alone
he would be free fron) mortification. After reachmg Sti-vijaya
he could feel th at he had achieved the object of his long cherished
desire. H e listened to the discourses on religion which he had
never heard before and watched those practices and customs
which he had never seen before.
He translated m any texts, a t the same time he acquired eh
knowledge. He examined the customs and practices with great
care and overcame the st tc.
He saw new things, gat new experiences and a new vista
of law and culture opened bcfc^e him. He had extensive know
ledge and vast wisdom. Every time he encouraged himself to
carry out the n o b k cause, Beinf respectful, frugal, laborious

1. Suv^nudvipa.
m Chituse Motda
and affectionate, he was never overshadowed w ith horror of
death.1 H e was afraid th a t T oo m any cooks spoil the bro th n.
Moreover, a solitary cuui ta n tclicve the su rring a n d distrtis
peacefully. A flame o f fire in favourabk wind m ay cover thou
sands o f lamp) and put them in to obscurity !*
T he monk Chen-ku had one disciple whose family nam e was
jt M c i^ and fine aame1|jj[ H$ikan*ych, H e was known
as i Sengchia*t*i.po , Sanghadeva. T hough h b
grandfather originally belonged to the norths he h a d to live
in che south as an im perial officer; so h b fam ily a b o tempcNrarily
shifted to Kiungfu. As a great patron o f ihe F*ithbe received
religious instructkms from th t preceptor. T hough h t was tender
in age, his determ ination was very strong. T h e officer (Sa/i^ha-
dcva) m et the head preceptor w ith a n earnest desire o f acquiring
extensive knowledge. Hsftan-yeh wislted to ftccompany his
teacher. H e was predestined to study Buddhism leaving his
own home and family. H e sailed for Sri-vijaya. H e q uite under
stood the loca} language o f K^un-lun^studied thoroughly Sanskrit
books and chanted beautifully AkMdharmakofa vems an d other
Buddhist hymns. H e became a n attendant, and late r on he be
came a n in tc q m te r. H e was seventeen years old. (In three
editions it is 70 years old).
f Bhikfa To4iung. His S aaskrit name
was Buddhadeva. In Chinese it is '4 . ChUch-
ti*cn wiiich means divine wisdom. He belonged to
Yui^-ch*iu in : Picn-choo.4Hu fiuiutynamcvras

l Morning you bcr, evcmAg you die [Lun

Cm^ftumr Ir. h f James Le^gc Book IV . Chap. V U I, CaarendiM
2. It is interesiiii^ to ftOe tb same in the Subli&9&ta. *Rlr<cnA-
tamo bitnti, na. ca tAiSyu)o, pi ca*. Only one moon can remove the 4srluxcs>
which counties scan cannot da.
3. Dunag ChSm CKiu (Kfiod Yung-di*iu wM tbe capital of a feudal
itnte of Ghi. The vtdcnt dty of Ctk*iu wa ia pretent Ho->un.
Modem K*ai-J<txg Ia north Ho-nan formin|abo the district city ct
Hsiang-lu ( U t $4# S2*N, Long 1143S*E). in *ecicnt (ime Uus p ltc t wa*
kAovvn m Picn-Kang, period Pica-dMM.
15 Monks K19

His father was a com panion o f a m erchant Therefore, he

travelled all over the south. H e crossed the rivers of the north,
south and central C hina and climbed five mountains1, scattered
all over the country. In the course of his wandering life, he
passed through g Shao-pu3 and next he went to Hsia*
shan.s H e saw the lonely desolated cliffs and valleys, witnessed
the solitude and serenity of the fountain-heads of screams, grathcr-
td new experiences and knowledge, aad put on black robw4
discarding ordinary clothes.
At his young age, T a o -h u r^ was earned away from place to
place like duck-weed by K arm a without any hindrance. He
travelled m any places w ith his lather and teacher, visited Kuei*
lia th at aroused his imaginations. H e retired to a quiet place.
H is father was known by the name Dhyina-maseer Ta-kan.
He went to the Dhy&na-master Chi to study esoteric or mystery
of soul, spent a couple o f years there and acquired knowledge
about essential m eaning o f the doctrine^ in general. Next he
went to H sia-shan. T h e a Tao-kung along w ith his father left
home and became a monk. H e acquired some knowledge in all
the branches a t the age o f twenty. H e left for Kuang-fu and
entered the Buddhist monastery Though be was young and his
expectations were not much, still his ideal o f life was very high.
Hearing o f I-ching's arrival, he wanted to pay a visit to this
wonderful monk. O n his inquiry, he was told that I-ching had
been living in the Ghih-chih monastery. Immediately
he reported to I-ching w ith a feeling o f reverence and conven
tional courtesy. H e discovered th a t both of them had the com-

J. I n Iiu lia tSkcre w e re fiw sa c re d m ountains associated w t h (he life o f th e

B uddha. I n C h in a they h a d also five m ountains c om idefed very sacred b y ih e
B uddhists T hese re C bin^-^han, P d -sh sn , Naa^shaa af H a h chou a n d A*
yQ -w ang-ihan, K to g m o u n taia an d T*ai-pai-shaii s t N ingpo.
2, t h ave n o t been abt Co find out th e w ord Shao-pu b u t if it is Shao-
chou, th e n it h CA C h U-chiang io K uang-iun^.
3* m odern, Ch*iung*lat U on th e ooctb-wcst o f th e huge mouiv*
u i n fringing th e S 2e-ch*uatt B aiio. G h'iiing-lai is che m ost m ^ e ttlc an d m ag-
olficeo< scen ic ^>ot.
4 , T he B uddhist monies sometime* used to wer black ro b tt.
120 Chinese Monks

mon ideals. H e again and again felt very m uch tem pted (o meet
him. W hatever may be in fate, one must mdkc sacrifices (for
acquiring greater knowledge). H e heard th at acquiring know)*
edge is like crossing the cowering waves b u t to him it was nothing
but waves o f a smaU jxmd. Gazing a t a huge w hale a f limitless
sea, it appeared to him as if it was a small fish. Aftr some time,
he went to a far off place and bade &rewell to the m ountain-
abode. He went back to Kuang-fu w ith the m onk Chen-ku,
Thereupon, he took voyage to the South Sea and reached
SuvarnabhCrni where he determ ined to copy the T ripifaka so
th at he would be rem em bered for thousands o f years (thousand
autum ns)
He was intelligent) modestand gentle w ith profound know
ledge. He worked hard on different styles o f Chinese calligraphy,
studied again the philosophy o f Chuang-chou. T he C hapter
Ch'i-wu1 was vain and meaningless to him , equally
the teachings o f Chih-ma* appeared to be very far*
reaching. He crossed many rivers, trav d led on foot in the dtscrt.
Though the m erit he acquired would not illum ine b u t finally
he must be praised for his heroic plan. How to carry out this ?
In search o f Law, he eared very little for his own life; he never
eared for his own happiness but was very m uch eager to work
for others* happiness. H e did n o t care for his own relations b u t
the entire world became his own kith and kin. I t was a joy for
him to regard cvcry<mc as his own adf. How could ic be possible
for him not to treat a man as a m an but as a dog ? Tiiis vtras his
generosity and benevolence.
Arriving at Sr?-vijaya, he devotedly studied the V inaya Pitaka.
H e not only translated! the Buddhist texts but also took notes on

1. Altusioa to the ftmoui mctj^hor in Ghuang-tze, Chapter xxiv. The

namt of the Chapter is Gh*t-wu-lun. ) o f t e n used in Chinete
Buddhist literature to elucidftte the expedient nature of the doctriae.
2. I is p robably mi kllusion from SKih-chi (T h e H isto rical R e c o rd ).
C hao-kao fried to p u t th e second son of C h 'in Shih-H u*itg o n th e th ro a c .
He m ade a gift o f stag to the prmce^ tav itcd all th e courtievt And d tld th t it w m
* faor*c. T h ey wrc t o prove th a t it w m i u n c a n d n o t a stag . (
* CKib-lQ-wei-m&),
iS Monks 121

icriptures w ith the aim o f propagating (Buddhism). He wished

that the lusture o f Precept like pearl would be again brightened
up and w ould illum inate (the name o f the Buddha). He aspired
to attain perfect N irvana removing the thick screen o f mortality.
To complete a g rea t task one has to start with a small beginning.
He would be rew arded for the unlimited good he performed for
the welfare o f the world. H e attained an esteemed position. He
was twenty years old thczu
* K-ch*iu Fa-lai^. H is Sanskrit name was
Ta-nu>ti^po, Dharmadcva- In Chinese it
means God of religion -:i Fa-^ieiu A native of
Hsing-yang1 in llsiang-^^ou^he livtdin thctcmple of
Ling-dhi (Spirit temple). His surname was An^shih.
In fact, he belonged to a greaten)i^itcncd aristocratic family.
The members o f the family'were traditionally holding h ^ h offices
in the Im perial services. A t young age he left home wilh the
hope o f entering in to a n ecclesiattica! life. He afterwards left
his home and travelled all over, deserts and mountains^ to the
South. Reaching Fan-yu, I-ching informed to the traveller Fa-
h n g of his arrival. Though his knowledge was not very compre
hensive, yet in fact, he hoped to be greatly attached to him. Lang
desirqd to have the pleasure o f the company o f I-ching during
his sea-voyage. I t was not yet a month when they arrived at
Bhoga. Since he reached there, he started practising (for the
cause). T he m onk Lang, then concentrated in the profound
classics o f H ctu v id y i and studied it day and night. From sunrise
to sunset, he pondered over und listened to the mystical and
abstruse doctrine o f Abhidharma. He then added the final
basket to complete hia knowledge, A mountain can be made
with each basket o f ea rth b u t it is incomplete even without one.
He devotedly studied the Tripitaka. He was determined to
succeed in Wu-pi*cn. He never shirked manual labour. He posss-
scjd profound knowledge and wisdom. The purpose o f his life

1. | t U rivr pore on the Han-sfatd ia Ku^pei.

2. Hu*pei Province.
J22 Chinese Monks

was io do good to others liberally and extensively; with this aim

in view he untiringly copied down (the Buddhist scriptures).
He lived on aims. Keeping his shoulder bare and dirty bare
foot, he observed all the important ceremonies and ricuab reveren
tially. Though he never succeeded in his endeavour he
had been striving hard to fulfil his desire. All his companttms
and followers desired to be self-contented. The monk was greatly
respected because he had the unique habit of doing good to
others. Respectfully and sincerely he always strove for the Truth.
His great desire was to save al! beings. For the sake of future
generations he would bear the great light o f the Compassionate
Maitreya. He was only twentyfour years old.
The monk Ghen-ku and four others set sail for $rl-vijaya and
landed there. He spent three years at Sri-vijaya, gradually stu
died and acquired proficiency in Sanskrit and H an (Chinese)
literature. Then after a while, the monk Lang left for K 7o-Iing.
He passed the summer over there; fell sick and died.
Chcn-ku and Tao-hang preferred to stay a t Sri-vijaya for che
cause, they did not return to Fan-yQ. Both o f (hem stayed to
gether; rest o f the monks went back to Kuang-fu. Not only they
tarried long but also they waited for their (other two monks
return. The monk Chen-ka went to the Tripjtaka Dharma-
ma^nja and widely difTuscd the teachings o f the Vinaya. At the
end of the third year, he got ill and passed away. Tao-hung
went back alone and passed the rest o f his life in the South*
No news was available about Tao-hung after that. Though
Iching occasionally wrote to him, there wss no reply from the
other side.
Alas ! all the four disciples sailed together and m ade sincere
efforts to light the torch of Dharma. Who can predict the destiny
o f life? One may live long, one may be left behind. I-ching was ex
tremely sorrowful at the recollection o f this. The parable o f a lin1
I Oa< ehe four licUtious <upcmatural animals of China, a fabulous
cre&turc of good omen whose aj>pearancc At the Imperial Court was a sign of
heavenly favour. Its appearance would be followed either by good government
or by birth of a pious ruler. The male counterpart it Ch*i.
15 Monks m
(a female unicorn) is difficult to describe. It 11 difficult to
achieve great fortune because life is too short.
All the followers of the Buddhist Trinity (the field o f blessed
ness) Fu-ticn1 should share the wealth (of wisdom)
and cross (this sorrowful world).
All would be free from the torments o f the world on attending
the first meeting of Maitrcya under the Dragon flowcr-tircc*
where he would preach the Buddha-trulh.

1. The field of blcMcdncu i.e. any iphere of kiatine>charity or virtue.

2. Ghampaka (Tee, the BodKi tre of Muitfeya.
Biography o f Eminent Monks
Who Went to the Western Region
in Search o f the Law
During the Great Ta'ng Dynasty


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Hung-ming chiTaisho 52, No. 3002.
KSCTaisho 50, 357c361b (on HuUVuan)
KSCTaisho 50, 366b367a (On Tao sheng)
KSCTaishd 50, 425 (On Tao-Hsuang)
KSCTaishS 51, No.2089 (On Wu-K^ong).
Nan-hai Chi-kuci nci-fa chuan, T abhd 51, 204c234a.
SKSCTaisho 50, 710b711b (On I-Ching).
S c n ^ - Y u G h u-san tsang-chi-chi Chapter ] 3*1
T a-T ang Hsi-yu chi Taishfi51, 868~947c.
Tao-Hsuan, Kuang-hting-ming-chi, (Further collection of Cssays
on B u d d h ism )T a ish d 52, No. 3003.
146 Chinese Monks
Tiu-hai (Sabda Sagar) (Shanghai1932).
Yang HsOan-chih* Lo-yang Chla-lanchi (Record of the Monas
teries in Lo-yang)Taisho 51, No2092s p. 999.

BhikXJMi Jagadbh K asyapa : Mahavagga edited. (Nava Na-
Iftnda Maliavihara, 1956), Cullavagge 12 ed- (Nava
Nalanda Mahavihira).
Konow, Sten : RHjatarangmi
Vaidya, P. L . : DafabkSmika Sutra edL (DaiWianga, 1967)*
Abbidh^rma % 64, 6 7 n l. 68, 89, AsaAgkheya 7 6 , 103
9 6 n l# !07 110, U 8 , 121 Aioka lZn% !5nUl7nl, 43dl>
Abturacc ContemplatioKi 10 64n2t 86nl 11104,119111
Abstract m editatioo 99o5 Asoka tree 44
Acary T u 4i 112 Asnfpur copperplate inscription SOfi^
Acir&vti <RapU) 100n3 85n1
Adi Buddha 17nl Assam 30nl
Xdityasn4d A|^a S&hsfika Prajfti Firamit4 23a2,
AdhyiunAvidy& 6 8 n l 67dI, 6802, I06n2
^ a m a S a tr * 36 57 96 A-vimokfa 28nt 113
A ^ n iik sh 45n2 " 6Gnl
Acnipuri]>ft 9n2
Ai*diou 40
AUviksilln4 Ayudky 40o3
of Precept 5
A la r
A^l*yefa*oa<hia*bo4hu-aa 65 Badalohan 2n2 7n2
Asaar&vatl 37nl 48 o3
Amit&bba 17, 26 S3, 75n^ 106 Bagcfai, Dr. tS X ? $8q 4$fl1
AmiuyOs Sotra 26a1 446671ii2.U0iil
Amogbavajra 64nl Bakhargftnj 70nl
Amraka 17, 18 BilMitya
Amrapili 90n2 BalhiJu 13n3
Antrvana 90 Balkh 7n2,13n1,293
An (General) 27 Bamboo Grove 39 60, 97, 98
An-hui 32n4, 73n4 Bangladesh 70nl
An*mo-luo*p,o 16, 17, 18, 47 Banerjee. A.C. 13 86n4
An*nan 37n3 Bapat, Dr. P.V. 31
A^run-ych-po^mo. Anandavarman 18 Bartbar hllU 95n4
Anhih*kao 36nS Barui, Dr. Beni Madhava 81o!
An*(ao Basarh 42n2
Ananda I3n3, S3. 53nl, 26 Beal, S. 47n2, 48nl^8inlr 82n2
AnathapuKlik& 6n2 Being 42nl
Andaman 63n. 1 Betd-outs 78
AuguttaraNik&ya 36n3, 100n3 Betel palm 78
AnnaU of (he Han Dynasty 7n2 Bhadanta. 10, S2 75
Anruun 71n2. Bhadanta Buddha 52
Amarv&sa 72n2 athi 84n2
(Hioci 48a4
Aphsa^ ixncrlptit i movement 59nl
Aptt** Dictions
ivy 62 n2
Dictionary ipipta 53n2
Arabs 14, Bhattadbarya, Binoyatosh 64
Areca outs 76n3 Bhava 42n1
A rbat 82n3 Bhikkhu^I-Vibhaiiga 9n3
Atjuna, 87nl Bhikfu 31
Armour of Wisdom, 47 Bhiksu^i 108
Arthadipta34 B ho^ 24n2, 78. 114, 121
Arthara^mi $&stracarya 46 Bhutatatha^l 82
Aruo&iva^ Iln2 8 7 n i Bimbisara 15i^ 97nl
Ar&pa (n4 Bin-Thuan 71nx
Aryadcva, 32n2 Black robes 11%4
Arya N ^ r ju o a >65, 60 Board of Academicians 9)nl
Aa^ffa 9ol I0n2# i8n l, S1 46n2, Bodh-Gaya 8n l, 20fi2 29nl
I05n4 60o4
148 Chinese Monks

Bodhicary&vatara 25nl DuddhatathAgata 59

Bodlu'citta 25 Buddha-truth 112
Bodhidharma 21, 62n2, $8n2 Buddhavaui^sftkA Sutra 104d3
Bodhicfrumn 75 Buddiiisru 12, 22, 41 42, 43ntf n2,
fiodhim^ocid t5. 42f 44, 64, 08, 80, 47nl, 4dn3, 54nl 57nt 59nl
112, 113 60, 62, 65ol, 7ln2, 83, B4, 8Gnl
Bochi Kionas(ry 92, 95nl, 96, 99n8, 100, 104, lid
Bodhiruci 42n| 121
Bodhtsitva Bn2, (On), I7nl, 18nl, Buddhist 8, % I2nl, I3nl, 27n3, 41
32n2, 38, 44, 64, 66, 76H2, 102n2 43n!> 45n2, 53nlv 55, 62, 66, Q7nl
Bodhi cr<e8nUI5n(20n2, 22, 29nl, 6Bn2, 71n2 72, 74, 82n2 84, 63
39, 59n\f B M f $2n2,101, 102 n l, 9 2 , n3, 94nl, 93nl, 96nl
Bolcharu 43n| 97103. I05&4, I07n6, UOnl
Book of Changes 91 n3 111>ll3 k ll9120J l22> 123
Borneo 45nl Bukhara 13, 29n3
Boulnois, Luce 43nl Burma 40n3
Bramhalokn 117 Bu-ston 67nl
Brdhmanical faith 58, 59n2
Hindu 48ci3
BriU, E J. 23n2 Caesctv 49n4
Bronze horse 9lnl Caitya, 22
Brown, F m y 33n! Caityagrha. 33, 59
Buddha 2> 8, i2n$y 13n3 14, 15, 16, Caldcya, 48
19, 21, 23, 23, 29, 33, 34, 33, 39, Cambodia, 33d 40n3, 71n2
42o1 44y 47, $2, 53, 58nl, 59, 60, Cambridge University An lllus(r&-
6), 62, 64n2, 65, 67m, 69, 70, ted Manuscript, 49n2
7Inl, 73,74,8!, S2n3,83, 85,dOnl, Gantoi}, 73n2
9ln2, 95, %198n1, 1 0 0 , 0103, Caravan Town (Tiui-huang), ln3
m t 06n2&4, lO B n i, 110, Catupaccaya, ]0^nl
111, 112,117.118,121 C^tuiiara^a, 106
attaining Bucdhahood 15nl Caturvarga Vinaya, 94nl
Bodhisttvaa attain six ParamitS. Gelcgtiat inountain, 6n3
to become I03M Central Asia, 20n3, 43nl, 43n2
descending from the Trayostrimsa nomads, {9nl
hetven 90nl routes, 50n)
highest title of 14nl siJk iou(e, 76n5
hurling a rock to 15n3 Ceylon, 33, 14, 35, 39> 41,51, 95, 111
lotus*l5w footprints 60 Ceylonese Chroniclc$> 37nl
Affihflparinirvdo^ 42n3 monks, SlnJ
moving the Wheel of Law 60, 61ti5 Chains of Causation, 42n I
ParinirvAoa of12n3 Chamberlain, Dnnis> 43n!
powers of, 104nl ChampS, ?!, 102, 116
practice of stupa worship53nl Champaka Tree, I23n2
preaching of Vaipulya Suiras by, Chams, 71n2
I06n2 Chandradeva 22
purified and enlightened by, 1C0n2 Chandradvlpa 70nl
relics of 16, 19, 53nl, 83 Chandrtklrti, 32n2
sacred mounldins associated with, ChapUin, R.N., 82n4
U9n) Chaisadda, 31n2
5tupa as rcwescneativc o f 53nl ChattopAdhyaya, S., 58n2
teachings ?2nl Chavannes, Prof., 2 !n l
Vfmalakirti a devotee of ISOnl Chenodium, 117
(s Kkul] 47 China, I2nl&3, 13, 14, 16, 20 21
tooth 33, 34,35, 41, 93, 1H 22, 24, 26n1, 29, 30, 37, 43, 44
Buddhagh$a 9n2 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 55, 57, 61, 62
Buddha Aal/s
n! 64nl, 68a2, 71, 74n2, 81, B29 83
Buddhahood 25nl 84, 87nl, 89, 96, 101, 104, 117
Buddha P&liia 32n2 119
Buddhd^Snla 46n2 Aruova taken to 87nl
fiuddiia*$un 112 Duddhht literature of> l 20a l
I n iix 149

^ C a llig ra p h y , I 2 tt ^lipg, 62,70, 90

^.Embassies of) 33o? 'fling; 7 i, 75
^cnvoy, 13 Ciaog^i, 33n3, 73n2
Five sacred mauntauit oC 9nl C h i m g ^ 75a3
-^G en try # H O n l ftoiince, 75n2
^Intuitional School^ 62n2 CbiacMrhih, 2n3, 3)n4, 37 ,
Land of tlie Son of Hcavm, 51 CluaeMilKHi, 38, 39
L^tus SG -
Sutm , 31nl
^Medicinal h e rta , J4
Northern Buddhism, 17nl
-Overland tout 5 0 n l
^Sufkimer retreat, 76n9 C U e b -m o -rc M )^ 5 4
-nipcm aiaral v u n a b of l2 2 n l ^a-luo, SI
Three Treatises School, 6 6 n l an, 59* IIS
Trade. 76n5 leu cV)ooH^un~c*iv 48
^-Traditiou ol^ 117
TripUak#, 6 n l
Tung-bsiX 37 119
YQn Chis return to* 37 O A r h a in g
CSkiua S5*tra, 46 G9, 81 87, 9 0 ,
CjntMcva, 32 G h ih ^ 7 I
Cictft (V^|naua) 105&4 C 9 iil^ i IV cm b . I20h2
Cittamnira (VijAdnam fitn) 103n4 C b m -rn ^ tW
Cittavarxnan, 30 O a ^m rn , 4 9 , 50
Ci^awi, 81 n4 Cbik-u-lcHt^ow 39
Classics of Hundred Schools of Philo- C h ft T ao-lb^ 3$
icphen, 91 53
Cle])ivdraf 56 C h ilK ^ c b e ^ X 53
Cockiooc m ountiin, 29, 78 Cfun-chian^ 88
Commnndnicnts, 92 Chiixbou^
^ iix b o i^ 75
Condore or Condwr, 38n4 Siio-hc^ y 9
Confiacivis, 23nt, 32a4, U0n2 Chixi-kafig-tto, 42^ SI
Anntcct, 76nl , I8nl Chinkang*yQ*taof 64
ClMic, 913 ChliwDJumen, 91
Conjevnram, G7n1 Chin-ming. 37n3
Cotwe) Edward. 37nl Ching, 105
Copper Pillar, i t 71 Chingi temple, I3nl
C oraia Lfttifolia^ 97n2 CKIng^&ng, (OS
C itu ia l pi^tubcrancc 6 9 n l ChfRg-mtng temple, I2 r !
CrAnium ot B uddha, 69 Chou rulera. (>Sn2
Gullavngga, 9n3 Chou VUn*^, 73n4
Cunningham . Sir A lexander, 4 7 n l, Christie Anthony^ 57n3
G0n4f (Hn2, 84a2, 95n4 Chu-ch^u, 58
Chan-po, 71 Chu-lu-po^j\ S3
Ch*ng, j1 Ghu-na<he*JUto 48
Chang^ieng, 7 :n Chu*ahe# 9
Chan Kting-2&ngf In 3 Ghoohu, 43
GSh&ng-2in<ahen-yuant <54 ChtcShu*!&n, 1JOnl
Chao-kao, 120t& Chu-Shtro^fUf 23n2
Chao Pu*chu, 93n4 Gbu-yUan $9 60
Che, 73 Chung^fAng*!^ 54
Che-chianx or C3ie*klang9 47n3, 73n^ ChQn Henf-v^ang, 432
Ghcn*ku 113, I
8 120, 122 Chungkuan 93
Chen-kuanr 5, 18, 20 22t $ l n l , \Q 4ni Q hun^iun^ 66n 1
Chenla S5rxt Chuanf-^hou^ \2Q
Chi*hsen, 57 Chueh-jifou*rit 59
Cfai-kuei, 19nl Chuehrt'ien M8
Chi*kueichttii. 54, 37 Chan, 37, G3 87r 2
Chia-pi^hih, 48 Chfa School, C2n2
Cihia-cbn, 81 Ch9n*min Gh*ao^shih, 23
150 Chintse Monks

Ch^an^-an, l 8nS, 21, 27n2, 4 ! n l Dharmak^tnft 36n4

43, 47> 7^4,73115, J03, 108 Oharmtmai^^a. 122
Ghang.chou* 33n2 Dhftrmamahfimfttrds^ 111ft4
Ch'arg^mln, 23, 26 27 Dharma Nftndi 36q$
Ch^cn-ju, 101. 102 Dharmapalft, 96n2, 105n4
Ch*cn-wU| 101 Dharmtrak^a^ 31nl4 S6n4, C8n2,
Ch^-ch, 33 UOnJ
Ch}i*chou, 16, 89 Dkarm^ra^ya, 12n lt 2Qn2
Ch i_ch\J, 113 Dbarmuathgftnl, 9n2
Chftanf*ehit 40 Dhflrmavikampana, 101
CViefl US Dhfttu, 53nl
C h ^ 99, J !8 Dhiitugtbbhftj 22nJ
Ch'infthih*huimgf I20n2 Dh&tuktch^ 9n2
Gh'ing eltyi 32 DhyRna,_6^ 10n3, 62n2, 64, 84,
Ch^ing^baij 77nl 87n2, 92, 93, 101
Ch*iuAmg, 60 Dhy&najlgrat&yana, 101
Chi.vw, 120 DhyiAa m uter Chi, 88, m
Ch'i^wu-lan. 120nl Jen, 88
W u , 42, 73 ^Pndipft. 106
Ch u-i, 74 _Ta-fci, 119
d)_u-iu*ice 48 VVu-hdng, 5, 4589* 90
Dhy&na Pond, J 12
Dhy&nara$mi# 88
Dagoba, 33 Dialccticmns. 91 n2
Dariann Dhyin&c&rya, 04 Digamhara Nirm nthft3
Dtlabala monifteryi 109 Diamond Scat 15n!
Dts&bhflmi^varaj Cf6n2 Digbanik&ya, $6nS !06n5
>dharma, 104* 67, 96nl
Das Gupta, Ntlini Nath* 50n2 p!omati$t Scbool^ 91n2
Dina, 9B trghigama, 3 nS
B&napati, 77 Divine Land (Chitm)2, 21, 75, 101,
Deer Park, 49, 50, 60, 78, 82, 90, 100 104
Monastery 49, 50 Divine theory of Kingship, 49n4
Wheel of Law, 100 Di\74vadana, 8n2
Deolbadiv 50n2 Doctrine of Yoga 10n2
ia, 42n3 Dowser Empress Ung^ I2nl
Derbcae^ 2n2 7n2 Wu, 103n3
l>C3ire 42d1 Dragon^ 57
Devadatta, I3n3 flower, 43
Devakha^ga, 50n2, 85nl Kinc, 28
Scvalokat 202 Lake, 28^ 97, 119
Devaputrm, 49 Palace ,
^ 90 tree* 12S
lei, 84n2 Du|kf(a 112
d,5 0 thxtty 17, 23n(, 42nl# 6dn2, 94n2,
or Dev&vataranam 90nl )06a3, JOTnl

S S & & 5602

Tao-hsi, 16> 18
39 EftslcmAzclupcJi^ 24o2
E a s ld n Bcq^ U , 7Gnl
E astern Haui, 1 2 a l, 36n3
(Law master), 21 E astern TadhHCan, 4 3 o l
a, 121 Eastern Wei ByiMsty 105n2
tu, 82 Eiriitctti Sdiool, Q6nl
3harmMupu^ $ ln l# 42nl9 86aS, 94 E itd , B J . 2 6 n l
96nl ^nia, $6n3
Index 151

Elegant peaks, 100 Funeral mourn). 53nt

EUot, Chartes, 9 n lv 26nl, 71n2 Fung Yu-lan, 9ln2
Emperor Ming, I2nl Further Kographies ot Emintot Monks
-IOio*Tsung 12n2, 36nl, 44nl, 94nl
45n2, 03n2 Further Collection of Essays on Bud*
Wu, 13nl, 111n3 dhism, 94nt
Y6, 2ln 2, 62nl
Ennins report, 6nl
Epthalife, 43fl2
Coterie School* 62n2 Gandaka 93a7
Eternal Buddha, I7nl Gft^davydlia, 106n2
GandUa> 116
Gandhi ra, 31
Fa-chen, !01 Gndhara Sdnda, 48
Fa^hsiang, 105n4 GaAgd, 11, 40,4984n2
Fa-haien, 12n3, 24nl, 29n2, 3lo2, Ganges, 40, 84ti2
47nl, 69nl Gate of Unique Law. UOnl
translation of MahapanmrvdQa, Gautama 20ti2,4 in 2 , 7 1nl
36n3 Saftgbadeva,
hgbadeva, !SnS
of Buddha, 69nl Gaya, 29n2,60n4,6 ^ , 3
r ................4....... nl, 98nl
visit tojetavana, 6n2 GhSsio
Fa-hu, 31nl Gbosh,
h, A., 58n2
Fi-hua ching^ 31 Gibson,"
>n, GrQnwedd and Burgess, 53nl
Fa*Lang> 121 , Herbert A., Iin 2
I^C icn 121 Oiragga-samSijja, 9 7 n l
Fan-hsing, 117 G iriyat 63nl
Fan-yu, 116, 121,122 G w e n Hone Gate 9 ! n l
Fang-teng, !06 Gorakhpur^ 42n2
Faridpuv, 84n2 nar & Philology, 6 8 n l
Farrukh&bad, 90nl ,42nl
Female Unicorn, 123 ELkQUt. 15, 2d, 33n3, 73
Feng Hsiacxh*OaD9 76, 77 Demise. 37nl
F itz e r a ld ,
n3, 24n2, 35a3 4Dn3> Great Enlightenmcat, 17, 20 22,
71n2 33,44,4 81 89, 9 5 ,106
Five arts, 96n1 memorial tablet in Chinese17
Five dements, 96n3 Great Faith (monastery), 11, 27
Five Indies, 7C Great Goodness promoting, Bhadro-
Five kinds of food 30nl daya (Monastery) Cnl
Five L earn in g 86 Great Religion (B^dhim), 62
R veF icn, m n 2 Great Salvation (Monastery) 9 17
Five Sacred Mountains, 119nt Great Schiun, 37nl
in China, U 9nl Great T a n g Dynasty, I
Five Skaiujhas, 116n3 CreatWaU,2
Five Vidyis, 68n l Guo&bhadnL, 76nl
Five virtues, 106 CuQftcarita, 48
i W h ilwnu4hu, 19, 59 Ounftbar Gopper-plate inscriptton,
Fo*t*o*ta*mo, 21 22x0, 86n2, 116nl
Former Han Dynasty, 9lnl Gupta Dynaac/f 49n3, nl
Four Books, 76al Gurpa, 60n
Four Geremonks, L10n2 GarupSdag&ri, 29n2t 60n4
Four currents, 107
Four fold sorrow, 75
Four forms of birdi, 82n4 Hadda, 69nl
Four ]dnds of bcn^its, 84nl Haunavata, 8Gnt
Four necessaries, 94n2 Ha-Ii^diMuo, 70
Four Yugas, 27n Haxns^ 65nl
(Ai-kien), 47a3 Han Dynasty, 7n2,27n2* n2,91n$
Fu-duh-hsieQ, 38 H an Empire, 33o4
Fu-K'u-lu^ 29 Han Emperors, 84nl
Fu-nan, 35 Han Historical Redord 84nl
132 Chinese Monks

Hn Record* I05nl Hsuan-ti, 84nl

Harikelt, 70, 95 HsUan-i'ai Fa-shlh, 20
iy/ii HjOan-wU/ J2nl
Har^vardhana. Un2 48n4* 67nl, HsUan^ych, 118
87nl HsOan-yu, 87
HanRbhata. 85nl Hsiieh-fan^yu, 79zi2
Heng93 Hu, 69, 71
Hcnf*tin, 86 Hua*cma} 44
Hc-p*u, o9 Hua-cheng, 38
He-sh/ng, 92 ttui, 99
Ketu vidyS, 68, 80# 96, J2] HuUjAaAtsampcla19
Hidda. 69nt Hui4un, 5, 48
Hilo, 69nl Hui*luii thih 47
Himfilayft, 40n2 Hui-niing shih, 95
H{nduku*h| 7n2, I3n3, 14n2 Ilui-ncng, 62n2
Hira^yavat!, 42n3( 99 Hui-ning, 36, 37, 38
Hlnayina, 10, 21, 22, 28n2, 36n3, Hui^ning Lti-shih. 3670
79n2} 105n4 Hui-fien, 40, 90
HlnayAoitU, 30, 36n4, 38n3,48, 52nl, Hui-ych Fa*shih> 19
65nl Hui-yen Fa-shih. 39
Ho-ting, 63 Hui-yung, lU7n$
Ho-!uo-she*p*an. 51 Hun chief, 58n2
H-iuoihe-po* ro, 33 Hundred Schooli of Thoughts, 91 n2
Hsfang, 88, 116 Hung-wei, 74, 75.
Hti^ehftng, 36
Hsf-chingp 74n4


HiUseng-wen-Iun. 79n2
H^i-yU, 1 -t

Hsi-yu-chi, t
Hsift Dynatty, 61nl

Hftiacxh'en, 77

Hsiao-tan, 77 l


Haich-su-li, 42

HaioKbang, 6
Hnca-ch*ii3^ Period. 44
Hstcn-he, 102
Hifci>-hcng Period, 74, 76

Hiin, 10B
Hsin-diou FftMihth, 39, 40
Hsin-luo, 18, 2147 S 3

Htin-Ssu, 30 0
Hain-tu, 14
Hsing, 42nl r2,n23, 24, 7ln2
Hingfu, 27 Indian settlcn, 35n2
Hsing-kung, 39 Indian UpSsai^, llOnl
HsiiAn-chang, 75, 8!n2 Ixido-China, 24n2
Hnian-chao, 5, 13, 21. S9 47 Tndra sala-guha, 65nl
Hsuan-chuang, 2, 6a2t 8n 1&2% Indra UnJ^ 29nl
9nl, 1303, 1802, !9n2, 2Qq29 23n2, Indus, 31n2
26nl 28o 1&3, 35n 2&S, 41, 47ni Imulas Nudorutn, 78
53al, 57nl, 58n2,59n2,60n3, S4n2, Intuitional School, 62
65n1, 67nl, 69nl 81nl&2, 84n2, Iron Gate, 2
9Unl, 94nl, 93n4,105n4 Iron Pass 7n2
HsOan-fauJ Fs-hih, 27, 28
HsUan-I, 72
Hittan-k^o, 20
HsOan-K^uei^S, 74, 75 Jains, 1ln4
Hsuan-K*ueS Lii-thih, 71, 72 Jalalabid, 31 n2
fiiUarwnu, 65 Jaluidhiura, 7, 8
Judex 153

Jambi, 24n2 Kasi, 16

Jambud^ipa, 9 5 K5ia42n3
apan, (7nl
fapan, l/i KiiyafMt
jammannio > ilt *^Kaya^>iya 8Gnl
J iti, 42nl Kacyayattiputr^ 12n3
Java> 24nl Kazak S.S.IL, 43n1
centre for Hindu religion* 31nl K'ang-kuo, 43
J^cakha^ga 50n2 KV-roi^xvu^luo^ 27^68
Jtu v an a ViKara, 6, 55, 90, 100, 101, K'cJmg^loa l
Kengdiuhu, 43nl
Jhana, I0n3 69 69,78, 83, 94, 02
Jih-chuD 48 Keith,/AA.I
.B ^6en2
jihnan> 33n4 Kern, H 113n2
JoncsU A$oka Roxb, 44o2 Khadgoclyaxna, 5 50n2
Jn^nabhadra, 36^ 33 Kiia^lga uynastyjy, 50n2,85nl
Jnanagupta, 3 ln l KhandaVas, 9n3
Jnanapari^i, 45 King Asoka Mountain, U9n2
Jnanaprabha, 5 King of Calukya Dynasty, 48
JnAnaprasthana S(Ura> 12n3 Kingdom of LambH, 63nl
Ju-lai, 14, 90nJ Ki>BhkS.SiL43nl
Ju lai-ni-fant % Komoroff, Manud, 38o4>63n1
Ju-lai-tung-lni, 14 ^ 9 ,4 6 ,4 ^ 8 9 ,9 5
Ju-na-p'o-Oo-luo, 30 Kosambi, 55
J un-chou, 71n3 Ko-yan^ 50
K V Iii^, 33,36,3d 46,122
Kr^nagiri, Kanhen 113nl
Kadara, 69n2 Krsnamegharaimi, 70
Kalabag, 31,2 K^nU ,99
Kalihga, 24 K^itigarbba Bodhisattva, 93o6
Kalpa, 27 i u , 11
K u ,f0 7 ,110,111,11^ 113,
Kalpas, 103nl Ku-hib-&d 42n3
Kan*pcn hiiang-tien, 58 Ku-thu, 64
Kanauji 48n4, 87n1 Kuan, 13
Kani$ka, 12n3t 66nl Ku&n*t2e-tsai 44
Kanyakubja, U n2 Kuang-chou, 49,7?, 74, 77
Kapila, 14, 15, 69ni Kuang-fu, 116, 118119, 120
.1*4 :2 Kuang^Ksich, 18
lci-pin, 14n2 Kuang-si 37n2, 62nl,76n4, 77nt
Karaihar, 45n2 Kuang*tung, 37n2, 49,76, 77nl
Karma, 27, 73, 92, 108n3, 112, 114, Kuei-Sn, 74, 88, 111, 117, 119
116, 119 Kukkuta grove, 99
Kannadina, 54 Kukkuiap&dagtri, 29n2 78,82
Karoti, 69nl Kukkuiavib&ra, 29n2
Karutifimaya. 102 Kukkutcsvara, I9nl
Kataha, S9n2 Kulapati, 55
Kaih&vatthu> 12n3 Kumaragupta, 08n2
Kftfrisun, I4n2 Kum^rajlva, lOnl, 18n3, 23n2, 26nl
Kamala6)ca; 35n3 S ln l, 32n2 66nl> 62n4, UOnl
Klacakra, 38 Kurkibar, 29xt2, 60n4
Kama, Cn4 Ru-thu 64
K&maloka, 6n4 Kusavatl, 42o3
Kaiichi, 67nl Kusinagara, 42. 82 99n7
Kao-ch'ang, 45 Ku^inir&, 43, 99n7
Kao^mei, 19nl> iCuei-ch*ung Fa-shih 39
Xao-Tiung> 12n2> 20n1, 44nl, 74n3, K*un*lun, 3n4,103,118
K^&yA* 72n2, 81
Kashgarh^ 7nl La Vallee Poussin, 65n3
Kashmir* 12n3, 14n2, 26n), 27, 28, Lahiri, Latina, 8n2
68, 90 Laichou, 74
154 C h im e M o ,

Lak$mi 57n2 Lung*chih*shan-$su, 28

Laliu-vistara^ 8n2, 3 l n \ t 106n2 L u n fr-c h ^ ia n , !9
Lam ghanf 3 l n 2 Lung i?a*2i!ih, 31
Lao-chout $ Lung-hua, 43
Land oTEJcphant (India), 2 Luog-nien, 8n2, 12nl, liOnl
Lang (monk), 121 Lung-shu, 73
l^LnK-dvia, 33, 46, 62 Luo^chX 13, 65
Lannbatus or Lankiwbatus, 67nl LuoJok^ 63
Lanfclvat^ Sutra, 27n2, 106n2 Luo-sfau, 3+
Lao-tz^ 32n4, 91nS
Lsmzu, 42nl
country, 13, 14, 65 Madhy&mAgainA, 48n4
Law, 16, 64, 92, 98, 100, 101, 102, Madhy^rua ydina, 36n3
03, 104, HOnl, )]4 120 MadhyanUka, 28
Jaws ofVinAy^ 39,108 Magadha, 1] t3n2, 48n4, 93n4
Legalist School, 91n2 Magic city, 38n3, Il0n3
Lcggc, James, 6nl| 32n4, 47nl, 76nl Mnhabh^d^ 37nl
Laucogr2y>hcr, I Matuil^isayana Vinay5c5rya, 36
Liang Dynasty, i3 (f 19n3, 35r3, Mah^bodht 8, 16, 20n2, 50, 5J, 60,
40nl, 46n2 67, 79, 81nl
Liang-lun 19 MahS^Obina^ 49

avii, 42n2
42n! Mahakatpa, 27nl, 99, I03al
Lilajana, 15nl, 71al Mahakaru^ 41
Lin-kung, 90 Mfth^kaiyapa, 60n4
Lin-h, 105 Mahamantranasarjpt, 64a4
Lin-5hiang-Ju, 26n2 Maham5rga> 71
Lin-te pcnoa,' 12, 30 Maha Mayurl 64nl
Ling-nan 77 ^iaha P a d m a L a k c f 2j9nl
Line-yun, 83 MaMpraj 87
LiUj 84 ajna
M a h i P rd i n a Paraimta
I Sfilra. 33n2.
Liu-juj 42nl 66nl, 85
Liu*tU| 107 Mth4 Parinirvaila, 36, 42n3, 96
LM 1 ^Sutantta^ 53nl
Lob Nor, L^) Nor, Lou-hnr 2Qn3 outra, 36n4
L o h a t 79 Mahapratisarf^ 64nl
Lo-hadt 28n2 Mahapuru^i, 69nt
Lo-jen-kuc, 63nl Maharaja, 49
i i t y ^ 12, t3 Maharaja Gupta, 49n8
La]eak|ema 2Sn2 MahHraiailhirajaj, 48n4
LokeivararAja, 106 MahKasrapramrdit}!, G4n!
Lofcottaravada, 86nl Mah&saAgiiika, 37a 1
Lo-kuo, 63nl Mah5sactva, 106
Lo-yan^ 12 18n3, 2336n337, Mahascnagupta, 4Bn4
45, 46t 74, 755, 87nl, 100 Mahasieavati^ 64n1
L o -y a n g -c h ia ^ a ix h i, &2 n 2 Mahiivagga, 9n3, 76n3
Lotus dull, 69 Mahavastm 8n2, 31nl
Lotus Sutra, S \ n \ p 38n3 Mahi VihhaAga, 9n3
Lou-shui^ 56 MahilySna, 10, 16, 17, 23n2, 3 ln lv
Lu mountain, 107n6> t" o 2 S2n2t 37, 46n2, 62n2# 64, 66nls
L u M 79 68n2, 89, 92, 106n2, iiiOnl,
Lu-dian, "1 113
LtMhan-cfaih) SittZ Pradfpa, 40, 41,79 107
I^sbcng-teDS-ching, 42 Kfahay^ais^ 9nt
U K T s a i ^ M ahiiSsaka, 8 6 n t
U l-y to A , 4 9 Maiertya, C , 0n2,43, 81 n2, 82, 84,
Lucy Boutnou, 43ni 102,* 123,123
Lucky Dragon Spirit Palace, 37 r _
M^jhim-ntkaya, 36n3, I06n5
Lucky river, 102 lalalasdcrre^ G J^ 9o2,36o3
Lumbini, 44n2 Malaya, n2
Lun*yfi, tl8nl Archipelago, ln3
Index iss
Malayu <suvarnadvlpa} 24o2, 7$, 94 Njga^S?
Matla tribes, 42n3 N&ga tree, 82
Matigo Grove, I9n2, 90 Naga^hrada^Parvaia-Vihira, 2Bt 38
Manjasri 110n! Nagananda, 58
Mdra, 15n3 Nagapatiinam, 95nl
Marco Polo, 2 ln l, 38n4, 63n 84nl Ni^gapu^pa, 43, t2n2
Maspcro, 7) n2 NSgarjuna, 10, 2n\9 32n2, 66, 67nl,
Mauis 27 73, 99al
Xl^tsumoto. J t 23sx2, II On I Na^a^anakonda, 37al
%^^fek*ava,u u p c a,^ o i tree, 8n2
Madhyamika* lOnl 32n2&3, C6nl9 Nairai)tjan&> 15nl 7 ln KOI
84, 99n8 Naked people land 78
Ma Tuan.Un 87nl Naksatrarajavikrdiu, U3n2
Mayers, Willtam Frederick^ 84nl Nalanda, 1, 2, io, 15, 17, 19, 20, 21,
Ma-yOan, 2n3, 71 22,42 , 5 t, 57, GOnl, 6t C4,66nl >
Mazumdart R.C,, 21nl, 24nl, 35 68, 7 80, 82, 89, 90, 95, 96, U0
4 !, 69n2, 7ln2 120
Mcglusikta, 45 Nan)arupav 42nl
Meghavsrman, 8 ln l Nan-cbing 75n2
Meng, 104, 118 >Un*bfti*chi4(uci0( chuan, 54112,
Meng Chka^ 113 56ft2, 103
Metaphysical School, 91 n3 Nanda, 66, S7# 68
Miac^ta-ljcn-hiia ching, 3!nl Nan- r 66
Mibiralniia, 58n2 Nanjto*$ Catalogue, ICnl, 23n2F SlnK
Mi-li-cfaia-hsi-t^a-po-no^ 49 46n2> 60nl
Min*yeh, 47 Narasii)iba Oupta, 58n2
Ming-chu^ 65 Narasinthavarmai), II, 9->n1
Ming-y^ 42nl N&ribcla, 70
Ming-yilan, 39 Naxravdiara^Nava Sad^r,iouk> 1%, 38
Ming-yOan Fa-shih, 3? Nawbdhar, 13n3
MiCraDcbaU, 8,22,42n2,53ni, 60n5, Necucran, 63nl
a im Needham^ Joseph^ 75n5
Mitra Rajcndra Lai, 8nl N ^ a l, II, 15, 17, 20, 22, 23, 27, 29,
Moffgaliputta Tissst 12n3
Mokalaf 68n2 New Annals of the T^ang^ 24nl
Monachistn, 9n^ New T*ang shu, 28nl
Mon country, 35nS Nicobar, 63n1
Monastery of Eastern Grove, I07n6> Nichiren 5ec(n 3)n!
i>2 Ntd&na Sutra, 42, 0nl
Monastery o f Faith, 40, 47, 80 Nilacaksus or Plsurabnetra, tOnl
Monastery of Great n)iteament* 29 Nine disu^sses, 0?o3
Monastery of MaMkaruoS, 41nl Nine rivers, 93n)
Monastery of Umversal Goaipassion, Nirvana, 17, 3<>n4, 37, 38, 45n5,
104, 10S 111, 112, 121
M o-lnxhih-sia, 49 Nttyadak^& DhyinicSrya 23
Mohist School, 91 n2 North Vietnam* 33o4^
MongolU, S9 Northern Buddhism, 17nl
Monier Willianks^ 97n2 Northern Wei Dynasty^ 7n2t $7n3
Mo-Ue 911)2 Nyayalnndu, 96nl
Mountain Lu, 33n3 Nyiy^tnokhd 6?nl
MrgAC^ va* 60, 77, 82, 90 Nyiya Prav^ha, 67nl
Mfgasthapani, 49, 50
Muchalinda Lake, 29
MQla*gandha*ku(l> 57nl, 58, 59, 80 Oldenburg Roof, 42nl
Mula San^lstiv&da, 86nl Onion Range (Kiiil rab^l) CnS, 7n2
Mulberry and Lindera, B3n3
M uni, T.R .V 66nl
Mysterious Learnings 91 n3 Pacifism, 01n2
Padimuambhava* 57n!
Kd.chia-]aft*t'o, 58 Pamsukida civaram, 942
156 Chinesi Monks

PaiVca-bbojaniya30nl Pra^fta^ParamieA Sutra, 23a26Sn2,

Panca-rak^ft, 64nl
Paftca.vidy4 86 Prajn&ratna, 39
PaAca*vjipsatiki S&hasrika Prajft^ FrajAasixnha, 27
Firamica, 2?ial JPrajAisatra, 23, 24, 68
jParampOjya^ 20 Pr^jnAvarman, 47
PanmAriiu, 9n 46n1# I05n-t Praiftavlra, 92
Faribrnjaka^ 6, 108 Prakasamatl, 5, 11
Kuintrviru, 53nl, 90n2, 99n7 Prani^^a-samviccaya, 67nl
Vih4r, 43 Pram^^-vintlcayA, 96al
Fanvira, 9r3 Pra$astiv 14
Piicimj^yima, 56n3 Praieiyit or Kosala, I0Qn2
Fauiya}^ 10n2t 34n4 Frathaina ySma, 56n3
Pratido^aruya, 112
Pai-lun, 66nl Pratyaya, 42nl
Paki$nnt 9!n2 Fratitya-simiuCpadii* 42nl, 66nl
P^la rulers, 57n1 ifl*ra, 60nl
Pamir, 6, 14n2 Pravaran& ccrcoiDny, 10Sn3
Pan-jo 68 Pravrajyfl, 36
Pan-jo^i-pOj 40, 90 Prchagjan&hood, 25nl
?'an<hou 77nl Pu, 52n2
Fan.yii 77, 111 Pu-sa, 113
Pdrajika, 112 Puggala Pafinaci,
Pafamitaj, 99, 107 Pure Land, 26nl, 106
Par lak, 2!nl P yagati, 48
Ptrthian monk, 36nl Punyaprabhs, 87
?a*shui> ]6 Pulakcsin I, 4Sn3
Papliputra, !2n3 PQrvSrivTTJa, 107
Pitimokkha, 9n3, 30nlt I13n3 Pu^kalilvati, 3ln2
Pei-tu, 74n2 Putimuttobhe^jjam, 94n
Peking fChing-t'ao), 27n2
Pcrnbuan, 46nl mj.t*o-luo*pi-kan*chii, C5
Fen-jo-p'o-mo, 43 P'in-yang, 113
Pcn-ni-fan, 43 P^ing-nan, 7(5n4
Persia, 7n2, 1]n3, 49n4, 76a^ P'o-lii-ihin* 21
Peshawar, 3in2 jPo-luo inavkuo,.38n 1, 43
Pi-an Fa^hibt 45
Pi-ch'ju-Chcn^ku-lU^hlh, 104 Q,uang*nam 7in2
PiVh^u Fa-bng, 121
Ren, 27
wj, oo
58 Rainy retreat. 7Cn3
uo-po-Iuo, 54 Ratnadvlpa> 33n5, 38n?, 110
uo*sha*mi, 54
Fi-ho-Iuo*sh Ratnas{rnha 10
<hid, 65 RMagrha, 15n3&4, 39, 57 50, C4n2,
Pi-sho-la, 19n4 o3nl( 90, 97, 101, 102, 108nl
Pi^>yulopa-bhojanjya 94n2 litdcj 13a3 29n3
Pin^-chuan, 75 Rajabhata, 50n2, S;>nl
Ping*pu, 74 Eajarajabha^a, 50n2, 8Dct!
Pippal tree, 20n2 Kajaviharn, 18, 22, 39, 86
Plume range, 77n2 Rdjendn Chola, 69n2
Po Fa-tsu, 36 Rawalpindi, 31n2
Poisonous herbs, 29 Ray, Dr. N.Rn 49n2,50n2t 70nl, 82n2
JPo.Pcn, 46nl Record ot the Inner Law sent home
PrabhavAtl, 50n2 from the South Sea, 54n2, 103
PrainS, 99 Record oTMadhyAdesa, 04nl
PrsyAftdeva, 40 83, 90> 9Z Red South, 76
Prajn^ Pdramitfi brklaya Sutr^ 23n2 Reginald Le May, 40n3, 69n2
Fraj&ajnapU, 70 Rhys Ddvidd^ 42nl, 86n 100n3
Index 157

Rock d i a \ M l ! n 4 Samskara, 42nl

Koinan Empire, 76n2 Sammatiya, 86nl
Root (cmplc^ 80 Samudragupta, 48n3, 49a3. B ln\
Roy P.G., 66a 1 SantyulEtagama, 7n2, 3$n3
Rokkhft mula sni$anaip, 94n2 SamyutU-Aikiya, 3Sa^
ROfKt, 6n4 SaAghabhadra, 43nl
R0f>alokar 6n4 Sanghabhuts 18xi^
Sah^uukva, 18n39 llln 2 , IIS
Sahgharakv> llOnl
&abda SSstra, 89 Sahghavarman, 43nl
abdavidy&y 68nl S&nkasya, 90nl
$&bdavidyS &Utra, 17, 78 Sankricyayana, Rahul, 10o2, 29n3t
Sailendra rulers, 69n2 43nl
Saivaite Sect, 35n2 Saptaratna-r$i<4opanaf 98
SdkadvIpA, 43nl Sarvajdadeva, 20
akra ftnd Brahm^> 90nl S a rv ^ l, 50n2
Sakraditya9 51 Sarv&stivida^ 27nS 66nl 86dI
$&ntideva, 25nl SsrvistivAda School^ li 4# 96
& am kd^ 20n2 Sarvastivadins, 96n2t Illn 2
&mU Sastra^ 10, 84 Saut^ntrika Univena! idc^lcsm, 66nl
afa S^hasrilca Brajila ParamitiL Schism, 86a)
66o2 School of Names, 9ln2
S&kybnaum, 102 ^eocmd Council, 37nl
SflUcitta^ 104 Sccmdary demcnu, 98n3
sla trees, 42n3 Sen, Dr. Amulya Chaodra^ 97nl
ila, 99 Sen, N .C ., 4n2, 23n2
$ilaprabhat 62 Seven Sea5 98
Silpasthanft VidyS, 68nl Siam, 40n3
Siva cult 20rt2 Sik^samuccaya, 30nl
Svalika mountain, 40n2 Simhala, 33, 39, 87
3raddhavarman 40 Sindhu, )0n3
Sramaoa . i 28n2 Six GvtxjM, 98n3
Sravasti, 6n2, 100, 107n6 SogdiartA, 43
Sri, ;>7n2 Sogdian monks43nl
Sri Bhoga ln3, 21 24n2, 54n2, Soothhiil, 57n3, 72nl l(Knl
89,121 Sparrow stup^ 59n2
^ridcva, 16, 17 Srong-btsan-Oampo, 11n3, 87n I
^rlgarbha^ 92 State of Chi,92n2
Sri Gupta, 49 Stcherbatsky, F/Th 67nl
rikasa9 18 Stein, Aurel 7n2, 29n3, 45n2, 64n2
rl NaUnda Mahvihira> 57 Sthftvira School, d4n2, 86ni
& i Vijaya, 1, 21, 39, 45, 69n2, 83, 94, Stone Gate 115
!03f l! 6 , 117. 118,120, 122 Sttoa, 22ni, 53, 58, 59, 64n2
Suddhamat 42nl Sudatia An&thapi9^ika> !00nS
Suklaratna, 110nl Suga(l 83
Sunyav^da^ 6nl Sugditc, 43n!
$a4nyatan*, 42nl Il6n4 Sui Dynasty, 31nl
Saddharma Pui^Urlka 8n2, 92 Sui rulers, 71n3
SaddKarma Fun^arika Sucra, !5n3, Sukhavati-vyaha 3u(ra 26nl
31, 1062, 110, U3n2 Subhakara Siipht^ 64nl
Saddharma^tmrtyupasthana Sd(ra, 7n2 Subhn^ita, 118n2
Safficrarius, 78n2 Sumatra, lf 24n2, 69n2
Saheth-MahceK, Summer retreat, 76n3
SaSaksana 105n4 Sundar or Sondor^ 38n4
Sambodhi, 8nl Sung Dynasty, 76n4, 87q |
Somadhi, IOn3, 99, !07n5, 113 Sutra in 42 Articles, ^ n 2
SamadhJraja* 100n2 Sutra Pifaka, 9o2
Samparigraha i&tra46 Sutta. V ib h ah ^, 9n3
Samarkand 243nl Suvar^abhumi, 120
Samata|a, 35nS 50n2, S4 Suvarna Prabh&ia 106n2
158 Chinese M onks

SuzukiD.T., 32n4 39, HSnU 32, 5 4 n lF 56n2&4, 7Gn3,

Swat faill3Jn2 aa 78nl, 79n2, I13n3
Sa-p'o^hen-jot'i-p'o, 20 T 31 n2
San-iun, 66ni Tamalites, 41n2
San*pao9 85 Tamluk, 41 n2
San-wn, 33, 88 T aatra, T ^ntrik, 64nl
San-yO, 6 Tapovana, 64n2
Se116 T arim basin, 20n3
Seng-chtf, j* 5Qn2,84 T artar 69
Scn?-chia-p*o-mo. 4 Tathflgaia, 14, 24, 30, 37, 42nU 38>
Ser^chfa-Ci-po-118 59, 60n!, 81, 96
Seng-ho-luo-kuo, 33, 39 XachigftTa-guhyaka, 106n2
Sha-menf ln2 Tauru$, 78n*2
Shan-chou, 49 T^mralipti, 41, 6163 79, 82
Shan-hjins, 83 T^ran^tn, G7nl
Shan-pu, I I Tenasscrim 33nS
Shan-Si, 74n5 Tendai Sect, 35nl
Shan-t^o, 2Gnlj 106 Thcravadaj 3 7 n l, 86nl
Shantung, 7^n0 Thomas, .J ., 12si3
Shao-Hn, 87 Three Chinese classic^ 91
Shc^H-t'o-p'a-mo 40 Three garments, 72n2
$he-Iun 46 Three gcow, 85
Shen-chou, 21 Three Jewels, 71n2
Shcnt*\i-kuo, 38nl Three kinds o f Bhava> 6n4
Shcng, 42nl Three Kingdoms^ 35n2, 91 n3
Shcngchao llOnl Tibet, 7, 13, 53, 15, 16, 17, 20f 22,
Shcng-cliing 89 30, 37, 87nl
Shcng-hui, 43nl Tibetan version of Lotus SQtra, 31nl
Shcng-Knang, 10 Tiladhaka, 95
Shcng-ming^ 17 Tirthika, 59n2
Shih 42nl, 98 Tishftrakshiti, 20n2
Shih-chi, 120 T ittara, 9 jn 4
Shih-crh, 42nl Tochari, 7n2
Shih^erh-men-lun, 66nl Tokharestan or Tokhara^ 7n29 29n3,
ShiH-erh^yin-tu, 42al 43nl
Shih-fa, 104 Tonkin, 2n3, 33n4
ShiWi, 57 Toolh-rclic, 33, 34f 35, 41, 93, 111
Shik^i-Ssu, 09 Tooth stick tree, 19, 59
SKi>ii*cfai*iuov 49 Trailcky^i, G
Shih-li Fa-hib I Transcendent tortoise, 6 1 al
Shih-Ii-na-Ian-fo-mo-pi-bo-Juo^ 57 TrayaseriiYiia heaven, 9!)nl
^ih-U-shuo-chich-luo-tieh'ti, 51 Treatise in O ne hundred verses, 6(5n1
Shih-luo-po^p*o C2 Treatise oti the M iddle, 66nl
S3iiH-pien Fa-shih, 18 Treatise on the Twelve Gates, 66nl
Shih^uun, 106 Tree o f Knowledge, 75
Shih-t7.u-chou, 3 Tri civara, 72n2
Sliou, 42nl Triloka, 6n4
5hu-cbingt Glnl TriiYiiatlka. 105n4
Shu-fang, 78 Trinity, 123
Shiin-tiv H^n emperor, 75n5 Tripathi, R.S., Il n2
S$u<cliu, 54 T r j^ a k a , 22, 41, 83, 114, 120, 121,
Ssu-ma Ch'ien, 2Gn2( 32n4
Su-chou, 33n'2} 73n3 Bodliimaoda, 112
Su-t7u-po, 53 58 ChineseCnl
Su-li,7 Tri-sastra Sect, 3ln2
Trividhadvara, 110
Trsna, 42nl
Tagore, Rabindranath, 9Snl Tukhara, 7n2
Tajik*, 15n2 Saoghardma, 47
Takakusu> J*J> ln3, 7n2, 13n2 24n2, Tumasik, 15n2
Im k x 159
Tovbkl Valley 70 S !d I9 72nl
T V tffiai, 45
T w H H n3
TuHciih rule, 29nS 29, 0
TuHtisun 4Snl
T u fita hcavca^ 8 0 2 , 10 102 m
T m lv t counts of existence 42n\ 6
T*-Ch*anfe 17 Tu4kc4ia^ 7
TK h*anK-tcDK Ch*aih5hib, 40, 90 Tu-ho-lio^)o-t% 40
T achung^pu, 37
T a ^ u e h , 44
Ta-4tfia, 7a2
T ^ m o , 62n?
Tn-iuo-lt-ti> 41, 61t 63
IV F an sHf&d):2n2
Ta-tc, 52
Ta-ya> Pasoda^ I8n3
Tan-chu-tsv2ui& 64 ISnl
tit Si
Tan-ymng, 71a3, 73, 88n2
Tao, 32n4
Taokm , 8 4 n l, 9 In3
Tao*cb 36n4
T a o ^ 16, 18^ 2 0, 43 U H ayana, 2n3, 46, 47, 68
Tao-h&i Fa^shihj 16> 48 Ulla^ghajia,
rila^h a i 42nl
T aoM xan, 94 J o x v m a tl r
Tao*hui^ 11 l l j , 122 U p ^ d n a , 42n!
Tao-Iin, 93 Upiii, ros
T*a*Un Fa-ihih, 25, 68 , U p a sd o , 85, DO
Tio*fuan, 26nl Upftvasathfl, 113
Tao-te* 32n4 U pper garment, U ttau ^U ^ ^ 72n2
Tao^timr 54n2 Uruvela, 8nl
T #a<hc*o*hicb> 53 U90isa> K , 69
T a tsung ^ 3 , 14n241n 87nl, U-shou-ni^hay 69
T*&i-yuanf 74n4
T fn-chun Fa-9hih 45 /ac, 108n3
T'ao-kuang Lu-shih, 70 /aib h aiik ^ 12n2
Tan-rung S8 Vai^ali,
/aisaii, $3701,
in it 42, 57nl, 60, 82, 90n2,
T *n-su 41 llOnl
T a n g Dynasty) tn3 5n2, 7H2, 18n3 Vajrabodlii, 64nl
2 l n l , 36nU 38nl 44a! 94nl Vajrachhocyjki Frajna Paramit& SjUra^
T*ang ropcron, 5n3, !1. 13, 18y4 ] n l 23n2, 82n4
T ang Period* S5ul, 71n3,76n5,9$n4, Vajrasana, 15nls 51
dln3 Vak 112
T 'a n g rulers, 11, 35n2> 59, 70, " 2 V 9asi IGnK 60n5
Tc-chih-hsicn, 38 Varciidrabliurai, 49n2
Tc-hsing, 48 V w ja, 76
Te-kuang> 89 Vasanta MaJlika, 97
Tcng-t*zu-Ssu, 104 Vassa, 6n2> 76* I00n3
Ting I0n3, 99 Vassav^sa, I0n3
Ting-ku, 69n2 Vasubancff^u, 9 n \9 52n3. 7nl 105o4
Xinf-nicD, 62n2 Vasumitra, 66al
T ^i-p^fu-ian-luo. 49 Vatapi, 4n3
T #i*p*o-po-mo, 50
T*ien-chidi, 90 29d2
TVcn-chu, SSnl Veauvana, 1^ 1
T^ien.meiH 2 Vifalianga, 9n2
6n2t 45n2 V ithxU ^ (Nacpur
C k in e s t M o n k s

Vtdyi, S3, 66, 67 Wang Hsilan-tsa, J U 82n5

V/dyabhusAA S.C. 43nlt 67nl 87 117
Vidyatfhm Piika 65 WAngSsu 1 8 , 22
Vidy^mantr^ l$> 3 W ang yen-te 45i*2
VihinpaL^ M lVen-ch*ang, 7, II
Xihhr^Aw^ni, 54 Wct-na, 54
Vijo&iu^ 42nl, 10^n4 Wei-shih, 105
Vyililcuivadat 105n+ W u, 73, 77nl
Viyidptimjilrat^ 106 Wuchang4 30nl
Ve^pcim atfa^skidhi^ 10!>n4 Wu^choti, 23u2
Viimlaklrii, 82na Wu-ch^wg, 46, 47nl
VimaUkirtinirdcia Sutra, 2n3, 110 Wu-ch'sng-na, 6 8
Vin (Twenty vcncs), I03n4 Wu-ch^en, 107
Vinaya. 9n3t VL n t , 46, W , 72, 84, WWiwng, 5, 43, 89t 90, S4f 93ntt
89, 94, 95, 96, 10 102, 108, 109,
IM, 112^ 117,122 VVu-k^ong, 27n3
V i M y a C u p ta 2 2 n 2 , 8 6 n 2 W u A ti, 33
Vinayanttitcr, 96 Wu-ming, 4 2 n i, 68nl
Vinayarmstcr Bhik^u Chen-ku104 Wu-po-Kxrhia* 85
VitiAyamaster Chfw g 1 70 Wu>p ieo 112, i 2 l
Vinaiyamastcr Hsiu, 108 Wu o*nsha, 69
VintyaRiaster Httian 108 \Vu-shcng-ctui# 82
Vinaytfnaater Tao, 12 Wu-tan-hrh, 30nl
Vmaya Pi(aka 17, &2$ 63, m 'Vu-ti, 9 !n l
Virudhtkai 100n2 Wu t ien, 38
Vlrya, S9
Vi4okaf I9n4 Vaia9 8n3
Volur, 28&1 Va$tivana* 64
Votive 6Qnl
Vultu^t Vt%k, 15, 64, 75, 81, 90, Yavadvipa, 46
9?, m Yoga, 4 3 .9 5
Y ^acara, O f n !
Vylluirao^ 79 YojaCaiyabhQm* i i s i r n t I 0 n 2
Ymng-cht, 9n4
W*lcy Arthur,, ?6nl Yang-fu* 76
W j,R . 1?al
Ysuig Hstian-chih, I2nl> 62n2
2Gn2 Y a i^ -u e vjilky, 33
Waiter^ Thomas, 7n2 3 5 n 2 ,4 7 n i, Yao^kxiang temple, 12nl
59n2,64n2y 66nl, G9ft , M n 2 ,9 0 n l, Ych*txu, 78
95n4 Ycn-an, 3?n3
Weeping Bodhisattva inc^rnate# 4 4 Yi, 73
Wei Dynasty, 105n2&3, 107 Y 42111,61x11, 106
VVcitcm country (tndia)t 12 35* Yuan! 105
40, 44, m Yttan Dynasty, 87nt
Yii-chla, 45
W tcm Hans> 32nl
W wx Fftradke, I7nl> 23 26iU, Y0*jih-wan9 38
Yu*ihais*^ia, 61
Wc$tcm worlds \n\9 54n2 Yu*shuv44
Wliotl of Lave. 59* 60na, tOtt, iOQn? Yttn province, 50nl
White Horae P&gocU, I2nl Y t t n H 37, 38
White Hum, 43n2 Yung-ch'ang Period, 114
Wild goote forest, 64, 65 Yung-n^ing temple, X2n\
Will of BodhisMtva^ 38
Willow Branch! J9n4 Zen (Jn Japanese), 62o2
Winternitz, Maurice^ 31 a ), 3 6 ^ , Zodiacal ConstcfUtiom, 78o2
Glnl Zoroastrian m ythology
Vi\xdam irw, 20, 84, 97, H7 2urtU<r E.f 23n2, 28o2, 3 l n l
Waing Hwian-K^uo, 45 non)
Lalika Lahiri, the translator of l-chrng's
wortc {KaO'Seng Chuan)t was bom in
1923. She obtained her M.A. Degree in
Ancient Indian History and Cufture from
the University of Calcutta.
Miss Lahiri was in China in 1956*59
on Government of India's scholarship to
study Chinese language (modem and
classical) and history of Buddhism in
Beijing University. There she started
working on the present work under (he
guidance of Dr. J. Xien U a the well-
known Indologist and the Director of the
Boljing University. She afso studied Ihe
Lungmen Caves under Professor Feng,
relired Professor of Indian Philosophy.
Tokyo University.
Miss Lahiri has published a number
of papers and articles on Lungmen
Caves in various wetknown academic
Buddhist Tradition Series

E d ilc d b y A lex W ay m an

2 N a K a iiu n ia n a S tu d ie s in t h e W r itin g s a n d P h ilo s o p h y o f

N ag d rju n a Chr. IJnd m er
3 C h in e s e M o n k In In d ia I. Ching, U lik a U h iri, Tr.
4 B u d d tilsm In O r n ir a l A sia li.N. Puri
5 D fia m ia k ir tlS ' T h w r y o f I I?tii-(e n t r lc l ty o f A n u m a n a Manga la
K. C hinchore
6 T h e L eg en d o f K in g A s o k a A S n id y a n d T r a n s la ti o n o f th e
A n k d v a d a n a Jo h n S Strong
7 B u d d h is t I n s ig h t hisays by Alex W aym an, G eo rge R. Kldcr, Kd.
8 B u d d h i s m T r a n s f o r m e d : R *:\ i^ ln u s C h a n g e In S r i L a n k a
Richard G om brich and Gananath O b e y cs e k c rc
9 T h e B ud d h L st T a n tr a ^ L ig h t o n I n d o - T lb e ta n E s o t e r l c l s m
Alex Way man
10 The? Li<ms R o a r o f Q u e e n S r im a la Alex W aym an and H id ck o

11 T h e B u d d h a N a tu reA Stu d y o f th e T a ifia R a ta R a rtin a a n a A ia y a

v ijn a n a Brian Fdward Brown
12 E v o lu tio n o f Stupas in B iir m a P a ^ a n P e r io d 1 1 th lo 13 ^
C e n tu r ie s a.i>. Sujara Soni
13 B u d d h is t Fara blt^ i E ugene W atson Burlingam e, Tr.
14 T h e D e b a te o f R in g M lIJn d a A n A b r id g e m e n t off th e M ilin d a
P a n h a Rhikkhu Pcsala, Tr:
5 T h e C h i n e s M a d h y a m a Aa m a a n d th e P a lJ M a | jh im a N ik a y a
Ilhiksu T h ich Minh Chau
6 S u d d e n a n d C iradiuilA p p r o a c h e s to E f ilig h i e n m e n l In C h i n e s e
T h o u g h t Peter N G regory, Rd.
7 Y o R a o f U ie C iiih y a s a m a ja ta n il'a : T h e A r c a n e L o re o f f o r t y
V e r s e s Alex W aym an
H T h e E n l ig h te n m e n t o f V a ir o c a n a Alex W aym an an d H. Tajim a
l> A H is to r y o f In d ia n B u d d h is m I'.ro m S a k y a m u n l to F a r ly
M a h a y a n a Mirakawa Akira, Paul G ron cr, Tr. and Fd.

21 A n a g a t^ v a iw a D e r a il a T h e S e r m o n o f th e C h r o n ic le - T o B e L
Meddcgama, Tr. and John C. Moll, Ed.
2 2 C h in tu im a jita Tht* A w eh il B u d d h is t a n d H in d u T a n lr l c G o d -
dc5i Klisabeth Anne Bcnard
2 3 O n V o id n e s s f-e m a n d o T ola and Carm en Dragonetii
2 4 N a g a r ju n a 's R e h it^ H o n o f L o g ic C N yaya) V a Jd ^ ly a p r a k a r a n a
F'cmando Tola and C arm en DragoneUi
2 5 T h e B u d d h is t A rt o f N afiary iiiiakcind a E]izabeih Rosen Stone
2 6 D is c ip lin e T h e C a n o n ic a l B u d d h is m o f th e V in a y a p ita k a J.C ,