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# M.

## Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 2

Strain
• Relating strains to displacements is a problem in geometry.

Kinematics

Learning objectives
• Understand the concept of strain.

## • Understand the use of approximate deformed shape for calculating

strains from displacements.

2-1
M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 2

Preliminary Definitions
• The total movement of a point with respect to a fixed reference coordi-
nates is called displacement.

## • The relative movement of a point with respect to another point on the

body is called deformation.

## • Lagrangian strain is computed from deformation by using the original

undeformed geometry as the reference geometry.

## • Eulerian strain is computed from deformation by using the final

deformed geometry as the reference geometry.

2-2
M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 2

## Average Normal Strain

Lf – Lo δ
ε av = ----------------- = ------
A B A B
Lo Lo
Lo
Lf

## • Elongations (Lf > Lo) result in positive normal strains. Contractions

(Lf < Lo) result in negative normal strains.
Lo
A B x A1 Lf B1
x
xA xB (xA+uA) (xB+uB)
L0 = xB – xA
Lf = ( xB + uB ) – ( xA + uA ) = Lo + ( uB – u

uB – uA
ε av = ------------------
xB – xA

## Units of average normal strain

• To differentiate average strain from strain at a point.

## • prefix: μ = 10-6. 1000 μ in / in is equal to a strain 0.001 in / in

2-3
M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 2

C2.1 Due to the application of the forces in Fig. C2.1, the displace-
ment of the rigid plates in the x direction were observed as given below.
Determine the axial strains in rods in sections AB, BC, and CD.
u B = – 1.8 mm u C = 0.7 mm u D = 3.7 mm

x
F1 F2
F3
A B C D
F3
F1 F2
1.5 m 2.5 m 2m

Fig. C2.1

2-4
M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 2

## Average shear strain

.
Undeformed grid Deformed grid

(a) (b)
Wooden Bar with Masking Tape
A Wooden Bar with Masking Tape
A A1
γ

B π/2 C
B α C

Wooden Bar with Masking Tape Wooden Bar with Masking Tape

π
γ av = --- – α
2
• Decreases in the angle (α < π / 2) result in positive shear strain.
Increase in the angle (α > π / 2) result in negative shear strain

## Units of average shear strain

• To differentiate average strain from strain at a point.

## • prefix: μ = 10-6. 1000 μ rad is equal to a strain 0.001 rad

2-5
M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 2

## Small Strain Approximation

P1 2 2
Lf = L o + D + 2L o D cos θ
Lf
D
␪ D 2 D
P2 L f = L o 1 + ⎛⎝ -----⎞⎠ + 2 ⎛⎝ -----⎞⎠ cos θ
A P Lo Lo
L0

Lf – Lo D 2 D
ε = ----------------- = 1 + ⎛ ------⎞ + 2 ⎛ ------⎞ cos θ – 1 2.5
Lo ⎝L ⎠ ⎝L ⎠
o o
D cos θ
ε small = ---------------- 2.6
Lo

## εsmall Eq. 2.6 ε Eq. 2.5 % error

1.0 1.23607 19.1
0.5 0.58114 14.0
0.1 0.10454 4.3
0.05 0.005119 2.32
0.01 0.01005 0.49
0.005 0.00501 0.25

## • Small-strain approximation may be used for strains less than 0.01

• Small normal strains are calculated by using the deformation compo-
nent in the original direction of the line element regardless of the ori-
entation of the deformed line element.
• In small shear strain (γ) calculations the following approximation may

## be used for the trigonometric functions: tan γ ≈ γ sin γ ≈ γ cos γ ≈ 1

• Small-strain calculations result in linear deformation analysis.
• Drawing approximate deformed shape is very important in analysis of
small strains.

2-6
M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 2

## C2.2 A thin triangular plate ABC forms a right angle at point A.

During deformation, point A moves vertically down by δA. Determine
the average shear strain at point A.
δ A = 0.008 in
5 in.

C
B

n.
A

3i
δA

Fig. C2.2

2-7
M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 2

## C2.3 A roller at P slides in a slot as shown. Determine the deforma-

tion in bar AP and bar BP by using small strain approximation.
␦P ⫽ 0.02 in
A P 40⬚

110⬚

Fig. C2.3

Class Problem 1
Draw an approximate exaggerated deformed shape.
Using small strain approximation write equations relating δAP and δBP
to δP.

30°
75°
A
P

␦P ⫽ 0.25 mm

2-8
M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 2

Strain Components
y
Δu
ε xx = -------
Δv Δx
Δv
ε yy = -------
Δy Δy
Δx Δu x
Δw
Δz ε zz = --------
Δw Δz
z
y
Δu

Δu Δv
γ xy = ------- + -------
Δy Δy Δx
Δv x Δv Δu
⎛π ⎞
Δx γ yx = ------- + ------- = γ xy
⎝ --2- – γ xy⎠ Δx Δy
z
y

Δw Δv Δw
γ yz = ------- + --------
Δz Δy
Δy ⎛ π
--- – γ ⎞
Δw Δv
⎝ 2 yz⎠ x γ zy = -------- + ------- = γ yz
Δy Δz
Δz Δv

z
y

⎛π ⎞

⎝ --2- – γ zx⎠
Δw Δu
γ zx = -------- + -------
Δx Δz
Δx x
Δz Δw Δu Δw
γ xz = ------- + -------- = γ zx
Δu
Δz Δx
z

2-9
M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 2

Engineering Strain

ε xx γ xy γ xz
Engineering strain matrix γ yx ε yy γ yz
γ zx γ zy ε zz

ε xx γ xy 0
Plane strain matrix γ yx ε yy 0
0 0 0

Strain at a point
Δu ∂u
ε xx = lim ⎛ -------⎞ =
Δx → 0⎝ Δx⎠ ∂x
Δu Δv ∂u ∂v
γ xy = γ yx = lim ⎛ ------- + -------⎞ = +
Δx → 0 ⎝ Δy Δx ⎠ ∂ y ∂x
Δy → 0

∂v ∂v ∂w
ε yy = γ yz = γ zy = +
∂y ∂z ∂y
∂w ∂w ∂u
ε zz = γ zx = γ xz = +
∂z ∂x ∂z

## Strain at a Point on a Line

du ( x )
ε xx =
dx

2-10
M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 2

## C2.4 Displacements u and v in the x and y directions respectively

were measured by Moire Interferometry method at many points on a
body. Displacements of four points on a body are given below. Determine
the average values of strain components εxx, ε yy, and γxy at point A shown
in Fig. C2.4.

y uA = 0 vA = 0
u B = 0.625μmm v B = – 0.3125μmm
0.0005 mm

C D
u C = – 0.500 μmm v C = – 0.5625 μmm

## x u D = 0.250μmm v D = – 1.125 μmm

A B

0.0005 mm

Fig. C2.4

2-11
M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 2

## C2.5 The axial displacement in a quadratic one-dimensional finite

element is as given below.
u1 u2 u3
u ( x ) = --------- ( x – a ) ( x – 2a ) – ----- ( x ) ( x – 2a ) + --------- ( x ) ( x – a )
2 2 2
2a a 2a
Determine the strain at Node 2.
Node 1 Node 2 Node 3

## x1= 0 x2= a x3= 2a

x

2-12
M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 2

## C2.6 A metal strip is to be pulled and bent to conform to a rigid sur-

face such that the length of strip between OA fits the arc OB of the sur-
face. The equation of the surface y = f(x) and the length OA is as given
below. Determine the average normal strain in the metal strip.
3⁄2
f ( x ) = ( 0.04x – 0.005x ) inches and length OA = 9 inches. Use numerical
integration

y
y = f(x)
B

O A x

Fig. C2.6