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DETERMINATE STRUCTURES

Topic 6

Influence Line

LEARNING OUTCOMES

subjected to moving concentrated load, uniform distributed

load and variable loads.

2) Determine the location of moving loads that produce maximum

support reactions, shears and moments at any specific point.

Introduction

An Influence Line shows how the value of a function (bending moment, shear,

deflection etc.) varies at one given point on a structure as a single unit load

moves across the structure.

In brief, an Influence Line indicates the effect of a unit load moving across a

structure. One can tell at a glance, where the moving load should be placed on

the structure so that it creates the greatest influence at a specified point.

If a structure is subjected to a moving load, the variation of shear & bending

moment is best described using the influence line.

The magnitude of the associated shear, moment or deflection at the point can

then be calculated using the ordinates of the influence-line diagram.

The different between influence line diagram and shear or moment diagram is,

Influence line represent the effect of a moving load only at a specific point

while shear or moment diagrams represent the effect of fixed loads at all

points along the axis of the member

Procedure of Analysis

1. Tabulate Values

Place a unit load at various locations, x, along the member

At each location use statics to determine the value of function at the

specified point

If the influence line for a vertical force reaction at a point on a beam is to

be constructed, consider the reaction to be +ve at the point when it acts

upward on the beam

If a shear or moment influence line is to be drawn for a point, take the

shear or moment at the point as +ve according to the sign convention used

for drawing shear & moment diagram.

All statically determinate beams will have influence lines that consists of

straight line segments

Procedure of Analysis

To avoid errors, it is recommended to construct a table listing unit load at

x vs the corresponding value of the function calculated at the specified

point

Once the load has been placed at various points along the span of the

member, the tabulated values can be plotted & influence lines constructed

Procedure of Analysis

The influence line can also be constructed by placing the unit load at a

variable position, x, on the member & then computing the value of R, V or

M at the point as a function of x.

The equations of the various line segments composing the influence line can

be determined & plotted.

Influence Line

for Beam

Example 1

Construct the influence line for the vertical reaction at A of the beam

A B

10 m

Example 1

Step 1.

(Tabulate Values)

A unit load is placed on the beam at each selected point x and the value of Ay is calculated by summing

moments about B. Calculate Ay when x is 0m, 2.5m, 5.0m, 7.5m and 10.0m

1 x = 2.5m 1 1

x = 5m

RAy RBy RAy RBy RAy RBy

MB + = 0

MB + = 0 MB + = 0

10Ay = 10 (1)

10Ay = 7.5 (1) 10Ay = 5 (1)

RAy = 1 kN # RAy = 0.75 kN # RAy = 0.5 kN #

Step 2: Step 3:

Enter the results for RAy in the table Draw Influence Diagram for RAy

RAy

X 0 2.5 5 7.5 10

1

RAy 1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0

X

0 2.5 5 7.5 10

Example 1

Step 1.

(Influence- Line equations)

A unit load is placed on the beam at x distance from left and the reaction of RAy as a function of x can

be calculated by summing moments about B.

1

x

MB + = 0

10Ay = (10 x) (1)

Step 2:

Draw Influence Diagram for RAy

RAy

RAy

Example 2

Construct the influence line for the shear and moment at point C of the beam.

A B

2.5 m 7.5 m

Example 2

Step 1.

A unit load is placed on the beam at x distance from left and the reaction of RAy and RBy as a function

of x can be calculated using equations of equilibrium.

x 1

MB + = 0 Fy + = 0

10RAy = (10 x) (1) RAy + RBy = 1

10m

RAy = 1 0.1x # RBy = 0.1x #

RAy RBy

RAy

X 0 2.5 5 7.5 10 1

0 2.5 5 7.5 10

RBy

X 0 2.5 5 7.5 10

1

RBy 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1

X

0 2.5 5 7.5 10

Example 2

Step 2.

Calculate VC and MC as a function of x when a unit load is place before and after point C. Influence

Line for VC and MC can be calculated by cutting the beam at C. Consider either LHS or RHS then use

equations of equilibrium to determine VC and MC.

0<X<2.5 (1 Unit Load before point C) 0<X<2.5 (1 Unit Load before point C)

1

x VC

Fy + = 0 MC + = 0

VC

RAy VC 1 = 0 2.5RAy (2.5 x)(1)= MC

7.5m

2.5m VC = 0.1x # MC = 0.75x # MC

RAy MC RBy

2.5<X<10 (1 Unit Load After point C) 2.5<X<10 (1 Unit Load After point C)

x VC 1

Fy + = 0 MC + = 0

RAy VC= 0 2.5RAy = MC

VC

VC = 1 0.1x MC = 2.5 0.25x #

2.5m MC MC 7.5m

RAy #

RBy

Example 2

Step 3.

Draw Influence Diagram for VC and MC

VC 0 -0.25 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 MC 0 1.875 1.875 1.25 0.625 0

VC MC

0.75 1.875

0 x 0 x

2.5m 5m 7.5m 10m 2.5m 5m 7.5m 10m

-0.25

Example 3

Construct the influence line for the shear and moment at point C of the beam.

A B

2m 2m 2m

Example 3

Step 1.

A unit load is placed on the beam at x distance from left and the reaction of RAy and RBy as a function

of x can be calculated using equations of equilibrium.

1

x

2m 2m 2m X 0 2 4 6 X 0 2 4 6

RAy RBy

RAy 1.5 1 0.5 0 RBy -0.5 0 0.5 1

MB + = 0

4RAy = (6 x) (1) RAy RBy

RAy = 1.5 0.25x #

2.0 2.0

Fy + = 0

1.0 1.0

RAy + RBy = 1

0 x

RBy = 0.25x 0.5 # 0 x

0.5

2m 4m 6m

2m 4m 6m

Example 3

Step 2.

Calculate VC and MC as a function of x when a unit load is place before and after point C. Influence

Line for VC and MC can be calculated by cutting the beam at C. Consider either LHS or RHS then use

equations of equilibrium to determine VC and MC.

Consider LHS of Beam

0<X<4 (1 Unit Load before point C) 4<X<6 (1 Unit Load after point C)

1 VC VC

x x

2m 2m MC 2m 2m MC

RAy RAy

Fy + = 0 MC + = 0 Fy + = 0 MC + = 0

RAy VC 1 = 0 2RAy (4 x)(1)= MC RAy VC = 0 2RAy = MC

VC = 0.5 0.25x # MC = 0.5x 1 # VC = 1.5 0.25x # MC = 3 0.5x #

Example 3

Step 3.

Draw Influence Diagram for VC and MC

X 0 2 4 4 6 X 0 2 4 4 6

VC 0.5 0 -0.5 0.5 0 MC -1 0 1 1 0

VC

MC

1

1

0.5

0.5

0 x

4m x

2m 6m 0

-0.5 2m 4m 6m

-0.5

-1

Example 4

Figure shows a statically determinate beam AECDB which is fixed at end A and

supported on rollers at D. Point C is an internal hinge.

2. Draw the influence line for VE

A E C D B

Hinge

3m 1m 2m 2m

Example 4

Step 1.

A unit load is placed on the beam at x distance from left (before and after hinge) and the reaction of RAy

and RBy as a function of x can be calculated using equations of equilibrium.

Case 1 : 0<x<4

1

x

MA D B

A

E C RDy

RAy

3m 1m 2m 2m

Case 2 : 4<x<8 1

x

MA D B

A

E C RDy

RAy

3m 1m 2m 2m

Example 4

Step 2.

Calculate support reaction for Case 1

Case 1 : 0<x<4

D B

MC + = 0 Fy + = 0

VC RDy 2RDy = 0 VC + RDy = 0

RDy = 0# VC = 0#

2m 2m

1

x MA + = 0 Fy + = 0

MA VC

A 1(x) + VC (4) MA = 0 RAy VC 1 = 0

E MA = x# RAy = 1#

RAy

3m 1m

Example 4

Step 3.

Calculate support reaction for Case 2

Case 2 : 4<x<8

x 1

D B MC + = 0 Fy + = 0

1 (x 4) 2RDy = 0 VC + RDy = 1

VC RDy RDy = 0.5x - 2# VC = 3 0.5x#

2m 2m

MA VC

A MA + = 0 Fy + = 0

E VC (4) MA = 0 RAy VC = 0

RAy

3m 1m MA = 12 2 x# RAy = 3 0.5x#

Example 4

Step 4.

Draw Influence Diagram for MA

X 0 2 4 4 6 8

MA 0 2 4 4 0 -4

MA

4

0

x

2 4 6 8

-2

-4

Example 4

Step 5.

Calculate VE as a function of x when a unit load is place before and after point E. Influence Line for

VE can be calculated by cutting the beam at E. Consider either LHS or RHS then use equations of

equilibrium to determine VE .

0<X<3 (1 Unit Load before point E) 3<X<8 (1 Unit Load after point E)

x VE

MA

x 1 VE

MA

3m

ME

RAy

3m

ME

RAy

3<x<4 4<x<8

(1 Unit Load before hinge) (1 Unit Load before hinge)

Fy + = 0

Fy + = 0 Fy + = 0

RAy VE 1 = 0

RAy VE = 0

VE = 0# RAy VE = 0

VE = 1# VE = 3 0.5x#

Example 4

Step 6.

Draw Influence Diagram for VE

X 0 3 3 4 4 8

VE 0 0 1 1 1 -1

VE

1

0

x

2 4 6 8

-1

Qualitative Influence Lines

Mller-Breslau principle states that the influence line for a function (reaction,

shear, or moment) is to the same scale as the deflected shape of the beam

when the beam is acted upon by the function.

In order to draw the deflected shape properly, the capacity of the beam to

resist the applied function must be removed so the beam can deflect when the

function is applied.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Qualitative Influence Lines

C C

A (a)

B A B

(d)

VC deflected shape

deflected shape

MC C

A C B A MC B

VC (e)

(b)

Influence Line (IL) for VC

MC

X X

(c) (f)

Qualitative Influence Lines

Example 5

Construct the influence line for the vertical reaction at A of the beam using

Muller-Breslau Principle.

A B

10 m

Example 5

Step 1.

If the shape of the influence line for the vertical reaction at A is to be determined, the pin support at A

is first replaced by a roller guide. A roller guide is necessary since the beam must still resist a horizontal

force at A but no vertical force. When the positive (upward) force is then applied at A, the beam

deflects to the dashed position, which represents the general shape of the influence line for Ay.

Ay

deflected shape 1

A X

10m

Ay B Influence Line (IL) for Ay

Example 6

Construct the influence line for the shear and moment at point C of the beam

using Muller-Breslau Principle.

A B

2.5 m 7.5 m

Example 6

Step 1.

Place a roller guide at C to determine VC and internal hinge at C to determine MC

Vc

deflected shape

Vc 0.75

0.25

- 0.25 X

C 10m

A B

Influence Line (IL) for Vc

Vc

Mc

MC C MC

A B X

10m

Influence Line (IL) for Mc

Example 7

2. the maximum positive moment at C

8 kN

A B

2m 2m 2m

Example 7

Step 1.

Remove all the applied load and a unit load is placed on the beam at x distance from left. The reaction

of RAy and RBy as a function of x can be calculated using equations of equilibrium.

1

x

2m 2m 2m X 0 2 4 6 X 0 2 4 6

RAy RBy

RAy 1.5 1 0.5 0 RBy -0.5 0 0.5 1

MB + = 0

4RAy = (6 x) (1) RAy RBy

RAy = 1.5 0.25x #

2.0 2.0

Fy + = 0

1.0 1.0

RAy + RBy = 1

0 x

RBy = 0.25x 0.5 # 0 x

0.5

2m 4m 6m

2m 4m 6m

Example 7

Step 2.

Calculate VC and MC as a function of x when a unit load is place before and after point C. Influence

Line for VC and MC can be calculated by cutting the beam at C. Consider either LHS or RHS then use

equations of equilibrium to determine VC and MC.

Consider LHS of Beam

0<X<4 (1 Unit Load before point C) 4<X<6 (1 Unit Load after point C)

1 VC VC

x x

2m 2m MC 2m 2m MC

RAy RAy

Fy + = 0 MC + = 0 Fy + = 0 MC + = 0

RAy VC 1 = 0 2RAy (4 x)(1)= MC RAy VC = 0 2RAy = MC

VC = 0.5 0.25x # MC = 0.5x 1 # VC = 1.5 0.25x # MC = 3 0.5x #

Example 7

Step 3.

Draw Influence Diagram for VC

VC

1

X 0 2 4 4 6

0.5

VC 0.5 0 -0.5 0.5 0

0 x

4m

2m 6m

-0.5

Step 4.

From IL diagram, multiply the highest value of VC with 8 kN;

Example 7

Step 5.

Draw Influence Diagram for MC

MC

X 0 2 4 4 6

1

MC -1 0 1 1 0

0.5

0 x

2m 4m 6m

-0.5

-1

Step 4.

From IL diagram, multiply the highest value of MC with 8 kN;

Example 8

Determine;

2. the maximum positive moment at C

5 kN 5 kN

2m

A

B

4m 6m

Example 8

Step 1.

Remove all the applied load and a unit load is placed on the beam at x distance from left. The reaction

of RAy and RBy as a function of x can be calculated using equations of equilibrium.

x 1

MB + = 0 Fy + = 0

10RAy = (10 x) (1) RAy + RBy = 1

10m

RAy = 1 0.1x # RBy = 0.1x #

RAy RBy

RAy

X 0 2.5 5 7.5 10 1

0 2.5 5 7.5 10

RBy

X 0 2.5 5 7.5 10

1

RBy 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1

X

0 2.5 5 7.5 10

Example 8

Step 2.

Calculate VC and MC as a function of x when a unit load is place before and after point C. Influence

Line for VC and MC can be calculated by cutting the beam at C. Consider either LHS or RHS then use

equations of equilibrium to determine VC and MC.

x 1 VC

Fy + = 0 MC + = 0

RAy VC 1 = 0 4RAy (4 x)(1)= MC

4m VC = 0.1x # MC = 0.6x #

MC

RAy

VC

x Fy + = 0 MC + = 0

RAy VC = 0 4RAy = MC

VC = 1 0.1x # MC = 4 0.4x #

4m

MC

RAy

Example 8

Step 3.

Draw Influence Diagram for VC

VC

X 0 2 4 4 6 10

0.6

VC 0 -0.2 -0.4 0.6 0.4 0

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2 2 6 8 10 x

-0.4

Step 4.

From IL diagram, multiply the highest value of VC with two applied concentrated load of 5 kN each at 2

m distance ;

Example 8

Step 5.

Draw Influence Diagram for MC

MC

X 0 2 4 4 6 10 2.4

2.0

MC 0 1.2 2.4 2.4 1.6 0

1.6

1.2

0.8

0.4

0

x

2 4 6 8 10

Step 6.

From IL diagram, multiply the highest value of MC with two applied concentrated load of 5 kN each at 2

m distance ;

Example 9

below. Determine;

2. the maximum positive moment at C

10 kN 5 kN 15 kN

1m 2m

A

B

4m 6m

Example 9

Step 1.

From IL diagram, multiply the highest value of VC & MC with applied concentrated load.

Influence Diagram for VC

X 0 2 4 4 6 10

X 0 2 4 4 6 10

MC 0 1.2 2.4 2.4 1.6 0

VC 0 -0.2 -0.4 0.6 0.4 0

15 kN

15 kN 10 kN

10 kN 5 kN

5 kN

1m 2m

1m 2m MC

VC

2.4

0.6 2.0

0.4 1.6

0.2 1.2

0 0.8

-0.2 2 6 8 10 x

0.4

-0.4 0

x

2 4 6 8 10

VC = (10kN x 0.6) + (5kN x 0.5) (15kN x 0.3) = 13kN MC = (10kN x 2.4) + (5kN x 2) + (15kN x 1.2) = 52kNm

Example 10

Determine;

2. the maximum positive moment at C

4 kN/m

3m

A

B

4m 6m

Example 9

Step 1.

From IL diagram, multiply the highest value of VC & MC with applied concentrated load.

X 0 2 4 4 6 10 X 0 2 4 4 6 10

4 kN/m

4 kN/m

MC

VC

2.4

0.6 2.0

0.4 1.6

0.2 1.2

0 0.8

-0.2 2 6 8 10 x

0.4

-0.4 0

x

2 4 6 8 10

VC = UDL x Area under IL for VC diagram MC = UDL x Area under IL for MC diagram

VC = 4kN/mx [0.5(0.6 + 0.3) x 3] = 5.4kN MC = 4kN/mx [0.5(2.4 + 1.2) x 3] = 21.6kN

Example 9

Maximum area for Trapezoidal shape.

MC 4 kN/m

2.4

3m

2.0

1.6

y 2.4

1.2

4m 6m

0.4

10

0

2 4 6 8 x

Influence Line

for Truss

Example 1

Construct the influence line for the force in member BG of the bridge shown.

H G F

6m

A E

B C D

6m 6m 6m 6m

Example 1

Step 1.

Place 1 unit load at Joint A and calculate the external reactions. Do the same process at joint , B, C D

and E.

H G F H G F

1

6m 6m

A E A B E

B C D C D

VA VE VA 1 VE

6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m

Figure 1 Figure 2

H G F H G F

6m 6m

A C E A D E

B D B C

VA 1 VE VA 1 VE

6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m

Figure 3 Figure 4

Example 1

Step 2.

Using method of section calculate force in member BG

H H H H

G G G G

1

6m FBG FBG FBG FBG

A B A B A B A B

1

VA = 1 VA = 0.75 VA = 0.5 VA = 0.25

6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m

Fy + = 0 Fy + = 0 Fy + = 0 Fy + = 0

FBGSin 450 + VA 1 = 0 FBGSin 450 + VA 1 = 0 FBGSin 450 + VA = 0 FBGSin 450 + VA = 0

FBG = 0# FBG = 0.354# FBG = 0.707# FBG = 0.354#

Example 1

Step 3.

Draw Influence Diagram for Forces in member BG (FBG)

X 0 6 12 18 24

FBG 0 0.354 -0.707 -0.354 0

FBG

0.707

0.354

12 18

0

x

6 24

- 0.354

- 0.707

Example 2

shown due to the right side wheel loads of the truck. Take the distance between

the front wheel and rear wheel is 2m. Assume the loads are applied directly to the

truss and move only to the right.

H G F

5 kN 5 kN 6m

A E

B C D

6m 6m 6m 6m

Example 2

Step 1.

Draw Influence Diagram for Forces in member BG (FBG)

X 0 6 12 18 24

FBG

5 kN 5 kN

2m

0.707

0.354

12 18

0

x

6 24

- 0.354

- 0.707

Step 2.

Calculate the compression Force in member BG (FBG)

Example 3

shown due to the left side wheel loads of the car and trailer. Assume the loads are

applied directly to the truss and move only to the left.

H G F

6m 10 kN 5 kN 15 kN

A E

B C D 1m 2m

6m 6m 6m 6m

Example 3

Step 1.

Draw Influence Diagram for Forces in member BG (FBG)

X 0 6 12 18 24

FBG 10 kN 15 kN

5 kN

1m 2m

0.707

0.354

12 18

0

x

6 24

- 0.354

- 0.707

Step 2.

Calculate the compression Force in member BG (FBG)

Review

Problems

Problem 1

For the compound beam in Figure P1, draw the influence lines for the vertical

reactions at A, B and C, and the bending moment at support B.

A D B C

Hinge

5m 3m 8m

Figure P1

Problem 2

Figure P2 shows beam ABCD with hinge at B is pinned supported at A and roller

supported at C and D. Draw influence line for reaction force at D, Dy, shear force

at B, VB and bending moment at C, Mc. If the beam is subjected to uniformly

distributed load of 2 kN/m throughout the beam, compute the maximum support

reaction at D.

A B C D

Hinge

2m 2m 4m

Figure P2

Problem 3

Draw the influence lines for the support reactions at A and C as well as the shear

force at B for the beam in Figure P3. If there is a uniformly distributed load of 15

kN/m acting over span AC, calculate the shear force at B using the appropriate

influence line diagram.

A B C D

2m 1m 1m

Figure P3

Problem 4

below. Determine;

2. the maximum positive moment at E

10 kN 5 kN 15 kN

A D B E C

1m 2m

Hinge

5m 3m 4m 4m

Figure P4

Problem 5

shown due to the left side wheel loads of the car and trailer. Assume the loads are

applied directly to the truss and move only to the left.

10 kN 5 kN 15 kN

H G F E D

1m 2m

6m

A C

B

6m 6m 6m 6m

Figure P5

References

Hibbeler R.C, (2012), Structural Analysis, 8th Edition in S.I. Units, Pearson,

Singapore

Hibbeler R.C, (2009), Structural Analysis, 7th Edition in S.I. Units, Pearson,

Singapore

Hibbeler R.C, (2006), Structural Analysis, 6th Edition in S.I. Units, Pearson,

Singapore

UiTM Structural Division (2003), Basic Structural Analysis, Cerdik Publications Sdn.

Bhd.

UiTM Structural Division (2003), Basic Structural Mechanics, Cerdik Publications

Sdn. Bhd.

Mc Cormac N., (1999), Structural Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons

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