You are on page 1of 63

ECS 448

DETERMINATE STRUCTURES

Topic 6
Influence Line

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 1 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of this topic, students should be able to:

1) Draw influence line diagram for determinate beam and truss


subjected to moving concentrated load, uniform distributed
load and variable loads.
2) Determine the location of moving loads that produce maximum
support reactions, shears and moments at any specific point.

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 2 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Introduction

 An Influence Line shows how the value of a function (bending moment, shear,
deflection etc.) varies at one given point on a structure as a single unit load
moves across the structure.
 In brief, an Influence Line indicates the effect of a unit load moving across a
structure. One can tell at a glance, where the moving load should be placed on
the structure so that it creates the greatest influence at a specified point.
 If a structure is subjected to a moving load, the variation of shear & bending
moment is best described using the influence line.
 The magnitude of the associated shear, moment or deflection at the point can
then be calculated using the ordinates of the influence-line diagram.
 The different between influence line diagram and shear or moment diagram is,
Influence line represent the effect of a moving load only at a specific point
while shear or moment diagrams represent the effect of fixed loads at all
points along the axis of the member

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 3 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Procedure of Analysis

1. Tabulate Values
 Place a unit load at various locations, x, along the member
 At each location use statics to determine the value of function at the
specified point
 If the influence line for a vertical force reaction at a point on a beam is to
be constructed, consider the reaction to be +ve at the point when it acts
upward on the beam
 If a shear or moment influence line is to be drawn for a point, take the
shear or moment at the point as +ve according to the sign convention used
for drawing shear & moment diagram.
 All statically determinate beams will have influence lines that consists of
straight line segments

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 4 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Procedure of Analysis

1. Tabulate Values (contd)


 To avoid errors, it is recommended to construct a table listing unit load at
x vs the corresponding value of the function calculated at the specified
point
 Once the load has been placed at various points along the span of the
member, the tabulated values can be plotted & influence lines constructed

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 5 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Procedure of Analysis

2. Influence Line Equations


 The influence line can also be constructed by placing the unit load at a
variable position, x, on the member & then computing the value of R, V or
M at the point as a function of x.
 The equations of the various line segments composing the influence line can
be determined & plotted.

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 6 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Influence Line
for Beam

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 7 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 1

Construct the influence line for the vertical reaction at A of the beam

A B
10 m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 8 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 1
Step 1.
(Tabulate Values)
A unit load is placed on the beam at each selected point x and the value of Ay is calculated by summing
moments about B. Calculate Ay when x is 0m, 2.5m, 5.0m, 7.5m and 10.0m
1 x = 2.5m 1 1
x = 5m

10m 10m 10m


RAy RBy RAy RBy RAy RBy

MB + = 0
MB + = 0 MB + = 0
10Ay = 10 (1)
10Ay = 7.5 (1) 10Ay = 5 (1)
RAy = 1 kN # RAy = 0.75 kN # RAy = 0.5 kN #

Step 2: Step 3:
Enter the results for RAy in the table Draw Influence Diagram for RAy

RAy
X 0 2.5 5 7.5 10
1
RAy 1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0
X
0 2.5 5 7.5 10

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 9 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 1
Step 1.
(Influence- Line equations)
A unit load is placed on the beam at x distance from left and the reaction of RAy as a function of x can
be calculated by summing moments about B.
1
x
MB + = 0
10Ay = (10 x) (1)

RAy 10m RBy RAy = 1 0.1x #

Step 2:
Draw Influence Diagram for RAy
RAy

RAy

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 10 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 2

Construct the influence line for the shear and moment at point C of the beam.

A B
2.5 m 7.5 m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 11 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 2
Step 1.
A unit load is placed on the beam at x distance from left and the reaction of RAy and RBy as a function
of x can be calculated using equations of equilibrium.

x 1
MB + = 0 Fy + = 0
10RAy = (10 x) (1) RAy + RBy = 1
10m
RAy = 1 0.1x # RBy = 0.1x #
RAy RBy
RAy

X 0 2.5 5 7.5 10 1

RAy 1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 X


0 2.5 5 7.5 10

RBy
X 0 2.5 5 7.5 10
1
RBy 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
X
0 2.5 5 7.5 10

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 12 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 2
Step 2.
Calculate VC and MC as a function of x when a unit load is place before and after point C. Influence
Line for VC and MC can be calculated by cutting the beam at C. Consider either LHS or RHS then use
equations of equilibrium to determine VC and MC.

Consider LHS of Beam Consider RHS of Beam

0<X<2.5 (1 Unit Load before point C) 0<X<2.5 (1 Unit Load before point C)
1
x VC
Fy + = 0 MC + = 0
VC
RAy VC 1 = 0 2.5RAy (2.5 x)(1)= MC
7.5m
2.5m VC = 0.1x # MC = 0.75x # MC
RAy MC RBy

2.5<X<10 (1 Unit Load After point C) 2.5<X<10 (1 Unit Load After point C)

x VC 1
Fy + = 0 MC + = 0
RAy VC= 0 2.5RAy = MC
VC
VC = 1 0.1x MC = 2.5 0.25x #
2.5m MC MC 7.5m
RAy #

RBy

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 13 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 2
Step 3.
Draw Influence Diagram for VC and MC

Influence Diagram for VC Influence Diagram for MC

X 0 2.5 2.5 5 7.5 10 X 0 2.5 2.5 5 7.5 10


VC 0 -0.25 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 MC 0 1.875 1.875 1.25 0.625 0

VC MC

0.75 1.875

0 x 0 x
2.5m 5m 7.5m 10m 2.5m 5m 7.5m 10m

-0.25

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 14 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 3

Construct the influence line for the shear and moment at point C of the beam.

A B
2m 2m 2m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 15 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 3
Step 1.
A unit load is placed on the beam at x distance from left and the reaction of RAy and RBy as a function
of x can be calculated using equations of equilibrium.

1
x

2m 2m 2m X 0 2 4 6 X 0 2 4 6
RAy RBy
RAy 1.5 1 0.5 0 RBy -0.5 0 0.5 1

MB + = 0
4RAy = (6 x) (1) RAy RBy
RAy = 1.5 0.25x #
2.0 2.0

Fy + = 0
1.0 1.0
RAy + RBy = 1
0 x
RBy = 0.25x 0.5 # 0 x
0.5
2m 4m 6m
2m 4m 6m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 16 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 3
Step 2.
Calculate VC and MC as a function of x when a unit load is place before and after point C. Influence
Line for VC and MC can be calculated by cutting the beam at C. Consider either LHS or RHS then use
equations of equilibrium to determine VC and MC.
Consider LHS of Beam

0<X<4 (1 Unit Load before point C) 4<X<6 (1 Unit Load after point C)

1 VC VC
x x

2m 2m MC 2m 2m MC
RAy RAy

Fy + = 0 MC + = 0 Fy + = 0 MC + = 0
RAy VC 1 = 0 2RAy (4 x)(1)= MC RAy VC = 0 2RAy = MC
VC = 0.5 0.25x # MC = 0.5x 1 # VC = 1.5 0.25x # MC = 3 0.5x #

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 17 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 3
Step 3.
Draw Influence Diagram for VC and MC

Influence Diagram for VC Influence Diagram for MC

X 0 2 4 4 6 X 0 2 4 4 6
VC 0.5 0 -0.5 0.5 0 MC -1 0 1 1 0

VC
MC
1
1
0.5
0.5
0 x
4m x
2m 6m 0
-0.5 2m 4m 6m
-0.5

-1

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 18 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 4

Figure shows a statically determinate beam AECDB which is fixed at end A and
supported on rollers at D. Point C is an internal hinge.

1. Draw the influence line for MA


2. Draw the influence line for VE

A E C D B

Hinge
3m 1m 2m 2m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 19 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 4
Step 1.
A unit load is placed on the beam at x distance from left (before and after hinge) and the reaction of RAy
and RBy as a function of x can be calculated using equations of equilibrium.

Case 1 : 0<x<4
1

x
MA D B
A
E C RDy
RAy
3m 1m 2m 2m

Case 2 : 4<x<8 1
x
MA D B
A
E C RDy
RAy
3m 1m 2m 2m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 20 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 4
Step 2.
Calculate support reaction for Case 1

Case 1 : 0<x<4

D B
MC + = 0 Fy + = 0
VC RDy 2RDy = 0 VC + RDy = 0
RDy = 0# VC = 0#
2m 2m

1
x MA + = 0 Fy + = 0
MA VC
A 1(x) + VC (4) MA = 0 RAy VC 1 = 0
E MA = x# RAy = 1#
RAy
3m 1m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 21 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 4
Step 3.
Calculate support reaction for Case 2

Case 2 : 4<x<8

x 1

D B MC + = 0 Fy + = 0
1 (x 4) 2RDy = 0 VC + RDy = 1
VC RDy RDy = 0.5x - 2# VC = 3 0.5x#
2m 2m

MA VC
A MA + = 0 Fy + = 0
E VC (4) MA = 0 RAy VC = 0
RAy
3m 1m MA = 12 2 x# RAy = 3 0.5x#

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 22 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 4
Step 4.
Draw Influence Diagram for MA

X 0 2 4 4 6 8
MA 0 2 4 4 0 -4

MA
4

0
x
2 4 6 8
-2

-4

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 23 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 4
Step 5.
Calculate VE as a function of x when a unit load is place before and after point E. Influence Line for
VE can be calculated by cutting the beam at E. Consider either LHS or RHS then use equations of
equilibrium to determine VE .

Consider LHS of Beam

0<X<3 (1 Unit Load before point E) 3<X<8 (1 Unit Load after point E)

x VE
MA
x 1 VE
MA
3m
ME
RAy
3m
ME
RAy
3<x<4 4<x<8
(1 Unit Load before hinge) (1 Unit Load before hinge)
Fy + = 0
Fy + = 0 Fy + = 0
RAy VE 1 = 0
RAy VE = 0
VE = 0# RAy VE = 0
VE = 1# VE = 3 0.5x#

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 24 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 4
Step 6.
Draw Influence Diagram for VE

X 0 3 3 4 4 8
VE 0 0 1 1 1 -1

VE
1

0
x
2 4 6 8

-1

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 25 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Qualitative Influence Lines

 Mller-Breslau principle states that the influence line for a function (reaction,
shear, or moment) is to the same scale as the deflected shape of the beam
when the beam is acted upon by the function.
 In order to draw the deflected shape properly, the capacity of the beam to
resist the applied function must be removed so the beam can deflect when the
function is applied.

(a)

(b)
(c)

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 26 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Qualitative Influence Lines

Example Qualitative Influence Lines for beam

C C
A (a)
B A B
(d)
VC deflected shape
deflected shape

MC C
A C B A MC B
VC (e)
(b)

VC Influence Line (IL) for MC


Influence Line (IL) for VC
MC

X X

(c) (f)

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 27 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Qualitative Influence Lines

Example Qualitative Influence Lines for beam

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 28 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 5

Construct the influence line for the vertical reaction at A of the beam using
Muller-Breslau Principle.

A B
10 m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 29 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 5
Step 1.
If the shape of the influence line for the vertical reaction at A is to be determined, the pin support at A
is first replaced by a roller guide. A roller guide is necessary since the beam must still resist a horizontal
force at A but no vertical force. When the positive (upward) force is then applied at A, the beam
deflects to the dashed position, which represents the general shape of the influence line for Ay.

Ay
deflected shape 1

A X
10m
Ay B Influence Line (IL) for Ay

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 30 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 6

Construct the influence line for the shear and moment at point C of the beam
using Muller-Breslau Principle.

A B
2.5 m 7.5 m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 31 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 6
Step 1.
Place a roller guide at C to determine VC and internal hinge at C to determine MC
Vc
deflected shape
Vc 0.75

0.25

- 0.25 X
C 10m
A B
Influence Line (IL) for Vc
Vc

Mc

deflected shape 1.875

MC C MC
A B X
10m
Influence Line (IL) for Mc

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 32 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 7

The beam supports a single concentrated load of 8 kN. Determine;

1. the maximum positive shear at C


2. the maximum positive moment at C
8 kN

A B
2m 2m 2m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 33 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 7
Step 1.
Remove all the applied load and a unit load is placed on the beam at x distance from left. The reaction
of RAy and RBy as a function of x can be calculated using equations of equilibrium.

1
x

2m 2m 2m X 0 2 4 6 X 0 2 4 6
RAy RBy
RAy 1.5 1 0.5 0 RBy -0.5 0 0.5 1

MB + = 0
4RAy = (6 x) (1) RAy RBy
RAy = 1.5 0.25x #
2.0 2.0

Fy + = 0
1.0 1.0
RAy + RBy = 1
0 x
RBy = 0.25x 0.5 # 0 x
0.5
2m 4m 6m
2m 4m 6m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 34 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 7
Step 2.
Calculate VC and MC as a function of x when a unit load is place before and after point C. Influence
Line for VC and MC can be calculated by cutting the beam at C. Consider either LHS or RHS then use
equations of equilibrium to determine VC and MC.
Consider LHS of Beam

0<X<4 (1 Unit Load before point C) 4<X<6 (1 Unit Load after point C)

1 VC VC
x x

2m 2m MC 2m 2m MC
RAy RAy

Fy + = 0 MC + = 0 Fy + = 0 MC + = 0
RAy VC 1 = 0 2RAy (4 x)(1)= MC RAy VC = 0 2RAy = MC
VC = 0.5 0.25x # MC = 0.5x 1 # VC = 1.5 0.25x # MC = 3 0.5x #

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 35 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 7
Step 3.
Draw Influence Diagram for VC

Influence Diagram for VC


VC

1
X 0 2 4 4 6
0.5
VC 0.5 0 -0.5 0.5 0
0 x
4m
2m 6m
-0.5

Step 4.
From IL diagram, multiply the highest value of VC with 8 kN;

VC = (8kN x 0.5)= 4kN

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 36 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 7
Step 5.
Draw Influence Diagram for MC

Influence Diagram for MC


MC

X 0 2 4 4 6
1
MC -1 0 1 1 0
0.5

0 x
2m 4m 6m
-0.5

-1
Step 4.
From IL diagram, multiply the highest value of MC with 8 kN;

MC = (8kN x 1)= 8kNm

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 37 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 8

The beam supports two concentrated load of 5 kN each as shown below.


Determine;

1. the maximum positive shear at C


2. the maximum positive moment at C

5 kN 5 kN

2m
A
B
4m 6m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 38 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 8
Step 1.
Remove all the applied load and a unit load is placed on the beam at x distance from left. The reaction
of RAy and RBy as a function of x can be calculated using equations of equilibrium.

x 1
MB + = 0 Fy + = 0
10RAy = (10 x) (1) RAy + RBy = 1
10m
RAy = 1 0.1x # RBy = 0.1x #
RAy RBy
RAy

X 0 2.5 5 7.5 10 1

RAy 1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 X


0 2.5 5 7.5 10

RBy
X 0 2.5 5 7.5 10
1
RBy 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
X
0 2.5 5 7.5 10

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 39 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 8
Step 2.
Calculate VC and MC as a function of x when a unit load is place before and after point C. Influence
Line for VC and MC can be calculated by cutting the beam at C. Consider either LHS or RHS then use
equations of equilibrium to determine VC and MC.

Consider LHS of Beam

0<X<4 (1 Unit Load before point C)


x 1 VC

Fy + = 0 MC + = 0
RAy VC 1 = 0 4RAy (4 x)(1)= MC
4m VC = 0.1x # MC = 0.6x #
MC
RAy

4<X<10 (1 Unit Load After point C)


VC
x Fy + = 0 MC + = 0
RAy VC = 0 4RAy = MC
VC = 1 0.1x # MC = 4 0.4x #
4m
MC
RAy

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 40 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 8
Step 3.
Draw Influence Diagram for VC

Influence Diagram for VC 5 kN 5 kN

VC
X 0 2 4 4 6 10
0.6
VC 0 -0.2 -0.4 0.6 0.4 0
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2 2 6 8 10 x
-0.4

Step 4.
From IL diagram, multiply the highest value of VC with two applied concentrated load of 5 kN each at 2
m distance ;

VC = (5kN x 0.6) + (5kN x 0.4) = 5kN

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 41 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 8
Step 5.
Draw Influence Diagram for MC

Influence Diagram for MC 5 kN 5 kN

MC
X 0 2 4 4 6 10 2.4
2.0
MC 0 1.2 2.4 2.4 1.6 0
1.6
1.2
0.8
0.4
0
x
2 4 6 8 10
Step 6.
From IL diagram, multiply the highest value of MC with two applied concentrated load of 5 kN each at 2
m distance ;

MC = (5kN x 2.4) + (5kN x 1.6) = 20kNm

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 42 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 9

The beam supports three concentrated load of 10 kN, 5 kN and 15 kN as shown


below. Determine;

1. the maximum positive shear at C


2. the maximum positive moment at C

10 kN 5 kN 15 kN

1m 2m
A
B
4m 6m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 43 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 9
Step 1.
From IL diagram, multiply the highest value of VC & MC with applied concentrated load.

Influence Diagram for MC


Influence Diagram for VC
X 0 2 4 4 6 10
X 0 2 4 4 6 10
MC 0 1.2 2.4 2.4 1.6 0
VC 0 -0.2 -0.4 0.6 0.4 0
15 kN
15 kN 10 kN
10 kN 5 kN
5 kN
1m 2m
1m 2m MC
VC
2.4
0.6 2.0
0.4 1.6
0.2 1.2
0 0.8
-0.2 2 6 8 10 x
0.4
-0.4 0
x
2 4 6 8 10

VC = (10kN x 0.6) + (5kN x 0.5) (15kN x 0.3) = 13kN MC = (10kN x 2.4) + (5kN x 2) + (15kN x 1.2) = 52kNm

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 44 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 10

The beam supports two concentrated load of 5 kN each as shown below.


Determine;

1. the maximum positive shear at C


2. the maximum positive moment at C

4 kN/m

3m
A
B
4m 6m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 45 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 9
Step 1.
From IL diagram, multiply the highest value of VC & MC with applied concentrated load.

Influence Diagram for VC Influence Diagram for MC

X 0 2 4 4 6 10 X 0 2 4 4 6 10

VC 0 -0.2 -0.4 0.6 0.4 0 MC 0 1.2 2.4 2.4 1.6 0

4 kN/m
4 kN/m
MC
VC
2.4
0.6 2.0
0.4 1.6
0.2 1.2
0 0.8
-0.2 2 6 8 10 x
0.4
-0.4 0
x
2 4 6 8 10

VC = UDL x Area under IL for VC diagram MC = UDL x Area under IL for MC diagram
VC = 4kN/mx [0.5(0.6 + 0.3) x 3] = 5.4kN MC = 4kN/mx [0.5(2.4 + 1.2) x 3] = 21.6kN

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 46 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 9
Maximum area for Trapezoidal shape.

MC 4 kN/m

2.4
3m
2.0

1.6

y 2.4
1.2

0.8 4-x x 3-x 6 (3-x)

4m 6m
0.4

10
0
2 4 6 8 x

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 47 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Influence Line
for Truss

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 48 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 1

Construct the influence line for the force in member BG of the bridge shown.

H G F

6m

A E
B C D

6m 6m 6m 6m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 49 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 1
Step 1.
Place 1 unit load at Joint A and calculate the external reactions. Do the same process at joint , B, C D
and E.
H G F H G F

1
6m 6m
A E A B E
B C D C D
VA VE VA 1 VE
6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m

Figure 1 Figure 2

H G F H G F

6m 6m
A C E A D E
B D B C
VA 1 VE VA 1 VE
6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m

Figure 3 Figure 4

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 50 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 1
Step 2.
Using method of section calculate force in member BG

Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4


H H H H
G G G G
1
6m FBG FBG FBG FBG
A B A B A B A B

1
VA = 1 VA = 0.75 VA = 0.5 VA = 0.25
6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m 6m

Fy + = 0 Fy + = 0 Fy + = 0 Fy + = 0
FBGSin 450 + VA 1 = 0 FBGSin 450 + VA 1 = 0 FBGSin 450 + VA = 0 FBGSin 450 + VA = 0
FBG = 0# FBG = 0.354# FBG = 0.707# FBG = 0.354#

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 51 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 1
Step 3.
Draw Influence Diagram for Forces in member BG (FBG)

X 0 6 12 18 24
FBG 0 0.354 -0.707 -0.354 0

FBG

0.707

0.354
12 18
0
x
6 24
- 0.354

- 0.707

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 52 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 2

Calculate the maximum compressive force developed in member BG of the bridge


shown due to the right side wheel loads of the truck. Take the distance between
the front wheel and rear wheel is 2m. Assume the loads are applied directly to the
truss and move only to the right.

H G F

5 kN 5 kN 6m

A E
B C D

6m 6m 6m 6m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 53 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 2
Step 1.
Draw Influence Diagram for Forces in member BG (FBG)

X 0 6 12 18 24

FBG 0 0.354 -0.707 -0.354 0

FBG
5 kN 5 kN
2m
0.707

0.354
12 18
0
x
6 24
- 0.354

- 0.707

Step 2.
Calculate the compression Force in member BG (FBG)

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 54 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 3

Calculate the maximum tension force developed in member BG of the bridge


shown due to the left side wheel loads of the car and trailer. Assume the loads are
applied directly to the truss and move only to the left.

H G F

6m 10 kN 5 kN 15 kN

A E
B C D 1m 2m

6m 6m 6m 6m

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 55 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Example 3
Step 1.
Draw Influence Diagram for Forces in member BG (FBG)

X 0 6 12 18 24

FBG 0 0.354 -0.707 -0.354 0

FBG 10 kN 15 kN
5 kN
1m 2m
0.707

0.354
12 18
0
x
6 24
- 0.354

- 0.707

Step 2.
Calculate the compression Force in member BG (FBG)

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 56 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Review
Problems

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 57 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Problem 1

For the compound beam in Figure P1, draw the influence lines for the vertical
reactions at A, B and C, and the bending moment at support B.

A D B C

Hinge
5m 3m 8m

Figure P1

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 58 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Problem 2

Figure P2 shows beam ABCD with hinge at B is pinned supported at A and roller
supported at C and D. Draw influence line for reaction force at D, Dy, shear force
at B, VB and bending moment at C, Mc. If the beam is subjected to uniformly
distributed load of 2 kN/m throughout the beam, compute the maximum support
reaction at D.
A B C D

Hinge
2m 2m 4m

Figure P2

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 59 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Problem 3

Draw the influence lines for the support reactions at A and C as well as the shear
force at B for the beam in Figure P3. If there is a uniformly distributed load of 15
kN/m acting over span AC, calculate the shear force at B using the appropriate
influence line diagram.

A B C D

2m 1m 1m

Figure P3

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 60 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Problem 4

The beam supports three concentrated load of 10 kN, 5 kN and 15 kN as shown


below. Determine;

1. the maximum positive shear at E


2. the maximum positive moment at E

10 kN 5 kN 15 kN

A D B E C

1m 2m

Hinge
5m 3m 4m 4m

Figure P4

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 61 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


Problem 5

Calculate the maximum tension force developed in member FC of the bridge


shown due to the left side wheel loads of the car and trailer. Assume the loads are
applied directly to the truss and move only to the left.

10 kN 5 kN 15 kN

H G F E D

1m 2m

6m

A C
B

6m 6m 6m 6m

Figure P5

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 62 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line


References

Hibbeler R.C, (2012), Structural Analysis, 8th Edition in S.I. Units, Pearson,
Singapore
Hibbeler R.C, (2009), Structural Analysis, 7th Edition in S.I. Units, Pearson,
Singapore
Hibbeler R.C, (2006), Structural Analysis, 6th Edition in S.I. Units, Pearson,
Singapore
UiTM Structural Division (2003), Basic Structural Analysis, Cerdik Publications Sdn.
Bhd.
UiTM Structural Division (2003), Basic Structural Mechanics, Cerdik Publications
Sdn. Bhd.
Mc Cormac N., (1999), Structural Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons

ECS 448 - DETERMINATE STRUCTURES Slide 63 of 63 Topic 6 Influence Line