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AITAREYA UPANIAD

Word-for-Word Translation with Transliteration and


Grammatical Notes
Please email me if you have questions or corrections: steph.simoes@gmail.com.

2
Introduction

Sanskrit is an inherently vague language: not only are there various possible renderings for individual words,
but the word order is quite loose. Because of this, many translations are often possible for a given passage.
This translation allows readers with no knowledge of Sanskrit to explore the different possible meanings of
the text with the help of the Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, which can be accessed online.

The format of this translation closely follows that of Winthrop Sargeants translation of the Bhagavad-Gt.
At the top of the left-hand column is the transliterated text, and beneath this is a suggested translation. In
the right-hand column, each Sanskrit word is listed without sandhi1, followed by bracketed grammatical
notes and a few possible renderings.

The grammatical notes are structured as follows: After nouns, I have listed the gender, case, and number,
followed by the stem (or, for pronouns, the base). It is generally the noun stem (with or without prefixes)
that must be entered into the online Monier-Williams Dictionary in order to obtain results. In many cases, I
have listed the verbal root from which the stem is derived, and have written any prefixes or suffixes
separately. After verbs, I have listed the person, number, mood, voice, and, when applicable, secondary
conjugations. This is followed by the root (again separated from prefixes and suffixes).

Often, more than one case, gender, etc. is possible for a word. To list all of these possibilities in every case
would have been cumbersome, but I did make note of different possibilities at times. It is important to note
that Sanskrit texts often omit derivatives of to be, so the reader must usually add these at their discretion.
For example, the line in Kena III.1 which I have translated as Ours, indeed, is this victory is, if translated
exactly, Ours indeed this victory.

I chose to transliterate using the IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration) because I find this to
be the most readable of the Romanized Sanskrit alphabets. One downside is that this alphabet cannot be
typed into the search box of the online Monier-Williams Dictionary: text must be inputted using ITRANS
(Indian Languages Transliteration), HK (Harvard-Kyoto), or SLP1 (Sanskrit Library Phonetic Basic). IAST can be
easily converted into HK according to the chart on the following page.

1
A Sanskrit term meaning holding together, sandhi (or sadhi) is the alteration of soundsboth across word
boundaries (external sandhi) and within words (internal sandhi)that simplifies pronunciation. English uses sandhi,
too: for example,the changing of a to an before vowels. The Sanskrit sandhi rules have not been included here
because they can be be found in many books. For a basic outline of the rules, see McComas Taylors The Little Red
Book of Sanskrit Paradigms. For an understanding of why these changes occur, I recommend Robert P. Goldmans
Devavpraveik.

3
Conversion of the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration to Harvard-Kyoto

IAST HK
A
D
h Dh
H
I
l lR
l lRR
M
N
J
G
R
RR
S
z
T
h Th
u U

4
Abbreviations

. tmanepada voice inj. injunctive mood


AB. avyaybhva compound instr. instrumental case
abl. ablative case KD. karmadhraya
acc. accusative case lit. literally
act. active loc. locative case
adj. adjective m. masculine gender
adv. adverb n. neuter gender
aor. aorist tense nom. nominative case
ben. benedictive mood opt. optative mood
BV. bahuvrh P. parasmaipada voice
comp. compound p. participle
cond. conditional mood pass. passive
dat. dative case peri. periphrastic future tense
DV. dvandva pf. perfect tense
f. feminine pl. plural
fut. future pres. present
gen. genitive case prob. probably
ger. gerund pron. pronoun
impf. imperfect tense sing. singular
impv. imperative mood TP. tatpurua (vyadhikaraa)
ind. indeclinable voc. vocative case
inf. infinitive mood

5
Explanation of Grammatical Terms

NOUN CASES / VIBHAKTI-S (separations, divisions)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Ablative pancam (5th) or apdna From (and occasionally than) the
(taking away, giving away) noun.

Accusative dvitya (2nd) or karman Identifies the object.


(action; object)

Dative caturth (4th) or sampradna For, to (the indirect object).


(giving over completely,
bestowing)

Genitive ahi (6th) or sambandha Of the noun.


(binding together)

Instrumental ttya (3rd) or karaa (doing, By or with the noun (in either the
making, acting) instrumental sense or in the sense of
accompaniment).

Locative saptam (7th) or adhikaraa Expresses location: in, on, at, etc.
(location; lit. over-making) the noun.

Nominative pratham (1st) or kart Identifies the subject.


(doer, maker, agent)

Vocative sabodhana (awaking, Identifies the addressee.


arousing; calling to)

6
PARTICIPLES / KDANTA-S (ending in kt-s)2

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Future active bhaviyatkle kdanta E.g., The about-to-remember man
participle (participle in future time) asked a question.

Future passive ktya (to-be-done) This implies ought.


participle (a.k.a. E.g., The words are to-be-
gerdundive) remembered (i.e., The words ought to
be remembered).

Gerund (a.k.a. ktvanta (ending in tva) / This signals an action that was
indeclinable lyabanta (ending in ya) completed before some other event.
participle or Gerunds are always used with a verb.
absolutive) E.g., Having remembered, Rama went
to the forest or, After remembering,
Rama went to the forest.

Past active Past active participle (a.k.a. These are adjectives:


participle and perfect active participle): E.g., The arisen demon walked,
and perfect ktavatu (ending in tavat) Having-remembered Rama arrived.
active participle Some authors suggest these be used as
Perfect active-P participle: simple past tense verbs when there is
kvasu (ending in vas) no verb present in the sentence:
E.g., The demon arose; Rama
Perfect active- participle: remembered.
knac (ending in na) However, this is not necessary if a
verbal form of to be is taken as
implied:
E.g., The demon (is) arisen; Rama (is)
having-remembered.3

Past passive bhute kdanta (participle in The usage is the same as above, except
participle the past) in a passive sense:
E.g., The arisen demon walked;
Remembered Rama arrived.

Present active vartamne kdanta kartari Like the gerund, this is always used with
participle prayoga (participle in the a verb. It differs in that it is more
present, active construction) imperfectivei.e., it refers to an action
that is in progress at the time of the
verb.
E.g., Remembering Rama went to the
forest.

2
Participles can be used adjectivially without nouns, as nouns can be implied. E.g., The remembered [one] arrived.
3
The more eloquent Rama (is) remembered would not be acceptable here, as this would imply a passive sense
(i.e. that Rama is being remembered). Perhaps the English present perfect tense (Rama has remembered) is a
suitable translation in these cases.

7
Present passive vartmne kdanta karmai Like the present active participle, this
participle prayoga (participle in the expresses simultaneous activity, but in a
present, passive construction) passive sense:
E.g., Being-remembered Rama went to
the forest; or simply, Remembered
Rama went to the forest.

8
VERB TENSES / KLA-S (times)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Aorist adyatana-bhuta (of today Indicates an action that has recently
past) been completed.4
Pinis term: lu E.g., The horse spoke this morning.

Imperfect anadyatana-bhuta (not of Indicates an action that was not


today past) performed today and was witnessed by
Pinis term: la the speaker.4
E.g., The horse spoke a year ago.

Perfect (a.k.a. paroka-bhuta (beyond the Indicates an action that was not
distant past eye past) performed today and was not witnessed
tense) Pinis term: li by the speaker.4
E.g., He says that the horse spoke a
year ago; or He said that the horse
had spoken a year ago.

Periphrastic anadyatana-bhaviyat (not of Refers to an event in the distant future.


future (a.k.a. today future) It has a sense of certainty.
distant future) Pinis term: lu E.g., When I journey beneath the earth,
the horse will (certainly) speak.

Present vartamna (present) Used like the English present tense.


indicative Pinis term: la E.g., The horse speaks.

Simple future smnya-bhaviyat (general Refers to a future event that is


future) contiguous with present time. It has a
Pinis term: l sense of likelihood.
E.g., The horse will (likely) speak any
minute now.

4
In actual usage, the disctinction between the aorist, imperfect, and perfect is not generally maintained.

9
VERB VOICES / PADA-S (words; lit. steps)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Active voice parasmaipada (word for Describes verbs of activity and verbs used
another with an object.

Middle voice tmanepada (word for the Generally describes reflexive verbs, but
self) this distinction is not stricttmanepada
verbs can take external objects, too.

Note: Some verbs always take the parasmaipada endings, some always take the tmanepada endings, and
somecalled ubhayapada verbscan occur in both forms. In the case of ubhayapada verbs, I simply
indicated which ending was taken in each particular occurrence.

10
VERB MOODS (a.k.a. MODES) / ARTHA-S (purposes, aims)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Benedictive r (blessing, benediction; Used for uttering blessings or prayers.
prayer) E.g., May she slay the demon.
Pinis term: li

Conditional atipatti (going Used for hypotheses or situations


beyond)/saketa contrary to fact. It expresses a desire to
(condition) have done things differently in the past.
Pinis term: l E.g., If she had slain the demon, it
would not have arisen.

Imperative jna (order, command) Indicates that the verb is a command.


Pinis term: lo E.g., Slay the demon!

Injunctive This is a usage made of the In Vedic, the injunctive expresses


aorist (lu). intentions (I will slay the demon),
imperatives (Slay the demon!), and
wishes (Let her slay the demon). In
Classical Sanskrit, it functions as a
negative imperative, being used with
the prohibitive particle m.
E.g., Do not slay the demon!

Optative (a.k.a. vidhi (rule, injunction) The optative can be used for
potential) prescription (should, ought) or
(includes Pinis term: li5 possibilities (might, may).
benedictive) E.g., She ought to slay the demon;
She might slay the demon.

The benedictive (r li) is used for


uttering blessings or prayers.
E.g., May she slay the demon.

Subjunctive (prayer, wish, blessing) Used in older Sanskrit, the subjunctive


has a variety of functions including the
Pinis term: le requisition and the expression of
wishes.
E.g., I wish that she would slay the
demon; I request that she slay the
demon.

5
The benedictive and optative are both called li by Pini because they generally function in the same way.

11
SECONDARY CONJUGATIONS / DHTU VTTI-S (root modes)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Causative ijanta (ending in ic) Indicates that someone is being caused to
do the action.

Denominative nmadhtu (noun-root) Derives verbs from nouns. Generally


means becomes X, acts like X, turns
(something else) into X, or treats as X.

Desiderative sannanta (ending in san) Indicates that someone desires to do the


action.

Intensive yaanta (ending in ya) Indicates that the action is repeated or


performed with intensity.

12
COMPOUNDS / SAMSA-S (throwing togethers)

Term Usage
avyaybhva (indeclinable This functions as an adverb, with an indeclinable as the prior
state) member and a nominal stem as the latter.
E.g., every-day, with-anger, as-long-as-a-year.

bahuvrhi (much-rice)6 This is an application of other compounds: The last member


loses its independence and the compound as a whole
qualifies some noun outside the compound, which is often
implicit.
E.g., I approached Much-Rice (i.e., I approached the man
who has much rice).

dvandva (pair) A list of nouns that would ordinarily be connected by and


or or.
E.g., mother-father (i.e., mother and father).

tatpurua (his person)6: A compound in which the last member is qualified by the
vyadhikaraa (different prior members while remaining independent of them.
case) and karmadhraya In a vyadhikaraa tatpurua compound, the prior member is
(action bearing) in a different case than the last when the compound is
dissolved: e.g., god-son (i.e., son of the god).
In the karmadhraya tatpurua compound, the members
are in the same case. Often, the former member(s)
describes the last (e.g., small-man), but it can also be
equated to it (e.g., king-man i.e., the man is the king).

6
The name of the compound is an example of it.

13
1.1.1

tm v idameka evgra snnnyatkicana tm (m. nom. sing. tman; from an, at,
miat or v): the self.
v (ind.): or; as, like; just, even, indeed;
The self, indeed, is this, one only, the first; however.
no other blinking one whatsoever was idam (n. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
present. eka (m. nom. sing. eka): one; alone, solitary,
single.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
agra (m. nom. sing. agra): foremost,
anterior, first, chief, best.
st (3rd sing. impf. P. as): was, existed, was
present.
na (ind.): not.
anyat (n. nom. sing. pron. anya): other,
another.
kicana: whatever, whatsoever, however.
kim (n. nom. sing. kim): what? how?
cana (ind.): makes preceding
interrogative indefinite.
miat (n. acc. sing. miat; pres. p. mi):
blinking (one).

sa kata loknnu sj iti sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it; that.
kata (3rd sing. impf. . k7): saw, beheld;
He thought, Now, let me send out the thought.
worlds. lokn (m. acc. pl. loka): the worlds.
nu (ind): now, still, just, indeed, surely.
sjai (1st sing. imperative P. sj): let me
release, let me cast, let me emit.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

7
The augment has been omitted.

14
1.1.2

sa imlloknasjata sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it; that.


imn (m. acc. pl. pron. idam): these.
He sent out these worlds: lokn (m. acc. pl. loka): worlds, wide
spaces, places; countries.
asjata (3rd impf. P. sj): released, created,
cast, emitted.

ambho marcrmarampodombha parea ambha (n. acc. sing. ambhas): water, the
diva dyau pratihntarika marcaya celestial water; power.
pthiv maro y adhasttta pa marc (f. acc. pl. marc): particles of light,
shining specks in the air; rays of light.
The celestial water, the specks of light, maram (mn. acc. mara): dying, death; the
death, the waters. There, the celestial world of death (i.e. the earth).
water; beyond, the sky. The sky, the pa (f. nom. pl. ap): waters, airs,
support; the intermediate space, the specks intermediate regions.
of light; the earth, death; whatever is ada (ind.): there.8
casting up from below, the waters. ambha (n. nom. sing. ambhas): water, the
celestial water; power.
parea (ind.): further, beyond, past.
divam (n. nom. sing. diva): heaven, sky; day.
dyaus (mfn. nom. sing. div): heaven, sky.
pratih (f. nom. sing. pratih): steadfast;
resting place, ground, base, foundation,
support; dwelling, house.
antarikam (n. nom. sing. antarika; possibly
from antar k9): the intermediate
space between heaven and earth, the
atmosphere, the sky, air.
marcaya (mf. nom. pl. marci): particles of
light, shining specks in the air; rays of
light.
pthiv (f. nom. sing. pthiv): the earth, the
world; land, ground, soil; lit. the
spacious or the broad.
mara (m. nom. sing. mara): dying, death; the
world of death.
y (f. nom. pl. relative pron. yad): who,
which, what; whichever, whatever.
adhastt (ind.): from below.
ta (n. nom. sing. tas): throwing, casting up.
pa (f. nom. pl. ap): waters, airs,
intermediate regions.

8
Alternately: ada (3rd sing. ipf. d): burst, split open; tore asunder, divided.
9
Therefore a possible literal rendering is seeing within or seeing between.

15
1.1.3

sa kateme nu lok lokaplnnu sj iti sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, that.
kata (3rd sing. impf. . k10): saw, beheld;
He thought, These are now worlds. Now, thought.
let me send out world-protectors. ime (m. nom. pl. pron. idam): these, these
here; present.
nu (ind.): now, still, just, at once; now then;
indeed, certainly.
lok (m. nom. pl. loka): the worlds, wide
spaces, places; countries.
lokapln (m. acc. pl. loka-pla, TP. comp.):
world-protectors.
loka (grammar not specified): the world,
of the world, etc.
pln (m. acc. pl. pla): guards,
protectors, keepers.
nu (ind.): now, still, just, at once; now then;
indeed, certainly.
sjai (1st sing. impv. P. sj): let me release, let
me cast, let me emit, let me create.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

sodbhya eva purua sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, that.
samuddhtymurchayat adbhya (f. dat./abl. pl. ap): for the waters;
from the waters.
He, having raised up, indeed, Purusha from eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
the waters, expanded. puruam (m. acc. sing. purua): man,
person; Purusha, the primeval being
who is the source of the universe.
samuddhtya (ger. sam ud h): having
completely drawn out; having
destroyed; having rescued; having raised
up.
amurchayat (3rd sing. impf. P. murch):
became solid, thickened, congealed,
expanded, increased, grew; filled,
pervaded, penetrated, spread over.

10
The augment has been omitted.

16
1.1.4

tamabhyatapattasybhitaptasya mukha tam (m. acc. sing. pron. tad): him.


nirabhidyata yatha abhyatapat (3rd sing. impf. abhi tap):
mukhdvgvcognirnsike nirabhidyet irradiated with heat, heated; pained,
nsikbhy pra distressed.
prdvyuraki nirabhidyetmakibhy tasya (mn. gen. sing. pron. tad): of that, its.
cakucakua ditya karau abhitaptasya (mn. gen. sing. abhitapta; past
nirabhidyet karbhy rotra pass. p. abhi tap): of the scorched one,
rotrddiastvanirabhidyata tvaco lomni of the burnt one.
lomabhya oadhivanaspatayo hdaya mukham (n. nom. sing. mukha): the mouth,
nirabhidyata hdynmano the face.
manasacandram nbhirnirabhidyata nirabhidyata (3rd sing. impf. nir bhid): cleft,
nbhy apnopnnmtyu ina split asunder, divided, opened, pierced,
nirabhidyata inadreto retasa pa hurt, destroyed; penetrated, discovered.
yath (ind.): that, as, as if, like, how.
He scorched him. The mouth of the aam (n. nom. sing. aa): egg, testicle,
scorched one split asunder like an egg: from scrotum.
the mouth, speech; from speech, fire. The mukht (n. abl. sing. mukha): from the
nostrils split asunder: from the nostrils, life- mouth, from the face.
breath; from life-breath, wind. The eyes vk (f. nom. sing. vc): speech, word.
split asunder: from the eyes, seeing; from vca (f. abl. sing. vc): from speech.
seeing, the sun. The ears split asunder: from agni (m. nom. sing. agni; from ag): Agni.
the ears, hearing; from hearing, the four nsike (f. nom. du. asika): nostrils.
directions. The skin split asunder: from the nirabhidyetm (3rd du. impf. nir bhid): cleft
skin, body hair; from body hair, herbs and asunder, split asunder, divided, opened,
trees. The heart split asunder: from the pierced, hurt, destroyed; penetrated,
heart, the mind; from the mind, the moon. discovered.
The navel split asunder: from the navel, the nsikbhym (mfn. abl. nsika): from the
down-breath; from the down-breath, nostrils.
death. The penis split asunder: from the pra (m. nom. sing. pra): life-breath,
penis, semen; from semen, waters. vitality.
prt (m. abl. sing. pra): from life-breath,
vitality.
vyu (m. nom. sing. vyu; from v): wind,
Vayu.
aki (n. nom. du. aki): the eyes.
nirabhidyetm (3rd du. impf. nir bhid): cleft,
split asunder, divided, opened, pierced,
hurt, destroyed; penetrated, discovered.
akibhym (n. abl. du. aki): from the eyes.
caku (n. nom. sing. cakus; from cak):
eye, seeing.
cakua (n. abl. sing. cakus; from cak):
from the eye, from seeing.

17
ditya (m. nom. sing. ditya): Surya, the
sun.11
karau (m. nom. du. kara): the ears.
nirabhidyetm (3rd du. impf. nir bhid): cleft,
split asunder, divided, opened, pierced,
hurt, destroyed; penetrated, discovered.
karbhym (m. abl. du. kara): from the
ears.
rotram (n. nom. sing. rotra; from ru):
hearing.
rotrt (n. abl. sing. rotra): from hearing.
dia (f. nom. pl. di): the quarters, the four
directions, the regions.
tvak (f. nom. sing. tvac): the skin.
nirabhidyata (3rd sing. impf. nir bhid): cleft,
split asunder, divided, opened, pierced,
hurt, destroyed; penetrated, discovered.
tvaca (f. abl. sing. tvac): from the skin.
lomni (n. nom. pl. loman): body hair.
lomabhya (n. abl. pl. loman): from the body
hair.
oadhivanaspataya (m. nom. pl. oadhi-
vanaspati): herbs and trees.
hdayam (n. nom. sing. hdaya): the heart,
the soul.
nirabhidyata (3rd sing. impf. nir bhid): cleft,
split asunder, divided, opened, pierced,
hurt, destroyed; penetrated, discovered.
hdyt (mn. abl. sing. hdya): from the heart,
from the soul.
mana (n. nom. sing. manas): mind.
manasa (n. abl. sing. manas): from the
mind.
candram (m. nom. sing. candramas): the
moon.
nbhi (mf. nom. sing. nbhi): the navel.
nirabhidyata (3rd sing. impf. nir bhid): cleft
asunder, split asunder, divided, opened,
pierced, hurt, destroyed; penetrated,
discovered.
nbhy (f. abl. sing. nbhi): from the navel.
apna (m. nom. sing. apna): that of the five
vital airs which goes downwards and out
at the anus.

11
ditya literally means coming from Aditi; i.e. a child of Aditi.

18
apnt (m. abl. sing. apna): from that of the
five vital airs which goes downwards and
out at the anus.
mtyu (mf. nom. sing. mtyu): death, dying.
inam (mn. nom. sing. ina): the penis; lit.
poss. the piercer.
nirabhidyata (3rd sing. impf. nir bhid): cleft
asunder, split asunder, divided, opened,
pierced, hurt, destroyed; penetrated,
discovered.
inat (mn. abl. sing. ina): from the penis.
reta (n. nom. sing. retas): flow, stream;
semen.
retasa (n. nom. sing. retas): from the flow,
stream; from the semen.
pa (f. nom. pl. ap): waters, airs,
intermediate regions.

19
1.2.1

t et devat s asminmahatyarave t (f. nom. pl. pron. tad): they, those.


prpatan et (f. nom. pl. pron. etad): these.
tamaanypipsbhymanvavrjat devat (f. nom. pl. devat): divinities.
s (f. nom. sing. s; past pass. p. sj): let
Those divinities, sent out, fell upon this go, discharged, thrown; given up,
great foaming sea. It was afflicted with abandoned; brought forth, created.
hunger and thirst. asmin (m. loc. pron. idam): in/on this.
mahati (m. loc. sing. mahat): in/on the great,
large, important.
arave (m. loc. sing. arava): in/on the wave,
flood, foaming sea.
prpatan (3rd pl. impf. P. pra pat): flew away,
fell upon, fell from, lost.
tam (m. acc. sing. tad): it, that; him.
aanypipsbhym (f. ins. du. aany-
pips, DV. comp.): with/by hunger and
thirst.
aany (grammar not specified): hunger.
pipsbhym (f. du. ins. pips): with/by
thirst.
anvavrjat (3rd sing. impf. anvavrj; from anu
ava arj): caused to go after; afflicted
with.

t enamabruvannyatana na prajnhi t (f. nom. pl. pron. tad): they, those.


yasminpratihit annamadmeti enam (m. acc. sing. pron. etad): him.
abruvan (3rd pl. impf. bru): spoke, said, told.
They said to him, Make known to us a yatanam (n. acc. sing. yatana): resting-
resting-place, in which, stationed, we may place, support, seat, home.
eat food. na (acc./dat./abl. pl. asmad): us, for us, from
us.
prajnhi (2nd sing. impv. pra jn): know,
understand, distinguish, find out, discover,
show, point out.
yasmin (mn. loc. sing. pron. yad): in which, in
whom.
pratihit (mf. nom. pl. pratihit; past
pass. p. prati sth): stationed, placed,
situated in, abiding in, fixed, rooted,
founded, established.
annam (n. nom. sing. anna; past pass. p. ad):
food; lit. the eaten.
adma (1st pl. impv. P. ad): let us eat.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

20
1.2.2

tbhyo gmnayatt abruvanna vai tbhya (f. dat./abl. pl. pron. tad): for them,
noyamalamiti from them.
gm (m. acc. sing. go): an ox.
For them an ox was fetched. They said, nayat (3rd sing impf. n; from n): led
Verily, for us this is not enough. towards, brought, carried to, fetched.
t (f. nom. pl. pron. tad): they, them.
abruvan (3rd pl. impf. bru): spoke, said, told.
na (ind.): no, not, nor, neither.
vai (ind.): a particle of emphasis.
na (acc./dat./gen. pl. asmad): us, to us; for
us; of us, our.
ayam (m. nom. sing. idam): this.
alam (ind.): enough, sufficient, adequate.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

tbhyovamnayatt abruvanna vai tbhya (f. dat./abl. pl. pron. tad): for them,
noyamalamiti from them.
avam (m. acc. sing. ava): horse, stallion.
For them a horse was fetched. They said, nayat (3rd sing impf. n; from n): led
Verily, for us this is not enough. towards, brought, carried to, fetched.
t (f. nom. pl. pron. tad): they, them.
abruvan (3rd pl. impf. bru): spoke, said, told.
na (ind.): no, not, nor, neither.
vai (ind.): a particle of emphasis.
na (acc./dat./gen. pl. asmad): us, to us; for
us; of us, our.
ayam (m. nom. sing. idam): this.
alam (ind.): enough, sufficient, adequate.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

21
1.2.3

tbhya puruamnayatt abruvan sukta tbhya (f. dat./abl. pl. pron. tad): for them,
bateti puruo vva suktam from them.
puruam (m. acc. sing. purua): man,
For them a person was fetched. They said, person; Purusha, the primeval being
Well-done! Oh! A person, indeed, is well- who is the source of the universe.
done. nayat (3rd sing impf. n): led towards,
brought, carried to, fetched.
t (f. nom. pl. pron. tad): they.
abruvan (3rd pl. impf. bru): spoke, said, told.
suktam (n nom. sing. sukta; past pass. p. su
kt): doing good, benevolent, virtuous;
fortunate; skilful; lit. well-made, well-
done.
bata (ind.): oh! alas!
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.
purua (m. nom. sing. purua): man, person;
Purusha, the primeval being who is
the source of the universe.
vva (ind.): just, indeed, even.
suktam (n. nom. sing. sukta; past pass. p. su
kt): doing good, benevolent, virtuous;
fortunate; skilful; lit. well-made, well-
done.

t abravtyathyatana praviateti t (f. nom. pl. pron. tad): they.


abravt (3rd sing. impf. br): spoke, said, told.
They said, Each into your own abode, yathyatanam (ind.): each in its own place or
enter! abode.
praviata (2nd pl. impv. P. pra vi): enter!
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

22
1.2.4

agnirvgbhutv mukha prviadvyu agni (m. nom. sing. agni; from ag): Agni.
pro bhutv nsike vk (f. nom. sing. vc; from vac): speech,
prviaddityacakurbhutvki word.
prviaddia rotra bhutv karau bhutv (ger. bhu): having become.
prviannoadhivanaspatayo lomni bhutv mukham (mn. acc. mukha): the mouth, face.
tvacaprviacandram mano bhutv prviat (3rd sing. impv. prvi; from pra vi
hdaya prvianmtyurapno bhutv or pra vi): came to, resorted to;
nbhi prviadpo reto bhutv ina entered into.
prvian vyu (m. nom. sing. vyu; from v): wind,
Vayu.
Fire, having become speech, entered the pra (m. nom. sing. pra): life-breath,
mouth. Wind, having become life-breath, vitality.
entered the nostrils. The sun, having bhutv (ger. bhu): having become.
become seeing, entered the eye. The four nsike (f. acc. du. nsik): nostrils.
directions, having become hearing, entered prviat (3rd sing. impv. prvi; from pra vi
the ears. The herbs and trees, having or pra vi): came to, resorted to;
become body hair, entered the skin. The entered into.
moon, having become the mind, entered ditya (m. nom. sing. ditya): the sun, Surya.
the heart. Death, having become the down- caku (n. acc. sing. cakus; from cak): eye,
breath, entered the navel. Water, having seeing.
become semen, entered the penis. bhutv (ger. bhu): having become.
aki (n. acc. du. aki): the eye.
prviat (3rd sing. impv. prvi; from pra vi
or pra vi): came to, resorted to;
entered into.
dia (f. nom. pl. di): the quarters, the four
directions, the regions.
rotram (n. nom. sing. rotra; from ru):
hearing.
bhutv (ger. bhu): having become.
karau (m. acc. du. kara): the ears.
prvian (3rd pl. impv. prvi; from pra vi or
pra vi): came to, resorted to;
entered into.
oadhivanaspataya (m. nom. pl. oadhi-
vanaspati): herbs and trees.
lomni (n. nom. pl. loman): body hair.
bhutv (ger. bhu): having become.
tvacam (f. acc. sing. tvac; from tvac): skin,
hide; lit. covering.
prvian (3rd pl. impv. prvi; from pra vi or
pra vi): came to, resorted to;
entered into.
candram (m. nom. sing. candramas): the
moon.
mana (n. nom. sing. manas): mind.

23
bhutv (ger. bhu): having become.
hdayam (n. acc. sing hdaya): the heart, the
soul.
prviat (3rd sing. impv. prvi; from pra vi
or pra vi): came to, resorted to;
entered into.
mtyu (mf. nom. sing. mtyu; from m):
death, dying.
apna (m. nom. sing. apna): from that of
the five vital airs which goes downwards
and out at the anus.
bhutv (ger. bhu): having become.
nbhim (mf. acc. sing. nbhi; from nabh):
the navel.
prviat (3rd sing. impv. prvi; from pra vi
or pra vi): came to, resorted to;
entered into.
pa (f. nom. pl. ap): waters, airs,
intermediate regions.
reta (n. nom. sing. retas): flow, stream,
current; seminal fluid, sperm.
bhutv (ger. bhu): having become.
inam (n. nom. sing. ina): the penis.
prvian (3rd pl. impv. prvi; from pra vi or
pra vi): came to, resorted to;
entered into.

24
1.2.5

tamaanypipse tam (m. acc. sing. tad): him.


abrutmvbhymabhiprajnhti te aanypipsbhym (f. nom. du. aany-
abravdetsveta v pips, DV. comp.): hunger and thirst.
devatsvbhajmyetsu bhginyau karomti aany (grammar not specified): desire
of eating or consuming, hunger.
To him, hunger and thirst said, For us, also pipsbhym (f. nom. du. pips): thirst.
forth-know. To them, he said, Go into abrutm (3rd du. impf. bru): they spoke, said.
these. To you, divinity not your own I vbhym (ins./dat./abl. du. pron. asmad): by
apportion. In these, I make fortunate ones. us, with us; for us; from us.
api (ind.): and, also, moreover, besides.
prajnhi (2nd sing. impv. pra jn): know,
understand; find out, discover; lit. forth-
know.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.
te (f. acc. du. tad): them, to them.
abravt (3rd sing. impf. bru): spoke, said, told.
etsu (f. loc. pl. pron. etad): in these, into
these.
eta (2nd pl. impv. e; from i): come
towards! go near!
vm (acc./dat./gen. du. yumad): you, for
you, of you, your.
devat (f. nom. sing. devat): godhead,
divinity; idol.
asv (f. nom. sing. a sv): not ones own, not
your own, not their own.
bhajmi (1st sing. pres. indic. P. bhaj): I
divide, I distribute, I allot, I apportion.
etsu (f. loc. pl. pron. etad): in these.
bhaginyau (f. nom./acc. du. bhagin):
prosperous, happy, fortunate, perfect,
splended, glorious (ones).
karomi (1st sing. pres. indic. P. k): (I) do,
make, perform.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

tasmdyasyai kasyai ca devatyai tasmt (ind.): therefore.


havirghyate yasyai kasyai ca (expression in dat. sing.): for
bhginyvevsymaanypipse bhavata whatever.
devatyai (f. dat. sing. devat): for the
Therefore for whatever divinity an oblation godhead, divinity; for the idol.
is seized, co-heiresses, indeed, in this havi (n. nom. sing. havis): an oblation or
hunger and thirst become. burnt offering.

25
ghyate (3rd sing. pres. pass. P. grah): is
seized, is taken, is caught, is received.
bhginyau (f. nom./acc. du. bhgin): co-
heiresses, entitled ones.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
asym (f. loc. sing. pron. idam): in this.
aanypipse (f. nom. du. aany-pipse,
DV. comp.): hunger-and-thirst
aany (grammar not specified; or f.
nom. sing.): hunger.
pipse (f. nom. du.): thirst.
bhavata (3rd du. pres. indic. P. bhu): are,
become.

26
1.3.1

sa kateme nu lokca sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it; that.
lokaplcnnamebhya sj iti kata (3rd sing. impf. . k12): saw, beheld;
thought.
He thought, Now then, these worlds and ime (m. nom. pl. pron. idam): these, these
world-protectors and food: from these, let here; present.
me send out. nu (ind.): now, still, just, at once; now then;
indeed, certainly, surely.
lok (m. nom. pl. loka): the worlds, wide
spaces, places; countries.
ca (ind.): and.
lokapl (m. nom. pl. loka-pla, TP. comp.):
world-protectors.
loka (grammar not specified): the world,
from the world, in the world, of the
world, etc.
pl (m. nom. pl. pla): guards,
protectors, keepers.
ca (ind.): and.
annam (n. nom. sing. anna; past pass. p. ad):
food; lit. the eaten.
ebhya (mn. dat./abl. pl. idam): for these,
from these.
sji (1st sing. impv. sj): let me release, let
me cast, let me emit, let me create.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

12
The augment has been omitted.

27
1.3.2

sopobhyatapattbhyobhitaptbhyo sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it; that.


murtirajyata pa (f. nom. pl. ap): waters, airs,
intermediate regions.
It heated the waters; from those scorched abhyatapat (3rd sing. impf. abhi tap): heated;
ones, a solid body was born. pained.
tbhya (f. dat./abl pl. pron. tad): for them;
from them.
abhitaptbhya (f. dat./abl. pl. abhi tapta):
for the scorched, burnt; from the
scorched, burnt.
murti (f. nom. sing. murti): solid body,
material form, embodiment,
manifestation, form, appearance.
ajyata (3rd sing. impf. jan): was born.

y vai s murtirajyatnna vai tat yh (f. nom. sing. pron. yad): who, which.
vai (ind.): a particle of emphasis.
That which, verily, was born as a solid body s: (f. nom. sing. pron. tad): she, that.
was food. murti (f. nom. sing. murti): solid body,
material form, embodiment,
manifestation, form, appearance.
ajyata (3rd sing. impf. jan): was born.
annam (n. nom. sing. anna): food.
tat (n. nom. pron. tad): it, that.

28
1.3.3

tadenatsa tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.


partyajighsattadvcjidhkat enat (n. acc. sing. pron. idam): this.
tannaknodvc grahtum sam (n. nom./acc. sing. sa; past pass. p.
sj): released, cast, emitted, created.
This, sent out in the presence of the parti (ind.): in the presence of the beyond.
beyond, he wished to strike. He wished to para (grammar not specified): far,
grasp it with speech; he was not able to distant remote, beyond.
grasp it with speech. anti (ind.): before, in the presence of,
near; within the proximity of, to.
ajighsat (3rd sing. past. desiderative P.
han): wished to strike, smite, slay; to
go, move; to touch, destroy.
tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
vc (f. ins. sing. vc): with/by speech,
language, sound, a word.
ajighkat (3rd sing. past. desiderative P.
grah): wished to seize, grasp.
tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
na (ind.): not.
aaknot (3rd sing. impf. ak): was strong,
powerful; was able, capable, competent.
vc (f. ins. sing. vc): with/by speech,
language, sound, a word.
grahtum (infinitive grah): to seize, grasp.

sa yadhainadvcgrahaiyadabhivyhtya sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it, that.


haivnnamatrapsyat yat (n. acc. sing. pron. yad): which, whichever,
what, whatever.
Had he, indeed, grasped this with speech, ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
having only spoken of food, indeed, he enat (n. acc. sing. idam): this, here.
would have been satisfied. vc (f. ins. sing. vc): with/by speech,
language, sound, a word.
agrahaiyat (3rd sing. cond. P. grah): had he
grasped.
abhivyhtya (m. nom. sing. abhivyhtya;
ger. abhi vi h): having spoken; to be
said; lit. having carried over.
ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
annam (n. acc. sing. anna): food.
atrapsyat (3rd sing. cond. P. tp): would have
satisfied, would have been satisfied.

29
1.3.4

tatprenjighkat tannaknotprena tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
grahtu sa prena (mn. ins. sing. pra): with/by the
yaddhainatprengrahaiyadabhiprya life-breath.
haivnnamatrapsyat ajighkat (3rd sing. past. desiderative P.
grah): wished to seize, grasp.
He wished to grasp it with life-breath; he tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
was not able to grasp it with life-breath. na (ind.): not.
Had he, indeed, grasped it with life-breath, aaknot (3rd sing. impf. P. ak): was strong,
having only inhaled food, indeed, he would powerful; was able, capable, competent.
have been satisfied. prena (mn. ins. sing. pra): with/by the
life-breath.
grahtum (infinitive grah): to seize, grasp.
sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it, that.
yat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. yad): which,
which, what, whatever.
ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
enat (n. acc. sing. pron. idam): this, here.
prena (mn. ins. sing. pra): with/by the
life-breath.
agrahaiyat (3rd sing. cond. P. grah): had he
grasped.
abhiprya (ger. abhi pr): having
breathed, having inhaled.
ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
annam (n. acc. sing. anna): food.
atrapsyat (3rd sing. cond. P. tp): would have
satisfied, would have been satisfied.

30
1.3.5

taccakujighkat tannaknoccaku tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
grahtum sa caku (m. ins. sing. cakus): seeing.
yaddhainaccakugrahaiyaddv ajighkat (3rd sing. past. desiderative P.
haivnnamatrapsyat grah): wished to seize, grasp.
tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
He wished to grasp it with the eye; he was na (ind.): not.
not able to grasp it with the eye. Had he, aaknot (3rd sing. impf. P. ak): was strong,
indeed, grasped it with the eye, having seen powerful; was able, capable, competent.
food, verily, he would have been satisfied. caku (m. ins. sing. cakus): seeing.
grahtum (infinitive grah): to seize, grasp.
sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it, that.
yat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. yad): which,
which, what, whatever.
ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
enat (n. acc. sing. pron. idam): this, here.
caku (m. ins. sing. cakus): with/by seeing.
agrahaiyat (3rd sing. cond. P. grah): had he
grasped.
dv (ger. d): having seen.
ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
annam (n. acc sing. anna): food.
atrapsyat (3rd sing. cond. P. tp): would have
satisfied, would have been satisfied.

31
1.3.6

tacchrotrejighkat tannaknocchrotrea tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
grahtu sa rotrea (n. ins. sing. rotra): with/by the ear,
yaddhainacchrotregrahaiyacchrutv hearing.
haivnnamatrapsyat ajighkat (3rd sing. past. desiderative P.
grah): wished to seize, grasp.
He wished to grasp it with the ear; he was tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
not able to grasp it with the ear. Had he, na (ind.): not.
indeed, grasped it with the hear, having aaknot (3rd sing. impf. P. ak): was strong,
heard food, verily, he would have been powerful; was able, capable, competent.
satisfied. rotrea (n. ins. sing. rotra): with/by the ear,
hearing.
grahtum (infinitive grah): to seize, grasp.
sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it, that.
yat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. yad): which,
which, what, whatever.
ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
enat (n. acc. sing. pron. idam): this, here.
rotrea (n. ins. sing. rotra): with/by the ear,
hearing.
agrahaiyat (3rd sing. cond. P. grah): had he
grasped.
rutv (ger. ru): having heard.
ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
annam (n. acc. sing. anna): food.
atrapsyat (3rd sing. cond. P. tp): would have
satisfied, would have been satisfied.

32
1.3.7

tattvacjighkat tannaknottvac tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
grahtu sa yaddhainattvacgrahaiyat tvac (f. ins. sing. tvac): with/by skin.
spv haivnnamatrapsyat ajighkat (3rd sing. past. desiderative P.
grah): wished to seize, grasp.
He wished to grasp it with the skin; he was tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
not able to grasp it with the skin. na (ind.): not.
Had he, indeed, grasped it with the skin, aaknot (3rd sing. impf. P. ak): was strong,
having touched food, verily, he would have powerful; was able, capable, competent.
been satisfied. tvac (f. ins. sing. tvac): with/by skin.
grahtum (infinitive grah): to seize, grasp.
sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it, that.
yat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. yad): which,
which, what, whatever.
ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
enat (n. acc. sing. pron. idam): this, here.
tvac (f. ins. sing. tvac): with/by skin.
agrahaiyat (3rd sing. cond. P. grah): had he
grasped.
spv (ger. sp): having touched, felt.
ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
annam (n. acc. sing. anna): food.
atrapsyat (3rd sing. cond. P. tp): would have
satisfied, would have been satisfied.

33
1.3.8

tanmanasjighkat tannaknonmanas tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
grahtu sa manas (n. ins. sing. manas): with/by the
yaddhainanmanasgrahaiyaddhytv mind.
haivnnamatrapsyat ajighkat (3rd sing. past. desiderative P.
grah): wished to seize, grasp.
He wished to grasp it with the mind; he was tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
not able to grasp it with the mind. Had he, na (ind.): not.
indeed, grasped it with the mind, having aaknot (3rd sing. impf. P. ak): was strong,
thought of food, verily, he would have been powerful; was able, capable, competent.
satisfied. manas (n. ins. sing. manas): with/by the
mind.
grahtum (infinitive grah): to seize, grasp.
sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it, that.
yat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. yad): which,
which, what, whatever.
ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
enat (n. acc. sing. pron. idam): this, here.
manas (n. ins. sing. manas): with/by the
mind.
agrahaiyat (3rd sing. cond. P. grah): had he
grasped.
dhytv (ger. dhyai): having thought of,
having imagined, having called to mind,
having meditated on.
ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
annam (n. acc. sing. anna): food.
atrapsyat (3rd sing. cond. P. tp): would have
satisfied, would have been satisfied.

34
1.3.9

tacchinenjighkat tannaknocchinena tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
grahtu sa inena (mn. ins. sing. ina): the penis.
yaddhainacchinengrahaiyadvisjya ajighkat (3rd sing. past. desiderative P.
haivnnamatrapsyat grah): wished to seize, grasp.
tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
He wished to grasp it with the penis; he was na (ind.): not.
not able to grasp it with the penis. Had he, aaknot (3rd sing. impf. P. ak): was strong,
indeed, grasped it with the penis, having powerful; was able, capable, competent.
shot out food, verily, he would have been inena (mn. ins. sing. ina): the penis.
satisfied. grahtum (infinitive grah): to seize, grasp.
sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it, that.
yat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. yad): which,
which, what, whatever.
ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
enat (n. acc. sing. pron. idam): this, here.
inena (mn. ins. sing. ina): the penis.
agrahaiyat (3rd sing. cond. P. grah): had he
grasped.
visjya (ger. vi sj): having released, cast,
shot, hurled, emitted.
ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
annam (n. acc. sing. anna): food.
atrapsyat (3rd sing. cond. P. tp): would have
satisfied, would have been satisfied.

35
1.3.10

tadapnenjighkat tadvayat saionnasya tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
graho yadvyurannyurv ea yadvyu apnena (mn. ins. sing. apna): with/by the
down-breath.
He wished to grasp it with the down- ajighkat (3rd sing. past. desiderative P.
breath. He devoured, having this, foods grah): wished to seize, grasp.
grasper, which is wind. Desirous of food, tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
indeed, is this, which is wind. vayat (3rd sing. impf. P. av): caused to drive,
impel; caused to lead, bring to; caused to
guard, defend; caused to accept, be
pleased with; consumed, devoured.
sa (ind.): with, having; expresses conjunction
or possession.
ea (m. nom. sing. etad): this, here.
annasya (mn. gen. sing. anna): of food,
foods.
graha (m. nom. sing. graha; noun from
grah): seizing, laying hold of, holding,
grasping; seizer, grasper.
yat (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): which,
what, whatever.
vyu (m. nom. sing. vyu; from v): wind,
Vayu.
annyu (m. nom. sing. annyu): living by
food, desirious of food.
v (ind.): or; as, like; just, even, indeed;
however.
ea (m. nom. sing. pron. etad): this.
yat (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): which,
what, whatever.
vyu (m. nom. sing. vyu; from v): wind,
Vayu.

36
1.3.11

sa kata katha nvida madte syditi sa sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it; that.
kata katarea prapady iti kata (3rd sing. impf. . k): saw, beheld;
thought.
He thought, How, except from me, could katham (ind.): how? in what manner?
this be? He thought, By which one may I whence?
enter? nu (ind): now, still, just, indeed, surely.
idam (n. nom. sing. pron. idam): this, here.
mat (abl. sing. pron. asmad): from me.
te (ind.): excepting, besides, without, unless.
syt (3rd sing. opt. P. as): could/should/may
be.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.
sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it; that.
kata (3rd sing. impf. . k): saw, beheld;
thought.
katarea (mn. ins. sing. katara): by/with
whom/which?
prapadyai (1st sing impv. pra pad): let me
fall, let me resort to, let me enter, let me
attack.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

sa kata yadi vcbhivyhta yadi sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it; that.
prenbhiprita yadi caku da kata (3rd sing. impf. . k): saw, beheld;
yadi rotrea ruta yadi tvac spa yadi thought.
manas dhyta yadyapnenbhyapnita yadi (ind.): if, in case that.
yadi inena visamatha kohamiti vc (f. ins. sing. vc): by/with speech.
abhivyhtam (n. nom. sing. abhi vyhta;
He thought, If by speech, spoken; if by life- past pass. p. abhi h): pronounced,
breath, animated; if by seeing, beheld; if by spoken; lit. brought near, carried off,
the ear, heard; if by the skin, felt; if by the carried over.
mind, thought of; if by the down-breath, yadi (ind.): if, in case that.
breathed downwards; if by the penis, shot prena (mn. ins. sing. pra): with/by life-
out as a descendant am I. breath.
abhipritam (n. nom. sing. abhiprita; past
pass. p. abhi pra a i): kept alive,
animated.
yadi (ind.): if, in case that.
caku (m. ins. sing. cakus): with/by seeing.
da (n. nom. sing. da; past pass. p.
d): seen, looked at, beheld; visible.
yadi (ind.): if, in case that.
rotrea (n. ins. sing. rotra): with/by hearing,
the ear.

37
rutam (n. nom. sing. ruta; past pass. p.
ru): heard.
yadi (ind.): if, in case that.
tvac (f. ins. sing. tvac): with/by the skin; lit.
the covering.
spam (n. nom. sing. spa): touched, felt.
yadi (ind.): if, in case that.
manas (n. ins. sing. manas): with/by the
mind.
dhytam (n. nom. sing. dhyta; past pass. p.
dh): thought of, meditated on.
yadi (ind.): if, in case that.
apnena (mn. ins. sing. apna): with/by the
down-breath.
abhyapnitam (n. nom. sing. abhyapnita;
past pass. p. abhi apa an): breathed
downwards.
yadi (ind.): if, in case that.
inena (mn. ins. sing. ina): the penis.
visamathaka (m. nom. sing. visa-
mathaka, TP. comp.): a shot-out
descendant.
visa (grammar not specified; past
pass. p. vi sj): released, cast, shot,
hurled, emitted, dispatched.
mathaka (m. nom. sing. mathaka): of a
man, coming from a man, a
descendant.
aham (nom. sing. pron. mad): I.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

38
1.3.12

sa etameva smna vidryaitay dvr sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it; that.
prpadyata etam (m. acc. sing. pron. etad): this, here.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
Rending asunder, indeed, this suture of the smnam (m. acc. sing. sman; from s): a
skull, by that door he entered. parting of the hair, a suture of the skull.
vidryai (f. dat. sing. vi dr): tearing or
rending asunder, cutting, splitting.
tay (f. ins. sing. pron. tad): with/by her, it,
that.
dvr (f. ins. sing. dvr): with/by the gate,
door.
prpadyata (3rd sing. impf. . pra pad): fell,
dropped down from; entered.

sai vidtirnma dvstadetannndanam s (f. nom. sing. tad): she, it.


e (f. nom. sing. etad): this, here.
This is named skin asunder. This door is vidti (f. nom. sing. vi dti): a suture in the
delight. skull; more lit. asunder skin.
nma (ind.): named, called.
dv (n. nom. sing. dvr): door.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): that, it.
etat (n. nom. sing. pron. etad): this, it.
nndanam (n. nom. sing. nndana; from
nand): a pleasure garden, paradise;
delight, joy, gladness.

tasya traya vasathstraya svapn tasya (mn. gen. sing. pron. tad): of it, its, of
ayamvasathoyamvasathoyamvasatha that, he, his.
iti traye (m. loc. sing. traya): in the triple,
threefold.
His abodes are in the threefold; threefold is vasath (m. nom. pl. vasatha): dwelling-
sleep. This is the abode, this is the abode, places, abodes.
this is the abode. traya (m. nom. sing. traya): the triple, the
threefold.
svapn (m. nom. pl. svapna): sleep, dreams.
ayam (m. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
vasath (m. nom. sing. vasatha):
dwelling-place, abode.
ayam (m. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
vasath (m. nom. sing. vasatha):
dwelling-place, abode.
ayam (m. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
vasath (m. nom. sing. vasatha):
dwelling-place, abode.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

39
1.3.13

sa jto bhutnyabhivyaikhyatkimihnya sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it, that.
vvadiaditi jta (m. nom. sing. jta; from jan): born,
grown, produced, arisen, caused,
He looked upon the arisen beings: What appeared.
here wished to speak of another?13 bhutni (n. nom./acc. pl. bhuta; past pass. p.
bhu): become, been (ones); existing,
present (ones); beings; the world.
abhivyaikhyat, read as abhivyaikat14 (3rd sing.
impf. P. abhivk; from abhi vi k):
looked at, viewed, perceived.
kim (n. nom./acc. sing. kim): what?
iha (ind.): here.
anyam (n. nom./acc. sing. anya): other,
another.
vvadiat (3rd sing. impf. desiderative P.
vad): wished to speak, utter, tell.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

sa etameva purua brahma sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it, that.
tatamamapayat etam (m. acc. sing. pron. etad): this, here.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
He beheld, indeed, that this person was puruam (m. acc. sing. purua): man,
that very Brahman. person; Purusha, the primeval being
who is the source of the universe.
brahma (n. nom./acc. sing. brahman):
worship, prayer; the sacred word, a
sacred text; Brahman, the universal soul;
lit. growth, expansion.
tatamam (m. acc. sing. pron. tatama): that
one, such a one, just that.
apayat (3rd sing. impf. d): saw, beheld.

idamadaramiti idam (n. nom. sing. pron. idam): this, here.


adaram (1st sing. impf. . d): I saw,
This I beheld. beheld.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

13
Anyam could also be taken to be nominative: What other here wished to speak?
14
Khy and k are frequently confounded in the Upaniads.

40
1.3.14

tasmdidandro nmedandro ha vai nma tasmt (mn. abl. sing. pron. tad): from that;
therefore.
Therefore, This-Seeing he is named. This- idandra (m. nom. sing. idandra; from idam
Seeing, indeed, he is named. d): This-Seeing.
nma (ind.): named, called.
idandra (m. nom. sing. idandra): This-Seeing.
ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
vai (ind.): a particle of emphasis.
nma (ind.): named, called.

tamidandra santamidra itycakate tam (mn. acc. or neuter nom sing. pron. tad):
parokea it, him; It, that.
idandra (m. acc. sing. idandra): This-seeing.
That This-Seeing is the son of Truth, santam (m. acc. sing. santa): son of Satya15,
Indra, they declare mysteriously. truth.
indra (m. nom. sing. indra): Indra.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.
cakate (3rd pl. pres. indic. . cak): (they)
look at, inspect; tell, declare, make
known; call, name.
parokea (mn. ins. sing. paroka): with
mystery; lit. with the beyond-the-eye.

parokapriy iva hi dev parokapriy iva hi parokapriy (f. nom. pl. paroka-priya; TP.
dev comp.): delighted by the mysterious.
paroka (grammar not specified): lit.
For delighted by the mysterious, as it were, beyond the eye; invisible,
are the deities; for delighted by the unknown.
mysterious, as it were, are the deities. priy (f. nom. pl. pr): delighted.
iva (ind.): like, in the same manner as; as it
were, as if; so, just so; indeed.
hi (ind.): for.
dev (mf. nom. pl. deva): the deities, the
gods.
parokapriy (f. nom. pl. paroka-priya; TP.
comp.): delighted by the mysterious.
paroka (grammar not specified): lit.
beyond the eye; invisible,
unknown.
priy (f. nom. pl. pr): delighted.
iva (ind.): like, in the same manner as; as it
were, as if; so, just so; indeed.

15
Literally, coming from being.

41
hi (ind.): for.
dev (mf. nom. pl. deva): the deities, the
gods.

42
2.1.1

purue ha v ayamdito garbho bhavati purue (m. loc. sing. purua): in man, in a
person; in Purusha, the primeval being
In a person, indeed, at first, this, the who is the source of the universe.
embryo, arises. ha (ind.): indeed, assuredly, verily.
v (ind.): or; as, like; just, even, indeed;
however.
ayam (m. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
ditas (ind.): from the beginning, at first.
garbha (m. nom. sing. garbha): the womb;
the inside, middle, interior; embryo.
bhavati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. bhu): is,
becomes, arises.

yadetadreta yat (n. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): which,


tadetatsarvebhyogebhyasteja what, that.
sabhutamtmanyevtmna bibharti etat (n. nom. sing. pron. etad): this, it.
tadyad striy sincatyathainajjanayati reta (n. nom. sing. retas): flow, stream;
tadasya prathama janma semen.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): that, it.
That which is this, semen, is brilliance come etat (n. nom. sing. pron. etad): this, it.
together from all the limbs. In the self, sarvebhya (m. dat./abl. pl. sarva): for/from
indeed, one bears a self. When one all.
discharges it into a woman, then one agebhya (m. dat./abl. pl. aga): for/from
generates this. It is his first birth. limbs.
teja (n. nom. sing. tejas): the sharp edge, the
point or top of a flame, glow, glare,
splendour, brilliance.
sambhutam (n. nom. sing. sambhuta; past
pass. p. sam bhu): come together,
united, combined; become, born.
tmani (m. loc. sing. tman; from an, at, or
v): in the self.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
tmnam (m. acc. sing. tman): the self.
bibharti (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. bh): bears,
carries, holds.
tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
yad (ind.): when, whenever.
striym (f. loc. sing. str): in a woman.
sincati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. sic): pours out,
discharges, emits, sheds.
atha (ind.): now, then, moreover.
enat (n. acc. sing. pron. idam): this, here.
janayati (3rd sing. pres. causative P. jan):
generates, begets, produces, creates,
births; is born, is produced.

43
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
asya (mn. gen. sing. pron. idam): of this, its,
his.
prathamam (n. nom. sing. prathama): first,
foremost.
janma (n. nom. sing. janman): birth,
production, origin; life.

44
2.1.2

tatstriy tmabhuya gacchati yath tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
svamaga tath striy (f. abl./gen. sing. str): from/of the
tasmden na hinasti woman.
tmabhuyam (n. nom./acc. sing. tmabhuya):
It goes from the woman to self-being,16 as if peculiarity, own nature; lit. self-being
its own limb; therefore, it harms her not. or self-becoming.
gacchati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. gam): goes.
yath (ind.): that, as, as if, like, how.
svam (n. nom./acc. sing. sva):
my/your/his/her/our/their/its own.
agam (n. nom./acc. aga): limb.
tath (ind.): in that manner, so, thus.
tasmt (mn. abl. sing. pron. tad): from that;
therefore.
enm (f. acc. sing. pron. idam): this, her.
na (ind.): no, not.
hinasti (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. his): injures,
harms, kills, slays.

ssyaitamtmnamatra gata bhvayati s (f. nom. sing. pron. tad): she, that.
asya (mn. gen. sing. pron. idam): of him, his,
Its self, in this manner gone, she makes be. its.
etam (mn. acc. sing. pron. etad): this, it, him.
tmnam (m. acc. sing. tman): the self.
atra (ind.): in this manner, in this respect, in
this place, at this time, there, then.
gatam (m. acc. sing. gata; past pass. p.
gam): gone, come.
bhvayati (3rd sing. pres. causative P. bhu):
causes to be/become/arise.

16
tmabhuyam could also be nominative, rendering: That self-being goes from the woman

45
2.1.3

s bhvayitr bhvayitavy bhavati s (f. nom. sing. pron. tad): she, that.
bhvayitr (f. nom. sing. bhvayitr; from
She, making be, becomes the to-be-made- bhu): causing to be, cherishing,
be. protecting.
bhvayitavy (f. nom. sing. bhvayitavy;
causative fut. pass. p. bhu): to be
caused to be, to be cherished, to be
protected.
bhavati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. bhu): is,
becomes, arises.

ta str garbha bibharti tam (m. acc. sing. pron. tad): it, him, that.
str (f. nom. sing. str): woman.
The woman bears that embryo. garbham (m. acc. sing. garbha): the womb;
the inside, middle, interior; embryo.
bibharti (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. bh): bears,
carries, holds.

sogra eva kumra sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it, that.
janmanogredhibhvayati agre (ind.): in front, ahead of, in the
beginning, first; subsequently, further
He, subsequently, indeed, makes be the on; before.
child, from birth onwards.17 eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
kumram (mn. acc. sing. kumra): child, boy.
janmana (n. abl./gen. sing. janman): from
birth, of birth.
agre (ind.): in front, ahead of, in the
beginning, first; subsequently, further
on; before.
adhi (ind.): from, after, on, at.
bhvayati (3rd sing. causative P. adhi bhu):
causes to be.

sa yatkumra sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it, that.


janmanogredhibhvayatytmnameva yat (mn. nom./acc. sing. pron. yad): who,
tadbhvayatye lokn santaty which, whichever, what, whatever.
kumram (n. nom./acc. sing. kumra): child,
The child, which he makes be from birth boy.
onwards, it, indeed, makes be the self by janmana (n. abl./gen. sing. janman): from
extending these worlds. birth, of birth.
agre (ind.): in front, ahead of, in the
beginning, first; subsequently, further
on; before.

17
This verse is particularly vague due to agres diverse meanings: perhaps the child is made be in the beginning,
from before birth.

46
adhi (ind.): from, after, on, at.
bhvayati (3rd sing. causative P. adhi bhu):
causes to be.
tmnam (m. acc. sing. tman): the self.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that, he,
she.
bhvayati (3rd sing. causative P. adhi bhu):
causes to be.
em (mn. gen. pl. pron. idam): of these.
loknm (m. gen. pl. loka): of the worlds.
santaty (f. ins. sing. sa tati; ): by
stretching, by extending, by the expanse.

eva santat hme lokstadasya dvitya evam (ind.): thus, in this way.
janma santat (m. nom. pl. sa tata): stretched,
extended, woven together (ones).
For thus extended are these worlds; that is hi (ind.): for, because, indeed, assuredly.
his second birth. ime (m. nom. pl. pron. idam): these.
lok (m. nom. pl. loka): worlds.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
asya (mn. gen. sing. pron. idam): of this, its.
dvitya (n. nom./acc. sing. dvitya): second.
janma (n. nom./acc. sing. janman): birth.

47
2.1.4

sosyyamtm puyebhya karmabhya sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, that.
pratidhyate asya (mn. gen. sing. pron. idam): of this, its,
of it; his, of him; of one.
This, his self, from18 pure action approaches ayam (m. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
fulfillment. tm (m. nom. sing. tman): self.
puyebhya (mn. dat./abl. pl. puya; from
pu): for/from pure.
karmabhya (mn. dat./abl. pl. karman):
for/from action.
pratidhyate (3rd sing. pres. indic. or pass. .
prati dh19): approaches accomplishing,
approaches fulfillment.

athsyyamitara tm ktaktyo vayogata atha (ind.): now, then, moreover.


praiti asya (mn. gen. sing. pron. idam): of this, its,
his.
Moreover, this, his other self, having done ayam (m. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
the done, vigour gone, goes forth. itara (m. nom. sing. pron. itara): the other,
another.
tm (m. nom. sing. tman): self.
kta-ktya (m. nom. sing. kta-ktya; DV.
comp.): the done and to-be-done;
having done the done.
kta (grammar not specified; past pass.
p. k): done, made, performed.
ktya (m. nom. sing. ktya; fut. pass. p.
or ger. k): the to-be-done, having
done.
vayogata (m. nom. sing. vayogata20): vigour-
gone.
praiti (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. pre (pra i)):
comes forth, appears, begins; goes on,
proceeds, advances; goes forward,
arrives at; goes away, departs.

sa ita prayanneva punarjyate tadasya sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it, that.
ttya janma taduktami ita (m. nom. sing. ita; past pass. p. i): gone,
returned.
prayan (m. nom. sing. prayat; pres. act. p. P.
(pra i) pra i): coming forth, appearing,

18
The ablative case can have the sense of because of, so perhaps pure action is what causes him to approach
fulfillment. It is also worth noting that puyebhya could also be dative, so perhaps he approaches fulfillment for the
sake of pure action.
19
Class 4.
20
From vaya (enjoyment, energy, health, vigour) + gata (gone; the past pass. p. gam).

48
He, gone, moving forth indeed, again is beginning; going on, proceeding,
born; that is his third birth. It is spoken by advancing; going forth, arriving at; going
the sage: away, departing.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only, even.
punar (ind.): back; again, once more;
repeatedly; further, moreover; however,
still, nevertheless.
jyate (3rd sing. pres. indic. . jan21): is born.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
asya (mn. gen. sing. pron. idam): of this, its,
his.
ttyam (n. nom. sing. ttya): third.
janma (n. nom. sing. janman): birth.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
uktam (n. nom. ukta; past pass. p. vac):
uttered, said, spoken.
i (m. ins. sing. i): by the sage, singer,
poet.

21
Class 4.

49
2.1.5

garbhe nu sannanvemavedamaha garbhe (m. loc. sing. garbha): in the womb.


devn janimni viv ata m pura nu (ind.): now, still, just, at once; so now, now
yasrarakannadha yeno javas then; indeed, certainly, surely.
niradyamiti san (m. nom. sing. sat; pres. act. p. as):
being, existing; true, real, good.
Now, being in the womb repeatedly, I wist anu (ind.): after, along, alongside, lengthwise,
the births of these deities. A hundred all- near to, under, with, according to,
pervading iron fortresses protected me. In repeatedly, over, towards, afterwards,
the lower region, a falcon, with swiftness I thereupon, again, further. (see hume
flew away. note)
em (mn. gen. pl. pron. idam): of these.
avedam (1st sing. impf. vid): wist, knew, saw,
perceived; noticed, observed.
aham (nom. sing. pron. asmad): I.
devnm (mn. gen. pl. deva): of the deities, of
the gods.
janimni (n. acc. pl. janiman): births, origins;
offsprings.
viv (f. nom. sing. viva): all, every; whole,
entire; all-pervading.
atam (n. acc. sing. ata): a hundred.
m (acc. sing. short pron. asmad): me.
pura (f. nom. pl. pur): ramparts, walls,
strongholds, fortresses, castles, cities,
towns.
yas (f. acc. pl. yas): iron.
arakan (3rd pl. impf. P. rak): guarded,
watched, took care of, protected, saved,
preserved.
adhas (ind.): below, down; beneath, under; in
the lower region.
yena (m. nom. sing. yena): hawk, falcon,
eagle.
javas (n. ins. sing. javas): with/by swiftness.
niradyam (1st sing. impf. d): (I) flew away.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

garbhe evaitacchayno vmadeva garbhe (m. loc. sing. garbha): in the womb.
evamuvca eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
etat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. etad): this, it.
In the womb, indeed, this is restingthus ayna (m. nom. sing. ayna): lying down,
uttered Vamadeva. resting.
vmadeva (m. nom. sing. vma-deva; KD.
comp.): Vamadeva; lit. Lovely-deity.

50
vma (grammar not specified): lovely,
dear, pleasant, agreeable, fair,
beautiful, splendid, noble.
deva (m. nom. sing. deva): deity, god.
evam (ind.): thus.
uvca (3rd sing. pf. vac): spoke, uttered; has
spoken, has uttered.

51
2.1.6

sa eva vidvnasmccharrabheddurdhva sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it, that.
utkramymuminsvarge loke sarvn evam (ind.): thus.
kmnptvmta samabhavat samabhavat vidvn (m. nom. sing. vidvas; the pf. act. p.
vid): knowing, understanding, wise;
Hethus having wist, raised from this having known, having understood,
bursting body, having gone up, having having wist.
reached all desires in that heavenly world, asmt (mn. abl. sing. pron. idam): from this.
not deadcame together, came together. arrabhedt (m. abl. sing. arra-bheda; TP.
comp.): from the bursting body, from
splitting from the body.
arra (grammar not specified):
of/from/with/etc. the body:
bhedt (m. abl. sing. bheda; from bhid):
from breaking, splitting, cleaving,
rending, tearing, piercing, bursting
asunder, opening.
urdhva (m. nom. sing. urdhva): rising
upwards, raised, elevated, erected,
erect, high, above.
utkramya (ger. ut kram): having gone up,
having ascended.
amumin (m. loc. sing. adas): in that, in a
certain.
svarge (m. loc. sing. svarga): in heaven, in a
heavenly.
loke (m. loc. sing. loka): in the world.
sarvn (m. acc. pl. pron. sarva): all.
kmn (m. acc. pl. kma): wishes, desires,
longings.
ptv (ger. p): having reached, having
obtained.
amta (m. nom. sing. amta; the past pass.
p. a m): not dead, immortal.
samabhavat (3rd sing. impf. P. sam bhu): was
together, came together, assembled,
met, was joined, was united with.
samabhavat (3rd sing. impf. P. sam bhu): was
together, came together, assembled,
met, was joined, was united with.

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3.1.1

koyamtmeti vayamupsmahe katara sa ka (m. nom. sing. pron. kim): who? how?
tm whence? wherefore? why?
ayam (m. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
Who is this self?thus asking, we tm (m. nom. sing. tman): the self.
worship. Which one is that self? iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.
vayam (nom. pl. pron. asmad): we.
upsmahe (1st pl. pres. indic. . upa s):
honour, worship, wait upon, are devoted
to; lit. sit near.
katara (m. nom. sing. pron. katara): who or
which of two?
sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it, that.
tm (m. nom. sing. tman): the self.

yena v payati yena v oti yena v yena (mn. ins. sing. relative pron. yad): by
gadhnjighrati yena v vca vykareti whom, by which.
yena v svdu csvdu ca vijnti v (ind.): or.
payati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. d): (one)
He by whom one sees, or he by whom one sees.
hears, or he by whom one smells scents, or yena (mn. ins. sing. relative pron. yad): by
he by whom one separates words, or he by whom, by which.
whom one discerns the tasty and the v (ind.): or.
tasteless. oti (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. ru): (one)
hears.
yena (n. ins. sing. relative pron. yad): by
whom, by which.
v (ind.): or.
gandhn (m. acc. pl. gandha): smells, odours,
fragrances, scents.
jighrati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. ghr):
(one) smells.
yena (mn. ins. sing. relative pron. yad): by
whom, by which.
v (ind.): or.
vcam (f. acc. sing. vc): speech, voice, talk,
language, sound; word, sentence.
vykaroti (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. vi k):
(one) expounds, explains, declares; lit.
undoes, severs, divides, separates.
yena (mn. ins. sing. relative pron. yad): by
whom, by which.
v (ind.): or.
svdu (n. acc. sing. svdu): sweet, savoury,
palatable, pleasant to the taste.
ca (ind.): and.

53
asvdu (n. acc. sing. asvdu): tasteless.
ca (ind.): and.
vijnti (3rd sing. sing. pres. indic. P. vi jn):
(one) distinguishes, discerns.

54
3.1.2

yadetaddhdaya manacaitat yat (mn. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who,
sajnnamjnna vijnna prajnna which.
medh dirdhtimatirman juti smti etat (n. nom. sing. pron. etad): this.
sakalpa kraturasu kmo vaa iti hdayam (n. nom. sing. hdaya): heart.
mana (n. nom. sing. manas): mind.
He who is this heart and this mind, ca (ind.): and.
together-knowledge, near-knowledge, etat (n. nom. sing. pron. etad): this.
apart-knowledge, forth-knowledge, mental sajnnam (n. nom. sing. sam jnna):
vigour, insight, firmness, opinion, thought, agreement, harmony, unanimity;
impulse, memory, purpose, ability, life, counsciousness, perception; lit. together-
desire, control. knowledge.
jnnam (n. nom. sing. jnna): noticing,
perceiving; lit. towards-knowledge or
near-knowledge.
vijnnam (n. nom. sing. vi jnna):
distinguishing, discerning, recognizing; lit.
apart-knowledge.
prajnnam (n. nom. sing. pra jnna):
knowledge, intelligence; lit. forth-
knowledge.
medh (f. nom. sing. medh22): mental vigour
or power, intelligence, prudence.
di (f. nom. sing. di): seeing, beholding
(also with the mental eye); sight, the
minds eye, intelligence.
dhti (f. nom. sing. dht): holding, bearing,
supporting; firmness, constancy,
resolution, will; satisfaction, joy.
mati (f. nom. sing. mati): prayer, hymn;
opinion, notion, idea, conviction; the
mind, perception, intelligence, judgement;
memory; esteem, regard.
man (f. nom. sing. man): thought,
reflection, consideration, intelligence,
idea; prayer, hymn; desire, wish.
juti (f. nom. sing. juti): going, quickness,
speed; impulse, incitement, investigation.
smti (f. nom. sing. smti): rememberance,
reminiscence, calling to mind; memory.
sakalpa (m. nom. sing. sakalpa; from
sam klp): conception, idea, notion; will,
volition, desire, purpose, intention,
conviction.

22
Literally, this means broth, or a nourishing or strengthening drink.

55
kratu (m. nom. sing. kratu; from k): plan,
design, intention, resolution,
determination, purpose; desire, will;
intelligence; power, ability; inspiration.
asu (m. nom. sing. asu; from as): breath,
life.
kma (m. nom. sing. kma): wish, desire,
longing; pleasure, enjoyment; love,
sensuality.
vaa (m. nom. sing. vaa): will, wish, desire;
authority, power, control.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

sarvyevaitni prajnnasya nmadheyni sarvi (n. nom. pl. sarva): all.


bhavanti eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
etni (n. nom. pl. pron. etad): these.
Indeed, all these are names of forth- prajnnasya (n. gen. sing. pra jnna): of forth-
knowledge. knowledge.
nmadheyni (n. nom. pl. nma-dheya):
names.
bhavanti (3rd pl. pres. indic. P. bhu): are,
become.

56
3.1.3

ea brahmaia indra ea prajpatiretesarve ea (m. nom. sing. pron. etad): he.


dev imni ca pancamahbhutni pthiv brahm (m. nom. sing. brahman; from bh):
vyurka po jyottyetnmni ca Brahman.
kudramirva ea (m. nom. sing. pron. etad): he.
indra (m. nom. sing. indra): Indra.
He is Brahman, he is Indra, he is Prajapati, ea (m. nom. sing. pron. etad): he.
all these deities, and these five great prajpati (m. nom. sing. prajpati23):
beings: earth, wind, ether, waters, lights. Prajapati, the god of creation or
These and those are mingled with the tiny, procreation.
as it were. ete (m. nom. pl. pron. etad): these.
sarve (m. nom. pl. pron. sarva): all.
dev (mf. nom. pl. deva): deities; divine.
imni (n. nom. pl. idam): these.
ca (ind.): and
panca (m. nom. pancan): five.
mahbhutni (n. nom. pl. mahbhuta; past
pass. p. mah bhu): great beings.
pthiv (f. nom. sing. pthiv): the earth, the
world; land, ground, soil; lit. the
spacious or the broad.
vyu (m. nom. sing. vyu; from v): wind,
Vayu.
ka (m. nom. sing. kza): open space,
vacuity; ether, sky.
pa (f. nom. pl. ap): waters, airs,
intermediate regions.
jyoti (n. nom. pl. jyotis): lights.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.
etni (n. nom. pl. pron. etad): these.
imni (n. nom. pl. pron. idam): these.
ca (ind.): and.
kudramiri (n. nom. pl. kudra-mira; TP.
comp.): mingled with the tiny.
kudra (grammar not specified):
with/of/from the minute,
diminutive, tiny.
mirani (n. nom. pl. mira): mixed,
mingled.
iva (ind.): like, in the same manner as; as it
were, as if; so, just so; indeed.

23
From prja (bringing forth, bearing; procreation, birth; creature, animal, mankind) + pati (master, owner, lord,
ruler).

57
bjntari cetari cajni ca jrujni ca bjni (n. nom. pl. bja): the seed, semen.
svedajni codbhijjni cv gva puru itari (n. nom. pl. itara): these (ones).
hastino yatkinceda pri jagama ca ca (ind.): and.
patatri ca yacca sthvara sarva itari (n. nom. pl. itara): the others; those.25
tatprajnnetra prajnne pratihita ca (ind.): and.
prajnnetro loka prajn pratih aajni (n. nom. pl. aa-ja): egg-generated
prajnna brahma (ones) (a bird, fish, or reptile).
ca (ind.): and.
These and those seeds, the egg-generated jrujni (n. nom. pl. jru-ja; cf. jaryuja):
ones, the placenta-generated ones, the placenta-generated (ones) (i.e.
vapour-generated ones, the sprout- viviparous).
generated ones, horses, oxen, people, ca (ind.): and.
elephants, whatever here possesses breath, svedajni (n. nom. pl. sveda-ja): sweat-born
all the moving ones, winged ones, and (ones), vapour-generated (ones) (insects
whatever is stationaryall that, guiding by and vermin).
forth-knowledge, is stationed in forth- ca (ind.): and.
knowledge. Guiding by forth-knowledge24 is udbhijjni (n. nom. pl. udbhij-ja): sprouting-
the world. Forth-knowledge is the support; generated (ones).
forth-knowledge is Brahman. ca (ind.): and.
av (f. nom. pl. ava): horses.
gva (m. nom. pl. go): oxen.
puru (m. nom. pl. purua): men, people.
hastina (m. nom. pl. hastin): elephants; lit.
having hands (i.e. a trunk).
yat ki ca (expression): whatever.
idam (n. nom. sing. pron. idam): this, here.
pri (n. nom. sing. prin): breathing; lit.
breath-having.
jagamam (n. nom. sing jagama; from
gam): moving, living.
ca (ind.): and.
patatri (n. nom. sing. patatrin): winged,
feathered.
ca (ind.): and.
yat (mn. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): which,
what, whatever.
ca (ind.): and.
sthvaram (n. nom. sing. sthvara): standing
still, not moving, fixed, stationary, stable,
immovable; firm, constant, permanent.
sarvam (n. nom. sing. pron. sarva): all, every,
whole.
tat (n. nom. pron. tad.): that, it.

24
It is worth noting that the vague compound prajn-netra (translated as guiding by forth-knowledge here)
could also be translated as, among other things, the guide of forth knowledge.
25
Itara is used in this way when doubled.

58
prajn-netram (n. nom. sing. comp. prajn-
netra): leading by forth-knowledge.
prajn (grammar not specified):
of/from/by/etc. intelligence,
knowledge; the forth-knowing (one).
netram (n. nom. sing. netra): leading.
prajnne (mn. loc. sing. pra jnna): in forth-
knowledge.
pratihitam (n. nom. sing. prati hita):
stationed or situated in or on.
prajn-netra (m. nom. sing. com. prajn-
netra): the leader of forth-knowledge,
leading by forth-knowledge, etc.
prajn (grammar not specified):
of/from/by/etc. intelligence,
knowledge, the forth-knowing (one).
netra (m. nom. sing. netra): a leader,
guide; leading, guiding.
loka (m. nom. sing. loka): the world, wide
space, country.
prajn (f. nom. sing. prajn): wisdom,
intelligence, knowledge; forth-knowing
(one).
pratih (f. nom. sing. prati ha): steadfast
(one); resting place, ground, base,
foundation, support; dwelling, house.
prajnnam (n. nom. sing. pra jnna): forth-
knowledge.
brahma (n. nom. sing. brahman): worship,
prayer; the sacred word, a sacred text;
Brahman, the universal soul; lit.
growth, expansion.

59
3.1.4

sa etena sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it; that.


prjnentmansmllokdutkramymuminsvarge etena (mn. ins. sing. pron. etad): by this.
loke sarvn kmnptvmta samabhavat prjnena (mn. ins. sing. pr jna): by the forth-
samabhavat knowing (one).
tman (m. ins. sing. tman): by the self.
Heby this forth-knowing self, having gone up asmt (mn. abl. sing. pron. idam): from this.
from this world, having reached all desires in lokt (mn. abl. sing. loka): world.
that heavenly world, not deadcame together, utkramya (ger. ut kram): having gone up,
came together. having ascended.
amumin (m. loc. sing. adas): in that, in a
certain.
svarge (m. loc. sing. svarga): in heaven, in a
heavenly.
loke (m. loc. sing. loka): in the world.
sarvn (m. acc. pl. pron. sarva): all.
kmn (m. acc. pl. kma): wishes, desires,
longings.
ptv (ger. p): having reached, having
obtained.
amta (m. nom. sing. amta; the past pass.
p. a m): not dead, immortal.
samabhavat (3rd sing. impf. P. sam bhu): was
together, came together, assembled,
met, was joined, was united with.
samabhavat (3rd sing. impf. P. sam bhu): was
together, came together, assembled,
met, was joined, was united with.

60