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Hurritical language
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Hurrian (older also Churritisch , (C) hurrisch , of the proper name urwoe /
urroe ) is an extinct language that was spoken until around 1200 v. Chr. In an area stretching Hurritic (urwoe / urroe)
from eastern Turkey to the northern Iraq extended and Approximately the present settlement area
of the Kurds . It was the official language of the Mittani kingdom, but was also used in some Formerly in Eastern Anatolia ,
Spoken in Northern Syria and Northern
regions of the Hittite empire. The most important centers were the capital of Waukanni and the
Mesopotamia
cities of Taidu , Nuzi , Qatna and Alalach as well as attua , the capital of the Hittite empire.
During the Boazky excavation campaign in 1983 a Hurritic-Hittite Bilingue was revealed, the speaker extinct
analysis of which is reflected in the work Erich Neus . Linguistic
Classification Hurro-Urartian language group

Hurritical
Table of Contents
Official status
1 kinship with other languages
Official
2 History of language Middle Empire (until about 1200 BC)
language of
3 dialects
4 Phonetics and phonology Language codes
4.1 Consonants
4.2 Vowels Xhu (http://www-01.sil.org/iso639-3/d
ISO 639-3 :
4.3 Emphasis, sound system, intonation ocumentation.asp?id=xhu)
5 grammar
5.1 Word formation
5.2 Morphology
5.2.1 Case and Number
5.2.2 Article
5.2.3 Suffix recording
5.2.4 Verb morphology
5.2.4.1 Indicative verb forms
5.2.4.2 Modal verb forms
5.2.4.3 Examples of finite verb forms
5.2.4.4 Infinite verb forms
5.3 Pronouns
5.3.1 Personal pronouns
5.3.2 Possessive pronouns
5.3.3 Other pronouns
5.4 Adpositions
5.5 Conjunctions and adverbs
5.6 Klitic sentence particles
5.7 Number words
5.8 Syntax
6 Vocabulary
7 Writing and deciphering
8 Text example
9 References
10 Weblinks
11 Sources

Relationship to other languages


The only language with the Hurrian is demonstrably related, is the Urartian , a language that is the beginning and middle of the first millennium BC in an area
between the Lake Sevan , Lake Van and Lake Urmia was spoken. Further, relations were proposed to the Eccopi , to the Kypro-Minoan and the
Kassitischen . [1] [2] [3] A kinship with the North-Eastern Caucasus languages is possible, but has not yet been proven. [4] The reason for this is mainly the
diversity of this family, which makes it difficult to reconstruct the Protosprache securely. Moreover, it is difficult to compare a language family extinct about
2500 years ago with a family that does not have such old records.

History of Language
The oldest Hurritical text documents are names of persons and places from the end of the 3rd century BC. The first texts are from the time of King Tiatal of
Urke (early 2nd millennium BC). The archaeologists in attua, Mari , Tuttul , Babylon , Ugarit and other places found numerous epics, incantations,
prophecies, and letters . However, the most important text for the understanding of the language is a long letter (the so-called Mittani letter ) found in
Amarna (Egypt). The Hurritish king Tushratta had taken him to the then Pharaoh Amenhotep III. written.

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From the 14th century BC invaded from the north and west, the Hittites, and later from the east and south, the Assyrians
continues into hurritischsprachige area before, until it was finally divided by these two great powers among themselves.
The sea peoples storm in the 12th century BC led to further political upheavals. Other literary languages, such as the
Hittite and the Ugaritic , died. From this time, Hurritic can only be detected in names of persons and places that occurred
in Akkadian or Urartian texts. It is therefore not known whether Hurritic as a spoken language would continue for some
time.

Dialects
The Hurritic of the Mittani letter differs quite clearly from the language in the texts of attua. While in Mittani i and e as
well as u and o are distinguished, they probably coincided to i and u in the attua-Hurritic. Also in the morphology ,
there are differences. Nevertheless, it can be assumed that these are dialects of the same language. A Hurritic-Akkadian Urkesh lion and related stone
mixed language is handed down from Nuzi , a city in the Mittani province of Arrapha and the Syrian Qatna . [5] plate with the oldest known
text in Hurritic (
21st century BC ), Louvre
Phonetics and Phonology
Consonants

labio-
bilabial alveolar palatal Velar
dental
Stl. Sth. Stl. Sth. Stl. Sth. Stl. Sth. Stl. Sth.
Plosive P T K
( Ts
Affricates
)
Fricative F S X
Nasal M N
Vibrantes R
Lateral approximants L
(W
Central approximations (J)
)

As can be seen from the table, the feature is voicing and voicelessness not a difference in meaning. No voiced consonant has a voiced counterpart and vice
versa. However, according to the writings in the cuneiform to the voiceless consonants (except / ts /) seem to exist voiced secondary forms that occur in
certain phonetic environments (between two voiced consonants or vowels ). Sometimes a consonant is written in these environments, that is, b (for p ), d
(for t ), g (for k ), v (for f ), and (for ), seldom also (for h / ) . All consonants except / w / and / j / may be short or long. However, the long
consonants ( geminates ) occur only between vowels. In the cuneiform as well as in the Latin inscription ( transcription ) the consonant length is expressed
by double letters of the consonants, so ... VC-CV ... (where V for vowels, C stands for the consonants). Short consonants are written ... V-CV ... , for
example mnnatta ("I am") is written ma-aa nn aa tt a .

Since the / f / does not occur in the Sumerian cuneiform, the used Hurriter instead the / p /, / b / and / w / -containing syllabic signs. A / f / can be recognized
in words, if these writings vary. In cases where a word is occupied only once with a p , one can not decide whether the corresponding sound is actually a / p
/ or a / f /. At the end of the syllable after a , / f / zu [u], eg in tnau (<* tn--af) "I did (it)". / S / is traditionally transcribed with because the -
containing characters are used in the cursory to represent this phoneme . / Ts / is usually transcribed with z , / x / with or h . In Hurritic, / l / and / r / do
not occur at the beginning of the word.

Vowels

Front central Rear


. Ger. . Ger. . Ger.
&
closed I
Quot;
medium E O
open A

Like the consonants, all vowels may appear briefly or long. In the cuneiform, the so -called plenary spelling takes place in the case of langvocals , ie the
vowel sign is inserted between the two syllable signs CV-VC. In short CVs are thus written CV-VC, Langvokale CV-V-VC. In transcription long vowels
are marked with a macron, so , , , and . For the / o / which does not exist in the Sumerian cuneiform, the sign U is used, whereas for the / u / the
sign ( pronounced u-two).

Accentuation, Sound System, Intonation

Since there are no contemporary recordings for Hurritic pronunciation, neither the accent nor sentence sentence can be said, nor whether the language was
possibly a tonal language . Even the writings do not permit any conclusion. The accent marks ('or `), which are used in the transliteration, ie, the character-
like transcription, denote only the different cursive characters with the same phonetic value.
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Grammar
Wordformation

Contrary to German, the Hurritical can not form new words by the composition of two or more tribes (eg, the door-door , chopping , etc.). For this, the
Hurritic knows many suffixes , which can derive new words from tribes. Examples: Attardi (forefathers, ancestors) to Attai (father), futki to (son) fut
(witness), atoe (female) to Asti (woman), eniffuzzi (my brother appropriate) to eniffu (my brother). Also for verbs there are many of these suffixes,
which often change the valence .

For a more detailed description of the breeding morphology please refer to the literature.

Morphology

Case and Number

All hurritical nouns end on a vowel. There are very few that end on / a / or / e /. All other nouns are on / i / off. This trunk vowel disappears when certain
endings occur. This includes the dropouts that start with a vowel, but also the article suffixes . Examples: kz- (as a cup), cf. kzi (cup), awar-ra (the
fields), cf. awari (field). The Hurritic has an above-average system with 13 cases ( case ). One of the cases, the equivalent , has a different form in the two
main dialects. The ending - customary in attua and Mari is called the equivalent I, the form occurring in the Mittani letter -nna is called Equative II.The
so-called "e-case" occurs only rarely, mostly in genitivischer ( of / of ) or allativischer ( towards ... ) importance.

Hurritic is how many languages in this region is the ergative language . This means that the case used for the subject in sentences without an object is the
same as the case where the direct object is. This case is called an absolute . A different case ( ergative ) is applied to the subject in object- containing
sentences. The language distinguishes two Numbers , singular ( singular ) and plurality ( plural ). The following table provides an overview of the Hurritian
case.

case singular The majority


Absolutely -O - , -lla
Ergative - - (a) u
Genitive -fe , -we - (a) e
dative -fa , -wa - (a) a
Locative
-a - (a) a , -a
( in, at ... )
Allativ
-ta - (a) tata
( go to ... )
Ablative
-tan - (a) tan
( from ... )
Instrumental
-ae Not used
( using ... )
Ablative-instrumental
-n (i) , -ne - (a) ani , - (a) ane
( through / on ... )
Comitative
-ra - (a) ura
( together with ... )
Associative Not used
-nn (i)
( as ... ) (often assumed - (a) unn (i) )
Equivalent I
- Not used
( like ... )
Equivalent II -nna - (a) unna
"E-Case" -e Not used

In some noisy environments changes of these endings occur. The f of the genitive and the dative fuses with a preceding p or t to pp or tt , eg, Tup-pe (of
the Tup), patat (the hepat). The associative can be combined with the instrumental : na-nn-ae (brother-associative-instrumental) means "fraternal
(minded)".

Article

case Singular Plural


Absolutely -O
-n / A
All other cases -ne

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The particular article is placed directly on the noun, before the case / number ending, eg tiw-na-e (thing / word article.Plural-genitive.Plural) (of the things /
words). Since the article in the singular singular is infinite, a noun in this form can be determined or indeterminate. Kzi is therefore "a mug" or "the mug".
The / n / Article merges with standing in front of / n /, / l / and / r / to / nn /, / ll / or / rr /, z. B. En-na (the gods), OL-la ( The others), awar-ra (the fields).
As already mentioned, there is no root-let-vowel, cf. without ending: ni (god), li (other), awari (field). If there is a further consonant in front of the / l, r, n
/ of the tribe, a vowel is inserted between these two lutes, for example, afur u n-ne-ta (sky-article.Singular-Allativ) , Cf. without ending: afurni (sky).

Suffix Recording

A very prominent feature of the Hurritic, as well as the Urartische and the neighboring Kartwel-languages (as for example Georgian ), is the so-called
Suffixaufnahme . Nouns dependent on nouns take up the case suffixes. The article, which corresponds in number to the reference word, acts as a link
between the dependent noun and the end of the sentence. An example with an adjective illustrates this:

(1) urwoene mnne


urw-oe-ne- mn-ne-
Hurritic adjectiver article.Singular-Ergativ.Singular Country article.Singular-Ergativ.Singular
"The Hurritical country"

Also with genitive attributes a suffix recording takes place. The noun, on which the genitive depends, is usually associated with a possessive pronoun , the
person / number congruence to the genitive. The genitive precedes the reference word.

(2) iffniffufenefe mmnfe


n-iffu-fe-ne-fe mni-i-fe
Brother-my-genitive.Singular article.Singular-genitive.Singular Land-its-genitive.Singular
"Of the land of my brother" (lit.: of my brother his country)

If the superior noun is in the locative, instrumental or equivalent I, then no suffix recording takes place. In the Absolutiv singular one can not find a suffix
recording, since both the case and the article are termineless. If more than two genitives are nested within one another, the suffix takes place only at the
innermost genitive, as the following example shows:

(3) mni Mizrinefenefe efrfe atnna


mni Mizri-ne-fe-ne-fe Efri-i-fe Ati-i = nna
country Egypt-Art.Sing.-Genitive.Sing.-Art.Sing.-Genitiv.Sing. Lord-his / her-genitive.Sing. Woman-his / her = he / she / it
"She is the wife of the ruler of the land of Egypt."

Verb morphology

The verb morphology of the Hurritic is very complex, but only suffixes (separated by "-") and Klitika (separated by "=") are used. Klitika are Hurritic
words, which have their own word types (eg, pronouns), but are phonologically added as suffixes to other words. Transitive and intransitive verbs are
clearly distinguished in their morphology. Only transitive verbs are subject to congruence, that is, they must have an ending which, in person and number,
coincides with the subject of the theorem. The direct object and the intransitive subject, if they are not represented by a noun in the sentence, are expressed
by klitische personalpronomen, see the section "Pronomen". Directly to the verb stem may be several suffixes, which modify the verb meaning. This includes
valenzverndernde Morpheme as -an (n) ( causative ) -ant (presumably. Applicative ) and -ukar ( reciprocal ). The meanings of many of these suffixes
have not yet been deciphered.

Indikativische verb forms

These derivation suffixes are followed by the marking of the time form . The present tense is endless. The suffix - stands for the preterite , the suffix -t
marks the future . According to the suffixes for preterite and future, there is a suffix -t in intransitive, but not in antipassive verb forms , which indicates this
intransitivity. This suffix is not used in the present tense. Another suffix -t can be used with all time forms in transitive sentences. It indicates that the subject is
plural in the 3rd person. In indicative forms it must be used, in all other forms it is optional. These two simultaneous suffixes can lead to ambiguous forms.
Thus unttta can on the other hand "bring them ..." but also "he / she / it will come".

After these endings the transitive vowel follows. It is -a if the verb is intransitive, -i if the verb is in the antipassive and -o (or likewise -i in the Mittani letter)
on transitive verbs. The suffix -o (or -i ) does not apply immediately after derivation suffixes. In transitive verb forms the -o (or -i ) stands only in the present
tense; in the other time forms the transitivity is expressed with the presence or absence of the suffix -t (see above).

The next position can be occupied by the negation suffix. In transitive sentences is this -wa used. Intransitive and antipassive sentences are denied by -kkV .
Where V is the vowel preceding the negation suffix. If this is a / a /, both vowels are changed to o . Follow the intransitive Negationssuffix immediately a
klitisches personal pronouns (except = nna ), so is the vowel of the suffix / a /, regardless of the vowel of the preceeding syllable, z. B. man-o-kka = til =
n (be-intransitive ( !) - Negation = 1. Plural Absolutiv = und) "and we are not ...". The following table summarizes the time, transitivity, and negation
markers:

Transitivity Present past tense Futur


Not denied -a -ta -tttta
Intransitive verb
Negates -okko -tokko -ttokko
Not denied -i -i -ti
Antipassive verb
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Negates -ikki -ikki -tikki
Mari / attua -o Mari / attua -o Mari / attua -to
Not denied
Transitive verb Mittani -i Mittani -i Mittani -ti
without derivation suffix Mari / attua -owa Mari / attua -owa Mari / attua- towa
Negates
Mittani -iwa Mittani -iwa Mittani -tiwa
Mari / attua -o Mari / attua -to
Not denied -O
Transitive verb Mittani -i Mittani -ti
with derivation suffix Mari / attua -owa Mari / attua- towa
Negates -wa
Mittani -iwa Mittani -tiwa

Then, in transitive verb forms, the marker of the subject follows. The following forms occur:

1st person 1st person 2nd person 2nd person 3rd person
singles majority singular majority single / multiple.
With suffix -i
-af , - * ao ,
"transitive" -aua -io -ia
-au - * au
(only Mittani)
With suffix -wa
-uff -uffu (a) -wa-o -uu -wa-a
"Negation"
With other -...- af , -...- ao ,
-...- aua -...-O -...- a
morphemes (without merging) -...- au -...- au

The suffixes of the first person, the plural and the second person, merge with the preceding suffixes for transitivity and negation ( -i (only in Mittani) and -wa
). With the suffix -o for transitivity used in Mari and attua, however, no fusion takes place. The distinction between the one and the plurality in the third
person is made by the already described plurality suffix -t , which is directly after the suffix for the time form. In the third person, in addition to the denial
suffix -wa , which precedes the subject marker, a suffix -ma can also be used after this marker to express a negation, eg, irno-i--ma (equal-transitive-
3 Person-negation) "he does not equal (it)".

In Althurritic in the space attua the ending of the third person was singular -m , in the majority -ito . In intransitive and antipassive verbs, there was also a
subject marking at this time. For the third person it was -p , other persons are not occupied. It is not known whether this suffix was also used for the
transitive object. If a verb is to be nominated, eg to form a relative sentence , the form is given a further suffix: -e . Nominalized verb forms can be subject
to the suffix input. In addition, the verb form can still follow enclitic sentence particles, see section "Particle words".

Modal Verb forms

In order to express modal nuances, special verb forms are used, which can be clearly distinguished from the indicative (non-modal) forms. Wishes and
commands are formed with a separate optative- flexion scheme. The main indicator is the element -i , which directly follows the verb stem. There is no
difference between intransitive and transitive verbs, congruence always takes place in the subject of the sentence. Also the time forms are not differentiated
in desire and command forms. The following suffixes are used:

Person / number negation Ending translation


1st person Not denied -ile , to / l, r / -le or -re "I want ..."
singles Negates -ifalli "I do not want ..."
1st person
Not used
majority
2nd person Not denied -i , -e "You shall ..." ( imperative )
singular Negates -ifa , -efa "you should not ..."
2nd person Not denied -i ()) , -e ()) "you should ..."
majority Negates -ifa () , -efa () "You shall not ..."

3rd person Not denied -ien 1 "He / she / it may ..."


singles Negates -ifaen 1 "He / she / it may not be ..."

3rd person Not denied manner of -ites 1 "They like ..."


majority Negates -itfaen 1 "They do not like ..."

1 In the desired forms of the third person the Mari / attua dialect does not have the ending when the following word begins with a consonant.

The so-called final isform , which is used to form subsidiary sentences with "with ...", has different endings. In the singular, the suffixes -ae , -ai , -ilae, and -
ilai occur, the two latter being to -l, r / to -lae , -lai and -rae , -rai . In the plural one uses the same endings, in addition the plural suffix -a can occur .
However, this is not always the case.

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In order to express one possibility, one uses own potentialisforms . In intransitive verbs the ending is -ilefa or -olefa (to / l, r / -lefa or -refa ) and there is no
congruence to the subject. Transitive potential forms are formed with the -sillet or -ollet suffix , followed by the normal congruence of the transitive
indicative verb forms. However, this form is only recorded in Mittani and only in the third person singular. The potential forms are sometimes also used to
express a desire.

The Desiderativformen be used to express a strong desire. They are so far only in the third person and only in transitive sentences. The ending for the 3rd
person singular is -ilanni , which is for the 3rd person plural -itanni . How these suffixes can be disassembled, has not yet been clarified. Further modal
forms for the third person are known from attua, but no meanings of these forms have yet been isolated.

Examples of finite verb forms

The following table contains some of the morphological constituents, mainly from the Mittani letter:

Ex. shape Grammatical analysis translation


(4) Koz--o Restraint-preterite-2.single "You held back"
(5) Pal-ia-m-e = mn Know-transitive-3. Person-negation-nomination = but "... which he does not know"
(6) Pa-t-i = t = n eniffuta Send-Futur-Antipassiv = 1.Eintzahl.Absolutiv = and zu.meinem.Bruder "And I will send to my brother"
(7) Tiwna tn--au-e-na- Do the things-preterite-first-item-nominalization-article.Multiple-Absolutiv "The things I've done"
(8th) r-i-uffu = nna = n Wish-transitive-negation + 1.Individual = 3.Enumer.Absolutiv = and "And I do not want it"
(9) Itt--ta Go-preterite-intransitive-intransitive "I went, you went, ..."
(10) Kul-le Say-Optative.1.Single "I want to say"
(11) Pa-ien Send-Optative.3.Single "He / she may send"
(12) Pal-lae = n Know-Finalis = 3.Emount.Absolutive "So he knows it"
(13) Kepnol-lefa = tta = n Send-potentialis = 1.Amount.Absolutiv = and "And I can / want to send"

Infinite Verb forms

The Hurritic knows participatory nominations and an infinitive . The substantiated participle I (present participle) is formed with the endings -iri or -ire , eg
pairi "the end of the building", apiri "the moving one", "nomad". A substantiated Participle II (Perfect Participle) on acid has previously been
documented only once in Nuzi: huaure "the Gebundene". A special participle form is only available from attua. It can only be formed by transitive verbs
and includes an agent of the first person. The ending is -ilia . This participle is subject to suffix recording:

(14) Pailiane unine


Pa-ilia-ne- uni-ne-
Build-I.Partizip article.Singular-Ergativ.Singular Wall item.Singular-ergative.Singular
"The wall I built" (here as the subject of a transitive sentence)

The infinitive, which can also be used substantively, is formed with the suffix -umme , eg farumme "to be good", "to be good".

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

The Hurritic uses both free as well as klitic personal pronouns . The free pronouns can be used in each case, the klitischen only in the absolute. It is
irrelevant to the sentence meaning, to which word in the sentence the Klitische pronoun is appended, but often it is at the first sentence member or at the
Verb. The following table shows the occupied forms of the personal pronouns, the cases not mentioned are not proven:

1. Single 2. Single number 3. singular 1. Most 2. Most 3. plurality


case
(I) ( du ) ( he / she / it ) ( we ) ( her ) ( they )
Absolute
Ite Fe Mane , manni attil , attitil (la) Fella Manella
(free)
Absolutely
-t (ta) -m (ma) -n (na) , -me , -ma -til (la) -f (fa) -l (la) , -lle
(encl.)
Ergative Ia Fe Manu ie Feu Mano
Genitive ofe Fefe Fee
dative sofa Fefa aa (?) Fea Mana
locative Fea (?)
Allativ uta auta (?)
ablative Manutan
Comitative ura Manura Manura , manora

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Equivalent II onna Manunna

The variants -me , -ma and -lle of the klitic pronoun of the third person come only after certain conjunctions ( ai (if), inna (if), inu , unu (as), panu (albeit))
and after the relative pronoun iya resp . iye ago. If an enclitic personal pronoun is associated with a substantive, extensive merging processes take place.
The Klitikon -nna of the third person singular is very different from the other pronouns. In contrast to the other pronouns, with a preceding ergative suffix it
fuses with this to -a , and the / / ergative does not apply when the other pronouns begin. In addition, a word-final vowel / i / or / e / changes to / a /,
when a klitisches personalpronomen except -nna .

Possessive pronouns

The hurritical possessive pronouns can not occur freely, but only klitically. They are added to nouns or substantive forms to indicate a possession
relationship. The form of the pronoun depends on the following morpheme . The following table shows the forms that occur:

1. singular 2. Single 3. singular 1. Most 2. plurality 3. The majority


case
( my ) ( your ) ( his / her ) ( our ) ( your ) ( her )
At the end of words -ships -f -i -iffa -e -ya
Before consonant (except f / w) -iffu -fu -i -iffa -u -ya
Before f / w, vowel -iff -f -i -iffa N. Bel. -ya

The vokalische Auslaut of the substantive stem no longer takes place at the beginning of Vokalisch anlautenden possessive pronouns, eg eniffe (my
brother, to ena "brother"). It is preserved when a consonantically beginning possessive pronoun is introduced: attaif (your father, to attai "father").

Other Pronouns

The Hurritic knows several demonstrative pronouns : anni (this), anti / ani (that), akki ... aki (the one ... the other). The final vowel / i / this pronoun only
occurs in the absolute and changes into the other case to / u /, eg akku (the one) (ergative), antufa (that). As relative pronoun is used iya or iye . The two
forms are freely interchangeable. In the relative theorem , the pronoun always has the function of the absolute, that is, object in transitive sentences or
subject in intransitive sentences. The interrogative pronoun (who / what) is occupied only in the ergative singular ( afe ) and once in the absolute singular (
au ).

Adpositions

In Hurritic there are numerous fixed phrases to express different local and abstract relations. They are usually formed with the dative or genitive. Almost
exclusively, postpositions , ie trailing adpositions, are known. Only one preposition , that is, a pre-adposition, ( pi (before) with dative) is attested in texts
from attua. All adpositions can be attributed to nouns mostly in the allatitive, rarely in the dative or in the e-case. For this reason, suffix recording occurs
with the case of the postposition when the noun (N) with which the adposition is used is in the genitive.

Some examples: N-fa Ayita or N-Fene Aye (in the presence of; of Ayi "face"), N-fa etta or N-fa etfa (for, because, of eti "body person"), N-Fene etiy
(with respect to), N-fa furta (in the sight of; of furi "view, view"), and only in Hattusha N-fa Apita (before; of API "front"). In addition, itani "interspace"
with a plurality-possessive pronoun and the locative is used to express "between us / you / them", eg itaniffaa (between us, among us).

Conjunctions and Adverbs

Only a few satelite particles are occupied. In contrast to nouns which have ended on / i /, the finite / i / is not changed in the conjunctions ai (if) and anammi
(thus, in this way) at the onset of the Klitian personal pronouns. Further conjunctions are alae (in), inna (if), inu (as) and panu (though). The Hurritic
knows very few adverbs . enni (now), kuru (again) and unto (now) are temporal adverbs. Besides, at (thus, so) and tian (very) are occupied.

Klitische Satzparticles

The klitic sentence particles are attached to any word in the sentence, but most often to the first phrase of the sentence or the verb. Frequently , = n
(and), = mn (but), = mmaman (and (? = Nn (for sure).

(15) Atnn mnnattamn


At = nn M nn-a = tta = m nn
So = for sure Its-intransitive = 1.Singular.Absolutiv = but
"But I am really."

Number words

In addition to the indeterminate number i (each), the cardinal numbers from 1 to 10 as well as some higher ones are occupied. Ordinal numbers are
formed with a suffix - () e or -i , which becomes / n / -ze or -zi . The following table provides an overview of the basic and organizational figures that have
been documented:

18 or
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8th 9 10 13 or 30 17 or 70 10000 30000
80
Cardinal ukko Kiri Kike
number , ini Kike Tumni Nariya ee inti , Tamri mani Kikmani intimani Kirmani Nupi nupi
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uki kira
Ordinal N. N. N. N. Fairy N. N.
inzi Kiki Tumnue Narie intie Masculine N. Bel. N. Bel.
number Bel. Bel. Bel. Bel. tale Bel. Bel.

Distributive numbers bear the suffix -ate , eg kicate (three each), tumnate (four each). The suffix -ma derives multiplicative numbers , eg inma
(twofold, double), manma (tenfold). All cardinal number words end in a vowel, which is omitted when some of the endings begin.

Syntax

The normal set of members is a subject-object predicate . Also within the nominal phrase the noun is usually at the end. Adjectives, numerical terms, and
genitive attributes precede the substantive which determine them more closely. Relative clauses , on the other hand, are usually circumsominal, that is, the
noun, which determines the relative theorem, is within the relative theorem. The Hurritic has several different ways to form relative sets. Either the relative
pronoun iya or iye already described in the section pronoun is used, or the nominalization suffix -e is used on the verb, which is subject to the suffix
recording and has already been explained. The third possibility is to use both markers at the same time (see example (16)). In all cases, the noun, which
determines the relative theorem, can only exert the functions of the absolute within the relative theorem, that is, it can only be a direct object or the subject of
an intransitive theorem.

(16) Iyallnn niffu tiwna tnena


Iya = ll = nn n-iffu- Tiw-na- Tn---e-na-
Relative pron. = Brother-my- Thing-article.Plural- Send-preterite-3.Singular.Subject-Nominalizer
3.Plural.Absolutiv = true ergative.Singular Absolutiv article.Plural-Absolutive
"What my brother will send"

As already described in the section on the cases, transitive hurritical verbs require a participant in the ergative (subject) and one in the absolute (object). The
indirect object of ditransitive verbs, ie, those with two objects, is also in the dative, locative, allatitive, or in some verbs also in the absolute:

(17) Olaffa catula


Ola- = ffa Catul-le
Other-Absolutiv = 2.Plural.Absolutive Say-Optative.1.Singular
"I desire to para. Something else para. Say."

Vocabulary
The well-known Hurritic vocabulary is very homogeneous, that is, it contains only a few loan words (eg tuppi (clay tablets), Mizri (Egypt) both from the
Akkadian . The relative pronoun iya or iye is possibly a loan from the Indo-Aryan language of the Mittani people who lived in the area of the Middle
Kingdom before the Hurritians, cf. Sanskrit ya . From Hurritic, many words were borrowed from the neighboring Akkadian dialects, such as piru
(nomad) from hurr. piri (nomad). The fact that there are also loan words in the languages of the Caucasus is probable, but not demonstrable, since there
are no records of Caucasian languages from the Hurrian period. The origin language of similar words can not be determined for this reason.

JRR Tolkien has been influenced by a more speculative theory in the development of his Black Language by Hurritic. There are some parallels in the
structure of vocabulary and morphology.

Writing and deciphering


Most of the Hurritic texts were written in the Sumerian cuneiform , which reached the Hurritical region via the Akkadian.
The documents found in Ugarit, however, mostly contain the ugaritic alphabetic alphabet . Only one of the previously
excavated texts is written in Luwian hieroglyphs . The Hurrian language was thanks to the numerous Hurrian-Hittite
bilinguals are that were found in the room HATTUSA decrypted. In 1932, Johannes Friedrich first published the Mittani
letter in his book Kleinasiatische Sprachdenkmler . Ephraim Avigdor Speiser wrote in 1941 the first grammar of
Hurritic (see literature).

Text example
Untomn iyallnn tiwna allamn niffu katena riena, antilln manma tnau. (From the
Mittani letter, column IV, lines 30-32)

Word in morphine
Grammatical analysis
decomposition
Hurritical cuneiform tablet
Unto = mn Now = but
Iya = ll = nn Relative pronoun = 3.Multiple.Absolutiv = true
Tiw-na- Thing - article.Multiple - Absolutiv
-a = lla = mn Each - locative = 3.Multiple.Absolutive = but
n-iffu- Brother - my - Ergativ.Einzahl
Say - Preteritum.transitive - 3.Enzahl.Subjekt - Nominalizer - Article.Multiple -

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Kat---e-na- Absolutiv

r-i--e-na- Wish - transitive - 3.Single.Subject - Nominalizer - Article.Multiple - Absolutiv


Anti = lla = Those = 3.Multiple.Absolutiv = and
man-ma Ten - multiplicative number
Tn--au Make - Preteritum.transitive - 1.Einzahl.Subjekt

Translation: "The things my brother actually said and desired in the whole, but I now made them tenfold."

References
Igor M. Diakonoff , Sergey A. Starostin: Hurro-Urartian as an Eastern Caucasian Language. (= Munich Studies on Linguistic Studies).
Kitzinger, Munich 1986, ISBN 3-920645-39-1 .
Christian Girbal: On the grammar of the Mittani-Hurritic. In: Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archeologie. 80, 1990, pp. 93-
101, ISSN 0084-5299
Joost Hazenbos : Hurritic and Urartian. In: Michael P. Streck (Hrsg.): Languages of the Ancient Orient. Scientific Book, Darmstadt 2005,
ISBN 3-534-17996-X .
Erich Neu : The Hurritical Epic of Release: 1: Investigations on a Hurritical-Hittite Textsemble from attua . (= Studies on the Boazky
texts. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1996, ISBN 3-447-03487-4 .
Thomas Richter: Bibliographical glossary of the Hurritical. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2012, ISBN 978-3-447-06805-5 .
Ephraim A. Speiser: Introduction to Hurrian. (= Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 20). New Haven, 1941.
Ilse Wegner: Hurritic. An introduction. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2000/2007, ISBN 978-3-447-05394-5 .
Gernot Wilhelm : Hurrian. In: Roger D. Woodard (Eds.): The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the World's Ancient Languages. Cambridge, 2004,
ISBN 0-521-56256-2 , pp. 95-118.

Web Links
Commons: Hurritische Sprache (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Hurrian_language?uselang=de) - Collection (https://commo
ns.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Hurrian_language?uselang=de) of pictures, videos and audio files

Ernst Kausen, Hurritic & Urartian (http://homepages.fh-giessen.de/kausen/wordtexte/Hurrisch-Urart.doc) (DOC, 66 kB)


Amarna Letters in the VAM: Mittani cover front (http://amarna.ieiop.csic.es/amarna/Tablillas/EA%2024/EA%2024-VAT%20422%20(1).jpg)
Amarna Letters in the VAM: Mittani cover back (http://amarna.ieiop.csic.es/amarna/Tablillas/EA%2024/EA%2024-VAT%20422%20(12).jpg)

Source information
1. Th. Petit: La langue tochypriote ou l "amathousien". In: Archives for Orient Research. 44/45, 1997/8, pp. 244-271.
2. Emilia Masson: Cyprominoica - Repertoires, Documents de Ras Shamra, Essais d'Interpretation. (= Studies in the Cypro-Minoan Scripts 2).
strm, Gothenburg 1974, ISBN 91-85058-41-6 , pp. 47-53.
3. Th. Schneider: Kassitisch and Hurro-Urartisch: A discussion about possible lexical isoglosses. In: Ancient Near Eastern Studies. 30, 2003,
pp. 372-381.
4. Diakonoff and Starostin 1986.
5. Thomas Richter: The "Archive of Idanda". Reports on the inscriptions of the 2002 excavation campaign in Mirife / Qatna. In:
Communications of the German Orient Society. Vol. 135, 2003, pp. 164-188.

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