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Cardinal Environmental Laboratories, LLC

Standard Operating Procedure

Procedure No.: 9070

Revision Date: 04/07

Subject: ( SW-846 1030) Ignitability (Solids)

Rev. Date Approved By: Date






Procedure 9070
Revised 04/07

Ignitability (Solids)


This method is for the determination of the ignitability of solids. It is

appropriate for pastes, granular materials, solids that can be cut into
strips and powdery substances.


All samples should be tested prior to analysis to determine if the

material is explosive or extremely flammable. If the sample displays
these characteristics, this test should not be conducted.

Sample Preservation

All samples are tested on an as received basis. No specific

preservation is required. However all samples for solid waste analysis are
transported and stored under refrigeration. Sample containers should be
completely filled and tightly sealed to preserve sample integrity. Samples
should be tested as soon as possible after removal from the sample
container. (Do not allow the sample to dry or absorb moisture for
excessive periods or to lose volatiles.) Samples should be allowed to
come to room temperature before beginning analysis.


Large differences in burning rate may occur if experimental conditions

are not held constant. Variation in air flow rate, particle size and moisture
content will affect test results. The temperature of some materials will
affect the burn rate. Triplicate analysis
should be performed at approximately the same initial temperature.
All tests must be done in a fume hood perpendicular (90 degrees) to
the direction of airflow. Airflow parallel to the test apparatus will
produce variation in burn rates.


- Low heat conducting, non-combustible, impervious ceramic tile

approximately 25 cm
X 25 cm X 2.5 cm.
- Powder train mold for molding powdered and granular materials.
- A Bunsen (propane gas and air) burner with a minimum diameter of
5mm capable of attaining a temperature of 1000C.
Procedure 9070
Revised 04/07

- Stop watch
- Thermocouple to measure the temperature of the gas flame.
- Thermometer to measure the initial temperature of the sample.
- Anemometer to measure air flow in the fume hood.


No reagents are required for this test.


1.0 Preliminary Screening Test

1.1 Test a small portion of the sample (1g of less) to determine if the
sample is explosive or extremely flammable.

1.2 Prepare the test material by forming an unbroken strip or

powder train of sample 250mm long by 20mm wide by
10mm high on the ceramic tile. For powdered or granular
materials, pour the material to fill the mold loosely. Place
ceramic plate over the mold. Drop the unit from a height of 2cm onto a
solid surface three times to settle the material. Place the
ceramic tile side on the counter and carefully remove the

1.3 Place the ceramic tile loaded with sample into a fume hood
about 20cm from the front of the hood. Position the sample
perpendicular to the air flow. Air flow should be sufficient
to prevent fumes from escaping into the laboratory and should
not be varied during the test. The air velocity should be about
0.7m/sec. Measure the air velocity with an anemometer.

1.4 Light the Bunsen burner and adjust the height of the flame to
6.5 to 7.5cm. Measure the temperature of the flame using
the thermocouple. The temperature must be at least

1.5 If the sample is nonmetallic, apply the tip of the flame to the
sample strip and hold the tip of the flame on the sample strip
until the sample ignites OR for a maximum of 2 minutes.
If combustion occurs begin timing with a stop watch and
note whether the combustion travels up the sample strip to the 200mm
mark within the 2 minute test period.

If the sample is metal or metal alloy powder, apply the tip of the
flame to the sample until the sample ignites OR for a maximum
of 5 minutes. If combustion occurs, begin timing with
a stop watch and note whether the combustion travels
Procedure 9070
Revised 04/07

up the sample strip to the 200mm mark within the 20

minute test period.

1.6 If the waste does not ignite and propagate combustion either by
burning with open flame or by smoldering along 200mm
of sample strip within the test period (2 minutes for
nonmetallic samples or 20 minutes for metal powders), the
waste is not considered flammable and no further testing is required.

If the waste propagates burning of 200mm of the test strip

within the test period, the waste must be evaluated by the
burning rate test. (section 2.0)

2.0 Burning Rate Test

2.1 Prepare sample in triplicate as follows: For powdered or granular

samples, prepare as in Section 1.2. Pasty materials are
formed into a rope 250mm in length with approximately
10mm wide by 10mm high.

2.2 Place the sample in a fume hood as in section 1.3.

2.3 Light the Bunsen burner, adjust the flame and measure the
temperature as in section 1.4.

2.4 Apply the tip of the flame to one end of the sample strip as in
section 1.5.

2.5 When the test strip has burned to the 80mm mark, begin timing
the rate of combustion with a stop watch. Stop the timer
when the burned strip reaches the 180mm mark. Record the
amount of time in seconds required to burn the 100mm test
strip. Perform analysis in triplicate.

2.6 Nonmetallic samples that have a burning rate of more than

2.2mm/sec (burn time of less than 45 seconds for 100mm) are
considered to have a positive result for ignitability. For
metallics a burning rate of more than 0.17mm/sec (burn time
of less than 10 minutes for 100mm) is considered positive.


Burning Rate (mm/sec) = 100mm / time (sec.)

Procedure 9070
Revised 04/07

100mm is the length of the test strip

time in seconds is the time required to burn the 100mm test

Quality Control

* All tests must be performed on a clean ceramic plate at room


* All replicate runs must be at the same temperature (room


* All replicate runs must be run at approximately the same air


* Only materials of the same particle size distribution should be

used for all replicate runs.

* The burning rate test must be performed in triplicate if the

preliminary test is positive.

Procedure 9070
Revised 04/07