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FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (Metode Elemen Hingga)

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (Metode Elemen Hingga) 1 Product Life Cycle NEEDS PHASE- DESIGN OUT OPERATE MANU-

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Product Life Cycle NEEDS PHASE- DESIGN OUT OPERATE MANU- & MAINT. FACTURE
Product Life Cycle
NEEDS
PHASE-
DESIGN
OUT
OPERATE
MANU-
& MAINT.
FACTURE
METHOD (Metode Elemen Hingga) 1 Product Life Cycle NEEDS PHASE- DESIGN OUT OPERATE MANU- & MAINT.
1.1. Introduction The Finite Element Method (FEM ) is a versatile and powerful mathematical (numerical)

1.1. Introduction

The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a versatile and powerful mathematical (numerical) tool that has wide applications in a multitude of physical problems such as stress analysis, fluid flow, heat transfer, acoustics, aero-elasticity, micro- fluidics, MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems), electrical and magnetic fields, electrostatic coupling and many others.

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magnetic fields, electrostatic coupling and many others. 2 A. Formal Definition of FEA: An approximate mathematical

A. Formal Definition of FEA:

An approximate mathematical analysis tool to study the behavior of a continua (or a system) to an external influence such as stress or strain, heat, pressure, temperature, fluid velocity, magnetic field, etc.

This involves generating a mathematical formulation of the physical process followed by a numerical solution of the mathematics model.

B. History of FEA:

Hyper-static structure

Navier

1819

Energy theorem

Maxwell

1864

Castigliano

1878

Approximation method

Ritz

1908

Galerkin

1915

Approximation by “finite elements”

Courant

1940

Matrix method:

   

Force method in aircraft industry

Levy & Garvey

1953

Modern FEM

   

Force method

Argyrys-Denke

1955

Displacement method

Argyris-Turner

1956

Figure 1-1(a) Historical background to modern FEM, after J.F. Imbert [2]

C. Basic Concept:

Division of a given domain into a set of simple sub- domains called finite elements accompanied with polynomial approximations of solution over each element in terms of nodal values.

Assembly of element equation with inter-element continuity of solution and balance of force is considered.

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Engineers Mathematicians Trial functions Finite differences Richardson 1910 Variational Weighted Liebman 1918
Engineers
Mathematicians
Trial functions
Finite differences
Richardson 1910
Variational
Weighted
Liebman 1918
Southwell 1940
methods
residuals
Rayleigh 1870
Gauss 1795
Ritz 1909
Galerkin 1915
Biezeno-Koch 1923
Piecewise continous
Structural analogue
trial function
substitution
Courant 1943
Hrenikoff 1941
Prager-Synge 1947
McHenry 1943
Newmark 1949
Direct continuum
Variational finite
elements
differences
Argyris 1955
Turner et al1. 1956
Varga 1962
Modern FEM

Figure 1-1(b) Historical background to modern FEM, after O.C. Zienkiewics [3]

1.2. Basic Illustration

A. Circumference:

H e Q R R
H
e
Q
R
R

1. FE Discretization

S

e Q R
e
Q
R

• Each line segment is an element, He

• Collection of these line segments is called a “mesh”

• Element are connected at nodes

2. Element equations

H

e

2

R

sin(

θ )

2

 
3. Assembly of equations and solution n P   H e e  1
3. Assembly of equations and solution
n
P
 
H
e
e  1
2 ππ
π
For
θ
 ,
H
2
R
sin(
),
P
2
nR
sin(
)
e
nnn
4. Exact solution
As
n 
,
P
2
πR
n
x
 n
  x  0
 
sin(
πx
)
cos(
πx
)

n
P
nEe

lim
2
R
22
πR
πR
 
lim

 
x
1 
x
0
x
0
1
2,5E-16
6,283185307
5. Error Estimation
10
6,18034
0,10284542
100
6,28215
0,001033492
1000
6,28317
1,03354E-05
Total Error

nE
2
πR P
e
10000
6,28319
1,03354E-07

If

x

1

 PR 2

sin(

πx

)

Error,

 SH

E

eee

Error,  SH E eee  2 R  π   n  sin 

2

R

π

n

sin

π 



  

n

C. Continuous problem:

(b) Discrete model
(b) Discrete model

(a) Continuous problem

Figure 1-3 Descritization of an elasticity 2D continuous problem by FEM

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B. Frame Structure:

B. Frame Structure: (a) Real structure (b) Discretized structure Figure 1-2 Example of discretizati on of

(a) Real structure

(b) Discretized structure

Figure 1-2 Example of discretization of a frame structure by FEM

1.3. General Step in the FEM

Step 1

Discretize and Select Element Types

Dividing the body into an equivalent system of finite elements with associated nodes and choosing the most appropriate element type.

Step 2

Select a displacement function

Choosing a displacement function (approximation function) within each element.

Step 3

Define the strain- displacement and stress- strain relationship

Both relationships are necessary for deriving the equations for each element.

Step 4

Derive the element stiffness matrix and equations

Based on the concept of stiffness influence coefficients (direct equilibrium method, work or energy method, weighted residual method.)

Step 5

Assemble the element equations to obtain the global equations and introduce boundary conditions

Individual element equations generated in step 4 is added together using a method of superposition (called the direct stiffness method).

Step 6

Solve for the unknown degrees of freedom (or generalized displacements)

Global equations obtained from step 5 is a set of simultaneous algebric equations. These equations can be solved by using an elimination method (Gauss’s method) or an iterative method (Gauss-Seidel, etc.)

Step 7

Solve for the element strains and stresses

For the structural stress-analysis problem, strains and stress (or moment and force) can be obtained.

Step 8

Interpret the results

The final goal is to interpret and analyse the results for use in the design/analysis process.

Class

Name

Geometry

 

Point

  Point
  Point

0D

element

 

Truss

  Truss
  Truss

1D

element

(Line

   

Ele-

Ele-
Ele-

Frame

ment)

element

Figure 1-4 (a) Different type of elements

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Level of Nodal Nodal Defor. Work of Stiffness Formulation Displ. Energy Ext. forces Matrix Forces
Level of
Nodal
Nodal
Defor.
Work of
Stiffness
Formulation
Displ.
Energy
Ext. forces
Matrix
Forces
This image cannot currently be displayed.
Element
 d 
i
v
j
d 
d
T
T
e
e
i
e
1
e
e
e
e
e
e
j
e
U
d
K d
 d
F
K
F
j
u j
2
d
 
k
k
Assemblage
 d 
T
1
U 
1
T
d Kd
 d F
K
F
2
Global
 d
 u 
i
j
e
j
d
j
v
Virtual Work Principle
Linear Equation
j
i
k
System
 0
 
d
d 
d
j
U 
K d
 F
T
T
d
Kd 
d
F
 d
k
n : total number of nodes
Solution
d
  d
 
n

Class

Name

Geometry

Elasticity 2D

(tin) shell

2D

(Plan

Ele-

ment)

Name Geometry Elasticity 2D (tin) shell 2D (Plan Ele- ment) Bending plate Coque Figure 1-4 (b)

Bending

plate

Name Geometry Elasticity 2D (tin) shell 2D (Plan Ele- ment) Bending plate Coque Figure 1-4 (b)

Coque

Name Geometry Elasticity 2D (tin) shell 2D (Plan Ele- ment) Bending plate Coque Figure 1-4 (b)

Figure 1-4 (b) Different type of elements

Class

Name

Geometry

Axi-

symet

ric

Torus

axisymetric

Class Name Geometry Axi- symet ric Torus axisymetric Coque axisymetric Figure 1-4 (c) Different type of

Coque

axisymetric

Class Name Geometry Axi- symet ric Torus axisymetric Coque axisymetric Figure 1-4 (c) Different type of

Figure 1-4 (c) Different type of elements

1.4. Analysis Type

Analysis

 

Linear

 

Non-linear

 

Linear static

 

Static Non-linear

   Linear static   Static Non-linear

Static

 

Kq F

Initial stability

 

Non-linear stability

 Initial stability   Non-linear stability

K λKXF

G

 
 

Modal

 

Non-linear dynamic

K λMX 0, λ

ω

2

Dynamic

Dynamic response

 

Direct integration step by step

Mq Cq

Kq F(t)

 

Modal superposition

 

Direct integration step by step

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Class

Name

Geometry

3D

 
3D  

(Volu

Volume

me

   

Ele-

 
Ele-  

ment)

Thick Coque

Special Element

Gap element that have stiffness only for compression direction.

Figure 1-4 (d) Different type of elements

1.5. Computer Code • Assemblage • Restraints Start K, F Sub program for matrix calculation
1.5. Computer Code
• Assemblage
• Restraints
Start
K, F
Sub program for
matrix calculation
Input Data
Solution LES
Element’s
FE modeling
Library
q
Element
Element’s stress
Characteristics
calculation
K e , F e
Print Result
Figure 1-7
Simplified flowchart
for static analysis
(displacement method)
End

1.6. Application

Structural areas:

Stress analysis, including truss and frame analysis both for structural and non-structural concentration problems typically associated with holes, fillets, or other changes in geometry in a body.

Buckling problem

Vibration analysis

Non-structural problems:

Heat transfer

Fluid flow, including seepage through porous media

Distribution of electric or magnetic potential

transfer  Fluid flow, including seepage through porous media  Distribution of electric or magnetic potential
transfer  Fluid flow, including seepage through porous media  Distribution of electric or magnetic potential

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transfer  Fluid flow, including seepage through porous media  Distribution of electric or magnetic potential
transfer  Fluid flow, including seepage through porous media  Distribution of electric or magnetic potential
transfer  Fluid flow, including seepage through porous media  Distribution of electric or magnetic potential
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8

8

8
8
8
8
8
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References: 1. Logan, D.L., 1992, A First Co urse in the Finite Element Method, PWS-KENT

References:

1. Logan, D.L., 1992, A First Course in the Finite Element Method, PWS-KENT Publishing Co., Boston.

2. Imbert, J.F.,1984, Analyse des Structures par

Elements Finis, 2 nd Ed., Cepadues.

3. Zienkiewics, O.C., 1977, The Finite Eelement Method, 3 rd ed., McGraw-Hill, London.

Pegas:

Pendekatan mekanik:

Pegas: Pendekatan mekanik:
Pegas: Pendekatan mekanik:

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Zienkiewics, O.C., 1977, The Finite Eelement Method, 3 r d ed., McGraw-Hill, London. Pegas: Pendekatan mekanik: