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FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (Metode Elemen Hingga)

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Product Life Cycle
NEEDS
PHASE-
DESIGN
OUT
OPERATE
MANU-
& MAINT.
FACTURE

1.1. Introduction

The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a versatile and powerful mathematical (numerical) tool that has wide applications in a multitude of physical problems such as stress analysis, fluid flow, heat transfer, acoustics, aero-elasticity, micro- fluidics, MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems), electrical and magnetic fields, electrostatic coupling and many others.

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A. Formal Definition of FEA:

An approximate mathematical analysis tool to study the behavior of a continua (or a system) to an external influence such as stress or strain, heat, pressure, temperature, fluid velocity, magnetic field, etc.

This involves generating a mathematical formulation of the physical process followed by a numerical solution of the mathematics model.

B. History of FEA:

  Hyper-static structure Navier 1819  Energy theorem Maxwell 1864 Castigliano 1878  Approximation method Ritz 1908 Galerkin 1915  Approximation by “finite elements” Courant 1940  Matrix method: Force method in aircraft industry Levy & Garvey 1953  Modern FEM − Force method Argyrys-Denke 1955 − Displacement method Argyris-Turner 1956

Figure 1-1(a) Historical background to modern FEM, after J.F. Imbert [2]

C. Basic Concept:

Division of a given domain into a set of simple sub- domains called finite elements accompanied with polynomial approximations of solution over each element in terms of nodal values.

Assembly of element equation with inter-element continuity of solution and balance of force is considered.

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Engineers
Mathematicians
Trial functions
Finite differences
Richardson 1910
Variational
Weighted
Liebman 1918
Southwell 1940
methods
residuals
Rayleigh 1870
Gauss 1795
Ritz 1909
Galerkin 1915
Biezeno-Koch 1923
Piecewise continous
Structural analogue
trial function
substitution
Courant 1943
Hrenikoff 1941
Prager-Synge 1947
McHenry 1943
Newmark 1949
Direct continuum
Variational finite
elements
differences
Argyris 1955
Turner et al1. 1956
Varga 1962
Modern FEM

Figure 1-1(b) Historical background to modern FEM, after O.C. Zienkiewics [3]

1.2. Basic Illustration

A. Circumference:

H
e
Q
R
R

1. FE Discretization

S

e
Q
R

• Each line segment is an element, He

• Collection of these line segments is called a “mesh”

• Element are connected at nodes

2. Element equations

 H e  2 R sin( θ ) 2
3. Assembly of equations and solution
n
P
 
H
e
e  1
2 ππ
π
For
θ
 ,
H
2
R
sin(
),
P
2
nR
sin(
)
e
nnn
4. Exact solution
As
n 
,
P
2
πR
n
x
 n
  x  0
 
sin(
πx
)
cos(
πx
)

n
P
nEe

lim
2
R
22
πR
πR
 
lim

 
x
1 
x
0
x
0
1
2,5E-16
6,283185307
5. Error Estimation
10
6,18034
0,10284542
100
6,28215
0,001033492
1000
6,28317
1,03354E-05
Total Error

nE
2
πR P
e
10000
6,28319
1,03354E-07

If

x

1

 PR 2

sin(

πx

)

Error,

 SH

E

eee

2

R

π

n

sin

π 



  

n

C. Continuous problem:

(b) Discrete model

(a) Continuous problem

Figure 1-3 Descritization of an elasticity 2D continuous problem by FEM

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B. Frame Structure:

(a) Real structure

(b) Discretized structure

Figure 1-2 Example of discretization of a frame structure by FEM

1.3. General Step in the FEM

 Step 1 Discretize and Select Element Types Dividing the body into an equivalent system of finite elements with associated nodes and choosing the most appropriate element type. Step 2 Select a displacement function Choosing a displacement function (approximation function) within each element. Step 3 Define the strain- displacement and stress- strain relationship Both relationships are necessary for deriving the equations for each element. Step 4 Derive the element stiffness matrix and equations Based on the concept of stiffness influence coefficients (direct equilibrium method, work or energy method, weighted residual method.)
 Step 5 Assemble the element equations to obtain the global equations and introduce boundary conditions Individual element equations generated in step 4 is added together using a method of superposition (called the direct stiffness method). Step 6 Solve for the unknown degrees of freedom (or generalized displacements) Global equations obtained from step 5 is a set of simultaneous algebric equations. These equations can be solved by using an elimination method (Gauss’s method) or an iterative method (Gauss-Seidel, etc.) Step 7 Solve for the element strains and stresses For the structural stress-analysis problem, strains and stress (or moment and force) can be obtained. Step 8 Interpret the results The final goal is to interpret and analyse the results for use in the design/analysis process.
 Class Name Geometry Point 0D element Truss 1D element (Line Ele- Frame ment) element

Figure 1-4 (a) Different type of elements

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Level of
Nodal
Nodal
Defor.
Work of
Stiffness
Formulation
Displ.
Energy
Ext. forces
Matrix
Forces
This image cannot currently be displayed.
Element
 d 
i
v
j
d 
d
T
T
e
e
i
e
1
e
e
e
e
e
e
j
e
U
d
K d
 d
F
K
F
j
u j
2
d
 
k
k
Assemblage
 d 
T
1
U 
1
T
d Kd
 d F
K
F
2
Global
 d
 u 
i
j
e
j
d
j
v
Virtual Work Principle
Linear Equation
j
i
k
System
 0
 
d
d 
d
j
U 
K d
 F
T
T
d
Kd 
d
F
 d
k
n : total number of nodes
Solution
d
  d
 
n

Class

Name

Geometry

Elasticity 2D

(tin) shell

2D

(Plan

Ele-

ment)

Bending

plate

Coque

Figure 1-4 (b) Different type of elements

Class

Name

Geometry

Axi-

symet

ric

Torus

axisymetric

Coque

axisymetric

Figure 1-4 (c) Different type of elements

1.4. Analysis Type

 Analysis Linear Non-linear  Linear static Static Non-linear Static Kq  F  Initial stability Non-linear stability   K λKXF G  Modal Non-linear dynamic   K λMX 0, λ ω 2 Dynamic  Dynamic response Direct integration step by step Mq Cq Kq  F(t) − Modal superposition − Direct integration step by step

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 Class Name Geometry 3D (Volu Volume me Ele- ment) Thick Coque Special Element Gap element that have stiffness only for compression direction.

Figure 1-4 (d) Different type of elements

1.5. Computer Code
• Assemblage
• Restraints
Start
K, F
Sub program for
matrix calculation
Input Data
Solution LES
Element’s
FE modeling
Library
q
Element
Element’s stress
Characteristics
calculation
K e , F e
Print Result
Figure 1-7
Simplified flowchart
for static analysis
(displacement method)
End

1.6. Application

Structural areas:

Stress analysis, including truss and frame analysis both for structural and non-structural concentration problems typically associated with holes, fillets, or other changes in geometry in a body.

Buckling problem

Vibration analysis

Non-structural problems:

Heat transfer

Fluid flow, including seepage through porous media

Distribution of electric or magnetic potential

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References:

1. Logan, D.L., 1992, A First Course in the Finite Element Method, PWS-KENT Publishing Co., Boston.

2. Imbert, J.F.,1984, Analyse des Structures par

Elements Finis, 2 nd Ed., Cepadues.

3. Zienkiewics, O.C., 1977, The Finite Eelement Method, 3 rd ed., McGraw-Hill, London.

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