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Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman

Faculty Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and


Science
Department: Department of Mechanical and Material
Engineering
Unit Code and Name UEME 3213 Heat and Mass Transfer
Experiment No.: 1/2
Title of Experiment: Linear and Radial Heat Conduction Experiment
Laboratory Room No. and Name: KB731
Experiment Duration (hour) 3 hours
Number of Student per Group 5 students x 4 groups
Number of Student per Session 20

Objective:
In this experiment, students shall learn how to examine the temperature profile and determine
rate of heat transfer for both linear and radial conduction.

Introduction:
Thermal conduction is the mode of heat transfer, which occurs in a material by virtue of a
temperature gradient. In the laboratory, a single dimensional approach is required to
demonstrate the basic law that relates rate of heat flow to temperature gradient and area.

Theory

Linear Conduction Heat Transfer (Homogeneous bar)

Fouriers Law states that:


dT
Q kA
dx
where, Q = heat flow rate, [W]

W
k = thermal conductivity of the material,
k m
A = cross-sectional area of the conduction, [m2]
dT = changes of temperature between two points, [k]
dx = changes of displacement between two points, [m]

1 Latest updated: 15th Dec 2016 (DLMSA)


Radial Conduction Heat Transfer (Cylindrical)

When the inner and outer surfaces of a thick walled cylinder are each at a uniform
temperature, heat flows radially through the cylinder wall. From continuity considerations the
radial heat flow through successive layers in the wall must be constant if the flow is steady
but since area of successive layers increases with radius, the temperature gradient must
decrease with radius.
The amount of heat (Q), which is conducted across the cylinder wall per unit time, is:

2Lk (Ti To )
Q
R
ln o
Ri

where, Q = heat flow rate, [W]

W
k = thermal conductivity of the material,
k m
L = thickness of the conduction, [m]
Ti = inner section temperature, [K]
To = outer section temperature, [K]
Ro = outer radius, [m]
Ri = inner radius, [m]

Description:

Unit Assembly

The equipment comprises two heat-conducting specimens, a multi-section bar for the
examination of linear conduction and a metal disc for radial conduction. A control panel
supplies electrical power to the heaters and shows readings for all relevant measurements.

A small flow of cooling water provides a heat sink at the end of the conducting path
in each specimen.

2 Latest updated: 15th Dec 2016 (DLMSA)


1
7
2
3 8

4
9
5

Figure 1: Unit Assembly for Heat Conduction Study Bench (Model: HE 105)

1. Control Panel 6. Thermocouple Connectors


2. Heater Power Indicator 7. Thermocouples
3. Heater Power Regulator 8. Radial Module
4. Temperature Indicator 9. Linear Module
5. Temperature Selector

Specifications

Linear Module

Consists of the following sections:


i) Heater Section
Material : Brass
Diameter : 25 mm
ii) Cooler Section
Material : Brass
Diameter : 25 mm
iii) Interchangeable Test Section - Insulated Brass Test Section with
Temperature Sensors Array (Diameter = 25mm, Length = 30 mm)

Radial Module

Material : Brass
Diameter : 110 mm
Thickness : 3 mm

3 Latest updated: 15th Dec 2016 (DLMSA)


Instrumentations

Linear module consists of a maximum of 9 type K thermocouple


temperature sensors at 10 mm interval. For radial module, 6 type K
thermocouple temperature sensors at 10 mm interval along the radius are
installed.
Each test modules are installed with a 100 Watt heater.

Equipment and Materials


Quantity estimation
Item Description *Item category (e.g. per set/group of
student)
Control Panel E 1
Thermocouple Connectors E 1
Thermocouples E 1
Radial Module E 1
Linear Module E 1
Water supply W 1

*Item category
SP Sample or specimen
C Consumable
CH Chemical
W Labware, glassware, tool, and
components
E Equipment
S Software

Experimental Procedures:

Linear Conduction Heat Transfer

1. Make sure that the main switch initially off. Then Insert a brass conductor
(25mm diameter) section intermediate section into the linear module and
clamp together.
2. Install the temperature sensors T1 until T9 to the test module and connect
the sensor leads to the panel.
3. Connect the heater supply lead for the linear conduction module to the
power supply socket on the control panel.
4. Turn on the water supply and ensure that water is flowing from the free
end of the water pipe to drain. This should be checked at intervals.
5. Turn the heater power control knob control panel to the fully anticlockwise
position.
6. Switch on the power supply and main switch; the digital readouts will be
illuminated.

4 Latest updated: 15th Dec 2016 (DLMSA)


7. Switch on the heater and turn the heater power control to 20 Watts and
allow sufficient time to achieve steady state condition before recording the
temperature at all temperature points as well as the input power reading on
the wattmeter (Q). This procedure can be repeated for other input power
between 0 to 20 watts. After each change, sufficient time must be allowed
to achieve steady state conditions again.
8. Plot of the temperature, T versus distance, x. Calculate the thermal
conductivity of the test section.

Note:
i) When assembling the sample between the heater and the cooler
sections, care should be taken to match the shallow shoulders in the
housings.
ii) Ensure that the temperature measurement points are aligned along the
longitudinal axis of the unit.
iii) The insulation material of the test modules can withstand up to 100 C
only. Reduce the heater power immediately if the temperature nearest
to the heater is too high.

Results:

Heater Power, Q T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9
(Watts) (C) (C) (C) (C) (C) (C) (C) (C) (C)
5
10
15
20
Distance from
Heater End, x (m)

5 Latest updated: 15th Dec 2016 (DLMSA)


Radial Heat Transfer

1. Make sure that the main switch initially off.


2. Install the temperature sensors (T1 until T7) to the radial test module and
connect the sensor leads to the panel.
3. Connect the heater supply lead for the radial conduction module into the
power supply socket on the control panel.
4. Turn on the water supply and ensure that water is flowing from the free
end of the water pipe to drain. This should be checked at intervals.
5. Turn the heater power control knob control panel to the fully anticlockwise
position.
6. Switch on the power supply and main switch; the digital readouts will be
illuminated.
7. Switch on the heater and turn the heater power control to 20 Watts and
allow sufficient time to achieve steady state condition before recording the
temperature at all six sensor points as well as the input power reading on
the wattmeter (Q). This procedure can be repeated for other input power
between 0 to 20 watts. After each change, sufficient time must be allowed
to achieve steady state conditions again.
8. Plot of the temperature, T versus distance, r. Calculate the thermal
conductivity of the test section.

Note:
The insulation material of the test modules can withstand up to 100 C
only. Reduce the heater power immediately if the temperature nearest to
the heater is too high.

Results:

Heater Power, Q T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
(Watts) (C) (C) (C) (C) (C) (C)
5
10
15
20
Distance from Heater
End, Ri or Ro (m)

6 Latest updated: 15th Dec 2016 (DLMSA)