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DBT 204 Technology of Metal Welding I Destructive Test
DBT 204
Technology of Metal Welding I
Destructive Test

Azmi Kamardin

2015-2016 S01

Destructive Tests To measure quality, strength, ductility, toughness & hardness of welded joints. Materials
Destructive Tests To measure quality, strength, ductility, toughness & hardness of welded joints. Materials

Destructive Tests

Destructive Tests To measure quality, strength, ductility, toughness & hardness of welded joints. Materials

To measure quality, strength, ductility, toughness & hardness of welded joints. Materials preparation, welding cutting, machining, test, interpretation expensive! Welding process, filler metals, welding technique fabrication codes Standard sizes, shapes, specific test standard requirements. Tensile, shear, bend, hardness, toughness & break tests.

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Quiz What is the main difference between destructive test and nondestructive test? 2

Quiz

Quiz What is the main difference between destructive test and nondestructive test? 2

What is the main difference between destructive test and nondestructive test?

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Tensile Test Measure the effects of a tensile force. Universal Testing Machine (UTM) apply loads

Tensile Test

Tensile Test Measure the effects of a tensile force. Universal Testing Machine (UTM) apply loads in
Tensile Test Measure the effects of a tensile force. Universal Testing Machine (UTM) apply loads in

Measure the effects of a tensile force. Universal Testing Machine (UTM) apply loads in tension & compression. Load is applied hydraulically or by means of a screw & gears. The specimen is hold inside the UTM by using mechanical grippers.

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Tensile Test GOTECH GT-7001 50kN 5

Tensile Test

Tensile Test GOTECH GT-7001 50kN 5
Tensile Test GOTECH GT-7001 50kN 5
Tensile Test GOTECH GT-7001 50kN 5

GOTECH GT-7001 50kN

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Tensile Test Specimen should conform to specific dimensions The reduced area contains only weld metal.

Tensile Test

Tensile Test Specimen should conform to specific dimensions The reduced area contains only weld metal. The
Tensile Test Specimen should conform to specific dimensions The reduced area contains only weld metal. The

Specimen should conform to specific dimensions The reduced area contains only weld metal. The transition from ends of specimen to reduced section is shouldered or made with a fillet minimize stress concentration.

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Tensile Test INSTRON 5569 5kN 6

Tensile Test

Tensile Test INSTRON 5569 5kN 6
Tensile Test INSTRON 5569 5kN 6
Tensile Test INSTRON 5569 5kN 6

INSTRON 5569 5kN

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Tensile Test 8

Tensile Test

Tensile Test 8
Tensile Test 8
Tensile Test 8

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Tensile Test 9

Tensile Test

Tensile Test 9
Tensile Test 9
Tensile Test 9

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Tensile Test Tensile specimen are usually dog-bone shape test specimen fail at narrow central portion

Tensile Test

Tensile Test Tensile specimen are usually dog-bone shape test specimen fail at narrow central portion Specimens
Tensile Test Tensile specimen are usually dog-bone shape test specimen fail at narrow central portion Specimens

Tensile specimen are usually dog-bone shape test specimen fail at narrow central portion Specimens have a round or rectangular cross section. The shape of the specimen-ends is determined by gripping device that is used. Round plain, shouldered or threaded Rectangular plain or pin

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Tensile Test Data recorded from tensile tests are max load, tensile strength, failure location, %elongation

Tensile Test

Tensile Test Data recorded from tensile tests are max load, tensile strength, failure location, %elongation &
Tensile Test Data recorded from tensile tests are max load, tensile strength, failure location, %elongation &

Data recorded from tensile tests are max load, tensile strength, failure location, %elongation & %reduction of area. Quantitative test results can be used in the design of welded structure. Fracture surface appearance at the failure location provided information on the presence and/or effects of discontinuities such as incomplete fusion, incomplete penetration, porosity, inclusions & cracking.

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Tensile Test 12

Tensile Test

Tensile Test 12
Tensile Test 12
Tensile Test 12

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Tensile Test 13

Tensile Test

Tensile Test 13
Tensile Test 13
Tensile Test 13

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Tensile Test A – proportional limit: max stress is α to strain. B – elastic

Tensile Test

Tensile Test A – proportional limit: max stress is α to strain. B – elastic limit:
Tensile Test A – proportional limit: max stress is α to strain. B – elastic limit:
Tensile Test A – proportional limit: max stress is α to strain. B – elastic limit:

A – proportional limit: max stress is α to strain. B – elastic limit: max stress at which specimen will return to initial length when load is removed. Beyond B, strain is permanent – plastic strain.

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Tensile Test Extensometer is fitted to the specimen across its gauge length to measure the

Tensile Test

Tensile Test Extensometer is fitted to the specimen across its gauge length to measure the elongation
Tensile Test Extensometer is fitted to the specimen across its gauge length to measure the elongation
Tensile Test Extensometer is fitted to the specimen across its gauge length to measure the elongation

Extensometer is fitted to the specimen across its gauge length to measure the elongation of the specimen. Specimen is stretched to failure at steady rate

0.05-0.5”.

ASTM E8: Tensile Testing of Metallic Materials. Stress-strain curve is plotted

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Tensile Test C – yield point: strain increases without stress increases. Yield point behavior leads

Tensile Test

Tensile Test C – yield point: strain increases without stress increases. Yield point behavior leads to
Tensile Test C – yield point: strain increases without stress increases. Yield point behavior leads to
Tensile Test C – yield point: strain increases without stress increases. Yield point behavior leads to

C – yield point: strain increases without stress increases. Yield point behavior leads to Luders bands (ripples) - only exhibited by low & medium carbon steels. Curve fall between C-D – plastic strain. E – lowest yield point before

curving upward.

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Tensile Test F – ultimate tensile strength: max stress (load) a metal can withstand. Neck

Tensile Test

Tensile Test F – ultimate tensile strength: max stress (load) a metal can withstand. Neck down
Tensile Test F – ultimate tensile strength: max stress (load) a metal can withstand. Neck down
Tensile Test F – ultimate tensile strength: max stress (load) a metal can withstand. Neck down

F – ultimate tensile strength:

max stress (load) a metal can withstand. Neck down between F-G G – point of failure: Fracture occurs. Brittle materials fail between point E-F

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Tensile Test %elongation can be calculated by fitting both broken ends and measure the new

Tensile Test

Tensile Test %elongation can be calculated by fitting both broken ends and measure the new gauge
Tensile Test %elongation can be calculated by fitting both broken ends and measure the new gauge

%elongation can be calculated by fitting both broken ends and measure the new gauge length Indicate the amount of plastic deformation prior to fracture.

%E = L f – L i x 100

L i

L f = final gauge length L i = initial gauge length

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Tensile Test The differences between stress-strain curve of low-medium carbon steels and other metals. 18

Tensile Test

Tensile Test The differences between stress-strain curve of low-medium carbon steels and other metals. 18
Tensile Test The differences between stress-strain curve of low-medium carbon steels and other metals. 18

The differences between stress-strain curve of low-medium carbon steels and other metals.

Tensile Test The differences between stress-strain curve of low-medium carbon steels and other metals. 18
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Tensile Test %reduction in area of a round specimen is given by: D i D

Tensile Test

Tensile Test %reduction in area of a round specimen is given by: D i D i
Tensile Test %reduction in area of a round specimen is given by: D i D i

%reduction in area of a round specimen is given by:

D i

D i = initial diameter D f = final diameter

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%RA =

D i

-

D f

x

100

Tensile Test Failure location – region of the specimen at which final failure occurs. 3

Tensile Test

Tensile Test Failure location – region of the specimen at which final failure occurs. 3 categories:
Tensile Test Failure location – region of the specimen at which final failure occurs. 3 categories:

Failure location – region of the specimen at which final failure occurs. 3 categories: base metal, HAZ or weld Fabrication code & standard require failure location to be in the base metal.

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Shear Test Tension shear test: Specimen is pulled to failure under tensile Fillet welded, brazed

Shear Test

Shear Test Tension shear test: Specimen is pulled to failure under tensile Fillet welded, brazed joint

Tension shear test:

Shear Test Tension shear test: Specimen is pulled to failure under tensile Fillet welded, brazed joint

Specimen is pulled to failure under tensile Fillet welded, brazed joint & spot welded Shear strength is calculated from load at failure Brazed joint & spot-weld tension shear tests

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Shear Test Determine the shear strength of fillet welds, brazed joints & spot welds. Materials

Shear Test

Shear Test Determine the shear strength of fillet welds, brazed joints & spot welds. Materials separate
Shear Test Determine the shear strength of fillet welds, brazed joints & spot welds. Materials separate

Determine the shear strength of fillet welds, brazed joints & spot welds. Materials separate parallel to load Acceptable shear strength ~ 60% of tensile strength of base metal. Types: tension shear test & peel test

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Shear Test Brazed joint tension shear test: Strength of filler metal in brazed joint Two

Shear Test

Shear Test Brazed joint tension shear test: Strength of filler metal in brazed joint Two 1/8”
Shear Test Brazed joint tension shear test: Strength of filler metal in brazed joint Two 1/8”

Brazed joint tension shear test:

Strength of filler metal in brazed joint Two 1/8” thick specimens joined by brazing with a filler metal Shear strength = tensile load at failure / brazed area.

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Shear Test Spot-weld tension shear test: Determine strength of arc welds & spot welds. Specimen

Shear Test

Shear Test Spot-weld tension shear test: Determine strength of arc welds & spot welds. Specimen is
Shear Test Spot-weld tension shear test: Determine strength of arc welds & spot welds. Specimen is

Spot-weld tension shear test:

Determine strength of arc welds & spot welds. Specimen is made of overlapping materials.

arc welds & spot welds. Specimen is made of overlapping materials. 30 mm 2 mm 4
arc welds & spot welds. Specimen is made of overlapping materials. 30 mm 2 mm 4
arc welds & spot welds. Specimen is made of overlapping materials. 30 mm 2 mm 4
arc welds & spot welds. Specimen is made of overlapping materials. 30 mm 2 mm 4
30 mm
30 mm
2 mm 4 mm 50 mm 100 mm Spot welded
2 mm
4 mm
50 mm
100 mm
Spot welded
arc welds & spot welds. Specimen is made of overlapping materials. 30 mm 2 mm 4

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Bend Test Determine the ductility of a weld by bending a welded specimen around a

Bend Test

Bend Test Determine the ductility of a weld by bending a welded specimen around a standardized
Bend Test Determine the ductility of a weld by bending a welded specimen around a standardized

Determine the ductility of a weld by bending a welded specimen around a standardized mandrel. Provide info on the plastic deformation capability of a welded joint. Plastic deformation capability is shown through the ability of the weld to resist tearing. May reveal discontinuities on the surface & expose incomplete fusion and delamination. Guided & Wraparound guided bend tests.

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Shear Test Peel test:
Shear Test
Peel test:

Suitable for thin & low strength base metal. Inexpensive alternative to the spot-weld tension shear test.

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Bend Test Guided bend test:
Bend Test
Guided bend test:

Rectangular specimen is bent into a U-shape. Most commonly used ductility test for groove welds, surface welds and fillet welds. Test fixtures can be bottom guided or bottom ejecting.

test for groove welds, surface welds and fillet welds. Test fixtures can be bottom guided or

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Bend Test Guided bend test:
Bend Test
Guided bend test:

Bottom guided bend fixture is designed to support the specimen in the die as it is bent.

Bend Test Guided bend test: Bottom guided bend fixture is designed to support the specimen in

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Bend Test Wraparound Guided bend test: Specimen is bent around a stationary mandrel. 31

Bend Test

Bend Test Wraparound Guided bend test: Specimen is bent around a stationary mandrel. 31
Bend Test Wraparound Guided bend test: Specimen is bent around a stationary mandrel. 31

Wraparound Guided bend test:

Specimen is bent around a stationary mandrel.

Bend Test Wraparound Guided bend test: Specimen is bent around a stationary mandrel. 31

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Bend Test Guided bend test:
Bend Test
Guided bend test:

Bottom ejecting bend fixture allows the specimen to be ejected from the die after it is bent.

Test Guided bend test: Bottom ejecting bend fixture allows the specimen to be ejected from the

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Hardness Test Determine the resistance of a material against indentation or scratches. Less commonly used
Hardness Test Determine the resistance of a material against indentation or scratches. Less commonly used

Hardness Test

Hardness Test Determine the resistance of a material against indentation or scratches. Less commonly used to

Determine the resistance of a material against indentation or scratches. Less commonly used to test welds because the critical HAZ area requires special preparation. Do not provide adequate information on the physical quality of the weld as compared to other tests. Provide info on metallurgical changes caused by welding, i.e. high hardness value on HAZ might indicate insufficient preheating or postheating.

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Hardness Test Provide bulk properties of the metal thru Brinell, Rockwell and Vickers tests. Provide
Hardness Test Provide bulk properties of the metal thru Brinell, Rockwell and Vickers tests. Provide

Hardness Test

Hardness Test Provide bulk properties of the metal thru Brinell, Rockwell and Vickers tests. Provide info

Provide bulk properties of the metal thru Brinell, Rockwell and Vickers tests. Provide info on the weld and HAZ of the metal thru microhardness test.

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Hardness Test Brinell hardness test: 35 10 mm hardened steel ball Deepest & widest indentation
Hardness Test Brinell hardness test: 35 10 mm hardened steel ball Deepest & widest indentation

Hardness Test

Hardness Test Brinell hardness test: 35 10 mm hardened steel ball Deepest & widest indentation Provide

Brinell hardness test:

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10 mm hardened steel ball Deepest & widest indentation

Provide average hardness value Not suitable for thin metal Soft aluminum cast

- 500 kg load

Hard ferrous metal

- 3000 kg load

Hardness Test Brinell hardness test: Determine hardness of base metal 34
Hardness Test Brinell hardness test: Determine hardness of base metal 34

Hardness Test

Brinell hardness test:

Hardness Test Brinell hardness test: Determine hardness of base metal 34

Determine hardness of base metal

Hardness Test Brinell hardness test: Determine hardness of base metal 34

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Hardness Test 36 Rockwell hardness test: test lever anvil holder screw electronic unit (display &
Hardness Test 36 Rockwell hardness test: test lever anvil holder screw electronic unit (display &

Hardness Test

Hardness Test 36 Rockwell hardness test: test lever anvil holder screw electronic unit (display & programming
Hardness Test 36 Rockwell hardness test: test lever anvil holder screw electronic unit (display & programming

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Rockwell hardness test:

Hardness Test 36 Rockwell hardness test: test lever anvil holder screw electronic unit (display & programming

test lever

Hardness Test 36 Rockwell hardness test: test lever anvil holder screw electronic unit (display & programming
Hardness Test 36 Rockwell hardness test: test lever anvil holder screw electronic unit (display & programming

anvil holder screw

electronic unit

electronic unit

(display &

programming

keyboard)

handwheel (to regulate rising screw)

Hardness Test Rockwell hardness test: 1/16” steel ball & 120-diamond cone Minor load of 10
Hardness Test Rockwell hardness test: 1/16” steel ball & 120-diamond cone Minor load of 10

Hardness Test

Hardness Test Rockwell hardness test: 1/16” steel ball & 120-diamond cone Minor load of 10 kg

Rockwell hardness test:

1/16” steel ball & 120-diamond cone Minor load of 10 kg Major load 60-150 kg

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Hardness Test Vickers hardness test: 136 degree square-base diamond cone Applied load 1-120 kg Accuracy
Hardness Test Vickers hardness test: 136 degree square-base diamond cone Applied load 1-120 kg Accuracy

Hardness Test

Vickers hardness test:

Hardness Test Vickers hardness test: 136 degree square-base diamond cone Applied load 1-120 kg Accuracy depends

136 degree square-base diamond cone Applied load 1-120 kg Accuracy depends on the specimen surface finishing

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Hardness Test Vickers hardness test: 38
Hardness Test Vickers hardness test: 38

Hardness Test

Hardness Test Vickers hardness test: 38

Vickers hardness test:

Hardness Test Vickers hardness test: 38

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Hardness Test Microhardness hardness test: 40
Hardness Test Microhardness hardness test: 40

Hardness Test

Hardness Test Microhardness hardness test: 40

Microhardness hardness test:

Hardness Test Microhardness hardness test: 40

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Hardness Test Microhardness test: Light load < 200g Polished surface is required A series of
Hardness Test Microhardness test: Light load < 200g Polished surface is required A series of

Hardness Test

Microhardness test:

Hardness Test Microhardness test: Light load < 200g Polished surface is required A series of regularly

Light load < 200g Polished surface is required A series of regularly spaced indentations across the base metal, HAZ and weld metal.

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Toughness Test Measure the ability of material to absorb energy at high strain rates and
Toughness Test Measure the ability of material to absorb energy at high strain rates and

Toughness Test

Measure the ability of material to absorb energy at high strain rates and deform plastically rather than fracture in a brittle manner

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Hardness Test 42
Hardness Test 42

Hardness Test

Hardness Test 42
Hardness Test 42

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Toughness Test A dynamic test: metal is broken by a single blow Energy is measured
Toughness Test A dynamic test: metal is broken by a single blow Energy is measured

Toughness Test

Toughness Test A dynamic test: metal is broken by a single blow Energy is measured in

A dynamic test: metal is broken by a single blow Energy is measured in foot-pound (ft-Ib) Compare the toughness of weld & base metal Charpy V-notch test, plain-strain fracture toughness test & nil-ductility transition temperature test

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Toughness Test Charpy V-notch test: Square-shaped bar with a V-notch Universal pendulum impact tester Tough
Toughness Test Charpy V-notch test: Square-shaped bar with a V-notch Universal pendulum impact tester Tough

Toughness Test

Charpy V-notch test:

Toughness Test Charpy V-notch test: Square-shaped bar with a V-notch Universal pendulum impact tester Tough material

Square-shaped bar with a V-notch Universal pendulum impact tester

Tough material absorbs high energy

- short travel distance

Brittle material absorbs low energy

- long travel distance

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Toughness Test Plain-strain fracture toughness test Measure the resistance of metals to brittle fracture propagation
Toughness Test Plain-strain fracture toughness test Measure the resistance of metals to brittle fracture propagation

Toughness Test

Toughness Test Plain-strain fracture toughness test Measure the resistance of metals to brittle fracture propagation in

Plain-strain fracture toughness test Measure the resistance of metals to brittle fracture propagation in the presence of stress raiser such as weld defects. Determine the allowable internal size of discontinuity that might lead to a catastrophic failure Pressure vessels, storage tanks, airplanes & ships

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Toughness Test
Toughness Test

Toughness Test

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Toughness Test Nil ductility transition (NDT) temperature test Measure the temp at which the fracture
Toughness Test Nil ductility transition (NDT) temperature test Measure the temp at which the fracture

Toughness Test

Toughness Test Nil ductility transition (NDT) temperature test Measure the temp at which the fracture behavior

Nil ductility transition (NDT) temperature test Measure the temp at which the fracture behavior of a metal changes from ductile to brittle in the presence of a stress raiser. Carbon & low alloy steels show sharp transition in toughness when temperature decreases – cold weather.

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Toughness Test Drop weight test A weld bead is laid down as the center of
Toughness Test Drop weight test A weld bead is laid down as the center of

Toughness Test

Drop weight test

Toughness Test Drop weight test A weld bead is laid down as the center of the
Toughness Test Drop weight test A weld bead is laid down as the center of the

A weld bead is laid down as the center of the plate The plate is brought to test temperature Drop weight & cause plate to bend Below NDT temp, plate breaks in two

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Break Test 51

Break Test

Break Test 51
Break Test 51
Break Test 51

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Break Test Rapid & convenient method of evaluating certain types of welds. Nick-break test: Cutting

Break Test

Break Test Rapid & convenient method of evaluating certain types of welds. Nick-break test: Cutting a
Break Test Rapid & convenient method of evaluating certain types of welds. Nick-break test: Cutting a

Rapid & convenient method of evaluating certain types of welds. Nick-break test:

Cutting a small notch in the weld specimen Break it with a hammer blow Check fracture surface for porosity, slag inclusions, overlaps, etc Used primarily in the pipeline industry

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Break Test 52

Break Test

Break Test 52
Break Test 52
Break Test 52

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Break Test Fillet weld break test: Specimen is tested with the weld root in tension.

Break Test

Break Test Fillet weld break test: Specimen is tested with the weld root in tension. Qualify
Break Test Fillet weld break test: Specimen is tested with the weld root in tension. Qualify
Break Test Fillet weld break test: Specimen is tested with the weld root in tension. Qualify
Break Test Fillet weld break test: Specimen is tested with the weld root in tension. Qualify

Fillet weld break test:

Specimen is tested with the weld root in tension. Qualify tack welding The specimen is pressed and bent to produce fracture at or neat the weld. Fracture surface is examined for evidence of incomplete fusion or porosity

to produce fracture at or neat the weld. Fracture surface is examined for evidence of incomplete

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