Sie sind auf Seite 1von 58

Electrical Fundamentals

Student Guide
Caterpillar Service Technician Module
APLTCL024
ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Published by Asia Pacific Learning


1 Caterpillar Drive
Tullamarine Victoria Australia 3043

Version 3.2, 2003

Copyright 2003 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd Melbourne, Australia.

All rights reserved. Reproduction of any part of this work without the permission of the copy-
right owner is unlawful. Requests for permission or further information must be addressed to
the Manager, Asia Pacific Learning, Australia.

This subject materials is issued by Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd on the understanding that:

1. Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd, its officials, author(s), or any other persons involved
in the preparation of this publication expressly disclaim all or any contractual,
tortious, or other form of liability to any person (purchaser of this publication or not)
in respect of the publication and any consequence arising from its use, including
any omission made by any person in reliance upon the whole or any part of the
contents of this publication.

2. Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd expressly disclaims all and any liability to any person
in respect of anything and of the consequences of anything done or omitted to be
done by any such person in reliance, whether whole or partial, upon the whole or
any part of the contents of this subject material.

Acknowledgements

A special thanks to the Caterpillar Family for their contribution in reviewing the curricula for this
program, in particular:
Caterpillar engineers and instructors
Dealer engineers and instructors
Caterpillar Institutes.
MODULE INTRODUCTION

Module Title
Electrical Fundamentals.

Module Description
This module covers the knowledge and skills of Electrical Fundamentals. Upon satisfactory completion
of this module students will be able to competently service and repair basic electrical circuits.

Pre-Requisites
The following must be completed prior to delivery of this module:
Occupational Health & Safety Procedures
Workplace Tools.

Learning & Development


Delivery of this facilitated module requires access to the Electrical Fundamentals Activity Workbook, a
relevant workplace or simulated workplace environment and equipment to develop/practice the skills.

Suggested References
Electrical Schematic for 988B
SMHS7531 Special Instruction - Use of 6V3000 Sure Seal Repair Kit
SEHS9615 Special Instruction - Servicing DT Connectors
SEHS9065 Special Instruction - Use of CE/VE Connector Tools
RENR 2140 9509 Electrical Schematic.

Resource
9U7330 Digital Multimeter
Electrical test bench
Video SEVN3197 - Basic Wire Maintenance
6V3000 Sure Seal Repair Kit
IU5805 Deutsch Crimp Tool
IU5804 Deutsch Crimp Tool
Special Instruction SEHS8038 Use of VE Connector Tool Group
Special Instruction SMHS7531 Use of 6V3000 Sure-Seal Repair Kit
Special Instruction SEHS9615 Servicing DT Connectors
4C3806 Deutsch Connector Kit
9U7246 Deutsch DT Connector Kit
Special Instruction SEHS9065 Use of CE/VE Connector Tools
8T5319 Removal Tool Gp
4C4075 Crimp Tool Gp
IU5804 Crimp tool Gp
Deutsch Rectangular Connectors (ARC) (QTY).

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 1


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS MODULE INTRODUCTION

Assessment Methods
Classroom and Workshop
To demonstrate satisfactory completion of this module, students must show that they are
competent in all learning outcomes. Consequently, activities and assessments will measure all the
necessary module requirements.
For this module, students are required to participate in classroom and practical workshop activities
and satisfactorily complete the following:
Activity Workbook
Knowledge Assessments
Practical Activities.

Workplace
To demonstrate competence in this module students are required to satisfactorily complete the
Workplace Assessment(s).

APLTCL024

2 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ASSESSMENT

Learning Outcome 1: Explain how electricity works and describe electrical fundamentals.

Assessment Criteria
1.1 Define fundamental electrical terminology:
1.1.1 Matter and elements
1.1.2 Atoms
1.1.2.1 Neutron
1.1.2.2 Proton
1.1.2.3 Electron
1.1.3 Explain positively charged and negatively charged atoms
1.1.4 Electrical energy
1.1.5 Define charges and electrostatic field
1.2 Explain electrical terms:
1.2.1 Potential difference
1.2.1.1 Voltage
1.2.1.2 Counter EMF (back EMF)
1.2.2 Coulomb
1.2.3 Current
1.2.3.1 Conventional versus Electron flow
1.2.4 Resistance
1.2.4.1 Physical dimension of materials
1.2.4.2 Measurement of resistance
1.2.4.3 Length
1.2.4.4 Width
1.2.4.5 Temperature
1.2.5 Farad
1.2.6 Hertz
1.3 Explain electrical circuits
1.3.1 Interconnecting path
1.3.2 Kirchoffs Law of current
1.3.3 Kirchoffs Law of voltage
1.3.4 Ohms Law
1.3.5 Conductors
1.3.5.1 Conductivity of differing materials
1.3.6 Insulators
1.3.6.1 Insulating effect of differing materials
1.3.7 Semiconductors

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 3


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS K NOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ASSESSMENT

1.4 Describe the construction of different types of magnets


1.4.1 Natural
1.4.2 Artificial
1.4.3 Electromagnets
1.5 Explain magnetic terminology
1.5.1 Poles
1.5.2 Magnetic fields
1.5.3 Lines of force
1.5.4 Magnetic flux
1.5.5 Magnetic force
1.6 Explain electromagnetic induction
1.6.1 Basic concepts
1.6.2 Strength of induction
1.6.2.1 Strength of magnetic field
1.6.2.2 Speed and motion
1.6.2.3 Number of conductors
1.6.3 Voltage induction
1.6.3.1 Generated voltage
1.6.3.2 Self-induction
1.6.3.3 Mutual induction.

Learning Outcome 2: Identify and explain the function of basic electrical components.

Assessment Criteria
2.1 Identify and explain the function of basic electrical components:
2.1.1 Wire
2.1.1.1 Solid
2.1.1.2 Fusible links
2.1.1.3 Stranded
2.1.1.4 Twisted/shielded cable
2.1.1.5 Wire gauge
2.2 Wiring harness
2.2.1 Connectors
2.2.1.1 Purpose
2.2.1.2 General Service
2.2.1.3 Plating
2.2.1.4 Contaminants
2.2.1.5 Vehicular Environmental (VE) connectors
2.2.1.6 Sure-seal connectors
2.2.1.7 Deutsch Connectors
2.2.1.8 Caterpillar Environmental Connectors (CE)

APLTCL024

4 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS K NOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ASSESSMENT

2.2.2 Terminals
2.2.2.1 Slide
2.2.2.2 Bullet
2.2.2.3 Crimp and soldered
2.2.2.4 Install a solderless connection
2.2.3 Switches
2.2.3.1 Single pole, single throw
2.2.3.2 Single pole, double throw
2.2.3.3 Double pole, single throw
2.2.3.4 Double pole, double throw
2.2.3.5 Common Switches
Toggle
Rotary
Rocker
Push-on
Pressure
Magnetic
Key start
Limit
Cut-out
2.2.4 Circuit protectors
2.2.4.1 Fuses
Blade
Cartridge
Ceramic
In-line
2.2.4.2 Fusible link
2.2.4.3 Circuit breakers
Cycling
Non-cycling
2.2.5 Relays
2.2.6 Solenoids
2.2.7 Resistors
2.2.7.1 Fixed resistors
2.2.7.2 Wattage
2.2.7.3 Rating
2.2.7.4 Variable resistors
2.2.7.5 Thermistors
2.2.7.6 Failed resistors
2.2.8 Capacitor
2.2.8.1 Energy storage
2.2.8.2 Smoothing
2.2.8.3 Suppression
2.2.8.4 Capacitor measurement

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 5


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS K NOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ASSESSMENT

2.2.9 Lamps
2.2.9.1 Types of bulbs
Common
Festoon
Panel
Sealed beams
Prefocus bulbs
Quartz halogen bulbs
Precautions fitting quartz halogen bulbs
2.2.9.2 Bulb wattage
2.2.9.3 Candlepower
2.2.10 Instruments
2.2.10.1 Mechanical
2.2.10.2 Magnetic operation
2.2.10.3 Thermal operation
2.2.10.4 Digital electronic
2.2.10.5 Indicators and warning lights.

Learning Outcome 3: Describe the operation of a basic electrical circuit.

Assessment Criteria
3.1 Describe the construction of a basic electrical circuit
3.1.1 Power source
3.1.2 Protection device (fuse or circuit breaker)
3.1.3 Load
3.1.4 Control device (switch)
3.1.5 Conductors
3.2 Explain the general rules of Ohms Law
3.2.1 Ohms Law equation
3.2.2 Ohms Law solving circle
3.2.2.1 Voltage unknown
3.2.2.2 Resistance unknown
3.2.2.3 Current unknown
3.3 Define metric prefixes used in electrical circuits
3.3.1 Base units
3.3.1.1 Volts
3.3.1.2 Ohms
3.3.1.3 Amperes
3.3.2 Prefixes
3.3.2.1 Mega
3.3.2.2 Kilo
3.3.2.3 Milli
3.3.2.4 Micro

APLTCL024

6 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS K NOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ASSESSMENT

3.4 Calculate power in a circuit using Watts Law


3.4.1 What is power
3.4.2 Calculate power
3.5 Explain basic circuit theory
3.5.1 Series circuit
3.5.1.1 Applying Ohms Law
3.5.2 Parallel circuit
3.5.2.1 Applying Ohms Law
3.5.3 Series-parallel circuit
3.5.3.1 Applying Ohms Law.

Learning Outcome 4: Interpret basic electrical schematics.

Assessment Criteria
4.1 Identify component symbols in an electrical schematic
4.1.1 Battery
4.1.2 Ground
4.1.3 Wire
4.1.4 Connectors
4.1.5 Switches
4.1.5.1 Connect/disconnect
4.1.5.2 Toggle
4.1.5.3 Temperature
4.1.5.4 Pressure
4.1.6 Circuit protection
4.1.6.1 Fuses
4.1.6.2 Fusible links
4.1.6.3 Circuit breakers
4.1.7 Relays
4.1.8 Solenoids
4.1.9 Transistor
4.1.10 Resistors
4.1.11 Rheostat
4.1.12 Potentiometer
4.1.13 Alternator
4.1.14 Starter
4.1.15 Motor
4.1.16 Lamps
4.1.17 Gauges

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 7


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS K NOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ASSESSMENT

4.2 Identify electrical schematic features


4.2.1 Colour codes for circuit identification
4.2.2 Colour abbreviation codes
4.2.3 Symbol description
4.2.4 Wiring harness information
4.2.5 Schematic notes and conditions
4.2.6 Grid design for component location
4.2.7 Component part numbers
4.2.8 Dashed coloured lines
4.2.9 Heavy double dashed lines
4.2.10 Thin black dashed line
4.2.11 Machine electrical schematics for old and new format
4.2.12 Features on the back of the schematic.

Learning Outcome 5: Identify electrical measurements using a Digital Multimeter.

Assessment Criteria
5.1 Identify the main parts of a Digital Multimeter
5.1.1 Liquid crystal display
5.1.2 Push buttons
5.1.3 Rotary switch
5.1.4 Meter lead inputs
5.1.5 Overload display indicator
5.2 Measure AC/DC Voltage using a Digital Multimeter
5.2.1 Voltmeter must always be connected in parallel
5.2.2 Circuit is on
5.2.3 Position of leads in the multimeter
5.2.4 Rotary switch
5.2.5 Position of leads in the circuit
5.3 Measure voltage drop using a Digital Multimeter
5.3.1 Source voltage
5.3.2 Closed switch contacts
5.3.3 Circuit under power
5.4 Measure AC/DC Current using a Digital Multimeter
5.4.1 Voltmeter must always be connected in series
5.4.2 Burden voltage
5.4.3 Rotary switch
5.4.4 Position of leads in the multimeter
5.4.4.1 Initial placement to determine current output
5.4.4.2 Buffer
5.4.5 Create an open circuit
5.4.6 Position of leads in the circuit
5.4.7 Apply power to circuit

APLTCL024

8 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS K NOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ASSESSMENT

5.5 Measure resistance using a Digital Multimeter


5.5.1 Turn off circuit power
5.5.2 Discharge all capacitors
5.5.3 Isolate the circuit
5.5.4 Test lead resistance
5.5.5 Position of leads in multimeter
5.5.6 Rotary switch
5.5.7 Position of leads in the circuit or on component.

Learning Outcome 6: Identify faults in an electrical circuit.

Assessment Criteria
6.1 Identify various faults that may occur in an electrical circuit
6.1.1 Open circuit
6.1.2 Short circuit
6.1.3 Grounded circuit
6.1.4 High resistance
6.1.5 Intermittent condition.

Learning Outcome 7: Identify soldering techniques on electrical equipment.

Assessment Criteria
7.1 Identify personal safety precautions when soldering.
7.2 Explain the properties of solder
7.2.1 Types
7.2.2 Wetting action
7.2.3 Flux
7.3 Identify types of soldering irons used to solder electrical
components
7.3.1 Controlling heat
7.3.2 Thermal mass
7.3.3 Surface condition
7.3.4 Thermal linkage
7.4 Identify the requirements for applying solder
7.4.1 Applying solder
7.4.2 Post solder cleaning
7.4.3 Resoldering
7.4.4 Quality of work
7.5 Identify the need for wire preparation when soldering electrical
connections
7.5.1 Stripping away insulation
7.5.2 Nicks, breaks and cuts
7.5.3 Discolouration
7.5.4 Tinning.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 9


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS K NOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ASSESSMENT

Learning Outcome 8: Perform electrical measurements using a digital multimeter and


repair faults to an electrical circuit.
Assessment Criteria
8.1 State and follow the safety precautions that must be observed
to prevent personal injury or damage to equipment
8.2 Identify and state the purpose of the parts of a digital
multimeter
8.2.1 Liquid crystal display (LCD)
8.2.2 Push buttons
8.2.3 Rotary switch
8.2.4 Test lead jacks
8.3 Explain how to read the scales and connect the leads to a
digital multimeter
8.3.1 For measuring AC/DC voltage
8.3.2 For measuring voltage drop
8.3.3 For measuring direct current
8.3.4 For measuring resistance
8.4 Connect a multimeter to an operating electrical circuit,
measure electrical values and determine repair action
8.4.1 AC/DC voltage
8.4.2 Voltage drop
8.4.3 Direct current
8.4.4 Resistance
8.4.5 Open circuit
8.4.6 Short circuit
8.4.7 Faulty ground
8.5 Conduct minor repairs on an electrical circuit
8.5.1 Fuse replacement
8.5.2 Bulb replacement
8.5.3 Terminal and wire repairs
8.5.4 Open, short circuits and faulty ground
8.6 Facilitators are to ensure that the tasks are completed
8.6.1 Without causing damage to components or equipment
8.6.2 Using appropriate tooling, techniques and materials
8.6.3 According to industry/enterprise guidelines, procedures
and policies
8.6.4 Using and interpreting correct information from the
manufacturers specifications.

APLTCL024

10 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

TABLE OF C ONTENTS

TOPIC 1: Electrical Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13


Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Electrical Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Electrical Circuits and Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Magnetic Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Electromagnetic Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

TOPIC 2: Electrical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31


Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Install a Solderless Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Circuit Protectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Lamp Bulbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

TOPIC 3: Electrical Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69


Basic Circuit Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Metric Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Basic Circuit Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

TOPIC 4: Electrical Schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83


Schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

TOPIC 5: Digital Multimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87


Introduction to Digital Multimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

TOPIC 6: Circuit Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97


Circuit Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

TOPIC 7: Soldering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101


Soldering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Properties of Solder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Procedure Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 11


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS TABLE OF CONTENTS

APLTCL024

12 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

TOPIC 1
Electrical Fundamentals

FUNDAMENTALS

Electricity

Figure 1

What is electricity? It is said that flashlights, electric drills, motors, etc. are generally
recognised as electric. However, computers and televisions are often referred to as
electronic. What is the difference? Anything that works with electricity is electric,
including both flashlights and electric drills, but not all electric components are
electronic. The term electronic refers to semiconductor devices known as electron
devices. Electron devices are named as such because they depend on the flow of
electrons for their operation.

To better understand electricity, it is necessary to have a basic knowledge of the


fundamental atomic structure of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies
space. It can take several forms, or states, such as the three common forms; being
solid, liquid and gas.

This module will provide a basic understanding of the theoretical principles needed
before studying and working with electrical circuits and components.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 13


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Matter and Elements


Matter is anything that takes up space and, when subjected to gravity, has weight.
Matter consists of extremely tiny particles grouped together to form atoms. There are
approximately 100 different naturally occurring atoms called elements. An element is
defined as a substance that cannot be decomposed any further by chemical action.
Examples of natural elements are copper, lead, iron, gold and silver.

Other elements (approximately 14) have been produced in the laboratory. Elements
can only be changed by an atomic or nuclear reaction. However, they can be
combined to make the countless number of compounds which we experience every
day. The atom is the smallest particle of an element that still has the same
characteristics as the element. Atom is the Greek word meaning a particle too small
to be subdivided.

Atoms
Although an atom cannot be seen, its hypothetical structure fits experimental evidence
that can be measured very accurately. The size and electric charge of the invisible
particles in an atom are indicated by how much they are deflected by known forces.
The present solar system model, with the sun at its centre and the planets rotating
around it was proposed by Niels Bohr in 1913 and known as the Atomic Model.

Figure 2 - Atom

The centre of an atom (Figure 2) is called the nucleus and is composed of particles
called protons and neutrons. Orbiting around every nucleus are small particles called
electrons, which are much smaller in mass than either the proton or neutron.
Normally, an atom has an equal number of protons and electrons. The number of
protons or electrons indicates the atomic number. The atomic weight of an element
is the total of protons and neutrons.

APLTCL024

14 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Figure 3 - Neutron, Proton, Electron.

Figure 3 shows the structure of two of the simpler atoms:


Hydrogen contains 1 proton in its nucleus balanced by 1 electron in its orbit or shell.
The atomic number for a hydrogen atom is 1 and its atomic weight is 1 (1 proton).
Helium has 2 protons in its nucleus balanced by 2 electrons in orbit. The atomic
number for helium is 2 and its atomic weight would be 4 (2 protons + 2 neutrons).

Scientists have discovered many particles in an atom, but for the purpose of
explaining basic electricity, just three need discussion: electrons, protons and
neutrons. An atom of copper is to be used as an example.

Figure 4 - Copper Atom

The nucleus of the atom is not much bigger than an electron, so their size cannot
really be determined. In the copper atom (Figure 4), the nucleus contains 29 protons
(+) and 35 neutrons and has 29 electrons (-) orbiting the nucleus. The atomic number
of the copper atom is 29 and the atomic weight is 64.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 15


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Electron Flow

Figure 5

If a length of copper wire is connected to a positive and negative source, such as a


battery (Figure 5), an electron (-) is forced out of orbit and attracted to the positive (+)
end of the battery. The atom is now positively (+) charged because it now has a
deficiency of electrons (-). It in turn attracts an electron from its neighbour. The
neighbour in turn receives an electron from the next atom, and so on until the last
copper atom receives an electron from the negative end of the battery.

The result of this chain reaction is that the electrons move through the battery from
the negative end to the positive end of the battery. The flow of electrons continues as
long as the positive and negative charges from the battery are maintained at each
end of the wire.

Electrical Energy
There are two types of forces at work in every atom. Under normal circumstances,
these two forces are in balance. The protons and electrons exert forces on one
another, over and above gravitational or centrifugal forces. It has been determined
that besides mass, electrons and protons carry an electric charge, and these
additional forces are attributed to the electric charge that they carry. However, there is
a difference in the forces. Between masses, the gravitational force is always one of
attraction while the electrical forces both attract and repel. Protons and electrons
attract one another, while protons exert forces of repulsion on other protons, and
electrons exert repulsion on other electrons.

Figure 6 - Force between charges

Thus, It appears to be two kinds of electrical charge. Protons are said to be positive
(+) and the electrons are said to be negative (-). The neutron as the name implies, is
neutral in charge. The directional quality of the electricity, based on the type of
charge, is called polarity. This leads to the basic law of electrostatics which states:

LIKE charges repel each other and UNLIKE charges attract each other (Figure 6).

APLTCL024

16 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Charges and Electrostatics

Figure 7 - Electrostatic field between two charged bodies

The attraction or repulsion of electrically charged bodies is due to an invisible force


called an electrostatic field, which surrounds the charged body. Figure 7 shows the
force between charged particles as imaginary electrostatic lines from the positive
charge to the negative charge. The conventional method of representing the lines of
force is for the arrowheads to point from the positive charge toward the
negative charge.

Figure 8 - Electrostatic field between two negatively charged particles

When two like charges are placed near each other, the lines of force repel each other
as shown in Figure 8.

ELECTRICAL TERMS

Potential Difference
Because of the force of its electrostatic field, an electric charge has the ability to move
another charge by attraction or repulsion. The ability to attract or repel is called its
potential. When one charge is different from the other, there must be a difference in
potential between them.

The sum difference of potential of all charges in the electrostatic field is referred to as
electromotive force (EMF). The basic unit of potential difference is the Volt (E)
named in honour of Alessandro Volta, an Italian scientist and the inventor of the
Voltaic Pile, the first battery cell. The symbol for potential is V, indicating the ability to
do the work of forcing electrons to move. Because the Volt unit is used, potential
difference is called voltage. There are many ways to produce voltage, including
friction, solar, chemical, and electromagnetic induction. The attraction of paper to a
comb that has been rubbed with a wool cloth is an example of voltage produced by
friction. A photocell, such as on a calculator, would be an example of producing
voltage from solar energy.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 17


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Counter EMF
Magnetic lines of force radiate out from a wire in concentric circles. This process is
caused by the current flowing in the wire, producing a magnetic field. In a straight wire
these lines of force have little effect since they do not cross any other conductor. If the
wire is formed into a coil, the lines of force self-induct back into the wire (self-
induction). This induced voltage is called back EMF or counter EMF. This is summed
up by the following law known as Lenzs law:

The polarity of the induced EMF is opposite to and opposes the change that create it.

Coulomb
A need existed to develop a unit of measurement for electrical charge. A French
scientist named Charles Coulomb investigated the law of forces between charged
bodies and adopted a unit of measurement called the Coulomb. Written in scientific
notation, one Coulomb = 6.28 x 10 18 electrons or protons. Stated in simpler terms, in
a copper conductor, one ampere is an electric current of 6.28 billion electrons passing
a certain point in the conductor in one second (motion).

Current

Figure 9 - Current Flow

In electrostatic theories, as discussed earlier, the concern was mainly the forces
between the charges. Another theory that needs explaining is that of motion in a
conductor. The motion of charges in a conductor is defined as an electric
current (Figure 9).

An electrostatic field will affect an electron in the same manner as any negatively
charged body. It is repelled by a negative charge and attracted by a positive charge.
The drift of electrons or movement constitutes an electric current.

The magnitude or intensity of current is measured in Amperes. The unit symbol is


I. An ampere is a measure of the rate at which a charge is moved through a
conductor. One ampere is a coulomb of charge moving past a point in one second.

APLTCL024

18 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Conventional Versus Electron Flow

Figure 10 - Electron and Conventional Current

There are two ways to describe an electric current flowing through a conductor. Prior
to the use of atomic theory to explain the composition of matter, scientists defined
current as the motion of positive charges in a conductor from a point of positive
polarity to a point of negative polarity. This conclusion is still widely held in some
engineering standards and textbooks. Some examples of positive charges in motion
are applications of current in liquids, gases and semi conductors. This theory of
current flow has been termed conventional current (Figure 10).

With the application of atomic theory, it was determined that current flow through a
conductor was based on the flow of electrons (-) or negative charge. Therefore,
electron current is in the opposite direction of conventional current and is termed
electron current (Figure 10).

Either theory can be used, but the more popular conventional theory describing current
as flowing from a positive (+) charge to a negative (-) charge will be used in this module.

Resistance
George Simon Ohm discovered that for a fixed voltage, the amount of current flowing
through a material depends on the type and physical dimensions of the material. All
materials present some resistance to the flow of electrons. If the opposition is small,
the material is a conductor, if the opposition is large, it is an insulator.

The Ohm is the unit of electrical resistance and the Greek letter omega () is its
symbol. A material has a resistance of one Ohm if a potential of one Volt results in a
current of one Ampere.

Electrical resistance is present in every electrical circuit, components, wires and


connections. As resistance opposes current flow, it changes electrical energy into
other forms of energy, such as heat, light or motion. The resistance of a conductor is
determined by four factors:

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 19


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Figure 11 - Atomic Structure

1. Atomic structure (free electrons). The more free electrons a material has, the
less resistance it offers to current flow (Figure 11).

Figure 12 - Resistance

2. Length. The longer a conductor of the same width, the higher the resistance. If a
length of wire is doubled (Figure 12) the greater the resistance between the two ends.

Figure 13

3. Width (cross sectional area). The larger the cross sectional area of a conductor,
the lower the resistance (a bigger diameter pipe allows for more water to flow).
Halving the cross section (Figure 13), doubles the resistance for any given length.

APLTCL024

20 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Figure 14

4. Temperature. For most materials, the higher the temperature, the higher the
resistance. The chart shown in Figure 14 shows the resistance increasing as
the temperature rises.

Farad
The ability of a capacitor to store electrons is known as capacitance. Capacitance is
measures in farads (named after Michael Faraday, the discoverer of the principle).
One farad in the ability to store 6.28 billion electrons at a 1-Volt charge differential.
Most capacitors have much less capacitance than this, so they are rated in picofarads
(trillionths of a farad) and microfarads (millionths of a farad).

1 farad = 1F

1 microfarad = 1F = 0.000001F

1 picofarad = 1F = 0.000000000001F.

Hertz
Alternators produce alternating current which cycles between positive & negative.

The number of cycles per second is called frequency and is measured in Hertz.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 21


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND LAWS

Figure 15

An electrical circuit is a path, or group of interconnecting paths, capable of carrying electrical


current. It is a closed path (closed circuit) that contains a voltage source or sources.

There are two basic types of electrical circuits, series and parallel (Figure 15). The
basic series and parallel circuits may be combined to form more complex circuits, but
these combined circuits may be simplified and analysed as the two basic types.

Laws
It is important to understand the laws needed to analyse and diagnose electrical
circuits. They are Kirchoffs Laws and Ohms Law.

Gustav Kirchoff developed two laws for analysing circuits. They are stated as:

1. Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL) states that the algebraic sum of the currents at any
junction in an electrical circuit is equal to zero. Simply stated, all the current that
enters a junction is equal to all the current that leaves the junction. None is lost.

2. Kirchoffs Voltage Law (KVL) states that the algebraic sum of the electromotive
forces and voltage drops around any closed electrical loop is zero. Simply stated,
at a particular point in a closed circuit and going around that circuit, adding all
the individual differences in potential, until the starting point was reached, there
would be no extra voltage, and none would be left unaccounted for.
George Simon Ohm discovered the relationship between three electrical
parameters - voltage, current and resistance as follows:

The current in an electrical circuit is directly proportional


to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance.

The relationship can be summarised by a single mathematical equation:


Electromotive Force
Current = ----------------------------------------------------------------
Resis tan ce
or stated in electrical units:
Volts
Amperes = ----------------
-
Ohms
When using mathematical equations to express electrical relationships, single letters
are used to represent them. Resistance is represented by the letter R or the Omega
symbol ( ), voltage is represented by the letter E (electromotive force) and current is
represented by the letter I (intensity of charge).

OHMS law is covered in more detail in Topic 3, Electrical Circuits.

APLTCL024

22 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Electrical Conductors
In electrical applications, electrons travel along a path called a conductor or wire. They
move by travelling from atom to atom. Some materials make it easier for electrons to
travel and they are called good conductors. Examples of good conductors are silver,
copper, gold, chromium, aluminium and tungsten. A material is said to be a good
conductor if it has many free electrons. The amount of electrical pressure or voltage it
takes to move electrons through a material depends on how free its electrons are.

Although silver is the best conductor it is also expensive. Gold is also a good
conductor, and will not corrode like copper but again, is too expensive. Aluminium is
less expensive and lighter, but not as good as a conductor as copper.

Conductor Conductivity (to copper)

Silver 1.064

Copper 1.000

Gold 0.707

Aluminium 0.659

Zinc 0.288

Brass 0.243

Iron 0.178

Tin 0.018

Table 1 - Conductivity Chart

The conductivity of a material determines how good a conductor that material is. Table
1 shows some of the common conductors and their relative conductivity to copper.

Electrical Insulators
Other materials make it difficult for electrons to travel and they are called insulators.
A good insulator keeps the electrons tightly bound in orbit.

Examples of insulators are rubber, wood, plastics, and ceramics. However, it is


possible to make an electric current flow through all materials. If the applied voltage is
high enough, even the best insulators will break down and allow current flow.

Rubber Plastics

Mica Glass

Wax or Paraffin Fibreglass

Porcelain Dry Wood

Bakelite Air

Table 2 - Common Insulators

Table 2 lists some of the more common insulators.

There is another item that should be considered when discussing insulators. Dirt and
moisture may serve to conduct electricity around an insulator. If an insulator is dirty or
there is moisture present, it could cause a problem. The insulator itself is not breaking
down, but the dirt or moisture can provide a path for electrons to flow. It is therefore
important to keep the insulators and contacts clean.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 23


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Semi-conductors
Materials which are neither good conductors nor good insulators are known as semi-
conductors. Example of these materials (elements) are Germanium & Silicon. Semi-
conductors will normally act as inductors, however, they will conduct under certain
conditions, such as when an electrical current is applied to them. These materials are
the basis for electronic devices discussed in the electronic module.

MAGNETISM

Figure 16 - Magnet

Magnetism is another form of force that causes electron flow or current. A basic
understanding of magnetism is also necessary to study electricity. Magnetism
provides a link between mechanical energy and electricity. By the use of magnetism,
an alternator converts some of the mechanical power developed by an engine to
electromotive force (EMF). Conversely, magnetism allows a starter motor to convert
electrical energy from a battery into mechanical energy for cranking the engine.

Most electrical equipment depends directly or indirectly upon magnetism. Although


there are a few electrical devices that do not use magnetism, the majority of our
systems, as known today, would not exist.

There are three basic types of magnets:


Natural
Artificial Magnets (Figure 16)
Electromagnets.

Natural Magnets
The Chinese discovered magnets about 2637 BC. The magnets used in the primitive
compasses are called lodestones, and they were crude pieces of iron ore known as
magnetite. Since magnetite has magnetic properties in its natural state, lodestones
are classified as natural magnets.

APLTCL024

24 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Artificial Magnets
Artificial Magnets are man-made magnets and are typically produced in the form of
metal bars that have been subjected to very strong magnetic fields.

Electromagnets
A Danish scientist, named Oersted, discovered a relation between magnetism and
electric current. He discovered that an electric current flowing through a conductor
produced a magnetic field around the conductor. From this, electromagnets can be
used in various applications where switching the flow of electricity on or off will
produce a magnetic field.

MAGNETIC TERMINOLOGY

Poles and Fields

Figure 17 - Field Force around a magnet

Every magnet has two points opposite each other that most readily attract pieces of
iron. These points are called the poles of the magnet: the north pole and the south
pole. Just as electric charges repel each other and opposite charges attract each
other, like magnetic poles repel each other and unlike poles attract each other.

A magnet clearly attracts a bit of iron because of forces that exists around the magnet.
This force is called magnetic field.

Although it is invisible to the naked eye, sprinkling small iron filings on a sheet of glass
or paper over a bar magnet can show its force lines.

In Figure 17 a piece of glass is placed over a magnet and iron filing are sprinkled on
the glass. When the glass cover is gently tapped the filings will move into a definite
pattern which shows the field force around the magnet.

The field seems to be made up of lines of force that appear to leave the magnet at the
north pole, travel through the air around the magnet, and continue through the magnet
to the south pole to form a closed loop of force. The stronger the magnet the greater
the lines of force and the larger the area covered by the magnetic field.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 25


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Lines of Force

Figure 18 - Lines of Force

To better visualise the magnetic field without iron filings, the field is shown as lines of
force in Figure 18. The direction of the lines outside the magnet shows the path a
north pole would follow in the field, repelled away from the north pole of the magnet
and attracted to its south pole. Inside the magnet, which is the generator for the
magnetic field, the lines are from north pole to south pole.

Lines of Magnetic Flux


The entire group of magnetic field lines, which can be considered to flow outward
from the north pole of a magnet, is called magnetic flux. The flux density is the
number of magnetic field lines per unit of a section perpendicular to the direction of
flux. The unit is lines per square centimetre in the metric system or lines per square
inch in the English system. One line per square centimetre is called a gauss.

Magnetic Force

Figure 19 - Lines of small magnetic circles

Magnetic lines of force pass through all materials; there is no known insulator against
magnetism. However, flux lines pass more easily through materials that can be magnetised
than through those that cannot. Materials that do not readily pass flux lines are said to have
high magnetic reluctance. Air has high reluctance; iron has low reluctance.

An electric current flowing through a wire creates magnetic lines of force around the
wire. Figure 19 shows lines of small magnetic circles forming around the wire.
Because such flux lines are circular, the magnetic field has no north or south pole.

Figure 20 - Circular Fields

However, if the wire is wound onto a coil, individual circular fields merge. The result is
a unified magnetic field with north and south poles as shown in Figure 20.

APLTCL024

26 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

As long as current flows through the wire, it behaves just like a bar magnet. The
electromagnetic field remains as long as current flows through the wire. However, the
field produced on a straight wire does not have enough magnetism to do work. To
strengthen the electromagnetic field, the wire can be formed into a coil. The magnetic
strength of an electromagnet is proportional to the number of turns of wire in the coil
and the current flowing through the wire. If the coils are wound around a metal core,
e.g. iron, the magnetic force strengthens considerably.

Types of electromagnets typically used in mobile machines are relays and solenoids.
Both operate on the electromagnetic principle, but function differently.

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

Figure 21 - Electromagnetic Induction

The effect of creating a magnetic field with current has an opposite condition. It is also
possible to create current with a magnetic field by inducing a voltage in the
conductor. This process is known as electromagnetic induction (Figure 21). This
occurs when the flux lines of a magnetic field cut across a wire (or any conductor).
When there is relative motion between the wire and the magnetic field (whether the
magnetic field moves or the wire moves), a voltage is induced in the conductor. The
induced voltage causes a current to flow. When the motion stops, the current stops. If
a wire is passed through a magnetic field, such as a wire moving across the magnetic
fields of a horseshoe magnet, voltage is induced.

If the wire is wound into a coil, the voltage induced strengthens. This method is the
operating principle used in speed sensors, generators, and alternators. In some cases
the wire is stationary and the magnet moves. In other cases, the magnet is stationary
and the field windings (wires) move.

Movement in the opposite direction causes current to flow in the opposite direction.
Therefore, back and forth motion produces Alternating Current (AC).

In practical applications, multiple conductors are wound into a coil. This concentrates the
effects of electromagnetic induction and makes it possible to generate useful electrical
power with a relatively compact device. In a generator, the coil moves and the magnetic
field is stationary. In an alternator, the magnetic field is rotated inside a stationary coil.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 27


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

The strength of an induced voltage depends on several factors:


The strength of the magnetic field
The speed of the relative motion between the field and the coil
The numbers of conductors in the coil.

There are three ways in which a voltage can be induced by electromagnetic induction:
Generated Voltage
Self-Induction
Mutual Induction.

Generated Voltage

Figure 22 - DC Generator

A simple Direct Current (DC) generator in Figure 22 shows a moving conductor


passing a stationary magnetic field to produce voltage and current. A single loop of
wire is rotating between the north and south poles of a magnetic field.

Self-Induction

Figure 23 - Self-Induction

Self-induction occurs in a wire when the current flowing through the wire changes.
Current flowing through the wire creates a magnetic field that builds up and collapses
as the current changes up and down. A voltage is thereby induced in the core.
Figure 23 shows self-induction in a coil.

APLTCL024

28 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Mutual Induction

Figure 24 - Mutual Induction

Mutual induction occurs when the changing current in one coil induces a voltage
in an adjacent coil. A transformer is an example of mutual induction. Figure 24
shows two inductors that are relatively close to each other. When AC current
flows through coil L1 a magnetic field cuts through coil L2 inducing a voltage and
producing current flow in coil L2.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 29


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

APLTCL024

30 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

TOPIC 2
Electrical Components

WIRE

Types of Wire

Figure 25

Wires are the conductors for electrical circuits. Wires are also called leads. Most wires
are stranded (made up of several smaller wires that are wrapped together and covered
by a common insulating sheath) (Figure 25).

There are many types of wires found in automotive applications, including:


Copper.
The most common type. Copper wires can be single, however are usually stranded.
Fusible Links.
There are circuit protection devices that are made of a smaller wire than the rest
of the circuit their purpose is to protect against overload.
Twisted/Shielded Cable.
A pair of small gauge wires, normally stranded, insulated against Radio Frequencies
Interference/Electro Magnetic Interference, used for computer communication
signals, electronic control modules and other electronic components.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 31


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Wire Gauge
In the USA, electrical and electronic circuits are engineered with specific size and
length conductors to provide paths for current flow. The size of a wire determines how
much current it can carry.

Wire sizes can be rated in two different ways:


according to American Wire Gage (AWG) size (usually referred to as simply the
gauge of the wire)
by metric size.

Resistance
AWG No (inch) (mm) (mm2) (Ohm/m)

4/0 = 0000 0.460 11.7 107 0.000161

3/0 = 000 0.410 10.4 85.0 0.000203

2/0 = 00 0.365 9.26 67.4 0.000256

1/0 = 0 0.325 8.25 53.5 0.000323

1 0.289 7.35 42.4 0.000407

2 0.258 6.54 33.6 0.000513

3 0.229 5.83 26.7 0.000647

4 0.204 5.19 21.1 0.000815

5 0.182 4.62 16.8 0.00103

6 0.162 4.11 13.3 0.00130

7 0.144 3.66 10.5 0.00163

8 0.128 3.26 8.36 0.00206

9 0.114 2.91 6.63 0.00260

10 0.102 2.59 5.26 0.00328

Table 3 - AWG to Metric Conversion Chart

When repairing or replacing machine wiring it is necessary to use the correct size and length
conductors. The chart above illustrates the typical resistances for various size conductors.

APLTCL024

32 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


APLTCL024
Cross Cross Resistance Nearest Resistance *Max. Recom-
American (/1000 ft @ Standard ( /1000 mended
Section Section

NOTE:
Wire Gauge Metric Size metres @ Current
(Inch) (circular mils) 77oF)
(AWG) (mm2) 25oC Amps)

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


22 0.0005 642 16.5 0.35 50 7

20 0.0008 1,020 10.4 0.5 36 11

- - - - 0.75 21 12

18 0.00127 1,620 6051 1 18 13

16 0.00203 2,580 4.09 105 12.3 15

Table 4

and larger gauge numbers denote smaller sizes.


14 0.00323 4,110 2.58 2.5 7.3 20

Regard PVC insulated wire as a 185oF (85oC) product.


12 0.00817 6,530 1.62 4 4.4 24

10 0.00817 10,400 1.02 6 3.2 32

8 0.01296 16,500 0.64 10 1.75 59

6 0.0203 26,300 0.4 16 1.1 87

Table 4 therefore assumes a maximum ambient temperature of 150 oF (65oC).


*Based on 36oF (20oC) maximum temperature rise above ambient.

When using the AWG, remember that smaller gauge numbers denote larger wire sizes,
ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

33
ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Wiring Harness
Many wires are bound together in groups with one or more common connectors on
each end. These groups are called wire harnesses. Note that a harness may contain
wires from different circuits and systems. An example would be the harness that plugs
into the headlight switch assembly, which contains wires for parking lights, tail-lights,
and low and high-beam headlights, among others.

Figure 26

Some harness wires are enclosed in plastic or non-conductive fibre conduit


(Figure 26). These conduits are split lengthwise to allow easy access to the harness
wires. Other harness wires are wrapped in tape. Clips (plastic) and clamps (metal)
attach harnesses to the machine.

Caterpillar electrical schematics provide wire harness locations to help you easily
locate a specific harness on a machine. The features of Caterpillar electrical
schematics will be covered later.

APLTCL024

34 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

CONNECTORS

Figure 27

The purpose of a connector is to pass current from one wire to another (Figure 27). In order
to accomplish this, the connector must have two mating halves (plug or receptacle). One
half houses a pin and the other half houses a socket. When the two halves are joined,
current is allowed to pass. Connecters are used to make component disassembly easier.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 35


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

General Service Comments


With the increased use of electronic systems in automotive applications, servicing
connectors has become a critical task. With increased usage comes an increase in
maintenance on the wiring, connectors, pins and sockets. Another important factor
contributing to increased repair is the harsh environment in which the connectors operate.
Connectors must operate in extremes of heat, cold, dirt, dust, moisture and chemicals.

Figure 28 - Connectors

Pins and sockets have resistance and offer some opposition to current flow. Since
the surface of the pins and sockets are not smooth (contain peaks and valleys) a
condition known as asperity (roughness of surface) exists. When the mating
halves are connected, approximately one percent of the surfaces actually contact
each other (Figure 28).

The electrons are forced to converge at the peaks, thereby creating a resistance
between the contact halves. Although this process seems rather insignificant to the
operation of an electronic control, a resistance across the connector could create a
malfunction in electronic controls.

Plating
In order to achieve a minimum resistance in the pins and contacts, there needs to be
concern with the finish, pressure and metal used in construction of the pins and
contacts. Tin is soft enough to allow for film wiping but it has a relatively high
resistance. Copper has a low resistance but is hard. In striving for minimum resistance
and the reduction of asperity, low resistance copper contacts are often plated with tin.

Film wiping occurs when pins and contacts are plated with tin and when they are
mated together they have a tendency to wipe together and actually smooth out
some of the peaks and valleys created by the asperity condition. Other metals, such
as gold and silver are excellent plating materials, but are too costly to use.

Contaminants
Contaminants are another factor that contribute to resistance in connectors. Some harsh
conditions that employ chemicals, etc. can cause malfunctions due to increased resistance.

Technicians need to be aware that connectors can and do cause many diagnostic
problems. It may be necessary to measure the resistance between connector halves
when diagnosing electrical control malfunctions. Also, technicians need to be aware
that disconnecting and reconnecting connectors during the troubleshooting process
can give misleading diagnostic information.

APLTCL024

36 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Several types of connectors are used throughout the electrical and electronic
systems on automotive machines. Each type differs in the manner in which they
are serviced or repaired.

The following types of connectors will be discussed in detail:


Vehicular Environmental (VE) Connectors
Sure-Seal Connectors
Deutsch Connectors (HD10, DT, CE and DRC Series).

VE Connectors

Figure 29

The VE connector (Figure 29) was used primarily on earlier Caterpillar machine
electrical harnesses where high temperatures, larger number of contacts or higher
current carrying capacities were needed.

The connector required a special metal release tool for removing the contacts that
could damage the connector lock mechanism, if the tool was turned during
release of the retaining clip.

Do not use these metal release tools for any other type of electrical connector.

After crimping a wire to the contact it is recommended that the contact be


soldered to provide for a good electrical contact. Use only rosin core solder on
any electrical connection.

Specific information relating to the process required for installing VE connector


contacts (pins and sockets) is contained in Special Instruction: Use of VE Connector
Tool Group (Form SEHS8038).

This type of connector is no longer used on current product, but may still require
servicing by a field/shop technician.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 37


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Sure-Seal Connectors

Figure 30

Sure-Seal connectors are used extensively on Caterpillar machines (Figure 30).

These connector housings have provisions for accurate mating between the two
halves, but instead of using guide keys or key ways, the connector bodies are
moulded such that they will mate correctly.

Sure-Seal Connectors are limited to a capacity of 10 contacts (pins and sockets).

Part numbers for spare plug and receptacle housings and contacts are contained in
Special Instruction: Use of 6V3000 Sure-Seal Repair Kit (Form SMHS7531).

Use special tool (6V3001) for crimping contacts and stripping wires. Sure-Seal
Connectors require the use of a special tool 6V3008 for installing contacts. Use
denatured alcohol as a lubricant when installing contacts. Special tooling is not
required for removing pin contacts.

Any holes in the housings not used for contact assemblies should be filled with a 9G3695
Sealing Plug. The sealing plug will help prevent moisture from entering the housings.

APLTCL024

38 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Deutsch Heavy Duty (HD10) Series Connectors

Figure 31

The HD10 connector (see Figure 31) is a thermoplastic cylindrical connector utilizing
crimp type contacts that are quickly and easily removed. The thermoplastic shells are
available in non-threaded and threaded configurations using insert arrangements of
3, 5, 6 and 9 contacts.

The contact size is No 16 and accepts No 14, No 16 and No 18 AWG wire. The HD10
uses crimp type, solid copper alloy contacts (size No 16) that feature an ability to carry
continuous high operating current loads without overheating. The contacts are crimp
terminated using a Deutsch Crimp tool, Caterpillar part number 1U5805.

Deutsch termination procedures recommend NO SOLDERING after properly crimped


contacts are completed. The procedure for preparing a wire and crimping a contact is
the same for all Deutsch connectors and is explained in Special Instruction: Servicing
DT Connectors (SEHS9615). The removal procedure differs from connector to
connector and will be explained in each section.

Kit for Deutsch connector repair is 4C3806.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 39


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Deutsch Transportation (DT) Series Connectors

Figure 32

The DT connector (Figure 32) is a thermoplastic connector utilizing crimp type contacts
that are quickly and easily removed and require no special tooling. The thermoplastic
housings are available in configurations using insert arrangements of 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12
contacts. The contact size is No 16 and accepts No 14, No 16 and No 18 AWG wire.

The DT uses crimp type, solid copper alloy contacts (size No 16) that feature an
ability to carry continuous high operating current loads without overheating, or
stamped and formed contacts (less costly). The contacts are crimp terminated using
a Deutsch Crimp Tool, Caterpillar part number 1U5804.

The DT connector differs from other Deutsch connectors in both appearance and
construction. The DT is either rectangular or triangular shaped and contains
serviceable plug wedges, receptacle wedges and silicone seals.

The recommended cleaning solvent for all Deutsch contacts is denatured alcohol.

For a more detailed explanation on servicing the DT connector, consult Special


Instruction: Servicing DT Connectors (SEHS9615).

Kit for servicing DT connectors is Caterpillar part No 9U7246.

APLTCL024

40 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Caterpillar Environmental Connectors (CE)

Figure 33

The CE connector is a special application connector (Figure 33). The CE Series connector
can accommodate between 7 and 37 contacts, with the 37 contact connector being used
on various electronic control modules. The CE connector uses two different crimping tools.

The crimping tool for No 4 - No 10 size contacts is a 4C4075 Hand Crimp Tool
Assembly, and the tool for No 12 - No 18 contacts is the same tool as used on the
HD and DT Series connectors (1U5804).

Reference SEHS9065

8T5319 Removal Tool GP

4C4075 Crimp tool GP

1U5804 Crimp Tool GP.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 41


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Deutsch Rectangular Connector (DRC)

Figure 34

The DRC connector (Figure 34) features a rectangular thermoplastic housing and is
completely environmentally sealed. The DRC is best suited to be compatible with
external and internal electronic control modules.

The connector is designed with a higher number of terminals. The insert


arrangements available are: 24, 40 and 70 contact terminations. The contact size is
No 16 and accepts No 16 and No 18 AWG wire.

The connector uses crimp type, copper alloy contacts (size No 16) that feature an
ability to carry continuous high operating current loads without overheating or
stamped and formed contacts (less costly). The contacts are crimp terminated using
a Deutsch Crimp Tool, Caterpillar part number 1U5805.

The connector contains a clocking key for correct orientation and is properly secured by
a stainless steel jackscrew. A 4mm (5/32in) HEX wrench is required to mate the connector
halves. The recommended torque for tightening the jackscrew is 25in pounds.

NOTE:
The DRC uses the same installation and removal procedures as the HD10 series.

APLTCL024

42 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

TERMINALS

Figure 35 Examples of wire terminals

(a) slide-type crimp terminals (c) crimp and soldered terminals.


(b) bullet connector

There are a number of different types of terminals used. Some terminals, are shown in
Figure 35. Most terminals, whether they are original or a replacement, are crimped or
swaged to the copper wire of the conductor, but some can be soldered.

Figure 36 - Terminal Crimp Tool Set

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 43


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

INSTALL A SOLDERLESS CONNECTION


When stripping an electrical wire and joining a solderless connector, the following
points are to be considered.

Safety Check
Never use a sharp blade or knife to remove insulation. A sharp blade may cut
through the wire completely or may cause personal injury.
Wire stripping pliers have sharp edges and require a tight grip. Be careful not to
trap your skin between the jaws.
When removing the insulation from wire, push away rather than towards the body.

Points to Note
Electrical wire used in automotive wiring harnesses is covered by an insulating
layer of plastic.
When electrical wire is joined to other wires or connected to a terminal, the
insulation needs to be removed.
Wire stripping tools come in various configurations. They all perform the same
task. The type of tool used will depend on the amount and type of electrical wire
to be repaired.
Solderless terminals require a clean, tight connection, so ensure the wire and the
connection are clean before fitting any terminals.
Use connections that match the size of the wire.
Do not use side cutters, pliers or a knife to strip the wire. Using these tools will
damage some of the wire strands and may break the wire inside the insulation.
To keep the wires together after stripping them, give them a slight twist. Do not twist
the wire too much, otherwise a risk of poor wire-to-terminal connection may occur.
Use the correct crimpling tool for the connection. Using the wrong type of tool will
cause the connection to have a poor grip on the wire.

1. Select the Terminal

Figure 37

There are different types and sizes of wire terminals, but the procedure for installing
all of them is the same.

This is a bullet type of crimp terminal (Figure 37).

APLTCL024

44 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Figure 38

Make sure that the correct size of terminal for the wire is selected and that the terminal
has the correct volt/amp rating for the job it will perform (Figure 38).

2. Strip the Wire

Figure 39

Remove an appropriate amount of the protective insulation from the wire (Figure 39).
Always use a proper stripping tool that is in good condition.

3. Always Use a Proper Stripping Tool

Figure 40

The purpose of a wire stripping tool is to allow for the removal of insulation from
around the copper core of a cable without damaging the cable or causing
personal injury (Figure 40).

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 45


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Figure 41

Using side cutters or pliers (Figure 41) can also be dangerous; they are also less
effective because they often cut away some of the strands of wire.

Figure 42

This is known as ringing the wire (Figure 42), which effectively reduces the current
carrying capacity of the wire.

4. Select the Correct Gauge Hole

Figure 43

Using the correct tool is much safer and more effective.

Wire Strippers can remove the insulation from different gauges of cable; select the
hole in the stripper that is closest to the diameter of the core in the cable to be
stripped. On the wire strippers in Figure 43 above, the size of the wire stripping orifices
are indicated on the tool.

APLTCL024

46 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

5. Cut the Insulation

Figure 44

Place the cable in the hole and close the jaws firmly around it to cut the insulation.

If you have selected the right gauge the wire stripper will cut through the insulation but
not through the copper core (Figure 44).

Figure 45

Only remove as much insulation as is necessary to do the job. Too little bare wire may
not achieve a good connection and too much may expose the wire for potential short
circuit with other circuits or to ground. Removing more than 1.2 centimetres (half an
inch) of insulation at a time can also stretch and damage the core (Figure 45).

6. Remove the Insulation

Figure 46

Some strippers automatically cut and remove the insulation.

Others just make the cut and hold the cable tightly (Figure 46). When using this type
of stripper, pull firmly on the wire to remove the insulation.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 47


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Figure 47

To keep the strands together, give them a light twist (Figure 47).

7. Place the terminal on the wire

Figure 48

There will be a better connection if the strands are not twisted together tightly before
placing them through the terminal (Figure 48). When crimped, this gives the terminal
more surface contact area with the wire.

However, it can be difficult to insert the wires into the terminal if they are all just
loose strands...

Figure 49

... so twist them together just enough to help insert them cleanly.

Place the bullet or terminal onto the wire (Figure 49).

APLTCL024

48 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

8. Alternative Terminal Types

Figure 50

Some types of crimp terminals do not have an insulation component fixed to them.

These come in two parts and the insulator is supplied as a separate component
(Figure 50). In these cases, always make sure that the core of the wire to be crimped...

Figure 51

... extends through the core wings in the terminal (Figure 51).

9. Select the Crimping Anvil

Figure 52

Use a proper crimping tool for pin or core crimping. DO NOT use pliers. They have a
tendency to cut through the connection and can give trouble during service.

Select the proper anvil on the crimping tool for the connector or terminal selected.
These are usually colour-coded so it is easy to match the terminal with the
right size anvil.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 49


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

10. Crimping

Figure 53

Crimp the core section first. Use firm pressure so that a good electrical contact will
be made, but not excessive force as this can bend the pin or terminal (Figure 53).

Then crimp the insulation wings or section. This crimp is on the wire insulation to hold
the cable in place, not for electrical contact, so there is no need to crimp this section
quite as hard.

Figure 54

Give a gentle tug on the finished job to ensure that the connection will hold
in service (Figure 54).

APLTCL024

50 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

SWITCHES

Figure 55

A switch (Figure 55) is a device used to complete or interrupt a current path. Typically,
switches are placed between two conductors (or wires). There are many different types
of switches, such as Single-Pole Single-Throw (SPST), Single-Pole Double Throw
(SPDT), Double-Pole Single-Throw (DPST) and Double-Pole Double-Throw (DPDT).

Figure 56

There are also many ways of actuating switches, the switches shown in Figure 56 are
mechanically operated by moving the switch lever or toggle. Sometimes, switches are
linked so that they always open and close at the same time. In schematics, this is shown
by connecting linked switches with a dashed line (DPST and DPDT in Figure 56).

Other mechanically operated switches are limit switches and pressure switches. The
switch contacts are closed or opened by an external means, such as a lever actuating
a limit switch or pressure actuated.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 51


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Some of the more common switches used on Caterpillar machines are:


Toggle
Rotary
Rocker
Push-On
Pressure
Magnetic
Key Start
Limit
Cutout.

Some switches are more complex than others. Caterpillar machines use magnetic
switches for measuring speed signals or electronic switches that contain internal electronic
components, such as transistors to turn remote signals on or off. An example of a more
complex switch used on Caterpillar machines is the key start switch.

Figure 57

Figure 57 shows the internal schematic of the Key Start Switch. This type of switch
controls several different functions, such as an accessory position (ACC), Run position
(RUN), a start position (START) and an off position (OFF). This type of switch can control
other components and/or deliver power to several components at the same time.

APLTCL024

52 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

CIRCUIT PROTECTORS

Figure 58

Fuses and fusible links are circuit protectors. If there is excess current in a circuit, it
causes heat. The heat, not the current, causes the circuit protector to open before the
wiring can be damaged.

This has the same effect as turning a switch OFF. Note that circuit protectors (Figure 58)
are designed to protect the wiring, not necessarily other components. Fuses and circuit
breakers can help diagnose circuit problems. If a circuit protector opens repeatedly, there is
probably a more serious electrical problem that needs to be repaired.

Fuses

Figure 59

Fuses are the most common circuit protectors (Figure 59). A fuse is made of a thin
metal strip or wire inside a holder made of glass or plastic.

When the current flow becomes higher than the fuse rating, the metal melts and the
circuit opens. A fuse must be replaced after it opens.

Fuses are rated according to the amperage they can carry before opening. Plastic
fuse holders are moulded in different colours to denote fuse ratings and fuse ratings
are also moulded or stamped on to the top of the fuse.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 53


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

A fusible link is a short section of insulated wire thats thinner than the wire in the
circuit it protects. Excess current causes the wire inside the link to melt. Like fuses,
fusible links must be replaced after theyre blown.

Fusible links are commonly used on the ignition lead from the positive terminal of the battery.

An indication that a fusible link is blown is conducted by pulling on its two ends. If it
stretches like a rubber band, the wire must have melted and the link is no longer
good. (The insulation of a fusible link is thicker than regular wire insulation so that it
can contain the melted link after it blows.)

NOTE:
When replacing a fusible link, never use a length longer than 225mm (about 9). Long
wires tend to hold the heat better and may not break at the required specification.

Circuit Breakers
A circuit breaker is similar to a fuse, however, high current will cause the breaker to
trip thereby opening the circuit. The breaker may be manually reset after the over-
current condition has been eliminated.

Some circuit breakers are automatically reset. They are called cycling circuit breakers.
Circuit breakers are built into several Caterpillar components, such as the headlight switch.

Figure 60

A thermal circuit breaker with a reset button is shown in Figure 60. This has a bimetal
blade which carries the current when the contacts are closed. However, if an overload
occurs, the heat from the excess current will cause the bimetal blade to bend and
open the contacts to break the circuit.

The spring toggle, which normally helps to keep the contacts closed, will keep the
contacts open and the circuit broken even though the bimetal blade will try to straighten
as it cools. The points will only close when the button is pressed to reset the circuit
breaker. These circuit breakers are also referred to as non-cycling circuit breakers.

APLTCL024

54 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Figure 61

A cycling circuit breaker contains a strip made of two different metals. Current higher
than the circuit breaker rating makes the two metals change shape unevenly. The strip
bends, and a set of contacts is opened to stop current flow. When the metal cools, it
returns to its normal shape, closing the contacts. Current flow can resume (Figure 61).
Automatically resetting circuit breakers are also called cycling because they cycle
open and closed until the current returns to a normal level.

Figure 62

A Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) is a special type of circuit breaker called a


thermistor (or thermal resistor). PTCs are made from a conductive polymer. In its
normal state, the material is in the form of a dense crystal, with many carbon particles
packed together. The carbon particles provide conductive pathways for current flow.
When the material is heated, the polymer expands, pulling the carbon chains apart. In
this expanded state, there are few pathways for current. A schematic symbol for a PTC
is shown in Figure 62.

A PTC is a solid state device; it has no moving parts. When tripped, the device
remains in the open circuit state as long as voltage remains applied to the circuit. It
resets only when voltage is removed and the polymer cools.

APLTCL024

Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd 55


ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

RELAY

Figure 63 - Simple Relay

A relay is an electrically controlled switch. It is made up of an electromagnetic coil, a


set of contacts, and an armature. The armature is a movable device that allows the
contacts to open and close. Figure 63 shows the typical components of a relay.

When a small amount of electrical current flows in the coil circuit, the electromagnetic
force causes the relay contacts to close, providing a much larger current path to
operate another component, such as, a starter.

SOLENOID

Figure 64 - Simple Start Solenoid

A solenoid is another device that uses electromagnetism. Like a relay, the solenoid
also has a coil, as shown in Figure 64. When current flows through the coil,
electromagnetism pushes or pulls the core into the coil thereby creating linear, or
back and forth movements.

Solenoids are used to engage starter motors, or control shifts in an automatic transmission.

APLTCL024

56 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd