Sie sind auf Seite 1von 18

Cargo Tank Vacuum Damage

Jack Rademacher
Chief Engineer
The Walker Group
A Division of Wabash National
2014 WALKER GROUP EXPO SUCK-IN EVENT

A BAD WAY TO START YOUR DAY!!!

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
2014 WALKER GROUP EXPO SUCK-IN EVENT

The concluding event of the 2014 Walker Group Expo.

A Controlled Demonstration of a
Tank Trailer Vacuum Collapse

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
2014 WALKER GROUP EXPO SUCK-IN EVENT

Why Destroy a Cargo Tank by Vacuum Implosion?


Verification of engineering structural integrity vacuum
design calculations and FEA.
Educate our customers tank operators to potential
catastrophic damage caused when a cargo tank is not
properly vented during unload.
Educate the industry to the importance of proper
training.

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
2014 WALKER GROUP EXPO SUCK-IN EVENT

The Walker Group Continuing Test Program.


3 round, stainless tanks imploded.
5 aluminum, elliptical implosions.

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
2014 WALKER GROUP EXPO SUCK-IN EVENT

The Specimen for Destruction.

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
TEST VESSEL DIMENSIONS

63 / I.D.
0.103 min thickness
54 max ring space

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
The Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

Whats your prediction?


What vacuum pressure would you expect collapse?
Where would you expect the collapse to first initiate?

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
The Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

ASME UG-28
Thickness of Shells and Tubes Under External Pressure

Pa = Maximum Allowable External Pressure


= 3.0 psi (6.11 Hg)

ASME safety factor for vacuum is approximately 3:1.

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
The Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

From Roarks Formulas for Stress & Strain


Assumes a perfectly round vessel with no dents or
distortion from welding.

Pa = 4.48 psi (9.12 Hg)


*** With Safety Factor = 2:1
Accounts for welding distortion and other factors.

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
The Walker Group Suck-In Video

And now the video.

Controlled Demonstration of a Tank Trailer Vacuum Collapse

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
The Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

The video is available on YouTube for you to use in your


training programs

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
More Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

Boyles Law
Pressure exerted on the vessel is inversely proportional to
the volume if temperature remains the same.
pV = pV

Or: p = pV/V (p = absolute pressure)

Where

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
More Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

Example:
Assume 60 gal of vapor space at 0 psig (14.7 psia) and
pumping off 100 gal with no venting.
p = pV/V
= 14.7psia*60 gal/160gal
= 5.5 psia
= -9.2 psig (18.74 Hg)

*** Does not consider compressive load created by product weight.***

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
More Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

Ideal gas law.


Pressure exerted on the vessel is proportional to
temperature if volume remains the same.

=

Or: p = pT/T (T = absolute Temperature
= Rankine or Kelvin)

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
More Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

Example:
Assume an empty tank that has just been steam cleaned
with inside temp. of 200F (660R) that is closed up tight
with no available venting and cools to 30F (490R).
p = pT/T
= 14.7psia* 490R/ 660R
= 10.9 psia
= -3.8 psig (7.74 Hg)
*** Does not consider steam vapor condensing to water .
Condensation could more than double the pressure.

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
More Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

Where might lower vacuum pressures be a factor?


Single bulkhead design?
Wide ring/baffle spacing?

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National
The Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

The video is available on YouTube for you to use in your


training programs

The Walker Group


A Division of Wabash National