Sie sind auf Seite 1von 18

# Cargo Tank Vacuum Damage

Chief Engineer
The Walker Group
A Division of Wabash National
2014 WALKER GROUP EXPO SUCK-IN EVENT

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
2014 WALKER GROUP EXPO SUCK-IN EVENT

## The concluding event of the 2014 Walker Group Expo.

A Controlled Demonstration of a
Tank Trailer Vacuum Collapse

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
2014 WALKER GROUP EXPO SUCK-IN EVENT

## Why Destroy a Cargo Tank by Vacuum Implosion?

Verification of engineering structural integrity vacuum
design calculations and FEA.
Educate our customers tank operators to potential
catastrophic damage caused when a cargo tank is not
Educate the industry to the importance of proper
training.

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
2014 WALKER GROUP EXPO SUCK-IN EVENT

## The Walker Group Continuing Test Program.

3 round, stainless tanks imploded.
5 aluminum, elliptical implosions.

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
2014 WALKER GROUP EXPO SUCK-IN EVENT

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
TEST VESSEL DIMENSIONS

63 / I.D.
0.103 min thickness
54 max ring space

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
The Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

What vacuum pressure would you expect collapse?
Where would you expect the collapse to first initiate?

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
The Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

ASME UG-28
Thickness of Shells and Tubes Under External Pressure

## Pa = Maximum Allowable External Pressure

= 3.0 psi (6.11 Hg)

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
The Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

## From Roarks Formulas for Stress & Strain

Assumes a perfectly round vessel with no dents or
distortion from welding.

## Pa = 4.48 psi (9.12 Hg)

*** With Safety Factor = 2:1
Accounts for welding distortion and other factors.

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
The Walker Group Suck-In Video

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
The Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

## The video is available on YouTube for you to use in your

training programs

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
More Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

Boyles Law
Pressure exerted on the vessel is inversely proportional to
the volume if temperature remains the same.
pV = pV

Where

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
More Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

Example:
Assume 60 gal of vapor space at 0 psig (14.7 psia) and
pumping off 100 gal with no venting.
p = pV/V
= 14.7psia*60 gal/160gal
= 5.5 psia
= -9.2 psig (18.74 Hg)

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
More Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

## Ideal gas law.

Pressure exerted on the vessel is proportional to
temperature if volume remains the same.

=

Or: p = pT/T (T = absolute Temperature
= Rankine or Kelvin)

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
More Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

Example:
Assume an empty tank that has just been steam cleaned
with inside temp. of 200F (660R) that is closed up tight
with no available venting and cools to 30F (490R).
p = pT/T
= 14.7psia* 490R/ 660R
= 10.9 psia
= -3.8 psig (7.74 Hg)
*** Does not consider steam vapor condensing to water .
Condensation could more than double the pressure.

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
More Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

## Where might lower vacuum pressures be a factor?

Wide ring/baffle spacing?

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National
The Math Behind Cargo Tank Vacuum Collapse

## The video is available on YouTube for you to use in your

training programs

## The Walker Group

A Division of Wabash National