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Contents

SECTION I Physiologic Systems

Introduction Robert Plonsey

1 An Outline of Cardiovascular Structure and Function Daniel J. Schneck

2 Endocrine System Derek G. Cramp, Ewart R. Carson

3 Nervous System Evangelia Micheli-Tzanakou

4 Vision System George Stetten

5 Auditory System Ben M. Clopton, Francis A. Spelman

6 The Gastrointestinal System Berj L. Bardakjian

7 Respiratory System Arthur T. Johnson, Christopher G. Lausted,


Joseph D. Bronzino

Historical Perspectives 1: Cardiac Pacing Historical Highlights


Leslie A. Geddes

SECTION II Bioelectric Phenomena

Introduction Craig S. Henriquez

8 Basic Electrophysiology Roger C. Barr

9 Volume Conductor Theory Robert Plonsey

10 The Electrical Conductivity of Tissues Bradley J. Roth

11 Membrane Models Anthony Varghese

12 Numerical Methods for Bioelectric Field Problems Christopher R. Johnson

13 Principles of Electrocardiography Edward J. Berbari

14 Principles of Electromyography Kaj-ge Henneberg

2000 by CRC Press LLC


15 Principles of Electroencephalography Joseph D. Bronzino

16 Biomagnetism Jaakko Malmivuo

17 Electric Stimulation of Excitable Tissue Dominique M. Durand

Section III Biomechanics

Introduction Daniel J. Schneck

18 Mechanics of Hard Tissue J. Lawrence Katz

19 Mechanics of Blood Vessels Thomas R. Canfield, Philip B. Dobrin

20 Joint-Articulating Surface Motion Kenton R. Kaufman, Kai-Nan An

21 Joint Lubrication Michael J. Furey

22 Musculoskeletal Soft Tissue Mechanics Richard L. Lieber,


Thomas J. Burkholder

23 Mechanics of Head/Neck Albert I. King, David C. Viano

24 Biomechanics of Chest and Abdomen Impact David C. Viano,


Albert I. King,

25 Analysis of Gait Roy B. Davis, Peter A. DeLuca, Sylvia unpuu

26 Exercise Physiology Arthur T. Johnson, Cathryn R. Dooly

27 Factors Affecting Mechanical Work in Humans Arthur T. Johnson,


Bernard F. Hurley

28 Cardiac Biodynamics Andrew D. McCulloch

29 Heart Valve Dynamics Aijt P. Yoganathan, Jack D. Lemmon,


Jeffrey T. Ellis

30 Arterial Macrocirculatory Hemodynamics Baruch B. Lieber

31 Mechanics and Transport in the Microcirculation Aleksander S. Popel,


Roland N. Pittman

32 Mechanics and Deformability of Hematocytes Richard E. Waugh,


Robert M. Hochmuth

33 The Venous System Artin A. Shoukas, Carl F. Rothe

2000 by CRC Press LLC


34 Mechanics of Tissue/Lymphatic Transport Alan R. Hargen,
Geert W. Schmid-Schnbein

35 Cochlear Mechanics Charles R. Steele, Gary J. Baker, Jason A. Tolomeo,


Deborah E. Zetes-Tolomeo

36 Vestibular Mechanics Wallace Grant

Section IV Biomaterials

Introduction Joon B. Park

37 Metallic Biomaterials Joon B. Park, Young Kon Kim

38 Ceramic Biomaterials W. G. Billotte

39 Polymeric Biomaterials Hai Bang Lee, Gilson Khang, Jin Ho Lee

40 Composite Biomaterials Roderic Lakes

41 Biodegradable Polymeric Biomaterials: An Updated Overview


Chih-Chang Chu

42 Biologic Biomaterials: Tissue-Derived Biomaterials (Collagen)


Shu-Tung Li

43 Soft Tissue Replacements


43.1 Blood Interfacing Implants K. B. Chandran
43.2 Non-Blood-Interfacing Implants for Soft Tissues K.J.L Burg, S. W. Shalaby

44 Hard Tissue Replacements


44.1 Bone Repair and Joint Implants S-H. Park, A. Llins, V. K. Goel
44.2 Dental Implants: The Relationship of Materials Characteristics to Biologic Properties
J. C. Keller

45 Preservation Techniques for Biomaterials Robin Coger, Mehmet Toner

46 Hip Joint Prosthesis FixationProblems and Possible Solutions


Joon B. Park

Section V Biomedical Sensors

Introduction Michael R. Neuman

47 Physical Measurements Michael R. Neuman

48 Biopotential Electrodes Michael R. Neuman

2000 by CRC Press LLC


49 Electrochemical Sensors Chung-Chiun Liu

50 Optical Sensors Yitzhak Mendelson

51 Bioanalytic Sensors Richard P. Buck

Historical Perspectives 2: The Elecrocardiograph Leslie A. Geddes

Section VI Biomedical Signal Analysis

Introduction Banu Onaral

52 Biomedical Signals: Origin and Dynamic Characteristics; Frequency-Domain


Analysis Arnon Cohen

53 Digital Biomedical Signal Acquisition and Processing Luca T. Mainardi,


Anna M. Bianchi, Sergio Cerutti

54 Compression of Digital Biomedical Signals A. Enis Cetin,



Hayrettin Kymen

55 Time-Frequency Signal Representations for Biomedical Signals


G. Faye Boudreaux-Bartels, Robin Murray

56 Wavelet (Time-Scale) Analysis in Biomedical Signal Processing


Nitish V. Thakor, Boris Gramatikov, David Sherman

57 Higher-Order Spectral Analysis Athina P. Petropulu

58 Neural Networks in Biomedical Signal Processing


Evangelia Micheli-Tzanakou

59 Complexity, Scaling, and Fractals in Biomedical Signals Banu Onaral,


Joseph P. Cammarota

60 Future Directions: Biomedical Signal Processing and Networked Multimedia


Communications Banu Onaral

Section VII Imaging

Introduction Karen M. Mudry

61 X-Ray
61.1 X-Ray Equipment Robert E. Shroy, Jr.
61.2 X-Ray Projection Angiography Michael S. Van Lysel
61.3 Mammography Martin J. Yaffe

2000 by CRC Press LLC


62 Computed Tomography
62.1 Instrumentation Ian A. Cunningham
62.2 Reconstruction Principles Philip F. Judy

63 Magnetic Resonance Imaging


63.1 Acquisition and Processing Steven Conolly, Albert Macovski, John Pauly
63.2 Hardware/Instrumentation John Schenck
63.3 Functional MRI Kenneth K. Kwong, David A. Chesler
63.4 Chemical-Shift Imaging: An Introduction to Its Theory and Practice Xiaoping Hu, Wei Chen,
Maqbool Patel, Kamil Ugurbil

64 Nuclear Medicine
64.1 Instrumentation Barbara Y. Croft
64.2 SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography) Benjamin M. W. Tsui

65 Ultrasound
65.1 Transducers Richard L. Goldberg, Stephen W. Smith
65.2 Ultrasonic Imaging Jack G. Mottley
65.3 Blood Flow Measurement Using Ultrasound K. Whittaker Ferrara

66 Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Xiaohong Zhou, G. Allan Johnson

67 Positron-Emission Tomography (PET)


67.1 Radiopharmaceuticals Thomas E. Budinger, Henry F. Van Brocklin
67.2 Instrumentation Thomas E. Budinger

68 Electrical Impedance Tomography D. C. Barber

69 Medical Applications of Virtual Reality Technology Walter Greenleaf,


Tom Piantanida

Section VIII Medical Instruments and Devices

Introduction Wolf W. von Maltzahn

70 Biopotential Amplifiers Joachim H. Nagel

71 Noninvasive Arterial Blood Pressure and Mechanics Gary Drzewiecki

72 Cardiac Output Measurement Leslie A. Geddes

73 Bioelectric Impedance Measurements Robert Patterson

74 Respiration Leslie A. Geddes

75 Clinical Laboratory: Separation and Spectral Methods Richard L. Roa

2000 by CRC Press LLC


76 Clinical Laboratory: Nonspectral Methods and Automation
Richard L. Roa

77 Implantable Cardiac Pacemakers Michael Forde, Pat Ridgely

78 Implantable Stimulators for Neuromuscular Control Primoz Strojnik,


P. Hunter Peckham,

79 External Defibrillators Willis A. Tacker

80 Implantable Defibrillators Edwin G. Duffin

81 Electrosurgical Devices Jeffrey L. Eggleston , Wolf W. von Maltzahn

82 Mechanical Ventilation Khosrow Behbehani

83 Parenteral Infusion Devices Gregory I. Voss, Robert D. Butterfield

84 Essentials of Anesthesia Delivery A. William Paulsen

85 Biomedical Lasers Millard M. Judy

86 Noninvasive Optical Monitoring Ross Flewelling

87 Medical Instruments and Devices Used in the Home Bruce R. Bowman,


Edward Schuck

88 Virtual Instrumentation Eric Rosow, Joseph Adam

Historical Perspectives 3: Recording of Action Potentials Leslie A. Geddes

Section IX Biologic Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Fields

Introduction Charles Polk

89 Dielectric Properties of Tissues Kenneth R. Foster

90 Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields: Dosimetry, Cellular, and Animal Effects


Maria A. Stuchly

91 Therapeutic Applications of Low-Frequency Sinusoidal and Pulsed Electric


and Magnetic Fields Charles Polk

92 Biologic Effects of Radiofrequency and Microwave Fields: In Vivo and


In Vitro Experimental Results Edward Elson

2000 by CRC Press LLC


93 Radio Frequency Hyperthermia in Cancer Therapy C. K. Chou,
Rulong Ren

94 Electroporation of Cells and Tissues James C. Weaver

Appendix A Basics of Blood Gas Instrumentation Christina Cristalli,


Angelo Manzoni

2000 by CRC Press LLC


Contents

SECTION X Transport Phenomena and Biomimetic Systems

Introduction Robert J. Fisher

95 Biomimetic Systems Robert J. Fisher

96 Diffusional Processes and Engineering Design E. N. Lightfoot

97 Animal Surrogate Systems Michael L. Shuler

98 Microvascular Heat Transfer James W. Baish .

99 Interstitial Transport in the Brain: Principles for Local Drug Delivery


W. Mark Saltzman

100 Arterial Wall Mass Transport: The Possible Role of Blood Phase
Resistance in the Localization of Arterial Disease John M. Tarbell,
Yuchen Qiu

SECTION XI Biotechnology

Introduction Martin L. Yarmush, Mehmet Toner

101 Protein Engineering Alan J. Russell, Chenzhao Vierheller

102 Monoclonal Antibodies and Their Engineered Fragments


Srikanth Sundaram, David M. Yarmush

103 Antisense Technology S. Patrick Walton, Charles M. Roth,


Martin L. Yarmush

104 Tools for Genome Analysis Robert Kaiser

105 Vaccine Production John G. Aunins, Ann L. Lee, David B. Volkin

106 Gene Therapy Joseph M. Le Doux, Jeffrey R. Morgan, Martin L. Yarmush

107 Cell Engineering Douglas A. Lauffenburger

108 Metabolic Engineering Craig Zupke

2000 by CRC Press LLC


SECTION XII Tissue Engineering

Introduction Bernhard . Palsson, Jeffrey A. Hubbell

109 Tissue Engineering Franois Berthiaume, Martin L. Yarmush

110 Surface Immobilization of Adhesion Ligands for Investigations of


Cell-Substrate Interactions Paul D. Drumheller, Jeffrey A. Hubbell

111 Biomaterials: Protein-Surface Interactions


Joseph A. Chinn, Steven M. Slack

112 Engineering Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering: The 10100 Micron Size
Scale David J. Mooney, Robert S. Langer

113 Regeneration Templates Ioannis V. Yannas

114 Fluid Shear Stress Effects on Cellular Function Charles W. Patrick, Jr.,
Rangarajan Sampath, Larry V. McIntire

115 The Roles of Mass Transfer in Tissue Function Edwin N. Lightfoot,


Karen A. Duca

116 The Biology of Stem Cells Craig T. Jordan, Gary Van Zant

117 Cell Motility and Tissue Architecture Graham A. Dunn

118 Tissue Microenvironments Michael W. Long

119 The Importance of Stromal Cells Brian A. Naughton

120 Tissue Engineering of Bone Marrow Manfred R. Koller,


Bernhard . Palsson

121 Tissue Engineering of the Liver Tae Ho Kim, Joseph P. Vacanti

122 Tissue Engineering in the Nervous System Ravi Bellamkonda,


Patrick Aebischer

123 Tissue Engineering of Skeletal Muscle Susan V. Brooks,


John A. Faulkner

124 Tissue Engineering of Cartilage L.E. Freed, G. Vunjak-Novakovic

125 Tissue Engineering of the Kidney H. David Humes

2000 by CRC Press LLC


SECTION XIII Prostheses and Artificial Organs

Introduction Pierre M. Galletti, Robert M. Nerem

126 Artificial Heart and Circulatory Assist Devices Gerson Rosenberg

127 Cardiac Valve Prostheses Ajit P. Yoganathan

128 Vascular Grafts David N. Ku, Robert C. Allen

129 Artificial Lungs and Blood-Gas Exchange Devices Pierre M. Galletti,


Clark K. Colton

130 Artificial Kidney Pierre M. Galletti, Clark K. Colton, Michael J. Lysagh

131 Peritoneal Dialysis Equipment Michael J. Lysaght, John Moran

132 Therapeutic Apheresis and Blood Fractionation Andrew L. Zydney

133 Liver Support Systems Pierre M. Galletti, Hugo O. Jauregui

134 Artificial Pancreas Pierre M. Galletti, Clark K. Colton, Michel Jaffrin,


Gerard Reach .

135 Nerve Guidance Channels Robert F. Valentini

136 Tracheal, Laryngeal, and Esophageal Replacement Devices


Tatsuo Nakamura, Yasuhiko Shimizu

137 Artificial Blood Marcos Intaglietta, Robert M. Winslow

138 Artificial Skin and Dermal Equivalents Ioannis V. Yannas

SECTION XIV Rehabiliation Engineering

Introduction Charles J. Robinson

139 Rehabilitation Engineering, Science, and Technology


Charles J. Robinson

140 Orthopedic Prosthetics and Orthotics in Rehabilitation Marilyn Lord,


Alan Turner-Smith

141 Wheeled Mobility: Wheelchairs and Personal Transportation


Rory A. Cooper

2000 by CRC Press LLC


142 Externally Powered and Controlled Orthotics and Prosthetics
Dejan B. Popovic

143 Sensory Augmentation and Substitution Kurt A. Kaczmarek

144 Augmentative and Alternative Communication Barry Romich,


Gregg Vanderheiden, Katya Hill

145 Measurement Tools and Processes in Rehabilitation Engineering


George V. Kondraske

146 Rehabilitation Engineering Technologies: Principles of Application


Douglas Hobson, Elaine Trefler

Historical Perspectives 4: Electromyography Leslie A. Geddes

SECTION XV Human Performance Engineering

Introduction George V. Kondraske

147 A Working Model for Human System-Task Interfaces


George V. Kondraske

148 Measurement of Neuromuscular Performance Capacities


Susan S. Smith

149 Measurement of Sensory-Motor Control Performance Capacities:


Tracking Tasks Richard D. Jones

150 Measurement of Information-Processing Performance Capacities


George V. Kondraske, Paul J. Vasta

151 High-Level Task Analysis: Mental Components Kenneth J. Maxwell

152 Task Analysis and Decomposition: Physical Components


Sheik N. Imrhan

153 Human-Computer Interface Design Issues Kenneth J. Maxwell

154 Applications of Human Performance Measurements to Clinical Trials to


Determine Therapy Effectiveness and Safety Pamela J. Hoyes Beehler,
Karl Syndulko

155 Applications of Quantitative Assessment of Human Performance in


Occupational Medicine Mohamad Parnianpour

156 Human Performance Engineering: Computer-Based Design and Analysis


Tools Paul J. Vasta, George V. Kondraske

2000 by CRC Press LLC


157 Human Performance Engineering: Challenges and Prospects for the Future
George V. Kondraske

SECTION XVI Physiological Modeling, Simulation, and Control

Introduction Joseph L. Palladino

158 Modeling Strategies in Physiology J. L. Palladino, G. M. Drzewiecki,


A. Noordergraaf

159 Compartmental Models of Physiologic Systems Claudio Cobelli,


Giovanni Sparacino, Andrea Caumo, Maria Pia Saccomani,
Gianna Maria Toffolo

160 Cardiovascular Models and Control William D. Timmons

161 Respiratory Models and Control Chi-Sang Poon

162 Neural Networks for Physiological Control James J. Abbas

163 Methods and Tools for Identification of Physiologic Systems


Vasilis Z. Marmarelis

164 Autoregulating Windkessel Dynamics May Cause Low Frequency


Oscillations Gary Drzewiecki, John K-J. Li, Abraham Noordergraaf

165 Control of Movements Dejan B. Popovi c

166 The Fast Eye Movement Control System John Denis Enderle

SECTION XVII Clinical Engineering

Introduction Yadin David

167 Clinical Engineering: Evolution of a Discipline Joseph D. Bronzino

168 Management and Assessment of Medical Technology Yadin David,


Thomas M. Judd

169 Risk Factors, Safety, and Management of Medical Equipment


Michael L. Gullikson

170 Clinical Engineering Program Indicators Dennis D. Autio,


Robert L. Morris

171 Quality of Improvement and Team Building Joseph P. McClain

2000 by CRC Press LLC


172 A Standards Primer for Clinical Engineers Alvin Wald

173 Regulatory and Assessment Agencies Mark E. Bruley, Vivian H. Coates

174 Applications of Virtual Instruments in Health Care Eric Rosow,


Joseph Adam

SECTION XVIII Medical Informatics

Introduction Luis G. Kun

175 Hospital Information Systems: Their Function and State


T. Allan Pryor

176 Computer-Based Patient Records J. Michael Fitzmaurice

177 Computer Networks in Health Care Soumitra Sengupta

178 Overview of Standards Related to the Emerging Health Care Information


Infrastructure Jeffrey S. Blair

179 Non-AI Decision Making Ron Summers, Derek G. Cramp,


Ewart R. Carson

180 Design Issues in Developing Clinical Decision Support and Monitoring


Systems John W. Goethe, Joseph D. Bronzino

SECTION XIX Artificial Intelligence

Introduction Stanley M. Finkelstein

181 Artificial Intelligence in Medical Decision Making: History, Evolution, and


Prospects Casimir A. Kulikowski

182 Artificial Neural Networks: Definitions, Methods, Applications


Daniel A. Zahner, Evangelia Micheli-Tzanakou

183 Clinical Decision Systems Pirkko Nyknen, Niilo Saranummi

184 Expert Systems: Methods and Tools Ron Summers, Derek Cramp,
Ewart R. Carson

185 Knowledge Acquisition and Representation Catherine Garbay

186 Knowledge-Based Systems for Intelligent Patient Monitoring and


Management in Critical Care Environments Benoit M. Dawant,
Patrick R. Norris

2000 by CRC Press LLC


187 Medical Terminology and Diagnosis Using Knowledge Bases
Peter L. M. Kerkhof

188 Natural Language Processing in Biomedicine Stephen B. Johnson

Historical Perspectives 5: Electroencephalography Leslie A. Geddes

SECTION XX Ethical Issues Associated with the Use of


Medical Technology

Introduction Subrata Saha, Joseph D. Bronzino

189 Professional Ethics in Biomedical Engineering Daniel E. Wueste

190 Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, and Technological Progress


Joseph D. Bronzino

191 Ethical Issues of Animal and Human Experimentation in the Development


of Medical Devices Subrata Saha, Pamela S. Saha

192 Regulation of Medical Device Innovation Joseph D. Bronzino

Appendix A The Role of Professional Societies in Biomedical Engineering


Swamy Laxminarayan, Joseph D. Bronzino, Jan E.W. Beneken, Shiro Usai,
Richard D. Jones

2000 by CRC Press LLC


Robert Plonsey. Physiologic Systems.
The Biomedical Engineering Handbook: Second Edition.
Ed. Joseph D. Bronzino
Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 2000