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Senior Secondary Exploring Geography (Second Edition)

Disappearing green canopy Who should


6
Part 6 Lesson worksheets
pay
for the massive deforestation in rainforest regions?

6.1 What is happening to tropical rainforests?

A Where are tropical rainforests?


1 Where can we find tropical rainforests? Fill in the boxes in Figure 1.

Figure 1 World distribution of tropical rainforests

2 Refer to Figure 1. Briefly describe the world distribution of tropical rainforests.


Tropical rainforests can be found in areas north and south of the Equator , with most
of them lying between 10 N and 10 S. The largest area of tropical
rainforests in the world is in the Amazon Basin in South America .

B What has happened to tropical rainforests?


3 Study Figures 1 and 2 on p. 5 in your textbook. They show the loss of rainforest area in the
Brazilian Amazon.
a Refer to Figure 2. What do you notice about the deforested area in the Brazilian Amazon
before and after 2004?

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Before 2004, there were ups and downs in the deforested area in the Brazilian Amazon,
but the general trend was rising , with the largest area deforested in 1995
. Since 2004, the deforested area has been reducing .

EXTENDED
b Figure 1 shows how the deforested rainforest area is used for. In Table 1 below, identify
two uses with photo evidence.
Table 1
Uses of the deforested land Photo evidence
Roads/Highways Straight brown/grey lines in the photo

Farmland Light green patches in the photo

4 Refer to the world map and the table in Figure 4a on p. 8 in your textbook. Describe the
changes in tropical rainforest cover throughout the world.

On the whole, tropical rainforest cover has decreased . Loss of tropical rainforest
cover is the most serious in South-east Asia .

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6.2 What does a natural tropical rainforest look like?

A What are the characteristics of plants in tropical rainforests?


1 Table 1 shows the climatic data of Iquitos, which is located in the rainforest area in Peru. Table
2 shows the characteristics of a tropical rainforest.

Table 1
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Monthly 26 26 26 26 26 26 25 26 26 27 27 27
temperature
(C)
Rainfall (mm) 268 254 323 301 267 208 163 166 190 231 249 258

a Refer to Table 1. Draw a climatic graph of Iquitos in Figure 1.


b Complete Table 2.
Table 2
Characteristics
Temperature
Climate

Hot throughout the

year

Little seasonal

variation in air temperature

High annual mean

temperature of about

27 C

Small annual range

of temperature of about 2 to

4C

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Rainfall
Wet throughout the year

High annual

rainfall, usually over

2,000 mm

Rain mostly falls in the


afternoon in the form of
convection rain

Figure 1
Characteristics Reasons
Vegetation cover

Luxuriant and evergreen Plants grow throughout the year because

hot and wet environment favours plant

growth. New leaves quickly replace

shed leaves
Layered structure: Competition for sunlight to grow is keen among

five layers plants in the rainforest. Plant growth is limited

under the dense canopy because of little

sunlight . However, some plants may grow

above the canopy to compete for sunlight.

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Emergent layer
Widely-spaced umbrella-
shaped crowns
Straight tree trunks
Buttress roots
Giant trees

Canopy layer
Oval-shaped crowns
Close and continuous canopy
Tall trees

Young tree layer


Conical-shaped crowns
Low in height

Shrub layer
Sparse vegetation of shrubs,
ferns and other plants
Figure 2 The structure of a tropical rainforest
Undergrowth and ground
layer
Little vegetation cover
Mostly mosses and fungi

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Characteristics Reasons
Trees with special characteristics of roots and leaves
Vegetation cover

A Roots:

a Strong buttress a These roots provide strong support to the


roots tall trees

b Shallow roots b These roots are for taking up nutrients in the

thin topsoil

B Leaves:
a Broad leaves help compete for sunlight
a Broad
b These characteristics help shed excess
b Thick waxy
water/allow water to run off the leaves
surface and

drip-tips

Rich diversity of plant The hot and wet climate supports a large
species
variety of plant species
Animals

Wide range of animal species The dense vegetation provides a large variety of

habitats for a wide range of animal species

2 Refer to Figure 3.

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Figure 3

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a What are plants AE? Write down their names in the space provided with the words
given.
Parasites Epiphytes Stranglers Climbers
Saprophytes

A Stranglers 5

B Climbers 3

C Epiphytes 4

D Parasites 2

E Saprophytes 1

b Below are the descriptions about plants AE. Fill in the boxes above with numbers to
show the correct matches of the descriptions of plants.

1 Plants that feed on dead or decaying organic matter. Fungi are an example.

2 Plants that do not produce their own food. They live by taking nutrients from
the host plants.
3 Woody plants that climb along trees to reach the canopy layer to get sunlight.
Lianas are one of the examples.
4 Small shrubs or herbs attaching themselves to trunks or branches. They are
harmless to the host plant.
5 Plants that usually start their life as epiphytes. They are also known as killer
trees.

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How does a tropical rainforest ecosystem


6.3 function?

A What are the biotic and abiotic components in a tropical rainforest


ecosystem? How are they linked together?
1 What is an ecosystem?

It is a community of living organisms and their environment.

2 There are biotic and abiotic components in an ecosystem. Complete the flow chart below.

Biotic They are living-things i.e. Plants, animals and microscopic


components organisms

Abiotic They are i.e. Solar radiation, air, water, soil


non-living
components things

3 Complete Figure 1 to show the components in a tropical rainforest ecosystem.


Energy flow
Abiotic Biotic components
Nutrient
components
cycling

Found in the: Producers


Components that can produce their own food through
atmosphere
photosynthesis
hydrosphere
Consumers
lithosphere Components that ( can / cannot ) produce their own food
They depend upon producers and other consumers for food
They can be classified into
A Primary consumersfeed on plants only/

producers

B Secondary consumersfeed on primary


consumers
C Tertiary consumersfeed on other consumers

According to food source, consumers can also be divided

into herbivores , carnivores and omnivores


Decomposers

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Fungi and bacteria that break down dead organic matters

Processes that link into inorganic substances


up biotic and abiotic
components in the
tropical rainforest
ecosystem

Figure 1
4 How are the biotic and abiotic components linked in a tropical rainforest ecosystem?

They are linked through energy flow and nutrient cycling.

B What is a food chain? What is a food web?


5 Figure 2 shows some organisms in a tropical rainforest.

Figure 2
a Identify producer(s) and consumers in Figure 2.
Producer Green plant

Consumer Caterpillar, frog, grasshopper, snail, bird, snake, hawk

b i These producer(s) and consumers have certain feeding relations, such as the one
below. It is called a food chain .

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ii Refer to Figure 2. Draw another food chain in the space provided.

(Any food chain which shows the correct feeding relationship between producer,
primary, secondary and tertiary consumers is correct.)

c The food chain that you have drawn is a simple one. In fact, individual food chains are
cross-linked at various levels.
i Draw arrows in Figure 2 to show the cross-linked food chains in a tropical
rainforest. The first one is done for you.
ii What do the cross-linked food chains form?
A food web

C How does energy flow in a tropical rainforest ecosystem?


6 Energy flow is the transfer of energy through various living organisms along the food
web.
7 Study Figure 3 and answer the following questions.

Figure 3 The energy flow in a tropical rainforest ecosystem


a What is the primary source of energy that maintains the tropical rainforest ecosystem?
The sun.

b How does the energy flow in the ecosystem?

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The sun provides energy for plants (producers) to carry out


photosynthesis . This enables them to produce their own food.
When primary consumers feed on producers, the energy is passed from producers
to primary consumers .
When secondary consumers feed on primary consumers, the energy is passed from
primary consumers to secondary consumers .
When tertiary consumers feed on secondary consumers, the energy is passed from
secondary consumers to tertiary consumers .

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c Trophic levels are the feeding position in a food chain.


i Which trophic level do green plants form?
Level 1

ii Which trophic level do herbivores and carnivores form respectively?


Herbivores form trophic level 2 and carnivores form trophic levels 3 and 4
respectively.

d Which trophic level receives the largest amount of energy? Which level receives the
least?
Received the largest amount of energy: Trophic level 1
Received the least amount of energy: Trophic level 4

e i Does each trophic level receive all the energy from the previous level? Why or why
not?
No, each trophic level does not receive all the energy from the previous level.
It is because energy loss occurs at each trophic level.

ii How does the above occur?


Energy is lost through respiration and excretion . When plants and
animals die, energy is further lost through heat loss and
decomposition .

f Complete the trophic pyramid below, which shows the change of energy, number and
weight of organisms at different trophic levels.

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D How do nutrients circulate in a tropical rainforest ecosystem?


8 Nutrient cycle refers to the circulation of nutrients from the environment to
organisms and back to the environment . It can be studied by means of stores and
transfers of nutrients.
9 Figure 4 shows the nutrient cycle in the tropical rainforest.

Figure 4
a Nutrients are circulated among three stores: biomass, litter and soil.
i Label the stores 1 to 3 in the boxes in Figure 4.
ii Where do the nutrients in these three stores mainly come from?
Biomass Nutrients stored in plants and animals
Litter Nutrients contributed from plant leaves, animal wastes, bodies of
dead animals
Soil Nutrients broken down from litter and weathered rocks

b How do nutrients circulate within a tropical rainforest?


Litter (arrow a): Input dissolved in rainfall
(arrow b): Nutrients decomposed from litter
(arrow c) Loss in run-off
Soil (arrow d): Uptake by plants
(arrow e) Loss through leaching
(arrow f) Input from weathered rock
Biomass (arrow g): Littering

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c Why is Store 3 the largest of all?


This is because the hot and wet climate supports a large amount of plants and animals.

d Why is Store 1 the smallest of all?


The rate of decomposition is fast in hot, wet climate. Litter is quickly broken down
and taken up by plants. Heavy rain also causes strong leaching.

E Why is a tropical rainforest a fragile ecosystem?


10 Tropical rainforests are described as the most complex ecosystem. Why?
It is because it has the greatest diversity of plant and animal species in the world. The
links between biotic and abiotic components are therefore very complex.

11 The tropical rainforest ecosystem is also described as a fragile ecosystem. Study Figure 4 on
p. 11.
a What does the size of Store 3 suggest about the amount of nutrient?
It means that it stores a large amount of nutrient.

b What will happen to the rainforest ecosystem if Store 3 is destroyed?

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Store 3, mainly the trees, is Without trees and other plants,


destroyed habitats of the wildlife are destroyed

Stored nutrients are gone Wildlife dies

No supply of nutrients to soil The tropical rainforest


through decomposition ecosystem collapses

Poor rainforest soil becomes poorer Remain Continued


through leaching undisturbed destruction

Plants Equilibrium is
Depleted soil cannot support regenerate disrupted
any plants and the TRF
ecosystem
recovers Forest destroyed
permanently

F How important is tropical rainforest ecosystem to us?


12 Tropical rainforests are important to provide various services to the environment and humans.
Complete Figure 5 to show what services it provides.

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It supports: It regulates:
nutrient cycling climate
soil forming carbon in the atmosphere
biodiversity water quantity and quality

Ecosystem services provided by the rainforest

It provides: It offers these types of socio-


food cultural services:
fresh water aesthetic
wood and fuels educational
fibres recreational
drugs cultural
drugs

Figure 5

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What causes the destruction in tropical


6.4 rainforests?

A What are the causes of forest destruction?


1 Figures 1a and b show the human activities that have caused the deforestation of tropical
rainforests and forest degradation in the tropical rainforest region in Latin America respectively
(the Amazon Basin lies in Latin America).

Figure 1a Causes of Figure 1b Causes of forest


deforestation in the rainforest degradation in rainforest region
region in Latin America, 2000 in Latin America, 20002010
2010
a Deforestation refers to the conversion of forests for other land uses, and trees are not
expected to re-grow naturally. What is the main activity that caused deforestation in Latin
America?
Commercial agriculture

b Forest degradation refers to the reduction of trees in the forest, and trees are expected to
re-grow or replanted. What is the main activity that caused forest degradation in Latin
America?
Timber logging

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2 Refer to Figure 2 about the causes of


forest destruction in the Brazilian
Amazon in 2009. Group the causes
according to the diagram in Figure 3 on
p. 15.

Figure 2 The causes of forest destruction


in the Brazilian Amazon in 2009

Causes of forest destruction in Brazilian Amazon

A Cattle ranching
1 Commercial agriculture
B Plantation (large-
scale agriculture)

2 Small-scale A Shifting cultivation


farming/agriculture
B Subsistence farming

3 Commerical A Infrastructure , including


logging roads and highways, and dams

4 Others
B Mining

Figure 3
3 Figures 4a and b show the two most important types of commercial agriculture which cause
large-scale removal of tropical rainforests.

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(Credit: Scott Bauer/US Department of (Credit: Tiago Fioreze/Wikimedia Commons)


Agriculture)
Figure 4a Figure 4b
a i Identify the type of commercial agriculture in Figure 4a.
Cattle ranching

ii What are the main products of this type of agriculture?


Beef and leather products

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iii Why is it a profitable business in the Amazon?

Rearing beef cattle requires a large piece of pastureland, which is


converted from the Amazon rainforest.

As the land is ( cheap / expensive ), the economic return is much higher.


Besides, the rapid expansion of road network from the tropical rainforest has

greatly reduced the transport cost of delivering the products to the

market.

b i Identify the type of commercial agriculture in Figure 4b.


Plantation

ii How do you know?


There is only one type(s) of crop grown on the piece of farmland. It is called
monoculture . The land area for this activity is often large.

iii Farmers grow these crops for sale. What do we call this type of crop? Give one
example.
They are called cash crops. Soybeans, oil palm, rubber
cocoa, sugar cane, coffee, etc. (any one) is an example of this type of crop.

c Complete the following paragraphs about soybean and oil palm plantations in the
rainforest regions.
Large soybean plantations were common in Brazil. They were either set up in the
rainforest or converted from degraded pasture . These plantations are
highly capitalized , requiring machines such as tractors for cultivation.
Oil palm plantations have been one of the major causes of deforestation in the
tropical rainforest region of South-east Asia . The largest oil palm plantations are
in Indonesia and Malaysia . As oil palm produces palm oil, which is
the cheapest type of edible vegetation oil, its growing world demand has driven the
deforestation of tropical rainforest to oil palm plantations.

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4 Figure 5 shows a kind of farming method practised by a native tribe in a rainforest region.
Table 1 shows the changes in the tribal population in the rainforest.
Table 1
Changes in tribal
population in the
rainforest
1965 23,000
1975 39,400 (71%)
1985 102,600 (160%)
1995 220,960 (115%)
2005 397,100 (80%)
2010 551,400 (39%)

Figure 5
a Name the farming method practised by the native tribe.
Shifting cultivation

b Table 2 shows their farming method. Arrange the sequence in the correct order.
Table 2
1 The native tribe chooses a suitable site in the rainforests.

4 After a few years of cultivation, the soil becomes poor and crop yield drops.

3 They start planting crops on the cleared plot.

2 Then they clear the land and burn the trees there.

5 They then move to a new plot of land and repeat the farming cycle again.

c Refer to Table 1. Describe the change in tribal population in the rainforest since 1965.
The population has been growing ( rapidly / slowly ) since 1965. However, the increase
has slowed down in 2010.

d The farming method mentioned in Question a was considered as a sustainable practice


before 1975. Why?
Before 1975, the tribal population was small . Therefore, the old plot of field can
be left fallow for a sufficiently long period of time for the rainforest to recover or
to be regenerated.

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e i Why does this farming method become destructive to the rainforest since 1975?
With a fast population growth, it means ( more / fewer ) crops have to be

grown on the same amount of land to support the large population. The

fallow periods have also been shortened.


This shortens the farming cycle and the time allowed for the

rainforests to be regenerated.

ii Refer to Question ei. How would the farming method affect the land productivity in
the rainforest?
As the fallow land cannot re-grow into rainforests before it is cleared again, the
quality of land will be gradually degraded . Land productivity will
decline .
5 Figure 6 shows a farming practice carried out by some rural people in the tropical rainforest.

(Credit: Matt Zimmerman/Flickr)


Figure 6
a What is the farming practice shown in Figure 6?
Slash-and-burn cultivation/ subsistence farming

b These farms are often found near roads and highways in the tropical rainforest. Why?

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It is because when the cleared land declines in productivity, the farmers are forced to
abandon it and clear a new plot of land wherever they can access one.
Roads and highways provide easy access to primary rainforests.

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6 Figure 7 shows the main human activity that causes forest degradation in the tropical
rainforest. This human activity has been carried out in a large scale. The product derived is
mainly for export.

a Name this human activity.


Commercial logging

b What is the main product derived from this activity?


Timber/logs/hardwoods

c Who carry out this activity?


Large multinational firms

Figure 7

d Why is this human activity destructive to the rainforest?


This activity is carried out in two ways: clear-cutting and selective logging. Clear-
cutting results in a large scale of clearing of the rainforest. For selective logging,
although only targeted species are felled, trees nearby may also be
affected as they are tied up by many climbers .
In addition, a large area of the rainforest is usually cleared to construct roads
to transport logs .
When the company moves out after logging is completed, other users such as
ranchers and landless rural people move in and clear land for
pasture and crops. The rainforest cannot be regenerated.
Furthermore, heavy logging machinery and vehicles will compact and
disturb the rainforest soil. This accelerates soil erosion and reduces
chances for forest regeneration.
7 The activities shown in Table 3 on p. 20 have been blamed to have led to further exploitation
of the tropical rainforest. Complete the table to show the reasons.

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Table 3
How the activity leads to further exploitation of the tropical
rainforest

Road and Roads and highways help open up more areas to


highway deforestation
construction

Dam Building dams can generate hydroelectricity which can facilitate


construction economic development in the region. This encourages more
exploitation of the rainforest

Mining and oil Certain industries, such as pig iron industry, require lots of wood to
and gas produce charcoal for production. This leads to much deforestation.
exploitation
Oil and gas exploitation means the removal of large areas of the
rainforest.

They also cause various forms of pollution in the rainforest.

Roads and highways built for mining activities assist further


deforestation by small-scale subsistence farmers, illegal loggers
and ranchers, etc .

B What are the underlying causes of the destruction of tropical


forests?
8 Briefly explain why each of the following is the underlying causes of deforestation.

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Population growth ( Increase / Decrease ) in demand for rainforest resources

Rural people in the tropical rainforest countries are poor . They


Poverty have to develop the rainforest to make a living
Poverty -driven deforestation

Governments allowed landless rural or urban people to migrate to the


Government primary forest to grow food and earn a living in the 1980s to the 1990s.
policy Roads are built for this purpose
State -driven deforestation

Globally, there is a shifting diet towards meat . As tropical


Shifting diet and rainforest land is much cheaper than land in the MDCs, cattle ranches
globalized markets are developed in the tropical rainforest. Beef is exported to MDCs
Enterprise -driven deforestation

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What is the impact of large-scale


6.5 deforestation on tropical rainforests?

A What are the effects of large-scale tropical deforestation on the


atmospheric environment?
1 Tropical deforestation can affect the atmospheric environment on a local scale. Refer to
Figures 1a and b, which show an area in a rainforest region before and after deforestation.

Figure 1a Before deforestation Figure 1b After deforestation

a How will deforestation affect the atmosphere on a local scale? Complete Table 1 to show
the comparisons on wind speed, relative humidity, precipitation and daily range of air
temperature in a rainforest before and after deforestation.
Table 1
Before deforestation After deforestation
Wind speed Lower Higher
Relative humidity Higher Lower
Precipitation Higher Lower
Daily range of air temperature Smaller Larger

b Explain the changes in relative humidity and precipitation in the area.


Deforestation reduces the amount of water stored in soil and vegetation . This
reduces evapotranspiration from plants. As a result, less water is returned to the

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atmosphere. This leads to a drop/a decrease in relative humidity and also the
precipitation.

2 How may a large-scale tropical deforestation result in global warming?

Tropical rainforests are a huge carbon sink . When trees are burned or left to rot, a
lot of carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere. In addition, the decrease in
the number of trees will reduce the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by trees during
photosynthesis .
Carbon dioxide is a kind of greenhouse gas, which can absorb and trap the
heat radiated from the earths surface. With more of this gas in the atmosphere, more
heat is retained or trapped in the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is therefore
intensified. Air temperature will increase and result in global
warming .

B What are the effects of large-scale tropical deforestation on the


hydrospheric environment?
3 How will deforestation affect the hydrosphere? Study Figures 2a and b and fill in Table 2.

Figure 2a Before deforestation Figure 2b After deforestation


Table 2
Before deforestation After deforestation
Interception Much / Reduced to zero Much / Reduced to zero
Evaporation from tree interception Much Reduced to zero
Evapotranspiration Much / Greatly reduced Much / Greatly reduced
Infiltration Small amount Reduces
Surface run-off Little Increases / Reduces

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4 Refer to Figures 1a and b on p. 21. Why does the water table drop after deforestation?
Without vegetation cover, infiltration and interception are reduced. Most of the
rain that falls on the ground is lost by overland flow . Water supply to the ground is
thus reduced and water table drops.

C What are the effects of large-scale tropical deforestation on the


lithospheric environment?
5 a What is the typical soil type found in the rainforest?
Oxisol

b What are the characteristics of this type of soil?


The organic and mineral matters are quickly broken down and are

leached from the soil.

The ( more soluble / insoluble ) mineral elements are leached; the (more soluble /

insoluble ) mineral elements will stay deep in the subsoil.

The soil is in general ( fertile / infertile ).

c i How will tropical deforestation affect the rainforest soil? Draw the new soil profile
in the space provided in Figure 3b.

a Before deforestation b After deforestation


Figure 3 Effects of deforestation on the rainforest soil

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ii Describe how tropical deforestation affects the land in the rainforest region.

When trees are removed, the topsoil is washed away.


The layer of iron oxides and aluminium oxides (insoluble minerals)

is exposed and hardened to form an impermeable brick-like layer called

laterite .
Trees cannot grow on this layer and the land becomes barren .
6 Tropical deforestation has adverse effects on sloping ground in the tropical rainforest. Study
Figure 4 which shows such effect.

Figure 4
a Complete Figure 5 to show how the landscape shown in Figure 4 is developed.
Removal of trees causes soil erosion in the tropical rainforest

On sloping ground, surface run-off is greatly increased after


deforestation

After heavy rain, serious water and soil erosion on slopes


may form rills and gullies

Figure 5
b What is the landscape called when gullies expand?
It is called a badland landscape.
c What may happen if loose soil materials on a deforested slope are saturated with water?
They may easily move downslope under the pull of gravity. This process is called
landslide .

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d How does soil erosion affect rivers and lowland areas?


Soil erosion increases the supply of sediment to rivers. This causes
silting and raises river beds. Flooding in lowland areas will become more
frequent.

D What are the effects of large-scale tropical deforestation on the


biospheric environment?

7 Complete the flow chart in Figure 6 about the effect of tropical deforestation on biodiversity
and tropical diseases.
Removal of trees in the tropical rainforest

Home to plants and animals is Human may expose themselves


destroyed to unknown viruses and
pathogens

Many species may become


extinct
Occurrence of more tropical
diseases, and outbreak of new
Number of endangered infectious diseases
species increases

Global biodiversity
( increases / decreases )

Hinders the Gene pool


functioning of the reduces
entire ecosystem

Evolution of
species is hindered

Figure 6

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E What are the effects of large-scale tropical deforestation on the


human environment?

8 Native peoples are the original inhabitants of the rainforest. What are the adverse effects of
tropical deforestation on them? Complete the following points.

Food supply The land available for shifting cultivation, hunting and fruit gathering

is reduced. They do not have enough food to eat

Toxication During the process of gold mining, mercury and cyanide are

released, which are highly toxic. They can pollute drinking

water and contaminate fish

Outbreak of Developers such as miners and loggers bring different diseases that are new
diseases to the native peoples

Loss of culture Native peoples are resettled to new areas as large areas are cleared. They

are forced to give up their traditional way of life and customs

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How can we save tropical rainforests


6.6 through sustainable development?

A What can be done to protect tropical rainforests?


1 Complete Table 1 to show the three major strategies to protect tropical rainforests.
Table 1

Ways to protect tropical rainforests

1 Tapping more resources from existing cleared land

A Increase a Improve soil fertility through the use of soil


productivity
conservation methods, e.g. leaving crop residues on fields,
of existing
farmland rotating crops and growing legumes

b Carry out agroforestry in rainforests, which is a practice of


growing trees and crops on the same plot of land
- intercropping (see photo below) improves soil fertility and
results in high yields
- by selling fruits and firewood, farmers can earn more income

Inga trees grow well on


degraded soil

Crops are grown between trees

(Credit: The INGA Foundation/www.IngaFoundation.org)

B Increase a Increase productivity of cattle ranches


productivity
- growing legumes on pastureland to improve soil fertility, so

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of ranches and that better pastures can support more cattle


plantations - growing crops in cattle pastures to generate more income

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b Increase productivity of plantations and establish plantations on


abandoned land
- applying soil conservation methods, such as fallowing, to
increase soil fertility
- adopting higher-yield species which can adapt to the poor
rainforest soils

C Develop a Manage logging activities to reduce damage to the rainforest ecosystem


sustainable
- restricting the cutting of certain rainforest tree species
forests and
tree - cutting the climbers and lianas before felling trees to reduce
plantations wood waste
- using new technologies to extract logs to reduce damage to the
soil
- planning roads carefully to prevent soil erosion and
access by illegal loggers

b Establish tree plantations on degraded land

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(Credit: Denis Rizzoli/Wilimedia Commons)


- planting a variety of trees for providing a specific source of wood
products, e.g. pulp, furniture , building materials and
timber

2 Restoring degraded forested land

Some degraded or abandoned land, e.g. small clearings surrounded by primary


rainforest, can be easily restored:
- the governments of rainforest countries grant native peoples land-ownership to take
care of these recovered areas in the long run
- the native peoples can help speed up the restoration by practicing sustainable
farming, reducing fire risks, planting desired tree species, etc. in the rainforest

3 Establishing and expanding protected areas

Certain rainforest land is allocated for conservation to prevent further destruction. This
is done by designating areas with great biodiversity as nature reserves or
national parks.

- these places should be well protected by laws and regulations


- local community will also be more willing to protect the park if they can earn income
from acting as tour guides , or by selling handicrafts to tourists

- native peoples can also be involved as they know the rainforest well, and they will
be willing to protect their home which provides them with food, shelter and clean
water

B What are the ways to get funding to support conservation measures


for sustainable development in the tropical rainforest?
2 Conservation efforts in the tropical rainforest rely much on funding. Complete Figure 1 to
show the sources of funding.

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Payment for
ecosystem Eco-product
services certification
system

Sources of
funding for
Corporate conserving Bio-prospect
sponsorship the fees
(to adopt a block of rainforest (to allow scientists to
the entire forest system develop products
and take the from native plants and
responsibility to animal species)
protect it) Eco-tourism
(to use the rainforest in a
non-destructive way)
Figure 1

C Why are the measures to check deforestation difficult to carry out?


3 Conflict arises when some people want to obtain short-term benefits, while others prefer
preserving the rainforest for long-term development.
Refer to Figure 2. Who favour short-term benefit? Who favour preserving the rainforest? Who
want to make a balance? What are their arguments? Draw lines to match the parties with their
concerns and write their arguments in the space provided.

The leader of a native tribe A farmer practising small-scale


The CEO of a logging firm farming
Argument: Argument: Argument:
We want to maintain our It is important to make profit I want to earn a living and
culture, ways of life and living have job opportunities
space

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Favour short-term benefit Favour preserving the Aim at finding a balance
rainforest

An environmentalist The owner of a cattle ranch A government official


Argument: Argument: Argument:
I want to I want to make profit and have We need to exploit the
maintain the ecosystem to job opportunities rainforest, but we also need to
ease global warming conserve the environment
to conserve biodiversity
and the lives of native
peoples

Figure 2

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D What can we do to help in the sustainable development of tropical


rainforests?
4 Individuals may help save the tropical rainforest by being aware of and then carrying out some
of the TREES steps. What are TREES steps? Complete Figure 3.

T Teach others about the importance of


the environment and how they can help save
rainforests

R Restore damaged ecosystems by


planting trees on land where forests have
been cut down

E Encourage people to live in a way that


doesnt hurt the environment

E Establish natural parks and nature


reserves to protect rainforests and wildlife

S Support companies that operate in


ways that minimize damage to the
environment
Figure 3

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