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RAN

IP RAN Description

Issue 01

Date 2008-05-30

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RAN
IP RAN Description Contents

Contents

1 IP RAN Change History ...........................................................................................................1-1


2 IP RAN Introduction .................................................................................................................2-1
3 IP RAN Principles......................................................................................................................3-1
3.1 IP RAN Application Scenarios......................................................................................................................3-3
3.1.1 Iub over TDM Network .......................................................................................................................3-3
3.1.2 Iub over IP Network.............................................................................................................................3-3
3.1.3 Iub over Hybrid IP Transport Network ................................................................................................3-4
3.1.4 Iub over IP/ATM Network ...................................................................................................................3-5
3.1.5 Iu/Iur over IP Network .........................................................................................................................3-6
3.2 IP RAN Protocol Stacks ................................................................................................................................3-6
3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP) ............................................................................................................3-7
3.2.2 Protocol Stack of Hybrid Iub (over IP /TM) ...................................................................................... 3-11
3.2.3 Protocol Stack of Iu-CS (over IP) ......................................................................................................3-14
3.2.4 Protocol Stack of Iu-PS (over IP).......................................................................................................3-15
3.2.5 Protocol Stack of Iur (over IP) ...........................................................................................................3-16
3.2.6 Protocols of Data Link Layer.............................................................................................................3-17
3.3 IP Addresses and Routes of IP RAN ...........................................................................................................3-18
3.3.1 Two Networking Types on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS Interfaces ..........................................................3-18
3.3.2 Route on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS Interface .......................................................................................3-20
3.3.3 IP Addresses for SCTP Links and IP Paths Between RNC and NodeB .............................................3-21
3.4 IP RAN QoS................................................................................................................................................3-22
3.4.2 Admission Control and Congestion Control ......................................................................................3-22
3.4.3 Differentiated Service ........................................................................................................................3-22
3.4.4 PQ and RL .........................................................................................................................................3-23
3.5 IP RAN VLAN............................................................................................................................................3-24
3.5.1 Ensuring Security...............................................................................................................................3-24
3.5.2 Providing Priority Service..................................................................................................................3-24
3.6 IP RAN FP-Mux..........................................................................................................................................3-26
3.7 IP RAN Header Compression .....................................................................................................................3-26
3.7.1 ACFC .................................................................................................................................................3-27
3.7.2 PFC ....................................................................................................................................................3-27
3.7.3 IPHC ..................................................................................................................................................3-27

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Contents IP RAN Description

3.8 IP RAN Redundancy ...................................................................................................................................3-27


3.8.1 Single-Homing Layer 3 Networking..................................................................................................3-27
3.8.2 Dual-Homing Layer 3 Networking ....................................................................................................3-28
3.8.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Networking............................................................................3-29
3.8.4 Configuration on the RNC Side .........................................................................................................3-29
3.8.5 Fault Detection...................................................................................................................................3-29
3.9 IP RAN Load Sharing .................................................................................................................................3-30
3.9.1 Load Sharing Layer 3 Networking.....................................................................................................3-30
3.9.2 Advantage and Disadvantage of the Networking ...............................................................................3-31
3.9.3 Configuration on the RNC Side .........................................................................................................3-31
3.10 IP RAN DHCP ..........................................................................................................................................3-31
3.11 IP RAN Transport Capabilities..................................................................................................................3-32
3.11.1 RNC IP Transport Capabilities.........................................................................................................3-32
3.11.2 BBU IP Transport Capabilities.........................................................................................................3-33
3.11.3 Macro NodeB IP Transport Capabilities ..........................................................................................3-34

4 IP RAN Reference Documents ................................................................................................4-1

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RAN
IP RAN Description 1 IP RAN Change History

1 IP RAN Change History

IP RAN Change History provides information on the changes between different document
versions.

Document and Product Versions


Document Version RAN Version RNC Version NodeB Version

01 (2008-05-30) 10.0 V200R010C01B051 V100R010C01B049


V200R010C01B040
Draft (2008-03-20) 10.0 V200R010C01B050 V100R010C01B045

There are two types of changes, which are defined as follows:


z Feature change: refers to the change in the IP RAN feature of a specific product version.
z Editorial change: refers to the change in information that was already included or the
addition of information that was not described in the previous version.

01 (2008-05-30)
This is the document for the first commercial release of RAN10.0.
Compared with draft (2008-03-20) of RAN10.0, issue 01 (2008-05-30) of RAN10.0
incorporates the changes described in the following table.

Change Type Change Description Parameter Change

Feature change IP transport capabilities of None


DBS3900 and iDBS3900 are
added to 3.11 IP RAN
Transport Capabilities.
Information of NodeB None
V200R010C01B040 is added
to 2 IP RAN Introduction.

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1 IP RAN Change History IP RAN Description

Change Type Change Description Parameter Change

The parameter is changed in The renamed parameters are listed as


3.8 IP RAN Redundancy and follows:
3.6 IP RAN FP-Mux. z Times of out-time of BFD packet is
modified to detect multiplier of
BFD packet.
z Mux package number is modified
to Maximum Frame Length.
The parameter is deleted in 3.6 The deleted parameters are listed as
IP RAN FP-Mux. follows:
Mux package number
None The parameters that are changed to be
non-configurable are listed as follows:
z IUB trans bearer type
z IP Trans Apart Ind
z IUR trans bearer type
z Address and control field compress
z Address & Control Field Compress
z Protocol field compress (NodeB)
z Protocol field compress (RNC)
z VLAN Tag
z Signaling priority
z Backup port IP address
z Backup port mask
z Backup port gateway IP address
z ARP packet out-time
z ARP packet resend times

Editorial General documentation None


change change:
z The IP RAN Parameters is
removed because of the
creation of RAN10.0
parameter reference.
z The structure is optimized.

Draft (2008-03-20)
This is a draft of the document for the first commercial release of RAN10.0.
Compared with issue 03 (2008-01-20) of RAN 6.1, this issue incorporates the changes
described in the following table.

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IP RAN Description 1 IP RAN Change History

Change Change Description Parameter Change


Type

Feature The port backup mode is changed in The following parameters are deleted:
change 1.3.8 IP RAN Redundancy. z Slot 14 interface board type
z14 interface board Backup type
The following parameters are added:
z Board type
z Backup
z Port No.
The fault detection is added in 1.3.8 The following parameters are added:
IP RAN Redundancy. z Check type
z Port work mode
z Min interval of BFD packet send
[ms]
z Min interval of BFD packet
receive [ms]
z Times of out-time of BFD packet
z ARP packet out-time
z ARP packet resend times
The IP interface boards POUa and None
UOIa are added in 1.2.1 IP RAN
Introduction.
IP RAN FP-Mux is added in 1.3.6 IP The following parameters are added:
RAN FP-Mux. z FPMUX flag
z Max subframe length
z Mux package length
z FPTIME
The configuration on the RNC side is The following parameter is deleted:
changed in 1.3.9 IP RAN Load z14 interface board Backup type
Sharing.
The following parameter is added:
z Backup
In Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP), the The following parameter is deleted:
NCP/CCP Bearing Type parameter zNCP/CCP Bearing Type
in the ADD IUBCP command is
renamed as Bear Type. The SET The following parameter is added:
OMCH (BTS3812E, BTS3812AE, z Bear Type
BBU3806, BBU3806C) command is
changed to ADD OMCH
(BTS3812E, BTS3812AE,
BBU3806, BBU3806C).

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1 IP RAN Change History IP RAN Description

Change Change Description Parameter Change


Type

Editorial General documentation change: None


change Implementation information has been
moved to a separate document. For
detailed information on implementing
IP RAN, refer to Configuring IP
RAN in RAN Feature Configuration
Guide.
Transport Security of IP RAN is None
merged into 1.3.5 IP RAN VLAN

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IP RAN Description 2 IP RAN Introduction

2 IP RAN Introduction

The IP Radio Access Network (RAN) feature enables IP transport on the Iub, Iur, and Iu
interfaces. This makes it possible for the operators to use their existing IP networks in a larger
and more flexible capacity. In this way, network deployment costs are reduced.
The most widely used data communication networks are based on IP transport. Apart from
being more economical than the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network, the IP
networks offer multiple access modes and provide enough transmission bandwidth for high
speed data services, such as High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA).

IP Interface Boards
To implement the IP RAN feature, the RNC and the NodeB must be configured with the
related IP interface boards. The IP interface boards are as follows:
z IP interface boards for the RNC
PEUa
FG2a
GOUa
UOIa
POUa
z IP interface board for the NodeB
The DBS3800 of earlier versions provides Fast Ethernet (FE) ports.
Therefore, no hardware change is necessary.
The BTS3812E and the BTS3812AE require the Universal Transport Interface Unit
(NUTI) board.
The NUTI board provides eight E1/T1 ports and two FE ports.
The WMPT board provides 4 E1/T1 ports and 2 FE ports, the UTRP board provides 8
E1/T1 ports.

Numbering Schemes
Numbering schemes are used for this feature for FE, GE and E1/T1 ports of the NodeB and
the RNC, and for the RNC Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) links.
Numbering Scheme for FE, GE and E1/T1 Ports

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Table 2-1 describes the numbering scheme for the FE, GE, and E1/T1 ports on the NodeB and
the RNC.

Table 2-1 Numbering scheme for the FE, GE and E1/T1 ports on the NodeB and the RNC

Board Port Type and Number

RNC PEUa E1/T1: 0 to 31


FG2a FE: 0 to 7
Electrical GE: 0 to 1 (corresponding to 0 and 3 of the FE port number).
GOUa Optical GE: 0 to 1
UOIa Unchannelized optical STM-1/OC-3c: 0 to 3
POUa E1: 0 to 125
T1: 0 to 167
NodeB NUTI FE: 0 to 1
E1/T1: 0 to 7
BBU FE: 0 to 1
E1/T1: 0 to 7
WMPT FE: 0 to 1

E1/T1: 0 to 3
UTRP E1/T1: 0 to 7

NOTE:
BBU = Baseband Unit

Numbering Scheme for RNC PPP Links


The numbering scheme that corresponds to the PEUa, POUa, and UOIa for PPP links at the
RNC is as follows:
z PEUa: 0 to 127
z POUa: 0 to 167
z UOIa: 0 to 3

Impact
z Impact on System Performance
This feature has no impact on system performance.
z Impact on Other Features
This feature has no impact on other features.

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IP RAN Description 2 IP RAN Introduction

Network Elements Involved


Table 2-2 describes the Network Elements (NEs) involved in IP RAN.

Table 2-2 NEs involved in IP RAN

UE NodeB RNC MSC Server MGW SGSN GGSN HLR

NOTE:
z : not involved

z : involved
UE = User Equipment, RNC = Radio Network Controller, MSC = Mobile Service Switching Center,
MGW = Media Gateway, SGSN = Serving GPRS Support Node, GGSN = Gateway GPRS Support
Node, HLR = Home Location Register

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IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles

3 IP RAN Principles

About This Chapter

The following table lists the contents of this chapter.

Section Describes

3.1 IP RAN Application The IP RAN application scenarios consist of Iub over
Scenarios Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) network, Iub over IP
network, Iub over hybrid IP transport network, Iub over
IP/ATM network, and Iu/Iur over IP network.
3.2 IP RAN Protocol Stacks This section describes the IP-based protocol stacks on the
Iub, Iu-CS, Iu-PS, and Iur interfaces, protocol stack of
hybrid Iub (over IP/ATM), and the IP-based protocol
stacks at the data link layer.
3.3 IP Addresses and Routes This section describes the IP addresses and routes that are
of IP RAN required for running an IP RAN network.
3.4 IP RAN QoS The assurance mechanisms of QoS are implemented at
the application layer, IP layer, data link layer, and
physical layer
3.5 IP RAN VLAN Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) enhances the IP
transport security. Besides, VLAN provides the priority
service and isolates different users
3.6 IP RAN FP-Mux Frame Protocol Multiplexing (FP-Mux) encapsulates
multiple small FP PDU frames (also called subframes)
into a UDP package, thus improving the transport
efficiency. FP-Mux is only applicable to the user plane
data on the Iub interface based on UDP/IP.
3.7 IP RAN Header Header compression is used to reduce protocol header
Compression overhead of point-to-point links and to improve
bandwidth efficiency.

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Section Describes

3.8 IP RAN Redundancy IP RAN Redundancy discusses the redundancy


mechanism on the RNC side. The redundancy of IP RAN
helps to improve the reliability of IP transport. On the
NodeB side, for distributed NodeBs, the interconnection
of two BBUs can enhance the baseband processing
capability but cannot support the transmission backup
3.9 IP RAN Load Sharing IP RAN load sharing improves the transport efficiency of
IP RAN. Load sharing between FE/GE ports of the RNC
is applicable to layer 3 networking between the RNC and
other NEs, instead of layer 2 networking.

3.10 IP RAN DHCP The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)


dynamically provides configuration parameters for
Internet terminals. The DHCP can automatically allocate
the network address and set up the OM channel for IP
RAN
3.11 IP RAN Transport This section provides information about the transport
Capabilities capabilities related to the IP RAN

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3.1 IP RAN Application Scenarios


The IP RAN application scenarios consist of:
z Iub over Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) Network
z Iub over IP Network
z Iub over hybrid IP transport Network
z Iub over IP/ATM Network
z Iu/Iur over IP Network.

3.1.1 Iub over TDM Network


Figure 3-1 shows the TDM networking mode.

Figure 3-1 TDM networking mode

In the TDM networking mode, the RNC uses the PEUa and POUa as the Iub interface boards.
The RNC and NodeBs support IP over E1/T1, which is based on Plesiochronous Digital
Hierarchy (PDH) or Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH).
The TDM network ensures the reliability, security, and QoS of the Iub interface data
transmission, but the costs of E1 transport are relatively high.

3.1.2 Iub over IP Network


Figure 3-2 shows the IP networking mode.

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Figure 3-2 IP networking mode

In the IP networking mode, the FG2a or GOUa board of the RNC serves as the Iub interface
board and supports board backup, FE/GE port backup, or FE/GE port load sharing.
The IP network can be any of the following types:
z Layer 2 network, for example, metropolitan area Ethernet and VPLS
z Layer 3 network, for example, IP/MPLS/VPN
z Multi-Service Transmission Platform (MSTP) network

3.1.3 Iub over Hybrid IP Transport Network


Figure 3-3 shows the hybrid IP networking mode.

Figure 3-3 Hybrid networking mode

In this networking mode, the PEUa/POUa and FG2a/GOUa boards of the RNC serve as the
Iub interface boards and support FG2a/GOUa board backup, FE/GE port backup, or FE/GE
port load sharing. The POUa supports the board with Multiplex Section Protection (MSP)
backup mode, and port wih MSP backup mode.
In Hybrid IP transport, services with different QoS requirements can be transmitted in
different paths. The two paths from the RNC to the NodeB are connected to two different
networks through different ports, or through the same port that is connected to the external
data equipment according to Differentiated Service Code Point (DSCP).

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z Low QoS network (IP network, such as Ethernet)


The PS interactive and background services that have low QoS are carried on the low
QoS network. When the bandwidth of the low QoS network is limited, low QoS services
are carried on the high QoS network.
z High QoS network (TDM network, such as PDH and SDH)
The control plane data, Radio Resource Control (RRC) signaling, common channel data,
Circuit Switched (CS) services, Packet Switched (PS) conversational services, and
streaming services are carried on the high QoS network. When the bandwidth of the high
QoS network is limited, the RNC reduces the rate of the low QoS services that are
carried on the high QoS network, or the RNC rejects the access of high QoS services if
no low QoS services are carried on the high QoS network.
The hybrid transport network is flexible in terms of meeting different QoS requirements, but it
is complicated to manage.

3.1.4 Iub over IP/ATM Network


With the development of data services, especially with the introduction of High Speed Packet
Access (HSPA), the Iub interface has an increasing demand for the bandwidth. A single ATM
network has high costs. IP transport saves the transmission cost but provides a lower
guarantee of QoS than ATM transport does. Therefore, the ATM/IP networking mode is
introduced. Services with different QoS requirements are transmitted on different types of
network.
Figure 3-4 shows the ATM/IP networking mode.

Figure 3-4 ATM/IP networking mode

The ATM/IP networking mode allows hybrid transport of services with different QoS
requirements. High QoS services, such as voice services, streaming services, and signaling,
are transmitted on the ATM network. Low QoS services, such as PS Best Effort (BE) services,
are transmitted on the IP network.
The ATM and IP interface boards of the RNC must be configured to support this networking
mode. The ATM interface board can be the AEUa, AOUa, or UOIa. The IP interface board can
be the FG2a, GOUa, UOIa, POUa, or PEUa.
z The ATM interface board is connected to the ATM network through the E1/T1 or STM-1
port.
z The IP interface board is connected to the IP network through the FE/GE port.

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The NodeB is connected to the ATM/IP networks through the ATM and IP interface boards
respectively.
In the ATM/IP network, the ATM network ensures the QoS, while the IP network reduces the
transmission costs and fulfills the requirement of high-speed data services for high bandwidth
on the Iub interface. On the other hand, the ATM/IP network requires the maintenance of both
the ATM and the IP networks; thus the maintenance is more complex and expensive.

3.1.5 Iu/Iur over IP Network


Figure 3-5 shows the Iu/Iur networking mode.

Figure 3-5 Iu/Iur over IP network

In this networking mode, the FG2a, GOUa, or UOIa board of the RNC serves as the Iu or Iur
interface board and supports board backup, FE/GE port backup, or FE/GE port load sharing.
The IP network can be any of the following three types:
z Layer 2 network, for example, metropolitan area Ethernet and VPLS
z Layer 3 network, for example, IP/MPLS VPN
z Multi-Service Transmission Platform (MSTP) network

3.2 IP RAN Protocol Stacks


The IP RAN protocol stacks consist of:
z Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP)
z Protocol Stack of Hybrid Iub (over IP /TM)
z Protocol Stack of Iu-CS (over IP)
z Protocol Stack of Iu-PS (over IP)
z Protocol Stack of Iur (over IP)
z Protocols of Data Link Layer

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3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP)


The protocol stack of Iub (over IP) is the Iub IP protocol. Data transmission on the Iub
interface is based on the IP transport.

Figure 3-6 Protocol stack of Iub (over IP)

Figure 3-6 shows the protocol stack of Iub (over IP).


z The control plane data is carried on the SCTP link.
z The user plane data is carried on the IP path.
z The data link layer can use IP over E1/T1, IP over Ethernet, IP over E1/T1 over SDH, or
IP over SDH.

Transport Mode Configuration on the RNC Side


To support Iub (over IP), associated parameters are configured as follows:
z The IUB trans bearer type parameter is set to IP_TRANS.
z The Adjacent Node Type parameter is set to IUB.
z The Transport Type parameter is set to IP.

Transport Mode Configuration on the NodeB Side


If E1/T1 is used for transport on the NodeB side, the Bearing Mode parameter for E1/T1
must be set to IPV4.

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IP Path
An IP path is a group of connections between the RNC and the NodeB. An Iub interface has at
least one IP path. It is recommended that more than one IP path be planned.

IP Path Configuration on the RNC Side


The parameters for establishing an IP path on the RNC side are as follows:
z Local IP address
z Peer IP address
z Peer subnet mask
z IP path type
z DSCP

IP Path Configuration on the NodeB Side


The parameters for establishing an IP path on the NodeB side are as follows:
z Port Type
z NodeB IP address
z RNC IP address
z Traffic Type
z Differentiated Services Code Point

SCTP Link
An SCTP link carries signaling messages on the Iub interface. The signaling messages carried
on the SCTP link are classified into NCP and CCP, as described in Table 3-1.

Table 3-1 Signaling messages carried on SCTP links

Type Description

NCP An NCP carries common process messages of NBAP over the Iub interface. An
Iub interface has only one NCP.
CCP A CCP carries dedicated process messages of NBAP over the Iub interface. An
Iub interface may have multiple CCPs. The number of CCPs depends on network
planning.

NOTE:
NCP = NodeB Control Port, CCP = Communication Control Port

The Signalling link model parameter of an SCTP link can be SERVER or CLIENT.

SCTP Link Configuration on the RNC side


Iub control plane data is carried on the SCTP link. An SCTP endpoint can use two local
addresses, but these two must use the same port number. This mechanism is called
multi-homing.

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In Iub IP transport, the Signalling link model parameter has to be set to SERVER when you
configure an SCTP link on the RNC side.
The parameters for establishing an SCTP link on the RNC side are as follows:
z Signalling link model
z First local IP address
z Second local IP address
z First destination IP address
z Second destination IP address
z Local SCTP port No.
z Destination SCTP port No.

The second local IP address and the second peer IP address must be configured together.

NCP and CCP Configuration on the RNC Side


On the RNC side, the NodeB Control Port (NCP) link and Communication Control Port (CCP)
link are carried on the SCTP link. That is, the Bearing link type parameter has to be set to
SCTP.
The parameters for establishing the NCP link and CCP link are as follows:
z SCTP link No.
z Bearing link type

SCTP Link Configuration on the NodeB Side


The parameters for establishing an SCTP link on the NodeB side are as follows:
z Local IP address
z Second Local IP address
z Peer IP address
z Second Peer IP address
z Local SCTP Port
z Peer SCTP Port

NCP and CCP Configuration on the NodeB Side


On the NodeB side, the NCP link and CCP link are carried on the SCTP link. That is, the Bear
Type parameter has to be set to IPV4.

OM Channel
OM channel is used to maintain and configure the NodeB remotely. There are two methods to
configure routes for the OM channel on the Iub interface:
z Configuring routes between the M2000 and the NodeB through the RNC.
z Configuring routes between the M2000 and the NodeB not through the RNC.

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Figure 3-7 shows an example of configuring routes between the M2000 and the NodeB
through the RNC.

Figure 3-7 Example of configuring routes between the M2000 and the NodeB through the RNC

Figure 3-7 takes layer 2 networking on the Iub interface as an example. When layer 3 networking is
applied to the Iub interface, the IP interface board and the NodeB communicate through a router.

If the OM subnet where the M2000 is located is connected to the IP network that covers the
NodeB, the routes can be configured between the M2000 and the NodeB not through the RNC.
Figure 3-8 shows an example of configuring routes between the M2000 and the NodeB not
through the RNC.

Figure 3-8 Example of configuring routes between the M2000 and the NodeB not through the
RNC

OM Channel Configuration on the RNC Side


For detailed information about the OM channel configuration on the RNC side, see 3.10 IP
RAN DHCP.

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OM Channel Configuration on the NodeB Side


The parameters for establishing an OM channel on the NodeB side are as follows:
z Local IP Address
z Local IP Mask
z Peer IP address
z Peer IP Mask
z Bear Type

Other Data Configuration on the RNC Side and NodeB Side


To enable Iub (over IP) transport, the other data (such as the physical layer data, data link
layer data, mapping between transmission and traffic, and factor table) has to be configured.
For detailed information about these configurations, refer to the RNC Initial Configuration
Guide and the NodeB Initial Configuration Guide.

3.2.2 Protocol Stack of Hybrid Iub (over IP /TM)


In hybrid Iub transmission (over IP/ATM), data transmission on the Iub interface is based on
both ATM transport and IP transport.

Figure 3-9 Protocol stack of Iub (over IP/ATM)

Figure 3-9 shows the protocol stack of Iub (over IP/ATM).


With the introduction of Iub (over IP/ATM), the data between RNC and NodeB can be
transmitted on two networks: ATM network and IP network.

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z On the ATM network


Iub control plane data is carried on the SAAL link.
Iub user plane data is carried on the AAL2 path.
z On the IP network
Iub control plane data is carried on the SCTP link.
Iub user plane data is carried on the IP path.

Transport Mode Configuration on the RNC Side


To support Iub (over ATM/IP), associated parameters are configured as follows:
z The IUB trans bearer type parameter is set to ATMANDIP_TRANS.
z The Adjacent Node Type parameter is set to IUB.
z The Transport Type parameter is set to ATM_IP.

IP Path and SCTP Link Configuration on the RNC and NodeB Sides
The parameters for IP path and SCTP link on the RNC and NodeB sides are similar to those
for Iub (over IP). For detailed information, see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP).

AAL2 Path
An AAL2 path is a group of connections between the RNC and the NodeB. An Iub interface
has at least one AAL2 path. It is recommended more than one AAL2 path be planned.
An AAL2 path is carried on a PVC. The PVC identifier (VPI/VCI) and other attributes of the
PVC must be negotiated between the RNC and the NodeB.

AAL2 Path Configuration on the RNC Side


The parameters for establishing an AAL2 path on the RNC side are as follows:
z Adjacent node ID
z AAL2 path ID
For detailed information about AAL2 path resources, see ATM Transmission Resources.

AAL2 Path Configuration on the NodeB Side


The parameters for establishing an AAL2 path on the NodeB side are as follows:
z AAL2 path ID
z Node Type
z Path Type

SAAL Link of User Network Interface (UNI) Type


An SAAL link of UNI type carries signaling messages on the Iub interface. The signaling
messages carried on the SAAL links are categorized into NCP, CCP, and ALCAP, as described
in Table 3-2:

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Table 3-2 The type of the signaling messages carried on the SAAL links

Type Description

NCP An NCP carries common process messages of NBAP over the Iub interface. The
Iub interface has only one NCP.
CCP A CCP carries dedicated process messages of NBAP over the Iub interface. The
Iub interface may have multiple CCPs. The number of CCPs depends on
network planning.
ALCAP The ALCAP is also called Q.AAL2. Typically, the Iub interface has one
ALCAP.

An SAAL link of UNI type is carried on a PVC. The PVC identifier (VPI/VCI) and other
attributes of the PVC must be negotiated between the RNC and the NodeB.

SAAL Link Configuration on the RNC Side


The parameters for establishing an SAAL link on the RNC side are described as follows:
z Interface type
z Bearing VPI
z Bearing VCI

NCP and CCP Configuration on the RNC Side


It is recommended that all Iub control plane data be carried on the ATM network when Iub is
carried on both ATM and IP. In this case, Bearing link type of the NCP and CCP should be
set to SAAL.
z Bearing link type
z SAAL link No.

SAAL Link Configuration on the NodeB Side


The parameters for establishing an SAAL link on the NodeB side are as follows:
z Bearing VPI
z Bearing VCI

NCP and CCP Configuration on the NodeB Side


It is recommended that all Iub control plane data be carried on the ATM network when Iub is
carried on both ATM and IP. In this case, NCP/CCP Bearing Type of the NCP and CCP
should be set to ATM.

OM Channel Configuration on the RNC and NodeB Sides


The parameters for OM channel on the RNC side and NodeB side are similar to those for Iub
(over IP). For detailed information, see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP).

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Other Data Configuration on the RNC and NodeB Sides


To enable Iub (over ATM/IP) transport, the other data (such as the physical layer data, data
link layer data, mapping between transmission and traffic, and factor table) has to be
configured. For detailed information about these configurations, refer to the RNC Initial
Configuration Guide and the NodeB Initial Configuration Guide.

3.2.3 Protocol Stack of Iu-CS (over IP)


The protocol stack of Iu-CS (over IP) is the Iu-CS IP protocol. Data transmission on the Iu-CS
interface is based on the IP transport.

Figure 3-10 Protocol stack of Iu-CS (over IP)

Figure 3-10 shows the protocol stack of Iu-CS (over IP).


z The control plane data is carried on the SCTP link.
z The user plane data is carried on the IP path.

Transport Mode Configuration on the RNC Side


To support Iu-CS (over IP), associated parameters are configured as follows:
z The CN domain ID parameter is set to CS_DOMAIN.
z The IU trans bearer type parameter is set to IP_TRANS.
z The Adjacent Node Type parameter is set to IUCS.
z The Transport Type parameter is set to IP.

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IP Path Configuration on the RNC Side


The parameters for IP path on the RNC side are similar to those for Iub (over IP). For details,
see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP).

SCTP Link Configuration on the RNC Side


The parameters for SCTP link on the RNC side are similar to those for Iub (over IP). For
details, see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP).

Other Data Configuration on the RNC Side


To enable Iu-CS (over IP) transport, the other data (such as the physical layer data, data link
layer data, mapping between transmission and traffic, factor table, and data of M3UA) has to
be configured. For details about these configurations, refer to the RNC Initial Configuration
Guide.

3.2.4 Protocol Stack of Iu-PS (over IP)


The protocol stack of Iu-PS (over IP) is Iu-PS IP protocol. Data transmission on the Iu-PS
interface is based on the IP transport.

Figure 3-11 Protocol stack of Iu-PS (over IP)

Figure 3-11 shows the protocol stack of Iu-PS (over IP).


z The control plane data is carried on the SCTP link.
z The user plane data is carried on the IP path.

Transport Mode Configuration on the RNC Side


To support Iu-PS (over IP), associated parameters are configured as follows:

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z The CN domain ID parameter is set to PS_DOMAIN.


z The IU trans bearer type parameter is set to IP_TRANS.
z The Adjacent Node Type parameter is set to IUPS.
z The Transport Type parameter is set to IP.
The parameters for transport mode are similar to those for Iu-CS (over IP). For detailed
information, see 3.2.3 Protocol Stack of Iu-CS (over IP).

IP Path Configuration on the RNC Side


The parameters for IP path on the RNC side are similar to those for Iub (over IP). For detailed
information, see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP).

SCTP Link Configuration on the RNC Side


The parameters for SCTP link on the RNC side are similar to those for Iub (over IP). For
detailed information, see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP)..

Other Data Configuration on the RNC Side


To enable Iu-PS (over IP) transport, the other data (such as the physical layer data, data link
layer data, mapping between transmission and traffic, factor table, and data of M3UA) has to
be configured. For detailed information about these configurations, refer to the RNC Initial
Configuration Guide.

3.2.5 Protocol Stack of Iur (over IP)


The protocol stack of Iur (over IP) is Iur IP protocol. Data transmission on the Iur interface is
based on the IP transport.

Figure 3-12 Protocol stack of Iur (over IP)

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Figure 3-12 shows the protocol stack of Iur (over IP), where:
z The control plane data is carried on the SCTP link.
z The user plane data is carried on the IP path.

Transport Mode Configuration on the RNC Side


To support Iur (over IP), associated parameters are configured as follows:
z The Iur Interface Existing Indication parameter is set to TRUE.
z The IUR trans bearer type parameter is set to IP_TRANS.
z The Adjacent Node Type parameter is set to IUR.
z The Transport Type parameter is set to IP.

IP Path Configuration on the RNC Side


The parameters for IP path on the RNC side are similar to those for Iub (over IP). For detailed
information, see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP)..

SCTP Link Configuration on the RNC Side


The parameters for SCTP link on the RNC side are similar to those for Iub (over IP). For
detailed information, see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP)..

Other Data Configuration on the RNC Side


To enable Iur (over IP) transport, the other data (such as the physical layer data, data link
layer data, mapping between transmission and traffic, factor table, and data of M3UA) has to
be configured. For detailed information about these configurations, refer to the RNC Initial
Configuration Guide.

3.2.6 Protocols of Data Link Layer


The protocols at the data link layer consist of Ethernet, PPP/MLPPP, MCPPP, and PPPMux.

Ethernet
Ethernet is a standard that was jointly released by Digital Equipment Corp., Intel Corp., and
Xerox in 1982. It is the most widely used Local Area Network (LAN) technology based on
TCP/IP and CSMA/CD access method.
The MAC addressing scheme of Ethernet helps to resolve the addressing problem of entities
within the Ethernet. Each MAC address has 48 bits and the addresses are assigned worldwide
under the same rule.
The earliest Ethernet packet encapsulation format complies with Ethernet 802.3 defined by
IEEE and the most common format now is Ethernet II specified by RFC0826. The NodeB and
the RNC can transmit frames in Ethernet II format and receive frames in Ethernet 802.3 and
Ethernet II formats.

PPP/MLPPP
The PPP provides standard methods for encapsulating the multi-protocol datagrams on
point-to-point links. These datagrams consist of IP, IPX, and Apple Talk.

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MLPPP (MP) is used to combine multiple physical links into a logical link. Therefore, it
provides a relatively high bandwidth and facilitates quick data transfer. MLPPP
implementation is shown in Figure 3-13.

Figure 3-13 MLPPP implementation

MCPPP
MCPPP (MC) is an extension of the MLPPP protocol and provides more priorities. Packets
with a higher priority can interrupt the transmission of those with a lower priority. The MC
protocol is implemented in compliance with RFC2686.
The bits, responsible for marking the priority of a packet, in the MLPPP header are not used
in the MLPPP protocol. These bits are the two bits after the E flag bit in the short sequence, or
the four bits after the E flag bit in the long sequence. Packets at each priority level have their
own MLPPP mechanism, for example, independent sequence number and reassembly queue.
z The parameter on the RNC side is MLPPP type.
z The parameter on the NodeB side is MCPPP.

PPPMux
PPPMux encapsulates multiple PPP frames (also called subframes) in a single PPPMux frame.
The subframes in the PPPMux frame are distinguished by delimiters. PPPMux reduces PPP
overhead per packet and improves bandwidth efficiency. PPPMux is implemented in
compliance with RFC3153.
z The parameter on the RNC side is PPP mux.
z The parameter on the NodeB side is PPP MuxCP.

3.3 IP Addresses and Routes of IP RAN


This section describes the IP addresses and routes that are required for running an IP RAN
network..

3.3.1 Two Networking Types on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS


Interfaces
There are two types of networking on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interfaces: layer 2 networking
and layer 3 networking.

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Layer 2 Networking
Compared with layer 3 networking, layer 2 networking is simpler. That is because the port IP
addresses of the RNC, NodeB, and neighboring RNC, MGW and SGSN are located in the
same network segment and no route is required.
Figure 3-14 shows an example of layer 2 networking on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interfaces.

Figure 3-14 Layer 2 networking on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interfaces

z IP 1 is the interface IP address on the IP interface board.


z In layer 2 networking mode, the interface IP addresses of the RNC and NodeBs are in the same
network segment. A route is not necessary in this case, which makes the networking relatively
simple.

Layer 3 Networking
Figure 3-15 shows an example of layer 3 networking on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interface.

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Figure 3-15 Layer 3 networking on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interface

z IP 1 and IP 2 are device IP addresses of the IP interface board. One interface board supports a
maximum of five device IP addresses. The device IP addresses configured on the same interface
board cannot be located in the same subnet.
z IP 3 and IP 4 are port IP addresses of the IP interface board.
z IP 5 and IP 6 are gateway IP addresses on the RNC side.
z IP 7 is the gateway IP address on the NodeB/neighboring RNC/MGW/SGSN side.
z IP 8 is the IP address of the NodeB/neighboring RNC/MGW/SGSN.

3.3.2 Route on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS Interface


On the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interface where layer 2 networking is applied, no route is required.
On the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interface where layer 3 networking is applied, you should
configure the route, as described in Table 3-3 on the RNC.

Table 3-3 Route on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interface


Part Route Description

IP interface board The route travels from the RNC to the network segment where the
NodeB/neighboring RNC/MGW/SGSN is located.
You can run the ADD IPRT command on the RNC to configure the
route. Destination IP address is the address of the network segment
where the NodeB/neighboring RNC/MGW/SGSN is located, and Next
hop IP address, for example, IP 5 or IP 6, is the gateway IP address
on the RNC side.

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3.3.3 IP Addresses for SCTP Links and IP Paths Between RNC


and NodeB
Figure 3-16 shows the IP addresses assigned to SCTP links and IP paths between RNC and
NodeB.

Figure 3-16 IP addresses for SCTP links and IP paths between RNC and NodeB

IP1-0 and IP2-0: IP addresses for SCTP links on the NodeB side
IP1-1 and IP2-1: IP addresses for SCTP links on the RNC side
IP3-0: IP address for the IP paths on the NodeB side
IP3-1: IP address for the IP paths on the RNC side

Figure 3-16 shows two interconnected BBUs on the NodeB side as an example. When two
BBUs are interconnected through the EIa ports, the two BBUs are regarded as one NodeB on
the RNC side. On the NodeB side, BBU1, which is connected to the transport network
between RNC and NodeB, is an active BBU, while BBU2 is a standby BBU. The IP addresses
of the NodeB for communicating with the RNC are configured only on BBU1. The data of the
Iub interface is sent or received through the FE/E1 ports of BBU1, as shown in Figure 3-16.

You can specify the active BBU and standby BBU by setting the Dual-In-line Package (DIP) switch. For
detailed information about the DIP switch, see DIP Switch on the BBU3806 or DIP Switch on the
BBU3806C in the DBS3800 Hardware Description.
z IP1-0 and IP 2-0 are configured as the first local IP address and the second local IP
address respectively for the SCTP links on the NodeB side. IP1-1 and IP2-1 are
configured accordingly on the RNC side. The first local IP address and the second local
IP address cannot be the same. When the first local IP address for the SCTP links is
unavailable, the data on the SCTP links is transmitted through the second local IP
address.
When the layer 2 or TDM networking is applied, IP1-0, IP1-1, IP2-0, and IP2-1 are
the IP addresses of the port (FE/GE/PPP/MLPPP). IP1-0 and IP1-1 are within the
same network segment, and the same is true for IP2-0 and IP2-1.
When the layer 3 networking is applied, IP1-0 and IP2-0 are the IP addresses of the
FE ports, and IP1-1 and IP2-1 are the device IP addresses. IP1-0 and IP1-1 do not
stay within the same network segment, and the same is true for IP2-0 and IP2-1.
z IP paths between RNC and NodeB do not work in backup mode.

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When the layer 2 or TDM networking is applied, IP3-0 and IP3-1 are IP addresses of
the port (FE/PPP/MLPPP). IP3-0 and IP3-1 are within the same network segment.
When the layer 3 networking is applied, IP3-0 is IP address of the FE port and IP3-1
is the device IP address. IP3-0 and IP3-1 do not stay within the same network
segment.

3.4 IP RAN QoS


The assurance mechanisms of QoS are implemented at the application layer, IP layer, data
link layer, and physical layer.
Table 3-4 describes the assurance mechanisms of the QoS.

Table 3-4 Assurance mechanisms of the QoS

Layer Mechanism

Application layer Admission control and congestion control


IP layer Differentiated Service
Data link layer Priority Queue (PQ)
Physical layer Rate Limiting (RL) at the physical port

3.4.1 Admission Control and Congestion Control


For detailed information about admission control and congestion control, see Admission
Control and Congestion Control.

3.4.2 Differentiated Service


Figure 3-17 shows the differentiated service process.

Figure 3-17 Differentiated service process

Table 3-5 describes the differentiated service process. The classification and adjustment of
traffic usually happen at the network edge.

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Table 3-5 Differentiated service process

Operation Description

Classifying the service Traffic classification enables different types of services that are
implemented by setting different values.
Adjusting Metering The data rate is metered and the The adjustment of
the service subsequent shaping and scheduling service ensures that the
are based on the metering. traffic flow involving
differentiated services
Marking The packets are marked with complies with TCA.
different colors according to Traffic
Conditioning Agreement (TCA).
Shaping The packets in the traffic flow are
delayed as required by the service
model.
Dropping Non-TCA-supportive packets are
dropped.

3.4.3 PQ and RL
The principles of PQ and RL are considered together. The PQs are configured automatically in
the NodeB. When the actual bandwidth exceeds the specified bandwidth, the system buffers
the congested data or discards it to ensure a specified bandwidth at the physical port. When
the physical port is congested, the system discards the message with lower priority according
to the PQ principle.
Table 3-6 describes the rules for PQs based on the three Most Significant Bits (MSBs) of the
DSCP.

Table 3-6 Rules for PQs in NodeB


MSBs of the DSCP PQ

110 or 111 The urgent queue is used by default. No manual configuration of the
PQ is necessary.
101 TOP
100 or 011 MIDDLE
010 or 001 NORMAL
0 BOTTOM

The parameters for setting the priorities for data transmission on the NodeB side are as
follows:
z Signaling priority
z OM priority

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The RNC IP interface boards (PEUa/FG2a/GOUa/POUa/UOIa) support six priority queues


numbered from 0 to 5 in a descending order. The top two priority queues adopt PQ scheduling
and the other four queues of lower priority employ Weighted Round Robin (WRR) scheduling.
For details of the mapping between the DSCP values and the IP port queues, refer to
Differentiated Service in Transmission Resource Management document.

3.5 IP RAN VLAN


Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) enhances the IP transport security. Besides, VLAN
provides the priority service and isolates different users.

3.5.1 Ensuring Security


Compared with the TDM network, the IP network has relatively low security. VLAN
combined with Virtual Private Network (VPN), however, ensures the IP transport security.
Figure 3-18 shows the VLAN and VPN implementation. The security of VLANs is
implemented at the NodeB and the RNC, and that of the VPNs is implemented by external
equipment.

Figure 3-18 IP network security

3.5.2 Providing Priority Service


Figure 3-19 shows a typical example of the VLAN solution on the VLAN on the Iub interface.
In this solution, the Multi-Service Transmission Platform (MSTP) network provides two
Ethernets carried on two Virtual Channel (VC) trunks, respectively.
z One Ethernet is a private network for the real-time services of multiple NodeBs without
the influence of other customers. This Ethernet is used to carry services of high priority.
z The other Ethernet is a public network for the non-real-time services of multiple NodeBs
and can be shared with other customers. The services are prone to the influence of other
customers. Thus, this Ethernet is used to carry services of low priority.

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Figure 3-19 Typical solution of the VLAN on Iub

Red line: private network


Blue line: public network
Black line: connection between the routers

The VLANID Flag parameter indicates whether VLAN is enabled or not. The NodeB and the
RNC identify the service QoS through Vlan priority in the VLAN tag. Each NodeB or the
RNC provides an Ethernet port to connect to the MSTP network. The MSTP transmits the
Ethernet data to either of the VC trunks according to Vlan priority in the VLAN tag. Each
VC trunk supports up to two QoS classes. In the same VC trunk, the data of different NodeBs
is identified by different VLAN ID parameters.
The VLAN tag contains a 2-byte Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) and a 2-byte Tag Control
Information (TCI).
z TPID is defined by the IEEE and is used to indicate that the frame is attached with an
802.1Q tag. VLAN TPID has a fixed value 0x8100.
z TCI contains the frame control information and consists of the following items:
Priority: a 3-bit field that indicates the frame priority. The eight values, from 0 to 7,
represent eight priorities. The priority field is defined in the IEEE 802.1Q protocol.
Canonical Format Indicator (CFI): a 1-bit field. The value 0 indicates the canonical
format and 1 indicates the non-canonical format. CFI specifies the bit sequence of the
address contained in the encapsulated frame in the token ring or source route FDDI
media access method.
VLAN Identifier (VLAN ID): a 12-bit field that indicates the VLAN ID. It represents
4096 IDs. The frame, which complies with 802.1Q, contains this field and indicates
which VLAN the frame belongs to.
The NodeB attaches VLAN tags to the frames that are sent from the Ethernet port, but does
not attach VLAN tags to the frames that are received from the Ethernet port.
When the NodeB supports the VLAN, it attaches diverse tags to different traffic flows to
enable the traffic flow transmission in different VLAN channels.
The parameters on the NodeB side are as follows:
z Traffic Type

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z User Data Service Priority


z Insert VLAN Tag
z Vlan Id
z Vlan priority

On the RNC side, the NodeB detection function can be started through the MML command STR
NODEBDETECT in order to periodically send the VLAN IDs to the NodeBs. By this means, when a
new NodeB is set up or a NodeB recovers from the fault, the NodeB can automatically obtain its VLAN
ID from the RNC.

3.6 IP RAN FP-Mux


Frame Protocol Multiplexing (FP-Mux) encapsulates multiple small FP PDU frames (also
called subframes) into a UDP package, thus improving the transport efficiency. FP-Mux is
only applicable to the user plane data on the Iub interface based on UDP/IP.
Figure 3-20 shows the UDP/IP package format when FP-Mux is applied.

Figure 3-20 FP-Mux UDP/IP package format

To enable FP-Mux, the FPMUX flag parameter has to be set to YES. Max subframe length
indicates the maximum length of the subframe. Maximum Frame Length indicates the
maximum length of the frame of the FP-Mux UPD/IP package. The UDP package frame is
sent out once the time set by FPTIME expires.

FP-Mux is applicable to frames with the same priority, that is, frames of the same DSCP value.

3.7 IP RAN Header Compression


Header compression is used to reduce protocol header overhead of point-to-point links and to
improve bandwidth efficiency.

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The RNC and the NodeB support the following three header compression methods:
z Address and Control Field Compression (ACFC)
z Protocol Field Compression (PFC)
z IP Header Compression (IPHC)

3.7.1 ACFC
ACFC, which complies with RFC 1661, is used to compress the address and control fields of
PPP protocol. These fields usually contain constant values for PPP links. It is unnecessary to
transport the whole fields every time. If ACFC passes the negotiation during the PPP Link
Control Protocol (LCP), the address and control fields (0xFF03) of subsequent packets can be
compressed.

3.7.2 PFC
PFC, which complies with RFC 1661, is used to compress the protocol field of PPP. PFC can
compress the 2-byte protocol field into a 1-byte one.
The compression complies with the ISO3309 extension mechanism, that is, a binary 0 in the
Least Significant Bit (LSB) indicates that the protocol field contains two bytes, and the other
byte follows this byte. And a binary 1 in the LSB indicates that the protocol field contains one
byte, and this byte is the last one. The majority of packets are compressible, because the
protocol fields assigned are usually less than 256.

3.7.3 IPHC
IPHC, which complies with RFC 2507 and RFC 3544, is used to compress the IP/UDP header
of PPP links. IPHC improves bandwidth efficiency in the following two ways:
z The unchanged header fields in packet (IP/UDP) headers are not carried by each packet.
z The header fields that vary with specified modes are replaced with fewer bits.
The header context is established on both ends of a link when packets with complete headers
are sent occasionally. Thus the compressed packets can retrieve their original headers
according to the context and the changed fields.
z The parameter on the RNC side is Head compress.
z The parameter on the NodeB side is IP Head compress.

3.8 IP RAN Redundancy


IP RAN Redundancy discusses the redundancy mechanism on the RNC side. The redundancy
of IP RAN helps to improve the reliability of IP transport. On the NodeB side, for distributed
NodeBs, the interconnection of two BBUs can enhance the baseband processing capability but
cannot support the transmission backup.

3.8.1 Single-Homing Layer 3 Networking


In the single-homing layer 3 networking, the FG2a or GOUa board of the RNC serves as the
interface board and supports board backup and FE/GE port backup.

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Figure 3-21 shows the single-homing layer 3 networking. The FE/GE ports on the RNC serve
the IP transport.

Figure 3-21 Single-homing layer 3 networking

In this networking mode, the FE/GE ports of the RNC are configured for backup. The active
and standby FE/GE ports of the RNC are connected to the Provider Edge (PE), which are
further connected to the IP network. The active and standby FE/GE ports of the RNC share
one IP address, IP 1-0. The PE configures the active and standby ports of the RNC in one
VLAN and uses one interface IP address of the VLAN, IP 1-1.

The GE optical ports on the GOUa board are applicable when the RNC is far away from the PE, and the
FE/GE electrical ports on the FG2a board are applicable when the distance between the RNC and the PE
is within 100 m.

3.8.2 Dual-Homing Layer 3 Networking


In the dual-homing layer 3 networking, the FG2a or GOUa board of the RNC serves as the
interface board and supports board backup and FE/GE port backup.
Figure 3-22 shows the dual-homing layer 3 networking. The FE/GE ports on the RNC serve
the IP transport.

Figure 3-22 Dual-homing layer 3 networking

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In this networking mode, the FE/GE ports of the RNC are configured for backup. The active
and standby FE/GE ports of the RNC are connected to two PEs, which are further connected
to the IP network. Complying with the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP), the two
PEs provide redundancy-based protection for the data transmitted from the RNC. One PE
connects to the other through two GE ports. Link Aggregation (LAG) is applied to the
interconnection links between the PEs to increase the bandwidth and reliability of the links.
The active and standby FE/GE ports of the RNC share one IP address, IP 1-0. The PEs
configure the active and standby ports of the RNC in one VLAN and use one virtual VRRP IP
address, IP 1-1.

The GE optical ports on the GOUa board are applicable when the RNC is far away from the PE, and the
FE/GE electrical ports on the FG2a board are applicable when the distance between the RNC and the PE
is within 100 m.

3.8.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Networking


Single-homing layer 3 networking provides redundancy-based protection for FE/GE links.
The single PE saves the networking costs, but cannot provide PE-level protection.
Dual-homing layer 3 networking provides redundancy-based protection not only for FE/GE
links, but also for PE devices. But the dual PEs have high networking costs.

3.8.4 Configuration on the RNC Side


To support the backup of the interface board, the Backup parameter has to be set to YES.
The parameters on the RNC side are as follows:
z Board type
z Backup
When the interface board is set to the backup mode, run the ADD ETHREDPORT command
to set the backup mode of the associated ports.
The parameter involved is Port No..

For detailed information about board redundancy and port redundancy, see RNC Parts Reliability in the
RNC Product Description.

3.8.5 Fault Detection


In addition to the UP/DOWN detection performed at the physical link layer, the fault
detection between the RNC and the Provider Edge (PE) involves the Bidirectional Forwarding
Detection (BFD) and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) detection. The BFD or ARP
detection are applied on the layer 3 (L3) detection, which can also detect other faults, such as
soft transfer. When the BFD or ARP detection finds a fault, the switchover between FE/GE
ports will be triggered. The application of the BFD or ARP detection can increase the fault
detection rate and enhance the reliability. The BFD is preferred since it has a quick and
bidirectional detection.

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z The ARP detection is used only when the peer equipment does not support the BFD, because the
ARP detection is unidirectional.
z The ARP message is a broadcast message; therefore, if there is a relatively large L2 broadcast
domain between the RNC and the L3 equipment, a broadcast storm may easily occur. But if the
RNC and the L3 equipment are directly connected, a broadcast storm never occurs.

The following tables describe the parameters of the Fault Detection:


z Gateway IP address
z Check type
z Port work mode
z Min interval of BFD packet send [ms]
z Min interval of BFD packet receive [ms]
z detect multiplier of BFD packet

3.9 IP RAN Load Sharing


IP RAN load sharing improves the transport efficiency of IP RAN. Load sharing between
FE/GE ports of the RNC is applicable to layer 3 networking between the RNC and other NEs,
instead of layer 2 networking.

3.9.1 Load Sharing Layer 3 Networking


The RNC supports load sharing between FE/GE ports that are located either on the same
board or on the active and standby boards. The RNC supports load sharing between up to
three FE/GE ports.
Figure 3-23 shows the load sharing layer 3 networking of IP RAN. If there are two ports for
load sharing, they are located on the active and standby boards.

Figure 3-23 Load sharing layer 3 networking

In this scenario, the FG2a or GOUa board of the RNC serves as the interface board, and
supports board backup and FE/GE port apart.
The two FE/GE ports on the active and standby boards are configured with IP addresses of
different network segments, IP 1-0 and IP 2-0. The PE configures the corresponding IP
addresses, IP 1-1 and IP 2-1. The data to the destination IP address is shared by the two routes.

The load sharing ports on the RNC can be connected to one PE or two different PEs.

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3.9.2 Advantage and Disadvantage of the Networking


In the load sharing layer 3 networking, the data traffic is shared by the ports to avoid the
occasion when some ports are busy while others are idle, thus improving the transmission
efficiency. This network solution, however, does not provide redundancy for data transmission.
A port failure will lead to the decline of transmission capacity.

3.9.3 Configuration on the RNC Side


To support the load sharing between the ports located on the active and standby boards, the
Backup parameter should be set to NO. For detailed information about the parameters, see
3.8 IP RAN Redundancy.

For details about board redundancy, port redundancy, and port load sharing, refer to RNC Parts
Reliability in the RNC Product Description

3.10 IP RAN DHCP


The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) dynamically provides configuration
parameters for network terminals. The DHCP can automatically allocate the network address
and set up the OM channel for IP RAN.
The DHCP has the following characteristics:
z Working in the Client/Server mode. When receiving the request from a client, the server
provides parameters such as the IP address, gateway address, DNS server address for the
client.
z Simplifying IP address management.
z Enabling centralized IP address management.
z Complying with RFC 2131 and RFC 2132.
In the DHCP procedure, the RNC works as the DHCP server and the NodeBs work as DHCP
clients. The NodeB can automatically obtain the IP address to set up the OM channel. Figure
3-24 shows the DHCP procedure.

Figure 3-24 DHCP procedure

The four basic phases of the DHCP procedure are as follows:


Step 1 DHCP discovery: The NodeB broadcasts DHCPDISCOVER packets to find the RNC.

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Step 2 DHCP offer: The RNC sends the configuration information such as IP addresses to the NodeB
through DHCPOFFER packets.
Step 3 DHCP selection: The NodeB selects an IP address from the DHCPOFFER packets and then
responds by broadcasting DHCPREQUEST packets.
Step 4 DHCP acknowledgement: The RNC responds by sending DHCPACK packets to the NodeB.
The parameters on the RNC side are as follows:
z The First Serial Number
z The Second Serial Number
z IP Address
----End

3.11 IP RAN Transport Capabilities


IP RAN Transport Capabilities provides information about the transport capabilities related to
the IP RAN.

3.11.1 RNC IP Transport Capabilities


Table 3-7 describes the IP transport capabilities at the RNC.

Table 3-7 IP transport capabilities at the RNC

Item Sub-Item Description

Physical interfaces Board At most 14 per RBS and 10 per RSS


FE port 4 FEs per sub-board and 2 sub-boards
per board
GE port 1 GE per sub-board and 2 sub-boards
per board
E1/T1 32 E1s/T1s per sub-board and 1
sub-board per board
IP version IP protocol version IPv4
Layer 2 protocols MAC/FE or MAC/GE Supported
PPP/E1 Supported
PPPmux/E1 Supported
ML PPP/E1 Supported
MC PPP/E1 Supported
PPP/E1/SDH Supported
PPPmux/E1/SDH Supported
ML PPP/E1/SDH Supported

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Item Sub-Item Description

MC PPP/E1/SDH Supported
PPP/SDH Supported
PPPmux/SDH Supported
QoS DiffServ Supported
Header compression IP Header Compression Supported (on E1)
over PPP (RFC 2507)
Reliability Port backup Supported (FG2a/GOUa/POUa/UOIa
inter-board level)
Board backup Supported (all the interface boards)

NOTE:
RBS = RNC Business Subrack, RSS = RNC Switch Subrack, IPv4 = Internet Protocol version 4, MAC =
Media Access Control, PPPMux = PPP Multiplexing, ML PPP = Multi-Link PPP, MC PPP = Multi-Class
PPP, SDH = Synchronous Digital Hierarchy, QoS = Quality of Service, DiffServ = Differentiated
Services

3.11.2 BBU IP Transport Capabilities


Table 3-8 describes the IP transport capabilities at the BBU.

Table 3-8 IP transport capabilities at the BBU (DBS3800 and iDBS3800)

Item Quantity/Location Flow Protocol

E1/T1 8 per BBU PPP


FE 2 per BBU MAC
IPoA client 1 per BBU ATM
Maintenance flow on the Iub 1 per BBU Low TCP
interface
Traffic flow Several per BBU High UDP
Signaling flow Several per BBU Medium SCTP
IP route flow Several per BBU High IP

NOTE:
IPoA = IP over ATM, TCP = Transfer Control Protocol, UDP = User Datagram Protocol, SCTP = Stream
Control Transmission Protocol

Table 3-9 describes the IP transport capabilities at the BBU (DBS3900 and iDBS3900).

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Table 3-9 IP transport capabilities abilities at the BBU (DBS3900 and iDBS3900)

Item Quantity/Location Flow Protocol

E1/T1 4 per WMPT, 8 per UTRP PPP


FE 1 optical and 1 electrical per WMPT MAC
IPoA client 1 per BBU ATM
Maintenance flow on 1 per BBU Low TCP
the Iub interface
Traffic flow Several per BBU High UDP
Signaling flow Several per BBU Medium SCTP
IP route flow Several per BBU High IP

NOTE:
IPoA = IP over ATM, TCP = Transfer Control Protocol, UDP = User Datagram Protocol, SCTP =
Stream Control Transmission Protocol

3.11.3 Macro NodeB IP Transport Capabilities


Table 3-10 and Table 3-11show the IP transport capabilities at the macro NodeB.

Table 3-10 IP transport capabilities at the macro NodeB (BTS3812E/BTS3812AE)

Item Quantity/Location Flow Protocol

E1/T1 8 per interface board PPP


FE 2 per interface board MAC
IPoA client Several per interface board ATM
Maintenance flow on the Iub 1 per BBU Low TCP
interface
Traffic flow Several per interface board High UDP
Signaling flow Several per interface board Medium SCTP
IP route flow Several per interface board High IP
(inter-board flow supported)

Table 3-11 IP transport capabilities at the macro NodeB (BTS3900/BTS900A)

Item Quantity/Location Flow Protocol

E1/T1 4 per WMPT, 8 per UTRP PPP


FE 1 optical and 1 electrical per MAC
WMPT

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Item Quantity/Location Flow Protocol

IPoA client 1 per interface board ATM


Maintenance flow on the Iub 1 per BBU Low TCP
interface
Traffic flow Several per interface board High UDP
Signaling flow Several per interface board Medium SCTP
IP route flow Several per interface board High IP
(inter-board flow supported)

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4 IP RAN Reference Documents

IP RAN Reference Documents lists the references documents related to IP RAN.


z 3GPP TR25.933: IP transport in UTRAN
z 3GPP TR23.107: Quality of Service (QoS) concept and architecture
z RFC1661: The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), provides a standard method for
transporting multi-protocol datagrams over point-to-point links
z RFC1662: PPP in HDLC-link Framing, describes the use of HDLC-like framing for PPP
encapsulated packets
z RFC1990: The PPP Multilink Protocol (ML-PPP), describes a method for splitting,
recombining and sequencing datagrams across multiple logical data links
z RFC2686: The Multi-Class Extension to Multi-link PPP (MC-PPP), describes extensions
that allow a sender to fragment the packets of various priorities into multiple classes of
fragments, allowing high-priority packets to be sent between fragments of lower
priorities
z RFC3153: PPP Multiplexing (PPPmux), describes a method to reduce the PPP framing
overhead used to transport small packets over low bandwidth links.
z IETF RFC 1889(01/1996): RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real Time Applications
z IETF DRAFT (02-2002): SS7 MTP3-User Adaptation Layer (M3UA)
z IETF RFC 3309 (09/2002): Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) Checksum
Change
z IETF RFC2131: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

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