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Problems and Solutions Chapter 3

1. Water quality is classified by physical, chemical, biological or microbiological, and


radiological parameters. Go to the United States Environmental Protection Agencys
website at www.epa.gov under the Office of Drinking Water. List four water quality
parameters in each of the four categories (physical, chemical, microbiological, and
radiological) along with the current maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration or
treatment technique (TT). Select from both primary and secondary standards.

Solution:

Parameter MCL or Treatment Technique


Physical
Color 15 color units
Odor 3 TON
Turbidity May never exceed 1 NTU, and must not exceed 0.3 NTU in 95% of daily samples in any month.
Solids Surface waters and groundwaters under direct influence of surface waters must be filtered.

Chemical
Alachlor 0.002 mg/L `
Benzene 0.005 mg/L
Nitrate 10 mg/L
Arsenic 0.01 mg/L

Microbiological
Cryptosporidium 99% removal
Gardia lamblia 99.9% removal/inactivation
Viruses 99.99% removal/inactivation
Total Coliform No more than 5% of the samples must test postive each month.

Radiological
Alpha particles 15 piC/L
Beta particles and
photon emitters 4 millirems per year
Radium 226 and 228 5 piC/L
Uranium 30 mg/L

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2. The following data were determined in the laboratory by incubation at 20C.

Time 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

(days)

BOD 0 72 120 155 182 202 220 237

(mg/L)

Determine the BOD reaction rate constant, k, and ultimate BOD, BODu.

Solution:

See Example 3.7 in the text for the proper procedure.

BODt BODt+1
(mg/L) (mg/L)
0 72
72 120
120 155
155 182
182 202
202 220
220 237
250 252
252 289

2
400

y = 0.7929x + 64.096
350
BODu = 310 mg/L

300

250
BOD t+1, mg/L

200

150

100

50

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
BODt, mg/L

The ultimate BOD is approximately 310 mg/L. The BOD reaction rate constant, k, is
determined as follows:

BOD t
BOD u 1 e
kt

mg mg
202 310 1 e k 5 d

L L
mg
202
k 5 d L 0 .3 4 8
e 1
mg
310
L
ln e k 5 d
ln 0 .3 4 8
5 k 1 .0 5
1
k 0 .2 1 d

3. Solids analysis is one of the most widely used parameters for assessing water quality.
Use the following data for calculating total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), dissolved
solids (DS), total suspended solids (TSS), and total volatile suspended solids (TVSS). A
sample volume of 150 ml was used in performing all solids analyses.
Tare mass of evaporating dish = 24.3520 g
Mass of evaporating dish plus residue after evaporation @ 105C = 24.3970 g
Mass of evaporating dish plus residue after ignition @ 550C = 24.3850 g
Mass of Whatman filter and tare = 1.5103 g
Mass of Whatman filter and tare after drying @ 105C = 1.5439 g
Residue on Whatman filter and tare after ignition @ 550C = 1.5199 g

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Solution

First, calculate the total solids concentration using Equation (3.21).

W T S T a re W T a re 2 4 .3 9 7 0 g 2 4 .3 5 2 0 g 1 0 0 0 m g 1 0 0 0 m l mg
TS 300
VS 150 m l g L L

Next, calculate the total volatile solids concentration using Equation (3.25).

W TS Tare
W TFS Tare
TVS
VS

W T S T a re W T F S T a re 2 4 .3 9 7 0 g 2 4 .3 8 5 0 g 1 0 0 0 m g 1 0 0 0 m l mg
TVS 80
VS 150 m l g L L

Now, using Equation (3.22) calculate the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration.

W TSS T a r e F ilte r
W T a r e F ilte r 1 .5 4 3 9 g 1 .5 1 0 3 g 1 0 0 0 m g 1 0 0 0 m l mg
TSS 224
VS 150 m l g L L

Next, calculate the volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration using Equation (3.26).

W V S S F ilte r T a r e W F S S F ilte r T a r e 1 .5 4 3 9g 1 .5 1 9 9 g 1 0 0 0 m g 1 0 0 0 m l mg
VSS 160
VS 150 m l g L L

Calculate the total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration as follows.

mg
T D S T S T SS 300 - 224 76
L

4. Use the following data for calculating total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), dissolved
solids (DS), total suspended solids (TSS), and total volatile suspended solids (TVSS). A
sample volume of 200 ml was used in performing all solids analyses.
Tare mass of evaporating dish = 25.334 g
Mass of evaporating dish plus residue after evaporation @ 105C = 25.439 g
Mass of evaporating dish plus residue after ignition @ 550C = 25.385 g
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Mass of Whatman filter and tare = 1.5103 g
Mass of Whatman filter and tare after drying @ 105C = 1.5439 g
Residue on Whatman filter and tare after ignition @ 550C = 1.5199 g

Solution:

First, calculate the total solids concentration using Equation (3.21).

W T S T are W T are 2 5 .4 3 9 g 2 5 .3 3 4 g 1 0 0 0 m g 1 0 0 0 m l mg
TS 525
VS 200 m l g L L

Next, calculate the total volatile solids concentration using Equation (3.25).

W TS Tare
W TFS Tare
TVS
VS

W T S T are W T F S T are 2 5 .4 3 9 g 2 5 .3 8 5 g 1 0 0 0 m g 1 0 0 0 m l mg
TVS 270
VS 200 m l g L L

Now, using Equation (3.22) calculate the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration.

W TSS T a r e F ilte r
W T a r e F ilte r 1 .5 4 3 9 g 1 .5 1 0 3 g 1 0 0 0 m g 1 0 0 0 m l mg
TSS 168
VS 200 m l g L L

Next, calculate the volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration using Equation (3.26).

W V S S F ilte r T a r e W F S S F ilte r T a r e 1 .5 4 3 9g 1 .5 1 9 9 g 1 0 0 0 m g 1 0 0 0 m l mg
VSS 120
VS 200 m l g L L

Calculate the total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration as follows.

mg
T D S T S T SS 525 - 168 357
L

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5. A solids analysis is to be performed on a wastewater sample. The abbreviated procedure
is outlined as follows:
a. A Gooch crucible and filter pad are dried @105C to a constant mass of 25.439 g.
b. Two hundred milliliters of a well-mixed sample of the wastewater is passed
through the filter pad.
c. The crucible, filter pad, and solids collected on the pad are dried @105C to a
constant mass of 25.645 g.
d. 100 ml of the filtrate that passes through the filter pad in Step (b) above is placed
in an evaporation dish that had been preweighed at 275.410 g.
e. The sample in Step (d) is evaporated to dryness @105C and the dish and residue
are weighed at 276.227 g.
f. Both the crucible from Step (c) and the evaporation dish from Step (e) are placed
in a muffle furnace @550C for an hour. After cooling in a dessicator, the mass
of the crucible is 25.501 g and the mass of the dish is 275.944 g.
Determine the following: suspended solids (mg/L), dissolved solids (mg/L), total solids
(mg/L), organic or volatile fraction of the suspended solids (mg/L), and the organic or
volatile fraction of the dissolved solids (mg/L).

Solution:

Use Equation (3.22) to calculate the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration.

W TSS T a r e F ilte r
W T a r e F ilte r 2 5 .6 4 5 g 2 5 .4 3 9 g 1 0 0 0 m g 1 0 0 0 m l mg
TSS 1030
VS 200 m l g L L

Use Equation (3.23) to calculate the total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration.

W TDS T a re
W T a re 2 7 6 .2 2 7 g
2 7 5 .4 1 0 g 1 0 0 0 m g 1 0 0 0 m l
T o ta l D is s o lv e d S o lid s (T D S )
VS 100 m l g L

mg
T o ta l D is s o lv e d S o lid s ( T D S ) 8170
L

Total solids are determined by adding the TSS and TDS concentration as follows.

mg
T S T SS T D S = 1030 + 8170 = 9200
L

Next, calculate the volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration using Equation (3.26).

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W V S S F ilte r T a r e W F S S F ilte r T a r e 2 5 .6 4 5 g 2 5 .5 0 1 g 1 0 0 0 m g 1 0 0 0 m l mg
VSS 720
VS 200 m l g L L

The volatile fraction of the suspended solids is determined by dividing the VSS concentration by
the TSS concentration as shown below.

V S S c o n c e n tra tio n 720 m g V SS L


0 .7 0
T S S c o n c e n tra tio n 1030 m g T SS L

The VDS may be calculated similarly by using the same approach for calculating VSS.

W V D S T are W F D S T are 2 7 6 .2 2 7 g 2 7 5 .9 9 4 g 1 0 0 0 m g 1 0 0 0 m l mg
VDS 2830
VS 100 m l g L L

The volatile fraction of the dissolved solids is determined by dividing the VDS concentration by
the TDS concentration as shown below.

V D S c o n c e n tra tio n 2830 m g V SS L


0 .6 5
T D S c o n c e n tra tio n 8170 m g T SS L

6. An ammonia nitrogen analysis performed on a wastewater sample yielded 30 mg/L as


nitrogen. If the pH of the sample is 8.5, determine the ammonium nitrogen concentration
(mg/L) in the sample assuming a temperature of 25C.

Solution:

Equations (3.41), (3.83), (3.85), and (3.86) are used for solving this problem.
8 .5
p H lo g H H 10

mg N g m o le 3 m o le s
N H 3 -N = N H 4 + N H 3 30 2 .1 4 1 0
+

L 1000 m g 14 g L

m o le s
NH 3
3
2 .1 4 1 0 NH 4
+

L
3 m o le s
N H 4 1 0
8 .5
2 .1 4 1 0
+
+
[N H 3 ] [H ] 9 .2 5 L 9 .2 5

K a 10
K a 10
[N H 4 ] [N H 4 ]

3 m o le s
[N H 4 ] 1 .8 2 1 0
L

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7. A 100 ml sample of water is titrated with 0.02N H2SO4. The initial pH is 9.8 and 6.5 ml
of acid are required to reach the pH 8.3 endpoint. An additional 10.1 ml of acid are
required to reach the pH 4.5 endpoint. Determine the following: total alkalinity,
hydroxide alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, and bicarbonate alkalinity in terms of mg/L as
CaCO3.

Solution:

Use Equation (3.76) to calculate the Total Alkalinity (ALK).

m g C aC O 3 T o ta l m l 0 .0 2 N H 2 S O 4 to re a c h p H 4 .5 1000
ALK
L m l s a m p le

m g C aC O 3 6 .5 1 0 .1 m l 1 0 0 0
ALK 166
L 100 m l

Hydroxide alkalinity is calculated using Equation (3.77).

pH pK w
H y d ro x id e A lk a lin ity 5 0 , 0 0 0 1 0

9 .8 1 4 m g as C aC O 3
H y d ro x id e A lk a lin ity 5 0 , 0 0 0 1 0 3 .1 5
L

Calculate carbonate alkalinity using Equation (3.78) and assuming Ka,2=10-10.3

Kw
ALK + H
+

H
+
m g C aC O 3
C a rb o n a te A lk a lin ity = 5 0 ,0 0 0
H
+
L
+1
2 K a ,2

m g C aC O 3 1g 1 eq 3 eq
ALK =166 3 .3 2 1 0
L 1000 m g 50 g C aC O 3 L

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3 9 .8 10
3 .3 2 1 0 + 10
m g C aC O 3 9 .8

= 5 0 ,0 0 0
10
C a r b o n a te A lk a lin ity 9 .8
6 3 .1
L 10
1 0 .3
+1
2 10

Calculate bicarbonate alkalinity using Equation (3.79).

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K
ALK + H
+ w

H
+
m g C aC O 3
B ic a r b o n a te A lk a lin ity = 5 0 ,0 0 0 2 K a ,2
L
1+
H
+

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3 9 .8 10
3 .3 2 1 0 + 10
m g C aC O 3 9 .8

= 5 0 ,0 0 0
10
B ic a r b o n a te A lk a lin ity 1 0 .3
9 9 .8
L 2 10
1+ 9 .8
10

8. A 200 ml sample of water with an initial pH of 7.8 is titrated with 0.02N H2SO4. 16 ml
of acid are added to reach the endpoint pH of 4.5. Determine the species of alkalinity
present and the concentration in mg/L as CaCO3.

Solution:

Use Equation (3.76) to calculate the Total Alkalinity (ALK).

m g C aC O 3 T o ta l m l 0 .0 2 N H 2 S O 4 to re a c h p H 4 .5 1000
ALK
L m l s a m p le

m g C aC O 3 1 6 m l 1 0 0 0
ALK 160
L 200 m l

Hydroxide alkalinity is calculated using Equation (3.77).

pH pK w
H y d ro x id e A lk a lin ity 5 0 , 0 0 0 1 0

7 .8 1 4 m g as C aC O 3
H y d ro x id e A lk a lin ity 5 0 , 0 0 0 1 0 0 .0 3
L

Calculate carbonate alkalinity using Equation (3.78) and assuming Ka,2=10-10.3

Kw
ALK + H
+

H
+
m g C aC O 3
C a rb o n a te A lk a lin ity = 5 0 ,0 0 0
H
+
L
+1
2 K a ,2

m g C aC O 3 1g 1 eq 3 eq
ALK =160 3 .2 1 0
L 1000 m g 50 g C aC O 3 L

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3 7 .8 10
3 .2 1 0 + 10
m g C aC O 3 7 .8

= 5 0 ,0 0 0
10
C a r b o n a te A lk a lin ity 7 .8
1 .0 1
L 10
1 0 .3
+1
2 10

Calculate bicarbonate alkalinity using Equation (3.79).

K
ALK + H
+ w

H
+
m g C aC O 3
B ic a r b o n a te A lk a lin ity = 5 0 ,0 0 0 2 K a ,2
L
1+
H
+

14
3 7 .8 10
3 .2 1 0 + 10
m g C aC O 3 7 .8

= 5 0 ,0 0 0
10
B ic a r b o n a te A lk a lin ity 1 0 .3
159
L 2 10
1+ 7 .8
10

9. Calculate the theoretical oxygen demand of a solution containing 550 mg/L of glutamic
acid (C5H9NO4).

Solution:

C 5 H 9 N O 4 6 .7 5 O 2 5 C O 2 4 .5 H 2 O N O 3

g
M W of C5H 9 N O4 5 12 9 1 1 14 4 16 147
m o le

m g g lu ta m ic a c id 6 .7 5 3 2 g O 2 mg COD
550 808
L 1 4 7 g g lu ta m ic a c id L

10. Calculate the theoretical oxygen demand (mg/L) of a solution containing 450 mg of
glucose (C6H12O6) in 2 liters of distilled water.

Solution:
C 6 H 12 O 6 6 O 2 6 C O 2 6 H 2 O

g
M W o f C 6 H 12O 6 6 1 2 1 2 1 6 1 6 1 8 0
m o le

m g g lu c o s e 6 3 2 g O 2 mg COD
450 240
2 L 1 8 0 g g lu c o s e L

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11. The result of a seven-day BOD test performed on a sample of water from an oligotrophic
lake was 10 mg/L. The base e BOD rate constant determined from previous studies
was estimated to be 0.10 d-1. Determine the ultimate BOD and five-day BOD of the
sample taken from the lake.

Solution:

Use Equation (3.11) to solve for the ultimate BOD.


1
0 .1 0 d 7 d
BOD 7 BOD u 1 e


mg 0 .1 0 d
1
7 d
10 BOD u 1 e
L

mg
B O D u 1 9.8 6
L

12. A five-day BOD test is performed on an industrial wastewater sample that contains no
bacteria; therefore, a seeded BOD test is run. 10 ml of seed are added to 20 L of
dilution water. 30 ml of industrial wastewater are added to a 300 ml BOD bottle and the
remaining volume consists of seeded dilution water. The average dissolved oxygen
concentration of the diluted wastewater samples and blanks (seeded dilution water) on the
first day of the test is 7.5 mg/L and 9.0 mg/L, respectively. After incubating separate
BOD bottles at 20C for five days, the average DO concentration of the diluted
wastewater BOD bottles and seeded dilution water BOD bottles is 3.1 and 8.5 mg/L,
respectively. Use Equation (3.13) for calculating the five-day BOD of the industrial
wastewater.

Solution:

D1 D2 B1 B2 f
BOD t
P

% s e e d in d ilu te d s a m p le 270 m l/3 0 0 m l


f 0 .9 0
% s e e d in c o n tro l o r b la n k 300 m l/3 0 0 m l

7 .5 m g L 3 .1 m g L 9 .0 m g L 8 .5 m g L 0 .9 0 mg
BOD5 3 9 .5
30 m L L
300 m L

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13. A multiple tube fermentation test was performed on a sample of water obtained from the
Ocmulgee River in Macon, Georgia during the summer. A set of 15 test tubes with
sample sizes of 10, 1.0, and 0.1 ml were used in the analysis resulting in the following
number of positive tubes: 5-5-1. Estimate the most probable number (MPN) per 100 ml
of sample using Equation (3.95). Compare your answer to the value presented in
Standard Methods (1998).

Solution:

M PN N u m b e r o f P o s itiv e T u b e s 1 0 0
0 .5
100 m l m l s a m p le n e g . tu b e s m l s a m p le a ll tu b e s

M PN 1 1 100
0 .5
208
100 m l 0 .5 m l 5 5 .5 m l

The value in the 1998 Standard Methods is 300 MPN/100 mL

14. A multiple tube fermentation test was performed on a sample of water obtained from the
Occoquan Reservoir near Manassas, Virginia during the winter. A set of 15 test tubes
with sample sizes of 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 ml were used in the analysis resulting in the
following number of positive tubes: 1-1-0. Estimate the most probable number (MPN)
per 100 ml of sample using Equation (3.95). Compare your answer to the value
presented in Standard Methods (1998).

Solution:

M PN N u m b e r o f P o s itiv e T u b e s 1 0 0
0 .5
100 m l m l s a m p le n e g . tu b e s m l s a m p le a ll tu b e s

M PN 2 100
0 .5
4 0 .2
100 m l 4 .4 5 m l 5 .5 5 m l

The value in the 1998 Standard Methods is

M PN 10
4 40
100 m L 1

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15. Discuss in your own words what is meant by an indicator organism. Which group of
organisms are used as indicator organisms and why? List three groups of pathogenic
organisms that may be found in water and wastewater.

Solution:

An indicator organism is a non-pathogenic organism that has similar survival


characteristics to pathogens and is used as a surrogate parameter to indicate the likelihood
of harmful microorganisms being present in water, wastewater, or sludge.

Total coliform bacteria and fecal coliform bacteria are typically used as indictor
organisms since they are excreted by humans and animals. They are non-pathogenic and
have similar survival characteristics to some of the pathogens (bacteria, protozoa, and
viruses) so therefore, they make good candidates for indicator organisms.

Four general categories of pathogenic organisms include: bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and
helminthes. Each of these contains different organisms that may cause disease.

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