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Chapter 5:

R d
Random Vibration
Vib ti

ANSYS Mechanical

Dynamics

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Random Vibration Analysis
Random Vibration Analysis Training Manual

Topics covered:
Definition and purpose
Overview of Workbench capabilities
Procedure

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Random Vibration Analysis
A. Definition and Purpose Training Manual

What is random vibration analysis?


A spectrum analysis technique based on probability and statistics.
Meant for loads such as acceleration loads in a rocket launch that
produce different time histories during every launch .

Reference: Random vibrations in mechanical systems by Crandall & Mark

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Random Vibration Analysis
Definition and Purpose Training Manual

Transient analysis is not an option since the time history is not


deterministic (sample is not repeatable).
Instead, using statistics the sample time histories are converted to
Power Spectral Density function (PSD), a statistical representation of
the load time history.

Image from Random Vibrations Theory and Practice by Wirsching, Paez and Ortiz.

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Random Vibration Analysis
Power Spectral Density Training Manual

Sample time histories are converted to Power Spectral Density


function (PSD), a statistical representation of the load time history.

Image from Random Vibrations Theory and


Reference: Random vibrations in Practice by Wirsching, Paez and Ortiz.
mechanical systems by Crandall
& Mark

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Random Vibration Analysis
Statistical Representation Training Manual

A Random Vibration analysis computes the probability distribution of


different results, such as displacement or stress, due to some
random excitation

The analysis follows a modal analysis

An internal combination is done to compute the combined effect from


each mode and their interactions.

3
Gaussian
(normal)
Distribution

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Random Vibration Analysis
Power Spectral Density Training Manual

The Power Spectral Density is the


mean square value of the excitation
for a unit frequency band.
The
Th area underd a PSD curve is i
the variance of the response
(square of the standard
deviation).
)
The units used in PSD are mean
square/Hz (e.g. an acceleration
PSD will have units of G2/Hz).
The quantity represented by
PSD may be displacement,
velocity, acceleration, force, or
pressure.
pressure

Random Vibration curve by MIL-STD-202

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Random Vibration Analysis
Common Uses Training Manual

Commonly used for


Airborne electronics
Acoustic loading of Airframe parts
Jitter in alignment of optical
equipment
Relative deformation in large
mirrors
i

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Random Vibration
Workbench Capabilities Training Manual

Input:
Natural frequencies and mode shapes from a modal analysis
Single or multiple PSD excitations applied to ground nodes

Output:
1 results can be contoured like any other analysis.
Response PSD at one DOF (one point in one direction)

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Procedure:

Random Vibration

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Random Vibration
Procedure Training Manual

Drop a Modal (ANSYS) system into the project schematic.

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Random Vibration
Procedure Training Manual

Drop a Random Vibration system onto the Solution cell of the Modal
system.

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Random Vibration
Procedure Training Manual

Create new geometry, or link to Edit the Model cell to bring up the
existing geometry. Mechanical application.

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Random Vibration
Preprocessing Training Manual

Verify materials, connections, and mesh settings.


This was covered in Workbench Mechanical Intro.

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Random Vibration
Preprocessing Training Manual

Add supports to the model.


Displacement constrains must have a magnitude of zero.

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Random Vibration
Solution Settings Training Manual

Choose the number of modes to


extract.
If needed, upper and lower bounds
on frequency may be specified to
extract the modes within a specified
range.

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Random Vibration
Postprocessing Training Manual

Review the modal results before


proceeding.

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Random Vibration
Preprocessing Training Manual

Insert an Acceleration, Velocity, or Direction PSD base excitation.


Set the Boundary Condition, Load (Tabular) Data, and Direction.

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Random Vibration
Postprocessing Training Manual

Insert Directional Deformation, Velocity, or Acceleration.


the direction and sigma value may be chosen here
note that results are always reviewed with scaling set to 0.0

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Random Vibration
Postprocessing Training Manual

Stress (normal, shear, equivalent) and Strain (normal, shear) results


can also be reviewed.

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Random Vibration
Postprocessing Training Manual

Response PSD can be plotted at one DOF (one point in one direction,
either absolute or relative to base excitation).

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Workshop Random Vibration Training Manual

In workshop 5A, you will determine the displacements and stresses


in a girder assembly due to an acceleration PSD.
WS5A: Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis of a Girder Assembly

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