I,
ANALYTICAL STRENGTH
ASSESSMENT
5t h Edition
Translation by E. Haibach
Editor:
ISBN 3816304257
3
and it was discussed among experts from industry and research institutes
in the FKM expert group "Strength of components" .
Financial grants were obtained from the "Bundesministerium fUr Wirtschaft (BMWi, Bonn)" through
the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen 'Otto von Guericke ' e.V. (AiF,
K6ln)" under contract AiFNo. D156 and B9434. The "Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau e.V."
gratefully acknowledges the financial support from BMWi and AiF and the contributions by the experts
involved.
Terms of liability
The FKMGuideline is intended to conform with the state of the art. It has been
prepared with the necessary care. The user is expected to decide, whether the
guideline meets his particular requirements, and to observe appropriate care in
its application. Neither the publisher nor the editor, the involved experts, or the
translator shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with
respect to any liability, loss, or damage caused or alleged to have been caused
directly or indirectly by this guideline.
4
For engineers concerned with construction and Textual declarations are given where appropriate to
calculation in mechanical engineering or in related fields ensure a reliable application.
of industry the FKMGuideline for analytical strength Its content complies with the state of knowledge to an
assessment is available since 1994. This guideline was extend that may be presented in a guideline and it
elaborated by an expert group "Strength of components" enables quite comprehensive possibilities of calculation.
of the "Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM), The employed symbols are adapted to the extended
Frankfurt/Main," with financial support by the requirements of notation. The presented calculation
Bundesministerium fur Wirtschaft (BMWi), by the procedure is complemented by explanatory examples.
"Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereini
gungen 'Otto von Guericke" and by the "Forschungs Practically the described procedure of strength
kuratorium Maschinenbau. assessment should be realized by means of a suitable
computer program. Presently available are the PC
Based on former TGL standards and on the former computer programs "RIFESTPLUS" (applicable for a
guideline VDI 2226, and referring to more recent calculation using elastically determined local stresses, in
sources it was developed to the current state of particular with shellshaped (2D) or blockshaped (3D)
knowledge. components) and "WELLE" (applicable for a calculation
The FKMGuideline using nominal stresses as it is appropriate in the
 is applicable in mechanical engineering and in related frequently arising case of axles or shafts with gears etc).
fields of industry, The preceding editions of the FKMGuideline observed
 allows the analytical strength assessment for rod a remarkably great interest from which the need of an up
shaped (lD), for shellshaped (2D) and for blockshaped to date guideline for analytical strength analyses
(3D) components under consideration of all relevant becomes apparent. Moreover the interest of users was
influences, confirmed by the well attended VDI conferences on
"Computational Strength Analysis of Metallic
 describes the assessment of the static strength and of Components", that were organized for presentation of
the fatigue strength, the latter according to an assessment the FKMGuideline at Fulda in 1995, 1998 and 2002.
of the fatigue limit, of the constant amplitude fatigue
strength, or of the variable amplitude fatigue strength The contentsrelated changes introduced with the third
according to the service stress conditions, edition from 1998 were mainly concerned with the
consideration of stainless steel and of forging steel, with
 is valid for components from steel, cast steel, or cast the technological size factor, with the section factor for
iron materials at temperatures from 40C to 500 C, as assessing the static strength, with the fatigue limit of
well as for components from aluminum alloys and cast grey cast iron and of malleable cast iron, with additional
aluminum alloys at temperatures from 40C to 200 C, fatigue classes of welded structural details and with the
 is applicable for components produced with or without local stress analysis for welded components, with the
machining, or by welding, specification of an estimated damage sum smaller than
 allows an assessment in considering nominal stresses as one for the assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
well as local elastic stresses derived from finite element strength, with the assessment of multiaxial stresses, and
or boundary element analyses, from theoretical with the experimental determination of component
mechanics solutions, or from measurements. strength values.
A uniformly structured calculation procedure applies to An essential formal change in the third edition was a
all of these cases of application. The calculation new textual structure providing four main chapters, that
procedure is almost completely predetermined. The user describe the assessment of the static strength or of the
has to make some decisions only. fatigue strength with either nominal stresses or local
stresses, respectively. For ease of application each of
The FKMGuideline is a commented algorithm, these chapters gives a complete description of the
consisting of statements, formulae, and tables. Most of particular calculation procedure, although this results in
the included figures have an explanatory function only. repetitions of the same or almost the same parts of text in
the corresponding sections.
5
References
/1/ TGL 19 340 (1983). Ermiidungsfestigkeit, Dauerfestigkeit der Maschinenbauteile.
/2/ TGL 19 341 (1988). Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Bauteile aus Eisengusswerkstoffen.
/3/ TGL 19 333 (1979). Schwingfestigkeit, Zeitfestigkeit von Achsen und Wellen.
/4/ TGL 19 350 (1986). Ermiidungsfestigkeit, Betriebsfestigkeit der Maschinenbauteile.
/5/ TGL 19 352 (Entwurf 1988). Aufstellung und Uberlagerung von Beanspruchungskollektiven.
/6/ Richtlinie VDI 2226 (1965). Empfehlung fiir die Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile.
/7/ DIN 18 800 Teil 1 (1990). Stahlbauten, Bemessung und Konstruktion.
/8/ DIN ENV 1993 (1993). Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten, Teil11:
Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln, ... (Eurocode 3).
/9/ Hobbacher, A.: Fatigue design of welded joints and components. Recommendations of the Joint Working
Group XIIIXV, XIII153996 / XV84596. Abbington Publishing, Abbington Hall, Abbington,
Cambridge CB1 6AH, England, 19996
/10/ Haibach, E.: Betriebsfestigkeits  Verfahren und Daten zur Bauteilberechnung, 2.Aufl.
Berlin und Heidelberg, SpringerVerlag, 2002, ISBN 354043142X.
/11/ Radaj, D.: Ermiidungsfestigkeit. Grundlage fur Leichtbau, Maschinenbau und Stahlbau.
Berlin und Heidelberg: SpringerVerlag, 2003, ISBN 3540440631.
/12/ FKMForschungsheft 241 (1999). Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Bauteile aus Alumininiumwerkstoff.
/13/ FKMForschungsheft 230 (1998). Randschichthartung.
/14/ FKMForschungsheft 227 (1997). Lebensdauervorhersage II.
/15/ FKMForschungsheft 2212 (1997). Mehrachsige und zusammengesetzte Beanspruchungen.
/16/ FKMForschungsheft 221 (1996). Wechselfestigkeit von Flachproben aus Grauguss.
/17/ FKMForschungsheft 1832 (1994). Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fur Maschinenbauteile, Richtlinie. *1
/18/ FKMForschungsheft 1831 (1994). Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Maschinenbauteile, Kommentare.
/19/ FKMForschungsheft 180 (1994). Schweillverbindungen II.
/20/ FKMForschungsheft 143 (1989). Schweillverbindungen I.
/21/ FKMRichtlinie Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Maschinenbauteile,
3., vollstandig iiberarbeitete und erweiterte Ausgabe (1998).
/22/ FKMRichtlinie Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fur Maschinenbauteile,
4., erweiterte Ausgabe (2002).
Contents
Page 5 Appendices Page
0 General survey 5.1 Material tables. 131
0.1 Scope 9 5.2 Stress concentration factors 178
0.2 Technical background 5.3 Fatigue notch factors 187
0.3 Structure and elements 5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded
components of structural steel and of
1 Assessment of the static strength aluminum alloys 195
using nominal stresses 5.5 Comments about the fatigue strength
1.0 General 19 of welded components 209
1.1 Characteristic stress values 5.6 Adjusting the stress ratio of a stress
1.2 Material properties 22 spectrum to agree with that of the SN curve
1.3 Design parameters 30 and deriving a stepped spectrum 216
1.4 Component strength 33 5.7 Assessment using classes of utilization 218
1.5 Safety factors 34 5.8 Particular strength characteristics of
1.6 Assessment 36 surface hardened components 222
5.9 An improved method for computing the
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength component fatigue limit in the case of
using nominal stresses synchronous multiaxial stresses 223
2.0 General 41 5.10 Approximate assessment of the fatigue
2.1 Parameters of the stress spectrum strength in the case of nonproportional
2.2 Material properties 47 multiaxial stresses 226
2.3 Design Parameters 50 5.11 Experimental determination of
2.4 Component strength 57 component strength values 227
2.5 Safety factors 68 5.12 Stress concentration factor for a substitute
2.6 Assessment 70 structure 230
6 The elastic stress at the root of a notch exceeds the nominal stress by a
stress concentration factor. In the case of welded joints effective notch
4 A survey on the analytical procedures of assessment based on the stresses are applied to the assessment of the fatigue strength only.
equations of the guideline may be found in Chapter 7.6. Structural stresses, also termed geometrical or hot spot stresses, are
normally in use with welded joints only. For further information see
5 Nominal stresses can be computed for a well defmed crosssection only. Chapter 5.5.
11
o General survey
Correspondingly the component strength values are to 0.3.3.1 Assessment of the static strength using
be determined nominal stresses, Chapter 1
as nominal strength values or
Relevant nominal characteristic service stresses are the
as local strength values of the elastic local stress, of
extreme maximum and extreme minimum values of the
the effective notch stress or of the structural stress.
individual types of stress or stress components, e.g.
With the procedures of calculation structured uniformly nominal values of the axial (or tensioncompression)
for both types of stress determination it is intended that stress, Szd, of the bending stress, Sb, and so forth *7 *8,
more or less identical results will be obtained from Chapter 1.1.
comparable strength assessments based on either
nominal stresses or local stresses. Relevant material properties are the tensile strength and
the yield strength (yield stress or 0.2 proof stress) as
well as the strength values for shear derived from these.
A technological size effect is taken into account if
0.3.3 Methods of strength assessment
appropriate. The influence of an elevated temperature
0.3.3.0 General on the material properties  strength at elevated
temperature and creep strength, yield strength at
In order to present the guideline clearly arranged and
elevated temperature and I% creep limit  is allowed for
userfriendly, it is organized in four chapters, Figure
by means of temperature factors, Chapter 1.2.
0.0.3:
 Assessment of the static strength Design parameters are the section factors, by which an
using nominal stresses, Chapter I, experienced partial plasticity of the component is
Assessment of the fatigue strength allowed .according to yield strength, type of loading,
using nominal stresses, Chapter 2, shape of crosssection, and stress concentration factor.
Assessment of the static strength From the section factor and from further parameters an
using local stresses, Chapter 3, overall design factor is derived, Chapter 1.3.
Assessment of the fatigue strength
The nominal values of the static component strength are
using local stresses, Chapter 4.
derived from the tensile strength, divided by the
respective overall design factor, Chapter 1.4.
.~.
As common in practice the safety factor against the
Static strength LNoml?al
~
Fatii:ue strength
tensile strength is 2,0. For materials with a yield
Nominalstresses ) stresses Nominal stresses strength less than 0,75 times the tensile strength the
;/
safety factor is 1,5 against the yield strength, however.
Static
I
Fatigue
Under favorable conditions these safety factors may be
strength strength' reduced, Chapter 1.5.
aSseSSlllent assessment
~~.
The assessment is carried out by proving that the degree
of utilization is less or equal 1,00 . The degree of
.r" Chapter 3: "<. Chapter 4: ,
(
Stresses \.Li ..
~tb
Stade. strength )  . LO.cal. ....ali.ou. estr.c..n.. \
.)
utilization for an individual stress component or type of
"..
.~
IAcalstrcsses/" ~~ stress is the ratio of its nominal characteristic service
stress value, divided by the allowable nominal static
Figure 0.0.3 Organization of the guideline. component strength value, which follows from the
nominal static component strength divided by the safety
factor.
In particular the procedure of calculation is completely If there are several stress components or types of stress
presented in everyone of the four chapters, even if this their individual degrees of utilization are combined to
results in repetitions of the same or almost the same obtain an entire degree of utilization. The interaction
parts of text in Chapter I and Chapter 3 or in Chapter 2 formula to be applied to that combination allows for the
and Chapter 4, respectively. ductility of the material in question, Chapter 1.6.
The procedure of calculation using nominal stresses is For welded components the assessment of the static
to be preferred for simple rodshaped (lD) and for shell strength has to be carried out for the toe section as for
shaped (2D) components. The procedure of calculation nonwelded components, and for the throat section with
using local stresses has to be applied to blockshaped
(3D) components, and moreover in general, if the
stresses are determined by a finiteelement or a
boundaryelement calculation, if there are no well 7 According to rod, shell or blockshaped components, Chapter 0.3.4.
defined crosssections or no simple crosssection shapes,
8 The extreme maximum or minimum stresses for the assessment of the
if stress concentration factors or fatigue notch factors static strength may be different from the maximum and minimum stresses
are not known, or (concerning the assessment of the for the assessment of the fatigue strength, that are determined from the
static strength) in the case ofbrittIe materials. largest amplitude and the related mean value of a stress spectrum.
12
o General survey
an equivalent nominal stress, that is computed from the amplitude value follows from the nominal amplitude of
components of nominal stress acting in the weld seam the derived component fatigue strength divided by the
*9. safetyfactor.
If there are several stress components or types of stress
their individual degrees of utilization are combined to
0.3.3.2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using
obtain the total degree of utilization. The interaction
nominal stresses, Chapter 2
formula to be applied to that combination allows for the
Relevant nominal characteristic service stresses are the ductility of the material in question, that is in the same
largest stress amplitudes in connection with the way as for the assessment of the static strength, Chapter
respective stress spectra and the related mean stress 2.6.
values. They are determined for the individual stress
For the assessment of the fatigue strength of welded
components or types of stress, e.g. amplitudes and mean
components using nominal stresses basic fatigue limit
values of the nominal axial (tensioncompression)
7 8 values for completely reversed stress are given. They are
stresses, Sa,zd and Sm,zd, and so forth * *, Chapter 2.1. independent of the tensile strength of the base material
Relevant material properties are the fatigue limit for (which is different to nonwelded components). They
completely reversed axial stress and the fatigue limit for are converted by design factors that follow from a
completely reversed shear stress of the material in classification scheme of structural weld details. The
question. A technological size effect is taken into combined effect of mean stress and of residual stresses
account where appropriate. The influence of an in welded components is considered by means of a mean
elevated temperature is allowed for by means of stress factor together with a residual stress factor *10.
temperature factors, Chapter 2.2.
Design parameters to be considered in particular are the
0.3.3.3 Assessment of the static strength using local
fatigue notch factors, allowing for the design of the
stresses, Chapter 3
component (shape, size and type of loading), as well as
the roughness factor and the surface treatment factor, by Relevant characteristic local service stresses are the
which the respective surface properties are accounted extreme maximum and extreme minimum stresses of
for. By specific combination of all these factors a the individual types of stress or stress components, e.g.
summary design factor is calculated, Chapter 2.3. local values of the normal (axial and/or bending) stress,
7
The nominal values of the component fatigue limit for o, and of the shear (shear and/or torsional) stress * *8,
completely reversed stresses follow from the derived Chapter 3.1.
fatigue limit values of the material, divided by the Relevant material properties are to be determined as for
respective design factors, Chapter 2.4.1. From these nominal stresses, Chapter 3.2.
fatigue limit values the amplitudes of the component
fatigue limit according to the mean stress values (or the Design parameters are the section factors, by which an
stress ratios) are to be derived, Chapter 2.4.2. The experienced partial plasticity of the component is
amplitudes that specify the variable amplitude fatigue allowed according to yield strength, type of loading, and
strength of the component are obtained from the fatigue shape of the component. The section factors are
limit values multiplied by a factor depending on the calculated on the basis of Neuber's formula, but by
parameters of the stress spectrum (total number of observing individual upper bound values that follows
cycles and amplitude frequency distribution), Chapter from the plastic limit load (plastic notch factor). From
2.4.3. the .section factors and from further parameters an
overall design factor is derived, Chapter 3.3 *11.
The basic value of the safety factor is 1,5. Under
favorable conditions this safety factor may be reduced, The local values of the static component strength are
Chapter 2.5. derived from the tensile strength, divided by the
respectiveoverall design factor, Chapter 3.4.
The assessment is carried out by proving that the degree
of utilization is less or equal 1,00 . The degree of The safety factors are to be determined as for nominal
utilization for an individual stress component or type of stresses, Chapter 3.5.
stress is the ratio of its nominal characteristic service
stress amplitude, divided by the allowable amplitude of
the component fatigue limit or of the component
variable amplitude fatigue strength. The allowable 10 The assessment of the fatigue strength for welded components makes
reference to the llWRecommendations and Eurocode 3. As far as
conditionally weldable steel, stainless steel, weldable cast iron materials
or weldable aluminum alloys are concerned this kind of calculation is
9 This assessment of the static strength for welded components is provisional and may be applied with caution only.
according to DIN 18 800 part 1. As far as conditionally weldable steel,
stainless steel, weldable cast iron materials or weldable aluminum alloys 11 The assessment ofthe static strength using local stresses on the basis of
are concerned, the rules of DIN 18 800 are provisional and may be Neuber's formula and the plastic limit load is an approximation which has
applied with caution only. to be regarded as provisional and is to be applied with caution only.
13
o General survey
The assessment is carried out by means of the degree of nominal stresses by means of a mean stress factor
utilization as for nominal stresses, but with the together with a residual stress factor *10.
respective local values of the characteristic service stress
and the local component strength values, Chapter 3.6.
For welded components the assessment of the static 0.3.4 Kinds of components
strength using local stresses is carried out using 0.3.4.0 General
structural stresses (not with notch root stresses), for the
weld toe as for nonwelded components, for the root of Rodshaped (10), shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped
the weld using an equivalent structural stress, that is to (3D) components are to be distinguished, as in each case
be derived from the structural stress components acting other stress components or types of stresses, identified
in the weld seam *9. by differing symbols and subscripts, are of concern. The
distinction is only a formal one, however, and the
procedure of calculation is the same in all cases.
0.3.3.4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local Specific particulars apply to welded components.
stresses, Chapter 4
Relevant local characteristic service stresses are the 0.3.4.1 Rodshaped (ID) components
largest stress amplitudes in connection with the
respective stress spectra and the related mean stress For rodshaped (10) components  rod, bar, shaft, or
values. They are determined for the individual stress beam for example  the following system of coordinates
components or types of stress, e.g. amplitudes and mean is introduced: xaxis is the longitudinal center line of
values of the local normal (axial and/or bending) stress, the component, y and zaxes are the main axes of the
7 8 crosssection that are to be specified so, that for the
0"a and O"m , and so forth * * , Chapter 4.1.
moments of inertia Iy~ Iz is valid, Figure 0.0.4.
The relevant material properties are determined as for
nominal stresses, Chapter 4.2.
Design parameters to be considered in particular are the
KtKf ratios, allowing for the design of the component
(shape and size), as well as the roughness factor and the
surface treatment factor, by which the respective surface
properties are accounted for. By specific combination of
all these factors a summary design factor is calculated,
Chapter 4.3.
The local values of the component fatigue limit for
"0.0...
'z
completely reversed stresses follow from the derived
fatigue limit values of the material, divided by the
Figure 0.0.4 Rodshaped (ID) component (round
respective design factors, Chapter 4.4.1. The
specimen with groove) in bending. Nominal stress S,
conversions to the amplitude of the component fatigue
and maximum local stress O"m"" at the reference point W.
limit and to the amplitude of the component variable
amplitude fatigue strength are as for nominal stresses,
Chapter 4.4.2 to 4.4.3.
Calculation using nominal stresses
The safety factors are to be determined as for nominal
stresses, Chapter 4.5. If the assessment of rodshaped (ID) components is
carried out by using nominal stresses, Chapter I and 2,
The assessment by means of the degree of utilization is the nominal stresses to be computed at the reference
as for nominal stresses, but with the respective local point are Szd from an axial load, Sb from a bending
values of the characteristic stress amplitude and the moment, T, from a shear load, and/or Tt from a
value of the component fatigue limit or of the torsional moment acting at the respective section.
component variable amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter
4.6. For the equations given in Chapter 1 and 2 it is
provided, that both the bending stress Sb and the shear
For the assessment of the fatigue strength of welded stress T, act in the xzplane. Otherwise stress
components using structural stresses or effective notch components Sb,y and Sb,z , Ts,y and Ts,z are to be
stresses the same basic fatigue limit values for considered *12.
completely reversed stresses apply as for nominal
stresses. They hold for effective notch stresses without
conversion, but for structural stresses they have to be
converted by factors given for some typical weld details.
The combined effect of mean stress and of residual
12 The indices y and z describe the direction ofthe related vectors ofthe
stresses in welded components is to be considered as for bending moments My, Mz and ofthe lateral loads Fy, Fz .
14
o General survey
In case of rotationally symmetrical crosssections with 0.3.4.2 Shellshaped (2D) components Rodshaped
circumferential notches a resultant bending stress and a (ID) welded components
resultant shear stress can be calculated from these stress
For shellshaped (2D) components  disk, plate, or shell
components,
for example  the following system of coordinates is
s, =JrS~,y+S~,z ' (0.3.1) introduced: The x and yaxis are placed in the surface
at the reference point, the zaxis is normal to the surface
2 2
Ts = Ts,y +TS,z in thickness direction. The normal stress and the shear
stress in thickness direction are supposed to be
The equations given in Chapter 1 and 2 may be applied negligible, Figure 0.0.5.
to Sb and T;
In the general case of not rotationally symmetrical
crosssections a calculation using local stresses is
normally to be preferred.
Additional stresses at notches (as for example the
circumferential stress associated with an axial stress of a
shaft with groove) may be included in the stress
concentration factor, otherwise they will be neglected.
.......Radius r = 1 mm
/ I \
F
\/ F
+~ +~at ..

f
~
t': x
~ ~
component. The amounts of the stresses, also in the
stress amplitude spectra, may be converted by constant
Figure 0.0.9 Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses. factors. Hence all stress spectra are of similar shape, but
may differ in intensity (amount of their characteristic
Nominal stresses Sx Sy and T. maximum stress).
Left: multiaxial stresses in a sheet section,
Right: uniaxial stress in a sheet section at the edge of a cutout. Proportional stresses my also result from several
loadings that act on the component simultaneously and,
for their part, change proportionally with time as well.
In this guideline a basic principle is defined both for an Then several stresses of the same kind are to be overlaid
assessment of the static strength and of the fatigue additively.
strength in case of multiaxial stresses: For proportional multiaxial stresses, the interaction
the individual degrees of utilization for everyone of formulas given in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6 are exactly valid
the computed types of stress or stress components in the sense of material mechanics, if the related rules of
have to be determined and assessed separately in a signs are observed.
first step, and
thereafter these individual degrees of utilization will
be combined by means of an appropriate interaction
formula to obtain the entire degree of utilization for
18 Both for the assessment ofthe fatigue limit and for the assessment of
final assessment. the variable amplitude strength.
17
o General survey
Synchronous stresses determined degrees of utilization for the individual
loadings are then added linearly in order to estimate the
Synchronous stresses are a simple case of non
entire degree of utilization. Compared to usual
proportional stresses. They are proportional with regard
interaction formulas developed for proportional stresses
to their amplitudes, however nonproportional with
the linear addition may be assumed to produce results
regard to their mean values.
on the safe side *19.
Normally synchronous stresses result from a combined
A necessary reservation for applying this approximate
action of a constant loading with a second, different
way of calculation is, that a thorough stress analysis is
kind of loading, that is varying with time. Examples are
performed in every case and that careful evaluation of
a shaft with a nonchanging torsional loading and a
the result is performed finally.
rotating bending loading. Or a long, lying cylindrical
vessel under pulsating internal pressure, where the In order to reach an optimum degree of utilization of the
longitudinal stress is nonproportional to the component fatigue strength in the case of non
circumferential stress because of the bending stress from proportional multiaxial stresses, an experimental
the dead weight is additively overlaid. assessment of the fatigue strength has to be
recommended according to the contemporary state of
For synchronous multiaxial stresses, the interaction
the art.
formulae given in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6  if observing the
related rules of sign  are valid as a useful
approximation, because they are applied to the stress
amplitudes, which are proportional to each other, and
because the fatigue strength is determined by the stress
amplitudes in the first place. Additional rules for
considering the mean stresses are required, however.
An improved procedure for the assessment of the
component fatigue limit in the case of synchronous
multiaxial stresses is presented in Chapter 5.9.
Nonproportional stresses
Nonproportional stresses result from the action of at
least two loadings that vary nonproportionally with
time in a different manner.
In this most general case of nonproportional loading
different spectra apply to the individual types of stress
that result from the combined loadings. In particular the
amounts and the directions of the principle stresses are
variable with time.
The case of variable directions of the principle stresses
can not be considered with the interaction formulas
given in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6.
Appropriate methods of calculation proposed for the
assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of non
proportional stresses, that have been developed from a
material mechanics point of view, require much
computing effort and are applicable with computer
programs for short stress sequences only. Their
plausibility is currently subject of investigations.
Therefore only an approximate way of calculation for
the assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of non 19 For nonproportional multiaxialloadings the reference point may be at
proportional multiaxial stresses can be given, Chapter different positions in the case ofthe combined loadings and in the case of
5.10: As proportional stresses result from each of the each ofthe individual loadings, respectively. This is because the most
damaging stresses from the combined loadings may occur at positions
acting loadings the degrees of utilization of these different from the positions ofthe maximum stresses from the individual
individual loadings can be correctly computed and loadings. By the above mentioned approximation, however, the full
assessed as described in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6. The so damaging effect of each loading may be assumed to be superimposed at
the reference point in question.
18
o General survey
19
1.1 Characteristic stress values 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
Kt,A
Relevant are the extreme maximum and rmmmum
~
stresses Smax,ex,zd and Smin,ex,zd, ... of the individual stress
__ c ~ _ components expected for the most unfavorable operating
conditions and for special loads according to
.~+._._.  ' ....... specification or due to physical limits *3. Both the
F F maximum and minimum stresses can be positive or
negative. It is assumed, that all stresses reach their
extreme values simultaneously.
Figure 1.0.1 Different sections for a static failure
occurring as a local failure (A) or as a global failure (B).
Elevated temperature
In case of elevated temperature the values Smax,ex,zd, ...
and Smin,ex,zd,... are relevant for a shortterm loading
For GGG sorts and wrought aluminium alloys with low
(related to the high temperature strength or high
elongation, A < 12,5 % , for all sorts GT and GG as
temperature yield strength).
well as for cast aluminium alloys the assessment of the
static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses For a longtermloading (related to the creep strength or
according to Chapter 3 *1. 1% creep limit) correct results will only be obtained in
case of a constant (static) tensile stress Smax,ex,zd equally
In the case of very high stress concentration factors the distributed over the section of concern.
assessment of the static strength is to be carried out by
using local stresses according to Chapter 3 *2. In all other cases of constant or variable loading the
assessment will be more or less on the safe side if the
For blockshaped (3D) components the assessment of values Smax,ex,zd , ... and Smin,ex,zd, ... refer to a stress
the static strength is to be carried out by using local distribution with a stress gradient, and/or if they refer to
stresses according to Chapter 3. the peak values of a variable stress history, which are of
For all other kinds of material (GGG sorts and short duration only, while for the rest of time the stress
wrought aluminium alloys with high elongation, is lower.
A'2 12,5 % , GS, milled steel and forgingsteel) and for If in those cases it becomes necessary to make best use
smaller stress concentration factors of rodshaped (lD) of the longterm load bearing capacity of the component
and of shellshaped (2D) components the assessment of
the static strength using nominal stresses is applicable.
3 In general the values Smax,ex,zd and Smin,ex,zd for the assessment of
the static strength are the extreme values of a stress history. For the
assessment ofthe fatigue strength a stress spectrum is tobe derived from
that history consisting ofstress cycles ofthe amplitudes Sa,zd,i and the
mean values Sm,zd,i , Chapter 2.1.
The largest amplitude ofthis stress spectrum is Sa,zd, 1 , and the related
mean value is Sm,zd,l . The related maximum and minimum values are
Smax,zd,l = Sm,zd,l + Sa,zd,l and Smin,zd,l = Sm,zd,l  Sa,zd,l .The
values Smax,ex,zd and Smin,ex,zd may be different from the values
1 Because these materials lack sufficient plasticity. Smax,zd, 1 and Smin,zd, 1 . This is because extreme, very seldom
occurring events are important only for the assessment of the static
2 Because extremely high local strains are associated with a very high strength, but hardly for the assessment ofthe fatigue strength. In a stress
stress concentration factor. The stress concentration factor Kt = 3 ofaflat spectrum which issupposed toapply tonormal service conditions they do
bar with a hole issuggested asa limit value. not have tobe considered therefore.
20
1.1 Characteristic stress values 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
Superposition
If several stress components act simultaneously at the
reference point, they are to be overlaid. For the same Figure 1.1.1 Components of nominal stress SII' Til' SJ.
type of stress (for example tension and tension and TJ. in welds. After DIN 18800, Part 1.
Smax,ex,zd,l, Smax,ex,zd,2 , ... ) the superposition is to be Left: Butt weld, Right: Fi)let weld; the nominal stress isto becomputed
carried out at this stage, so that in the following a single with the throat thickness a.
stress value (Smax,ex,zd, ...) exists for each type of stress
*4. For different types of stress (for example bending
and torsion, or tension in direction x and tension in Rodshaped (ID) welded components
direction y) the superposition is to be carried out at the
For rodshaped (ID) welded components the nominal
assessment stage, Chapter 1.6.
stresses are in general to be determined separately for
Stress components acting opposed to each other and the toe section and for the throat section *7.
which do not or can not occur simultaneously, are not to
For the toe section the nominal stresses are to be
be overlaid however.
computed as for nonwelded components, Eq. (1.1.1)
.For the throat section equivalent nominal stresses have
to be computed from the nominal stresses resulting from
1.1.1 Characteristic stress values the particular types of loading, Figure 1.1.1 *8.
1.1.1.0 General
2 2 2
Swv,zd = S..L,zd + T..L,zd + 1j1 ,zd ' (1.1.2)
Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D), as well as non
welded and welded components are to be distinguished.
S..L,zd Axial stress normal to the weld seam
T..L,zd Shear stress normal to the weld seam,
TII,zd Shear stress parallel to the weld seam.
11.1.1 Rodshaped (ID) components
Swv,b, T WV,s and T wv,t in analogy.
Rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components
For rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components an axial The extreme maximum and minimum values of the
stress Szd , a bending stress Sb, a shear stress T, *5 equivalent nominal stresses are
and/or a torsional stress T t are to be considered. The
Smax,ex,wv,zd and Smin,ex,wv,zd, .... (1.1.3)
extreme maximum and minimum stresses are
Smax,ex,zd, Smax,ex,b, Tmax.exs . Tmax,ex,t, (1.1.1)
Stresses of different sign (Smax,ex,wv,zd posiuve,
Smin,ex,zd, Smin,ex,b, T min.ex,s, Tmin,ex,t . Smin,ex,wv,zd negative for instance) are generally to be
Stresses of different sign (Smax,ex,zd positive, Smin,ex,zd considered separately. For shear and for torsion the
negative for instance) are generally to be considered highest absolute value is relevant.
separately *6. For shear and for torsion the highest
absolute value is relevant.
10 See footnote *6. And moreover because the second normal stress Sy
may reduce the degree ofutilization.
22
1.2 Material properties 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
Contents Page
1.2.0 General 22
1.2.1 Component values according to standards 23.
1.2.1.0 General
1.2.1.1 Component values according to standards
of semifinished products or test pieces
1.2.1.2 Component values according to the
drawing
1.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values 24
1.2.2 Technological size factor
1.2.2.0 General
1.2.2.1 Dependence on the effective diameter
1.2.2.2 Effective diameter
1.2.3 Anisotropy factor 26
values '.'
1.2.4 Compression strength factor and liCCj)tding.
to s.tanqai"ds
shear strength factor Component
1.2.4.0 General values 
1.2.4.1 Compression strength factor
1.2.4.2 Shear strength factor 27
fIg)
1.2.5 Temperature factors Figure 1.2.1 Values according to standards and com
1.2.5.0 General ponent values according to standards, Rm and Rp, or
1.2.5.1 Normal temperature values specified by drawings, R.n.z and Rp,z .
1.2.5.2 Low temperature
1.2.5.3 Elevated temperature Top: All kinds of material except GG, Rm =:; Rm,N, Rp =:; Rp,N .
Semilogarithmic decrease of the mechanical material properties with the
effectivediameter deft'.
1.2.0 General
Bottom: GG, Rm =:; or ~ Rm,N . Doublelogarithmic decrease of the
According to this chapter the mechanical material mechanicalmaterial propertieswith the effectivediameter deff.
properties like tensile strength R.n, yield strength R, and
further characteristics for nonwelded and welded Specified values according to drawings Rm,z and Rp,z.
components are to be determined *1.
All mechanical material properties are those of the Values according to standards
material test specimen. Values according to standards,
component values and component values according to The values according to standards <Rm.N , R.n, Rp,N, Rp)
standards are to be distinguished, Figure 1.2.1. correspond to an average probability of survival
Po = 97,5 % and depend on the effective diameter cleft'
and on the technological size factor.
Material test specimen
In the context of this guideline the material test Component values
specimen is an unnotched polished round specimen of
do = 7,5 mID diameter *2 .. The component values <Rm , R.n.z , R, , Rp,z ) are valid
for the effective diameter cleft' of the component, they
may correspond to different probabilities of survival Po ,
however.
1 If in this chapter values are given for GT, GG or cast aluminum
alloys, they are needed for the assessment of the fatigue strength
only, Chapter 2, but not for the assessment of the static strength, Special case of actual component values
which is to be carried out using local stresses for these materials,
Chapter 3. If specific values for a component <Rm.r , Rp,v have been
2 This definition is the basis of the presented calculation, although determined experimentally, they normally apply to a
specimens for tensile tests may usually have diameters different from probability of survival Po = 50 % ,. and therefore they
7,5mm.
23
1.2 Material properties 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
are valid only for the particular component, but not for product *4 , in the case of cast iron or cast aluminum it
the entirety of all those components. They may be used, is the value from the test piece defined by the material
for instance, fora subsequent assessment of the strength standard.
of the particular component in case of a service failure,
The yield strength, Rp,N , is the guaranteed minimum
if for that purpose all safety factors are set to 1,00 in
value specified for the smallest size of the semifinished
addition.
product *4 or for the test piece defined by the material
standard *5.
Component values according to standards Moreover there are to be considered: for compressive
The component values according to standards <Rm , Rp) stresses the compression strength factor f, , Chapter
apply to an average probability of survival Pu = 97,5 % 1.2.4, for shear stresses the shear strength factor :4 ,
and are valid for the effective diameter, delI, of the Chapter 1.2.4, and for elevated temperature the
component. Their application is not limited to a temperature factors Kt,m, ..., Chapter 1.2.5.
particular component, and therefore they may be used
for an assessment of strength, valid for the entirety of
all those components. 1.2.1.2 Component values according to the drawing
To determine the tensile strength Rm and the yield The component value of the tensile strength, RID, is
strength R, *3 the technological size factor, the Rm = 0,94 . Rm,z . (1.2.2)
anisotropy factor and the temperature factors are to be
considered in general. Furthermore compression The component value according to the drawing Rm,z is
strength and shear strength values are to be considered. the tensile strength of the material specified on the
drawing. As the value Rm,z is normally verified by
random inspection of small samples only *6, it is
assumed to have a probability of survival less than Pu =
1.2.1 Component values according to 97,5 % . Eq. (1.2.2) converts the value Rm,z to a
standards component value R; that is expected to conform with
1.2.1.0 <Teneral the probability of survival of Pu = 97,5 %.
The component values according to standards, Rm and The yield strength R, corresponding to the tensile
R, , are to be determined from the values of semi strength Rm is *7 .
finished products or of test pieces defined by standards,
Rp= Kd,p . Rp,N . Rm, (1.2.3)
Rm,N and Rp,N , or from the component value specified in
the drawing, Rm,z . As a special case the experimentally Kd,m Rm,N
determined actual component values, Rm,r and Rp,r , may technological size factors, Chapter 1.2.2,
be applied. values of the semifinished product or
of a test piece defined by standards,
Chapter 5.1 .
1.2.1.1 Component values according to standards of
semifinished products or of test pieces
The component values according to standards of the
tensile strength, Rm , and of the yield strength, Rp, are
Rm = KJ,m' K A' Rm,N, (1.2.1)
R, = KJ,p . K A' Rp,N,
KJ,m, KJ,p technological size factors, Chapter 1.2.2, 4 If different dimensions of that semifinished product are given by
KA anisotropy factor, Chapter 1.2.3, the standard.
Rm,N , Rp,N values of the semifinished product or 5 A probability of survival Po = 97,5 % is assumed for the component
of a test piece defined by standards, prop~ies according to standards Rm,N ' Rp,N . This probability of
Chapter 5.1 . survival should also apply to the values Rm ' Rp calculated therefrom.
In the case of steel or wrought aluminum alloys the 6 The value Rm Z is checked by three hardness measurements
tensile strength, Rm,N js the guaranteed minimum value (n=3) for exampl~, where every test has to reach or to exceed the
required value. The probability of survival of the lowest ofn=3 tests
specified for the smallest size of the semifinished may be estimated to 75 % (= 1  1/(n+l) = 1  11(3+1) = 0,75), and
may be assigned to Rm,Z . With a likely coefficient of variation of
4% the conversion to Po = 97,5 % follows from Eq. (1.2.2).
3 The term yield strength is used as a generalized term for the yield
stress (of milled or forged steel as well as cast steel) and for the 0.2 7 A conversion proportional to Rp N I Rm N would not be correct
proof stress (of nodular cast iron or malleable cast iron as well as since the technological size effect is more pronounced for the yield
aluminum alloys). strength than for the tensile strength.
24
1.2 Material properties 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
1.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values For milled steel there is deff,max,m = deff,max,p = 250 mm.
For all other kinds of material there are no upper limit
If only an experimental value of the tensile strength Rm,r
values cleff,max,... ,
is known the value of the yield strength Rp,r may be
computed from Eq. (1.2.3) with Rm = Rm,r. (1.2.11)
unless otherwise specified in the material standards.
For stainless steel within the dimensions given in For all kinds of material the technological size factor for
material standards there is the toe section and for the throat section of welded
components is *12
Kt,m = Kd,p = 1. (1.2.7)
(1.2.15)
For all other kinds of steel and cast iron materials the
technological size factor is: For cleff 5 cleff,N,m For materials such as conditionally weldable steel,
stainless steel or weldable cast iron the subsequent
Kt,m = Kd,p =1, (1.2.8) calculation is provisional and therefore it is to be
for cleff,N,m < cleff 5 cleff,max,m *10: (1.2.9) applied with caution.
cleff effective diameter, Chapter 1.2.2.2 , In general the upper limit of the effective diameter is
cleff,N,m, ~m constants, Table 1.2.1 and 1.2.2 . specified in the material standards.
Considering the yield strength the values Kt,m, cleff,N,m , For the determination of the effective diameter cleff two
and ~m have to be replaced by the values Kt,p , deff,N,p , cases are to be distinguished as to the kind of material.
and ~p (except for GG). .
Table 1.2.1 Constants deff,N,m , ... , and adm, ... , for steel Table 1.2.2 Constants deff,N,m, ... , and amn, ..., for cast
iron materials
Values in the upper row referto thetensile strength R m ,
Values in the lower rowreferto the yield strength R p . Values in theupper row referto thetensile strength Rm '
Values in the lower row refer to the yield strength R p .
Kinds of material ~ 1 deff,N,m ad,m
cleff,N,p ad,p cleff,N,m 3.d,m
Kinds of material
~2 deff,N,p ad,p
inmm
inmm
Nonalloyed structural steel 40 0,15
DINEN 10 025 40 0,3 Cast steel 100 0,15
Fine grain structural steel 70 0,2 DIN 1681 100 0,3
DIN 17102 40 0,3 Heat treatable steel casting, 300 ~1 0,15
Fine grain structural steel 100 0,25 DIN 17 205 300 0,3
DIN EN 10 113 30 0,3 Heat treatable steel casting,
Heat treatable steel, q&t 16 ~3 0,3 q&t, DIN 17 205, 100 0,3
DIN EN 10 0831 16 0,4 types ~2 No.1, 3, 4 100 0,3
Heat treatable steel, n 16 0,1 as above 200 0,15
DIN EN 100831 16 0,2 types ~3 No. 2 200 0,3
Case hardening steel, bh 16 0,5 as above 200 0,15
DIN EN 10 0831 16 0,5 . types No.5, 6, 8 200 0,3
Nitriding steel, q&t 40 0,25 as above 500 0,15
DIN EN 10 0831 40 0,30 types No.7, 9 500 0,3
stainless steel   GGG 60 0,15
DIN EN 10 0882 ~4 DIN EN 1563 60 0,15
Steel for big forgings, q&t 250 0,2 GT~4 15 0,15
SEW 550 ~5 250 0,25 DIN EN 1562 15 0,15
Steel for big forgings, n 250 0
q&t= quenched and tempered
SEW 550 250 0,15
~ 1 For GS30 Mn 5 or GS25 CrMo 4 there is deff N m = 800 mm
q&t=quenched a. tempered, n=normalized, bh=blank hardened or 500mm respectively, values ad,mand ad,p as gi~ed above.
~ 1 Within the kinds of material there are thetypes of material. ~2 Material types see Table 5.1.11.
~2 More precise values depending on the kind of material (except ~3 Valid for strength level V I, for level V II deff,N,m = deff,N,p
for nonalloyed structural steel) seeTable 5.1.2 to Table 5.1.7. = 100 mm with values ad,mandad,p as above.
~2 For 30 CrNiMo 8 and 36 NiCrMo 16: deff N m = 40 mm, ~4 The values for GT are needed for the assessment of the fatigue
Components (also forgings) made of heat treatable steel, The effective diameter d eff is equal to the diameter or
of case hardening steel, of nitriding steel, both nitrided wall thickness of the component, Table 1.2.3, Case 2.
or quenched and tempered, of heat treatable cast steel,
of GGG, GT or GG. Rodshaped (1D) components made of quenched and
The effective diameter cleff from Table 1.2.3, Case 1, tempered steel
applies. The effective diameter is the diameter existing while the
In general it is: heat treatment is performed.
~
2 2s s For aluminum alloys the anisotropy factor for the
strength values in the main direction of processing is
(1.2.22)
For the strength values transverse to the main direction
~
3 2s s
of processing the anisotropy factor from Tab. 1.2.4 is
to be applied.
2bs
~
4 s
 Table 1.2.4 Anisotropy factor K A
b+s
Steel:
Rm up to 600 from 600 from 900 above
5
r:13 b b in Mpa
KA 0,90
to 900
0,86
to 1200
o.ss
1200
0,80
Aluminum aIIovs:
KA = 1. (1.2.17) The compression strength factor allows for the fact that
in general the material strength is higher in compression
than in tension.
Steel and cast iron material The shear strength factor allows for the fact that the
The anisotropy factor for cast iron material is material strength in shear is different from the tensile
strength.
KA = 1. (1.2.18)
For milled steel and forgings *13 the anisotropy factor
in the main direction of processing is 1.2.4.1 Compression strength factor
14 Tensile strength and yield strength in compressionare supposedto be 15 The relevant temperature factors will be applied in combination
positive, Rc,rn, Rc,p > 0, therefore for compressionfcr > 1. with the safety factors at the assessment stage.
28
1.2 Material properties 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
for fme grain structural steel, T > 60C *16. Kr,m = 1  4,5 . 10 3 . (T / C  50) ~ 0,1,
KT,m = KT,p = 1  1,2 . 10 3 T / DC, (1.2.28) KT=,1p  4, 5 . 10 3 . (T / C  50) >
 0"1
for other kinds of steel *17, T > 100C, Figure  for not agehardening aluminum alloys:
1.2.2: (1.2.29) T> 100C, Figure 1.2.3 (1.2.33)
3
KT,m = KT,p = 11,7' 10 (T / C100), Kr,m = 1  4,5 . 10 3 . (T / C  100) ~ 0,1,
Kr,p = 1 4,5' 10 . (T / C  100) ~ 0,1,
3
for GS, T> 100C: (1.2.30)
1  1,5 . 10 3 . (T /
Kr,m = Kr,p = c  100), Eq. (1.2.32) and (1.2.33) are valid from the indicated
temperature T up to 200C, and in general only, if the
 for GGG, T > 100C: relevant characteristic stress does not act on long terms.
1  2,4 . (10
K r. m = Kr,p = 3 . T / "C) 2. (1.2.31)
Safety factors according to Chapter 1.5 and 2.5: Safety factors according to Chapter 1.5 and 2.5:
jm = 2,0, jp = Jmt = 1,5, jpt = 1,0 .Jn = 1,5 .
Jm = 2,0 , jp = Jmt = 1,5 , jpt = 1,0, Jn = 1,5 .
Aluminum alloys
Longtenn values
According to the temperature T the temperature factors
Long term values of the static strength are
KT,m and KT,p for aluminum alloys apply as follows:
 for agehardening aluminum alloys: T > 50C, R""Tt = KTt,m R", , (1.2.34)
Figure 1.2.3 (1.2.32) ~,Tt = KTt,p R, ,
KTt,m, KTt,p temperature factors,
Figure 1.2.2 and 1.2.3, Eq. (1.2.35),
R"" R, tensile strength and yield strength,
16 There is an insignificant discontinuity at T = 60C. Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3).
17 For stainless steel no values are known up to now.
29
1.2 Material properties 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
The values ~Tl and ~,Tl are not explicitly needed for
an assessment of the static strength, as only the Table 1.2.7 Constants aTt,m, ..., Cp ~1
temperature factors KTl,m and KTt,p are needed.
Steel Non Fine grain Heat
Steel and cast iron materials alloyed structural treatable
structural steel steel
Depending on the temperature T and on the operation steel
time t at that temperature the temperature factors Krt,m ~2 ~3 ~4 ~5
1,0
em 19,57 20
R""TI I R",
0,8
1\ 1 % Creep limit
0,6 \ \
aTtn
bTt.D
 10,582
8,127
0,12
1,52
cTt.n  1,607  1,28
0,4 Co 35,76 18
0,2 \ :
<>1 Approximate values, applicable from about 350Cto 500C.
o I
RT 100
\..t
200 300 400
<>2 Not valid for stainless steel.
<>3 Initially for St38,Rm = 360MPa, similar toSt37.
TrC
<>4 Initially for H 52, Rm = 490 MPa, similar to StE 355; the absolute
Figure 1.2.4 Temperature factor Krt,m ~ Rm,Tt I R.n for values Rill,Tt are thesame asfor St38.
aluminum alloys and t = 105 hours. <>5 Initially for C 45 N (normalized) with Rm = 620 MPa. For C 35 N,
The given curve is the same as in Figure 1.2.3, except that the factor with Rm = 550 MPa the constants 3,001 and 3,252areto bereplaced
(1 /jm ) isdifferent. by 2,949 and 3,198. The absolute values Rill,Tt arethe same asfor
C45N.
<>6 Initially for GSC 25 with Rm = 440 MPa.
c7 Initially for GGG40 with Rm = 423 MPa.
18 LarsenMillerparameter P andLarsenMillerconstant C.
19 Because the values would be unrealistic for temperatures
T < 350C, where the values KT,m and KT,p are relevant instead.
20 The temperature factor Kt,p is not defmed up to now. It may be
assumed, however, as it is essential for the assessment of the static
strength, thattheterm Rp,Tt / jpt is more or less equal to Rill,Tt/ Jmt ,
see Figure 1.2.2 (required safety factorsjpt = 1,0 andjmt = 1,5).
ALarsenMiller equation similar to Eq. (1.2.32) or(1.2.33) applicable to
derive the values of KTt,m and KTt,p according to temperature T and
operation time T has notbeen specified for aluminum alloys uptonow.
30
1.3 Design parameters 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
npl,zd = 1, (1.3.9)
npl,b = MIN (JRp,max / R p ; Kp,b ),
npl,s = 1,
npl,t = MIN (JRp,max / R p ; Kp,t),
n p1,t = Kp,t . 3
K p t = 1,33' 1 (dID) , (1.3.14)
, 1(dID)4
d, D inner and outer diameters.
1 (b I B) . (h I H)2
~6 Kp b = 1,5 '''': (1.3.15)
, 1 (b I B) (h I H)3
b, B inner and outer width, h, H inner and outer hight.
Aluminum alloys
For ductile wrought aluminum alloys (A 2 12,5 %) the
section factors are to be determined from Eq (1.3.9) *7.
Weld quality
Type of RmS Rm >
Joint
stress 360 MPa 360Mua
full all Compression
~2
penetration
weld verified 1,0 1,0
or with Tension 10
back weld not
verified
partial all Compression 0,95 0,80
penetration or 0,80
or fillet Tension
weld
all all Shear
welds
butt weld Tension 0,55 
~3
055
~1 According to DIN 18 800 part 1, Table 21 and Eq. (75).
~2 For aluminum alloys (independent of Rm ) the values typed in
in boldface should be applied for the time being.
~3 Butt welds of sectional steel from St 372 or USt 372 with a
product thickness t> 16 mm.
7 Less ductile aluminum alloys (A < 12,5 %) and cast aluminum alloys
are not considered here because the assessmentof the static strength has to
be carried out using local stressesfor these materials.
8 For the toe section the calculation is to be carried out as for non
welded components.
33
1.4 Component strength 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
Nonwelded and welded components are to be SSK,zd = fa' Rut/ KSK,zd, (1.4.4)
distinguished. They can be both rodshaped (10) or SSK,b = fa . Rut/ KSK,b ,
shellshaped (2D). TSK,s = f't' Rut/KSK,s,
TSK,t = f't . Rut/ KSK,t .
For the throat section of shellshaped (2D) welded
1.4.1 Nonwelded components components the nominal values of the component static
strength for axial (tension or compression) stresses in
The nominal values of the component static strength of the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
rodshaped (lD) components for axial (tension or
compression), for bending, for shear, and for torsional SSK,x = fa . Rut/ KsK,x , (1.4.5)
stress are * 1 *2 *3 SSK,y = fa . Rut/ KsK,y ,
TSK = f't' Rut/ KsK,s,
SSK,zd = fa' Rut/ KSK,zd, (1.4.1)
SSK,b = fa . Rut/ KSK,b , fa compression strength factor, Chapter 1.2.4,
TSK,s = f't . Rut/ KSK,s, Rut tensile strength, Chapter 1.2.1,
TSK,t = f't' Rut/ KSK,t. KsK,zd, ... design factor, Chapter 1.3.1.
f't shear strength factor, Chapter 1.2.4.
The nominal values of the component static strength of
shellshaped (2D) components for normal stresses
(tension or compression) in the directions x and y as
well as for shear stress are
SSK,x = fa . Rut/ KsK,x , (1.4.2)
SSK,y = fa . Rut/ KsK,y ,
TSK = f't' Rut/ KsK,s,
fa compression strength factor, Chapter 1.2.4,
Rut tensile strength, Chapter 1.2.1,
SSK,zd ... design factor, Chapter 1.3.1,
f't shear strength factor, Chapter 1.2.4.
1 The component static strength values are different for normal stress and
for shear stress, and moreover they are different due todifferent section
factors according tothe type ofstress.
2 Basically the tensile strength Rm is the reference value of static
strength, even if inthe case ofa low Rp / Rm ratio the yield strength
should to be used for the assessment ofthe static strength, a fact that is
accounted for in Chapter 1.5.5, however.
3 The tensile static strength isthe reference value for the bending static
strength, too. The difference instatic strength inbending compared tothe
static strength intension orcompression is accounted for by the design
factor. Torsional static strength inanalogy.
34
1.5 Safety factors 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
Table 1.5.2 Safety factors jm and jp for ductile cast iron 1.5.5 Total safety factor
materials (GS; GGG with A 5 ~ 12,5 %) ~1
From the individual safety factors the total safety factor
jm Consequences offailure jgesis to be derived *4:
jp severe moderate
jmt
Jpt
4 MAX means that the maximum value of the four terms in the
parenthetical expression isvalid.
5 Applicable to the tensile strength Rm orthe yield strength Rp toallow
for the tensile strength at elevated temperature ~ T ' the creep strength
Rm,Tt , the hot yield strength ~,T' or the creep limit Rp,Tt ,
respectively.
6 The terms containing the factors KTt,m and KTt,f must not beapplied
in the case of normal temperature, as they wil produce misleading
results.
7 If there is a ratio ofthesafety factors ip lim = 0,75.
36
1.6 Assessment 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
Contents Page For stress components of the same type of stress the
superposition is to be carried out according to Chapter
1.6.0 General 36 1.1.
1.6.1 Rodshaped (ID) components If different types of stress like axial stress, bending
1.6.1.1 Individual types of stress stress ... *5 are to be considered and if the resulting
1.6.1.2 Combined types of stress 37 state of stress is multiaxial, see Figure 0.0.9 *6, the
1.6.2 Shellshaped (2D) components 38 particular extreme maximum stresses and the extreme
1.6.2.1 Individual types of stress minimum stresses are to be overlaid as indicated in the
1.6.2.2 Combined types of stress 39 following.
According to this chapter the assessment of the static Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D) components are
strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out. to be distinguished. They can be both nonwelded or
welded
In general the assessments for the individual types of
stress and for the combined types of stress are to be
carried out separately *1 *2. 1.6.1 Rodshaped (ID) components
In general the assessments for the extreme maximum 1.6.1.1 Individual types of stress
and the extreme minimum stresses (axial stresses in
tension or compression and/or bending stresses in Rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components
tension or compression) are to be carried out separately. The degrees of utilization of rodshaped nonwelded
For steel or wrought aluminum alloys and a symmetrical components for the different types of stress like axial,
crosssection the highest absolute value is relevant *3. bending, shear or torsional stress are
The calculation applies to both nonwelded and welded  S max,ex,zd < 1
components. For welded components assessments are aSK,zd  . , (1.6.1)
SSK,zd / Jges
generally to be carried out separately for the toe section
and for the throat section as indicated in the following. Smax,ex,b
aSK,b = .:s:; 1,
SSK,b / Jges
Degree of utilization a  Tmax,ex,s :s:; 1,
sK,s  T. / .
The assessments are to be carried out by determining the SK,s Jges
degrees of utilization of the component static strength.
In the context of the present Chapter the degree of _ Tmax,ex,t
aSK,t  .:s:; 1,
utilization is the quotient of characteristic service stress TSK,t / Jges
(extreme stress Smax,ex,zd, ...) divided by the allowable
static stress at the reference point *4. The allowable Smax,ex,zd ... extreme maximum stresses according to
static stress is the quotient of the nominal component type of stress; the extreme minimum
static strength, SSK,zd, ... , divided by the total safety stresses, Smin,ex,zd ... , are to be considered
factor jges . The degree of utilization is always a positive in the same way as the maximum stresses,
value. Chapter 1.1.1.1,
SSKzd ... related component static strength,
Chapter 1.4.1,
total safety factor, Chapter 1.5.5.
1 It is a general principle for an assessment of the static strength to
suppose that all types of stress observe their maximum (or minimum)
values atthe same time.
5 Bending stresses in two planes,' Sb,z and Sb,y, are different types of
2 This is in order to examine the degrees ofutilization ofthe individual stress, also shear stresses intwo planes, Ts,z and Ts,y .
types ofstress ingeneral, and inparticular ifthey may occur separately.
6 Only inthe case ofstresses acting simultaneously the character of Eq.
3 Not so for cast iron materials orcast aluminium alloys with different (1.6.4) and (1.6.12) is that ofa strength hypothesis. If Eq. (1.6.4) and
static tension and compression strength values orfor an unsymmetrical (1.6.12) are applied inother cases, they have the character ofan empirical
crosssection. interaction formula only. For example the extreme stresses from bending
and shear will  as a rule  occur atdifferent points ofthe crosssection, so
4 The reference point is the critical point ofthe cross section that observes that different reference points W are to be considered. As.a rule bending
the highest degree ofutilization. will be more important. Moreover see Footnote 1.
37
1.6 Assessment 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In aSK,Sv = q . aNH+ (l  q)' aoH:::; 1, (1.6.4)
general axial stresses (tension and compression) and
where *8
bending stresses (tension and compression) are to be
considered separately. For shear and torsion the highest aNH=~{lsl+~s2 +4.t 2), (1.6.5)
absolute value of shear stress is relevant.
aoH =Js 2
2
+t ,
Rodshaped (ID) welded components
S = aSK,zd + aSK,b , (1.6.6)
For the toe section of rodshaped (lD) welded
components the calculation is to be carried out as for t = aSK,s + aSK,t ,
rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components. aSK,zd, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (1.6.1).
For the throat section of rodshaped (lD) welded and
components the degrees of utilization for an axial,
bending, shear and/or torsional type of loading follow (1.6.7)
from the equivalent nominal stresses, Chapter 1.1.1.1:
Rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components Caution: Here only ductile wrought aluminium alloys are considered
(elongation A > 12,5 %). For nonductile wrought aluminium alloys (as
For rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components the degree well asfor cast aluminium alloys, and for GT or GG) the assessment of
the static strength istobe carried out according toChapter 3.
of utilization for combined types of stresses is *7
10 For example a tension stress from axial loading and a tension stress
from bending acting at the reference point, where both result from the
same single extemalload affecting the component
7 The applied strength hypothesis for combined types of stress is a
combination ofthe normal stress criterion (NH) and the v. Mises criterion 11 For example a tension stress from axial loading and a compression
(GH). Depending on the ductility of the material the combination is stress from bending acting atthe reference point, where both result from
controlled by a parameter q as a function off, according to Eq. (1.6.7) the same single external load affecting the component.
and Table 1.6.1. For steel is q = 0 so that only the v. Mises criterion isof
effect. For GOG is q = 0,264 so that both the normal stress criterion and 12 Stress components acting opposingly may cancel each other inpart or
the v. Mises criterion are of partial influence. completely.
38
1.6 Assessment 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
In the general case  without knowing whether the 1.6,2 Shellshaped (2D) components
stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly *13  the
degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (1.6.6) 1.6.2.1 Individual types of stress
both with equal or with different signs; then the least Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components
favorable case is relevant.
The degrees of utilization of shellshaped (2D) non
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with welded components for the types of stress like normal
Smin,ex,zd , Smin,ex,b , T min.ex,s and T min.ex.t are to be included stress in the directions x and y as well as shear stress are
in this comparative evaluation.
Smax,ex,x
aSK,x = s 1, (1.6.9)
SSK,x / jges
Rodshaped (1D) welded components
Smax,ex,y
For the toe section of rodshaped (10) welded aSK,y = ::;; 1,
components the calculation is to be carried out as for SSK,y / jges
rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components.
aSK,s = Tmax,ex s 1,
For the throat section of rodshaped (10) welded
TSK / jges
components the degree of utilization for combined types
of stresses (or loadings) is *14 Smax,ex,x ... extreme maximum stresses according to
aSK,Swv = (1.6.8) type of stress; the extreme minimum
stresses, Smin,ex,x ... , are to be considered
J(aSK,WV,Zd +aSK,wv,b)2 +(aSK,wv,s +aSK, wv.t )2 , in the same way as the extreme maximum
stresses, Chapter 1.1.1.2,
aSK,wv,zd, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (1.6.2). SSK,x ... related component static strength,
Chapter 1.4.1,
Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress (tension
Jges total safety factor, Chapter 1.5.5.
or compression and bending, or shear and torsion,
respectively) always act unidirectionally at the reference All extreme stresses may be positive or negative (or
point *10, the degrees of utilization aSK,wv,zd and aSK,wv,b zero). In general tension and compression stresses are to
and/or aSK,wv,s and aSK,wv,t are to be inserted into Eq. be considered separately. For shear stress the highest
(1.6.8) with equal (positive) signs (summation); then the absolute value is relevant.
result will be on the safe side. If they act always
opposingly, however, *11, they are to be inserted into Eq.
(1.6.8) with different signs (subtraction) *12. Shellshaped (2D) welded components
In the general case  without knowing whether the For the toe section of shellshaped (2D) welded
stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly '13  the components the calculation is to be carried out as for
degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (1.6.8) shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components.
both with equal or with different signs; then the least
For the throat section of shellshaped (2D) welded
favorable case is relevant.
components the degrees of utilization for normal
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear
Smin,ex,wv,zd , Smin,ex,wv,b , Tmin,ex,wv,s and Tmin,ex,wv,t are to be stress follow from the equivalent nominal stresses,
included in this comparative evaluation. Chapter 1.1.1.2:
a = T.max,ex,wv < 1
SK,wv,s T. / . ,
SK,s Jges
2 2 2
J
aaH= Sx +Sy sx 'Sy +t ,
(1.6.14)
sx= aSK,x,
Sy= asK,y,
t = aSK,s,
aSK,x, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (1.6.9),
and
(1.6.15)
S.,zd,i
Figure 2.1.1
Sm,zd,f   
Stress cycle
Example: S.,zd,1 1 As a rule a stress spectrum is to be determined for normal service
stress cycle (axial stress),
stress ratio: conditions, see footnote 3 on page 19. The largest amplitude Sa zd 1 ofa
service stress spectrum with its related mean stress value Sm,zd,1' defme
R . = Sm,zd,i Sa,zd,i the step i = 1 and serve as the characteristic stress values.
Zd,1 Sm,Z,1 d . + Sa,Z,1
d t
2 Stress components acting opposingly can cancel each other inpart or
completely.
42
2.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Rodshaped (ID) welded components Parameters of the stress spectrum are: (2.1.9)
For rodshaped (lD) welded components the (nominal) Sa,zd 1 characteristic (largest) stress amplitude of the
stress values are in general to be determined separately , stress spectrum, equal to the amplitude in step 1
for the toe section and for the throat section *4. Sa,zd,i amplitude in step i,
Respective amplitudes and mean values see Eq. (2.1.1). Sa,zd,i > 0, Sa,zd,i+ 1 / Sa,zd,i :s: 1,
Sm,zd,i mean value in step i,
N total number of cycles corresponding to the
2.1.1.2 Shellshaped (2D) components required fatigue life
Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components (required total number of cycles),
N = Lni (summed up for 1 to j),
For shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components the n.1 related number of cycles in step i,
(nominal) axial stresses in x and ydirection, Szdx = Sx N, = Lni (summed up for 1 to i),
and Szdy = Sy, as well as a shear stress T, = T are to be H total number of cycles of a given spectrum,
considered. The respective amplitudes and related mean  8
values are H = Hj = Lhi (summed up for 1 to j) * ,
h1 related number of cycles in step i,
Sa,x,i, , Sa,y,i , Ta,i , (2.1.4) Hi = Lhi (summed up for 1 to i),
Sm,x,i, , Sm,y,i, Tm,i . step, i = 1 to j,
j total number of steps, step for the smallest
amplitudes
Shellshaped (2D) welded components Yzd damage potential.
For shellshaped (2D) welded components, Figure 0.0.6,
stress values are in general to be determined separately The damage potential is defined by *5 *9,
for the toe section and for the throat section *4. kO"
Respective amplitudes and mean values see Eq. (2.1.4). j hi Sa zd,i
Yzd = ke L=""' ' (2.1.10)
i=l H [ Sa,zd,l )
2.1.2 Parameters of the stress spectrum
where 1<" is the exponent of the component SN curve.
2.1.2.0 General
Sa,zd,i / Sa,zd,l and hi /H describe the shape of the stress
A stress spectrum describes the stress cycles contained spectrum. The amplitudes Sa,zd,i are always positive, the
in the stress history of concern *5 mean values Sm,zd.i may be positive, negative, or zero.
If the stress cycles show variable amplitudes a stress As a rule a restriction to the following kinds of stress
spectrum is to be determined for every stress component spectra is possible: Mean stress spectra and stress ratio
*6. The constant amplitude stress spectrum may be spectra (with the fluctuating stress spectra as a special
regarded in the following as a special case '7 , for which case), Figure 2.1.2 *10.
i = I and
Sa,zd = Sa,zd,i = Sa,zd,l , (2.1.8)
7 In this case an assessment ofthe fatigue limit is to be carried out for
N= N = ni = n1
type I SN curves if N = N ~ ND 0" oranassessment ofthe endurance
limit for type 11 SN curves if N:" N ~ ND,O", 11 , respectively, oran
assessment for fmite life based on the constant amplitude SN curve
(formally similar to an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
strength) if N = N < ND,O" or N = N ~ ND,O", II for Typ I orTyp 11
SN curves, respectively. ND,O" or ND,O", 11 isthe number ofcycles at
the fatigue limit ofthe component constant amplitude SN curve, Chapter
2.4.3.2.
3 Where appropriate bending and shear stresses in two planes are to be
considered (components yand z), see Chapter 0.3.4.1 . 8 The valuesN  total number ofcycles required  and if  total num~
ofcycle!!j!fa given spectrum  are different ingeneral. The terms niIN
4 For welded components separate assessments ofthe fatigue strength for and hi I H are equivalent.
both the toe section and the throat section ofthe weld are to be carried 9 The damage potential is a value characterising the shape of a stress
out. Both assessments are ofthe same kind, but ingeneral the respective spectrum. The values ka = 5for normal stress and Ie,; = 8 for shear stress
stresses and fatigue classes FAT are different. are valid for nonwelded components. The values ka = 3 and k't = 8 are
5 In the following all variables and equations are presented for the axial
valid for welded components.
stress component Szd only, but written with the appropriate indices they The term hi I H may be replaced by ni IN.
are valid for all other types ofstress aswell..
lOA mean stress spectrum, for example, results from a static load with
6 In thiscase an assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength isto dynamic loads superimposed, a fluctuating stress spectrum, for example,
be carried out. results for a crane hook when lifting variable loads.
43
2.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
or
Sm,zd,i / Sa,zd,i = (1 + ~d) / (l  ~d)' (2.1.14)
11 Applies to a mean stress spectrum, for instance, but not for a stress
ratio spectrum or a fluctuating stress spectrum.
44
2.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
nonwelded welded
p binom. I expon. binom. expon.
Vzd normal stress
k, = 5 1<:" = 3
0 0,326 0,196 0,267 0,155
1/6 0,400 0,297 0,366 0,286 Step i HI
Sa' / Sa hi
1/3 0,499 0,430 0,483 0,426 0 1/3 2/3
P
1/2 0,615 0,570 0,608 0,569
1 1 1 1 2 2
2/3 0,739 0,713 0,737 0,712
2 0,875 0,917 0,958 10 12
5/6 0,868 0,856 0,868 0,856
3 0,750 0,833 0,917 64 76
1 1 1 1 1
4 0,625 0,750 0,875 340 416
v, shear stress 5 0,500 0,667 0,833 2000 2400
k, = 8 k, = 5 6 0,375 0,583 0,792 11000 13400
0 0,399 0,275 0,326 0,196 7 0,250 0,500 0,750 61600 75000
1/6 0,452 0,330 0,400 0,297 8 0,125 0,417 0,708 924984 1000000
1/3 0,527 0,438 0,499 0,430
1/2 0,627 0,573 0,615 0,570 Figure 2.1.3 Standard stress spectra.
2/3 0,743 0,713 0,739 0,713 Top: Binomial distribution. Bottom: Exponential distribution (Straight
5/6 0,869 0,856 0,868 0,856 line distribution). Spectrum parameter p, total number of cyclesII = Hj
1 1 1 1 1 = E hi = 106, number of steps j = 8 , damage potential Yzd for an
exponent ko = 5 of the component constant amplitude SoN curve.
45
2.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Analytical relationship:For standard stress spectra with Parameters of a so derived stress spectrum
spectrum parameters p > 0 (p = 1/6, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 5/6)
characteristic (largest) stress amplitude of the
there is
stress spectrum, equal to the amplitude in step 1
B class of utilization (a combination of the shape of
[ Sa,zd,1 p
J
Sa,zd,i = p + (l  p) .[Sa,zd,i J . (2.1.17) the stress spectrum and of the required total
Sa,zd,1 p=o
number of cycles),
Application: In case of existing experiences about the Sm,zd mean stress *13.
shape of the stress spectrum a suitable standard stress
spectrum may be applied to assess the variable
amplitude fatigue strength in two ways: Analytical relationship: See Chapter 5.7.
Application of the damage potential Vzd. Eq. (2.1.10) Application: In case of existing experiences about the
for an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue shape of stress spectrum and the required total number
strength according to the elementary version of of cycles a class of utilization may be applied to assess
Miner's rule, Chapter 2.4.3.1. the variable amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter 2.4.3.1.
Application of the data on Sa,zd,i / Sa,zd,1 and hi of the The class of utilization has to be specified separate from
steps i = I to j from Figure 2.1.3 for an assessment this guideline.
of the variable amplitude fatigue strength according
to the consistent version of Miner's rule, Chapter
2.4.3.1. 2.1.4.3 Damageequivalent stress amplitude
The appropriate standard stress spectrum has to be The damageequivalent stress amplitude is a constant
specified separate from this guideline. stress amplitude with an assigned number of cycles
equal to the number of cycles at the knee point of the
component constant amplitude SN curve, ND,cr . It is
2.1.4.2 Class of utilization *12 damageequivalent to the stress spectrum in question, In
particular it is defined by the shape of stress spectrum,
A class of utilization is an approximately damage
equivalent combination of different shapes of stress the required total number of cycles, N, and the largest
spectra and of specific figures of the required total stress amplitude Sa,zd,b Figure 2.1.5.
numbers of cycles, Figure 2.1.4, see also Chapter 5.7.
S,;z!il WL
Sa,zd,i
Sa,zd,1
S.,UI'l
S.,zd:;~tr~~""""",<J";>......t..:
2;1.5'
N
Figure 2.1.5 Damageequivalent stress amplitude.
Figure 2.1.4 Spectra corresponding to the same class of
utilization. Component constant amplitude SN curve, WL, number ofcycles atthe
knee point ND,C" ' component variable amplitude fatigue life curve, ~.
Example: Welded component, stress spectra with binomial distribution, characteristic stress amplitude Sa,zd,l, required total number ofcycles N.
axial stress. All three stress spectra are approximately damageequivalent
and correspond tothe same class ofutilization B5, Table 5.7.4. Shown is the situation when full use is made of the fatigue strength
capacity of the component (degree of utilization aBl(,zd = 100 %,
Eq.2.6.3).
As the damageequivalent stress amplitude Sa,zd,eff isassigned toND,C"
it allows an assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength to be
performed as an assessment ofthe fatigue limit.
1 j
Sa,zd,eff = k 
N _.L. '"
. Il:1 ska
a,zd,i (2.1.18)
D, 1=1
2.2 Material properties *1 11m EN.do~ fw,cr fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
normal stress, Chapter 2.2.2,
Contents Page fw,'t fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
2.2.0 General 47 shear stress, Chapter 2.2.2,
Rm tensile strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1.
2.2.1 Component values according to standards
2.2.1.0 General Caution: For nonwelded wrought and cast aluminum
2.2.1.1 Nonwelded components alloys the fatigue limit is different from the endurance
2.2.1.2 Welded components limit associated with N ~ NO,cr,II =NO,'t,ll= 108 cycles.
2.2.2 Fatigue strength factors 48
for normal stress and for shear stress 2.2.1.2 Welded components
2.2.3 Temperature factor For the base material of welded components the material
2.2.3.0 General fatigue strength values for completely reversed stress are
2.2.3.1 Normal temperature the same as for nonwelded components.
2.2.3.2 Low temperature
2.2.3.3 Elevated temperature Steel and cast iron materials
For the toe section and for the throat section of
professionally welded components from weldable
2.2.0 General
structural steel *5 specific values of the fatigue strength
According to this chapter the material fatigue strength apply independent of the kind of material. These are for
values (component values according to standards) are to completely reversed normal stress at N ~ No,cr = 5' 106
be determined. These are the material fatigue limit for cycles and for completely reversed shear stress at
completely reversed normal stress, crW,zd , and shear N ~ No,'t = 1 . 108 cycles *6, Chapter 5.5,
stress, 'tW,s, as well as further characteristics *2.
crW,zd = crw,w = 92 MPa, (2.2.3)
'tw,s = 'tw,w = 37 MPa.
2.2.1 Component values according to Caution: For other kinds of material (stainless steel
standards conditionally weldable steel, weldable cast iron
2.2.1.0 General material) these values are to be considered as
provisional and are to be applied with caution.
The determination of the material fatigue strength is
different for nonwelded and for welded components. Aluminum alloys
For the toe section and for the throat section of
2.2.1.1 Nonwelded components professionally welded components from aluminum
For nonwelded components the values according to alloys *5 specific values of the fatigue strength apply in
standards of the material fatigue strength for completely analogy to steel independent of the kind of material.
reversed normal stress and shear stress *3 and for a These are for completely reversed normal stress at
number of cycles N ~ No,cr = No,'t = 106 are *4 N ~ NO,cr = 5 . 106 cycles and for completely reversed
shear stress at N ~ No,'t = 1 . 108 cycles *6, Chapter 5.5,
crW,zd = fw,cr Rm, (2.2.1)
'tw,s = fw,'t' crW,zd, crW,zd = crw,w = 33 MPa, (2.2.4)
'tw,s = 'tw,w = 13 MPa.
Caution: These values are provisional and are to be
I Chapters 2.2 and 4.2 are identical. applied with caution *7
2.2.2 Fatigue strength factors for normal For normal temperature the temperature factor is
stress and for shear stress KT,D = 1. (2.2.5)
The fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
normal stress, fw,O" , is the quotient of the axial fatigue
strength value for completely reversed stress divided by 2.2.3.2 Low temperature
the tensile strength, Table 2.2.1. Temperatures below the values listed above are outside
the field of application of this guideline.
The fatigue strength factor for shear stress, fw,~ ,
considers that the material fatigue strength is lower for
shear stress than for normal stress, Table 2.2.1.
2.2.3.3 Elevated temperature
In the field of elevated temperatures  up to 500C for
Table 2.2.1 Fatigue strength factors for completely
steel and cast iron materials and up to 200C for
reversed normal stress, fw,O" , and shear stress, fw,~ c 1.
aluminum materials  the influence of the temperature
on the fatigue strength is to be considered. For elevated
Kind of material fw,O" fw,~ temperature the fatigue strength values for completely
Case hardening steel 0,40 ~2 0,577 ~2 ~3 reversed normal stress and shear stress are
Stainless steel 0,40 ~4 0,577 crW,zd,T = KT,D . crW,zd, (2.2.6)
Forging steel 0,40 ~4 0,577 'tW,s,T = KT,D . 'tw,s ,
Steel other than these 0,45 0,577
KT,D temperature factor, Eq. (2.2.7) to (2.2.11),
GS 0,34 0,577
crW,zd, ... material fatigue strength value for completely
GGG 0,34 0,65
reversed normal stress, Chapter 2.2.1.1 and
GT 0,30 0,75
2.2.1.2.
GG 0,30 0,85
'tw,s, ... material fatigue strength value for completely
Wrought aluminum alloys 0,30 ~5 0,577 reversed shear stress, Chapter 2. 2. 1. 1 and
Cast aluminum alloys 0,30 ~5 0,75 2.2.1.2.
fw,O" and fw, ~ arevalid for a number of cycles N = 106
c 1
fw ~ equal to f~ , Table 1.2.5. According to the temperature T the temperature factor
~2 Bl~hardened. The influence of the carburization on the
component fatigue strength is to by considered by the surface KT,D is
treatment factor, Ko, Chapter 2.3.4. for fine grain structural steel, T > 60C:
~3 0,577 = 1 / J3, according tothe v. Mises criterion. Also valid for
welded components. KT,D = 110 3 . T / DC, (2.2.7)
~4 Preliminary values.
for other kinds of steel *7, T> 100C, Figure 2.2.1:
~5 fW,O" does not correspond tothe endurance limit for N = <:i) here! KT,D = 11,4' 10 3 . (T / CIOO), (2.2.8)
for GS, T > 100C:
KT,D = 1 1,2 . 10 3. (T / C_ 100), (2.2.9)
2.2.3 Temperature factor  for GGG, GT and GG, T > 100C, Figure 2.2.1:
2.2.3.0 General KT,D = 1 aT,D . (10  3 . T / oC)2, (2.2.10)
The temperature factors considers that the material for aluminum alloys, T > 50C:
fatigue strength for completely reversed stress decreases KT,D = 11,2' 10 3. (T / C  50)2, (2.2.11)
with increasing temperature. Figure 1.2.3 in the Chapter 1.2,
Normal temperature, low temperature and elevated aT,D Constant, Table 2.2.2.
temperature are to be distinguished.
Ojlf~=
o
o lOO 200 300 400 500
nt. TinC
Rrn;T .~
R ln . 1m
Crecp.Stn~ngth It,,.,TI
Rrn;Tt J
~:m'jlJ1t
0,1 F:=:q:~::J=.Ld~~
oW~Z(n
aW,m
o
o 100 200 300 400 500
2;2,lb TinC
2.3 Design parameters 1R23 EN. dog The design factors of shellshaped (2D) nonwelded
components for normal stresses in the directions x and y
as well as for shear stress are (2.3.2)
Contents Page KwK, =[K +_1_ _ 1) . 1 _
2.3.0 General 50 f
x ,x KR,cr K y K s .KNL,E
2.3.1 Design factors
2.3.1.0 General KWK,y=[K f y +_1_ _ 1) . 1
2.3.1.1 Nonwelded components , KR,cr K y .K s .KNL,E
2.3.1.2 Welded components
KwK,s = [Kf,S +_1__ 1)' 1
2.3.2 Fatigue notch factors 51 KR,'t Ky.K s
2.3.2.0 General
2.3.2.1 Fatigue notch factors computed Kf,zd ... fatigue notch factors,
from stress concentration factors Chapter 2.3.2,
2.3.2.2 Fatigue notch factors computed roughness factor, Chapter 2.3.3,
from experimental values 52 surface treatment factor, Chapter 2.3.4,
2.3.2.3 Fatigue notch factors for coating factor, Chapter 2.3.4,
superimposed notches 54 constant for GG, Chapter 2.3.5.
2.3.3 Roughness factor
2.3.4 Surface treatment and coating factors 55
2.3.1.2 Welded components
2.3.5 Constant KNL,E 56
2.3.6 Fatigue classes (FAT) For the base material of welded components the design
2.3.7 Thickness factor factors are to be computed as for nonwelded
components.
For the toe section and for the throat section of welded
2.3.0 General components the design factors are in general to be
According to this chapter the design parameters are to determined separately, since the crosssection values,
be computed in terms of design factors. the nominal stresses and the fatigue classes FAT may be
different.
Rodshaped (10) and shellshaped (2D) .welded
2.3.1 Design factors components are to be distinguished.
2.3.1.0 General
Steel and cast iron material
Nonwelded and welded components are to be
distinguished. The design factors of welded rodshaped (lD)
components made of steel or of cast iron materials *2 for
axial, for bending, for shear and for torsional stress are,
2.3.1.1 Nonwelded components
KWK,zd = 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL,E), (2.3.4)
Rodshaped (10) and shellshaped (2D) nonwelded KWK,b = KWK,zd ,
components are to be distinguished. KwK,s = 145/ (FAT' it Ko ),
KWK,t = KwK,s .
The design factors of rodshaped (ID) nonwelded
components for axial, for bending, for shear and for The design factors of shellshaped (2D) welded
torsional stresses are *1, (2.3.1) components made of steel or of cast iron materials for
normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for
KWK,Zd=[K f Zd +_1__ 1)' 1 shear stress are
, KR,cr K y K s .KNL,E
KWKb=[K fb +_1__ 1) . 1
, , KR,cr K y K s .KNL,E
1 The additive combination of the fatigue strength notch factor Kfzd ...
with the reciprocal roughness factor Kk,c, ... reduces the effect 'of
KwK,s = [Kf,S +_1__ 1) . 1 roughness for components with sharp notched (Kj is large) incomparison
KR,'t Ky.K s tocomponents with mild ornonotches (Kf '" 1).
2 To a major part the FAT values where derived with reference to the
KWK,t =[K f t +_1__ 1) , 1 . nw recommendations and Eurocode 3 (Ref 191, 18/). The design factors
, KR,'t Ky.K s are supposed, however, to be valid notonly for weldable structural steel
but also for other kinds of iron based materials (conditionally weldable
steel, stainless steel, weldable cast iron materials).
51
2.3 Design parameters 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
KwK,x = 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL,E), (2.3.5) concentration factors, K, , and from the KjK, ratios,
KwK,y = 225 / (FAT' ft' Ko KNL,E), l1o(r) , Ilo(d) , nt(r) , n'[(d) , *5.
KwK,s = 145/ (FAT' it Ky).
(2.3.10)
Aluminum alloys
The design factors of rodshaped (lD) welded
components made of aluminum alloys *3 for axial, for
bending, for shear and for torsional stress are
KWK,zd = 81 / (FAT:tt Ky' K s), (2.3.6)
KWK,b = KWK,zd ,
KwK,s = 52 / (FAT' ft' Kv Ks),
KWK,t = KwK,s . The fatigue notch factors, Kf,x ,... , for normal stress in
The design factors of shellshaped (2D) welded com the directions x and y as well as for shear stress of shell
ponents made of aluminum alloys for normal stresses in shaped (2D) components are
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
Ktx
Kf,x ='() , (2.3.11)
KwK,x = 81 / (FAT' ft' Ke : Ks), (2.3.7) n crx r
KwK,y = 81 / (FAT' ft' Kv Ks), _ Kt,y
KWK,s = 52 / (FAT' ft), Kf,y Day (r) ,
The fatigue notch factors , Kf,zd , ... , for axial, for for 0,1 mrrr ! <G cr ;; 1 mnr ! there is
bending, for shear and for torsional stress of the rod
shaped (lD) nonwelded structural details presented in (aG + R m )
Chapter 5.2 are to be computed from the stress Ocr = 1 +~Gcr'rom 10 bG' MPa, (2.3.14)
3 Tosome part the FAT values where derived with reference tothe IIW (aG + R m )
recommendations. Moreover the design factors are supposed tobevalid, vo = 1 +~Gcr rnm '10 bG.MPa, (2.3.15)
however, for all weldable aluminum alloys, except for the aluminum
alloys 5000, 6000 and 7000. Numerical values see Footnote 6 onpage
47.
a G, bo constants, Table 2.3.2.
4 As a rule Ky isnot relevant for welded components, that isKy = 1.
52
2.3 Design parameters 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
1,1
~~V~~{t~V fw" . Rm, where fw" is the fatigue strength factor for
shear stress, Table 2.2.1.
/l/Pl/ f/ l/
Related stress gradients
The related stress gradients as a function of the notch
radius r at the reference point, G cr (r) andG,(r), are to be
determined from Table 2.3.3. The related stress
gradients from bending and torsion as a function of the
1 2
I
5 to
2.3.2.2 Fatigue notch factors computed from
G(Jinmm~l experimental values
Figure 2.3.1 KjK; ratios ncr for normal stress. Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D) components are
The diagram may be extended up to G cr = 100 mm r l to be distinguished.
Indicated numerical values 1/0,65 to 1/0,95: Difference of the fatigue
limit for completely reversed stress in tensioncompression and in
bending, valid for the material test specimen ofthe diameter do = 7,5 mm.
8 Does not apply to cold rolled or shot peened surfaces. See the summary
Table 2.3.2 Constants l1G and bG . of special features ofthe fatigue strength of surface hardened components,
Chapter 5.8.
Kind Stain Other GS GGG GT GG 9 The Kt  Kf ratio for a crack originating in the hardened surface layer is
of less kinds lower because the tensile strength R m of the hard surface layer is higher
mate steel of than the tensile strength Rm of the core material according to the material
standard.
rial steel
0,40 0,50 0,25 0,05 0,05 0,05 The Kt  Kf ratio for a crack origgiating ~the core material is lower
l1G because the related stress gradientGcr (or G, ) in the core material has
bG 2400 2700 2000 3200 3200 3200 decreased from its maximum value at the surface.
2
1
Mb~r
The fatigue notch factors for shellshaped (2D) non
(I+<p)
~(iD
Fzd
. d' ~
. FZd
r r welded components applying to normal stresses in the
I
directions x and y as well as shear stress are:
t
MbBtfb
_( D
FZd
d'
t
x.,
I Fzd
2,3
'(l+<p)
r
1,15
r
K  K (d) n crx (rp )
f,xf,xP' ()'
n crx r
(2.3.19)

Mb~rb
2
. (1+<p)
 ( Bb
) r
Fzd Fzd
~5
t Kf,zd (dp), .. fatigue notch factor of the test
Mb~b
(t B   b ) 
2,3. (l +<P)
r ncr (rp)...
Chapter 5.3 *13,
KtKf ratio of the test specimen for normal
Fzd ' FZd ~5 stress or for shear stress according to r p *14,
t ncr (r) ... KtKf ratio of the component for normal
member
11 In this case the fatigue notch factor depends on the notch radii r and
~ 1 r > O. The equations are valid for round members, approximately
rp and for bending and torsion on the diameter or width d at the notch
they apply to round members with a central borehole too. net section.
~2 rp = 0 for t! d > 0,25 ort! b > 0,25,
12 The basic definition of the fatigue notch factor Kf,b for bending is:
q>= 1I(4.M +2) for t!d~ 0,25 or t!b~ 0,25.
Kf,b = crW,zd/ SWK,b ' (2.3.20)
~3 The related stress gradient Gcr(r) applies to axial stress and to
crW,zd fatigue strength value for completely reversed axial stress
bending stress; nevertheless there is a difference for bending because of
of the unnotched test specimen of the diameter do ,
the KtKfTatio ncr(d) additionally contained in Eq. (2.3.10) and (2.3.18). fatigue strength value for completely reversed bending stress
SWK,b
of the notched component of the diameter or width d.
~4 The related stress gradient G~(r) applies to shear stress and to
torsion stress; nevertheless there is a difference for torsion because of the Kfb in bending is dependent on the notch radius r and on the diameter or
KtKfTatio n~(d) additionally contained in Eq. (2.3.10) and (2.3.18). width d of the notch net section. Kf,t for torsion in analogy.
~5 flat member of thickness s. The .defmition of the fatigue notch factor for bending derived from
experimental data  under the provision that the unnotched and the
notched specimen have the same diameter dp  is:
The fatigue notch factors, Kf,zd , ... , for axial, for Kf,b (d p) = SW,b,P / SWK,b,P, (2.3.21)
bending, for shear and for torsional stress of the rod SW,b,P fatigue limit for completely reversed bending stress of the
shaped (lD) nonwelded structural details presented in unnotched test specimen of diameter dp,
SWK,b,P Fatigue limit for completely reversed bending stress of the
Chapter 5.3 are to be computed from the experimentally notched test specimen of diameter dp.
derived fatigue notch factors of test specimens given
there, and from the respective Kf K, ratios. In Kf,b is dependent on the notch radius rp and on the diameter or width of
particular *II the notch net section d. Kf,t for torsion in analogy.
The roughness factor KR,cr or KR;t accounts for the "r .... J
KKR,cr (2.3.26)
= 1  aR,cr . 19 (Rz 111m ) . 19(2Rm I Rm,N,min ),
KKR,'t=
= 1  fw,'t . aR,cr lg (Rz /um) lg (2Rm!Rm, N, min), 15 Exception in case of bending: If Kr.b(lip ) . Ilo(rp ) / Ilo(r) < 1 then
Kf,b(lip) . Ilo(rp) / Ilo(r) = 1 is to be applied (without considering Ilo(d) ).
aR,cr constant, Table 2.3.4, Accordingly in case of torsion.
Rz average roughness value of the surface
16 The distance of 2 r is likely to be on the safe side.
in 11m , according to DIN 4768,
Rm tensile strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1, 17 In particular residual stresses as a result of manufacturing and of a
surface treatment are determining the influence of the surface on the
Rm,N,min minimum tensile strength, Table 2.3.4,
component fatigue limit, rather than the surface roughness. According to
fw,'t fatigue strength factor for shear stress, the current state of knowledge, however, improved regulations to allow
Table 2.2.1. for the surface effect are not yet developed, so that the traditional
equations based on a roughness value have to be accepted for the time
being.
55
2.3 Design parameters 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Table 2.3.4 Constant aR,cr and nummum tensile Table 2.3.5 Upper and lower limits of the surface
strength. ~l1,N,min , for the kind of material considered. treatment factor for steel and cast iron materials ~H2.
The coating factor K s allows for the influence of a 2.3.6 Fatigue class (FAT)
surface coating on the fatigue strength of a component
made of an aluminum alloy. The fatigue classes (FAT) for nominal stresses allow for
the influences of both the form of welded components,
For steel and cast iron material there is of the shape of the weld seam and of the weld seam
Ks = 1. (2.3.29) itself on the fatigue strength of the toe section or of the
throat section) *19.
For aluminum alloy without coating there is
A complete catalogue of fatigue classes with reference to
Ks = 1. (2.3.30) the IIW Recommendations is given in Chapter 5.4.1 *20
For aluminum alloy with coating there is
K s < 1. (2.3.31)
Ks for example after Figure 2.3.4 (provisional values). 2.3.7 Thickness factor
When using nominal stresses for the calculation of
transversely loaded welds the thickness factor ft
'Ks 0.9
..,J
r.
I
, I
1'111T1
I
"f
I!'
Ii
.; !
,.
I ;; !;1!
accounts for the influence of the sheet metal thickness
on the fatigue strength *21 ..
'"""
 'ffi'!r
.r...........
0,1 , "'" .I
I. o
n .
o
..iH+iH
I ! !',.1i For a transversely loaded weld and a sheet metal
1 10 100
thickness t > 25 min the thickness factor is a function of
Thickness .of layerinp.ID
the sheet metal thickness t (in mm):
:tt = (25 mm / t) n, (2.3.34)
Figure 2.3.4 Influence of anodic coating on the fatigue
limit (at 106 cycles) of a component from aluminum n after Table 2.3.7.
alloy as a function of the layer thickness (after Wilson).
Provisional values.
Table 2.3.7 Exponent n for the thickness factor.
20 All fatigue classes, except those for the base material, are considered
KNL,E 1,075 1,05 1,025 here: for steel FAT::;; 140 for nomial stress and FAT::;; 100 for shear
stress, for aluminum alloys FATS; 50 for normal stress and FAT::;; 36
for shear stress.
e 1 For unnotched or slightly notched components in tensioncompression
KNL.E = 1. The assessment ofthe base material ofwelded components is to be carried
out as for nonwelded components.
21 The thickness factor is supposed to be valid for steel, but also for
aluminum alloys.
57
2.4 Component strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.1 Component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress with nominal stresses
2.4 Component strength \R24 EN.dog Caution: See the comment in the second paragraph of
Chapter 4.4.2.
Content Page
Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D) components are
2.4.0 General 57 to be distinguished.
2.4.1 Component fatigue limit for completely The component fatigue limits of rodshaped (lD)
reversed stress components for completely reversed axial, bending,
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit 58 shear and torsional stress are *1
according to mean stress SWK,zd = crW,zd I KWK,zd , (2.4.1)
2.4.2.0 General
SWK,b = crW,zd I KWK,b *2 ,
2.4.2.1 Mean stress factor 59
TwK,s = 'tw,sl KwK,s,
Calculation for type of overloading F2 TWK,t = 'tw,sl KWK,t,
Calculation for type of overloading Fl 60
crW,zd, 'tW,s material or weld specific fatigue limit for
Calculation for type of overloading F3
completely reversed stress, Chapter
Calculation for type of overloading F4 61
2.2.1,
2.4.2.2 Individual or equivalent mean stress
KWK,zd... design factor, Chapter 2.3.1.
2.4.2.3 Residual stress factor 62
2.4.2.4 Mean stress sensitivity Eq. (2.4.1) is based on thefatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Eq. (2.2.1) or (2.2.3) and (2.2.4), and on
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue
the design factor, Eq. (2.3.1) or (2.3.4) and (2.3.6). It
strength 63
applies to nonwelded and to welded components.
2A.3.G General
2.4.3.1 Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor 64
Calculation for a constant amplitude
The component fatigue limits of shellshaped (2D)
spectrum
components for completely reversed normal stresses in
Calculation for a variable amplitude
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
spectrum
Elementary version of Miner's rule SWK,x = crW,zd l KwK,x , (2.4.2)
based on the damage potential SWK,y = crW,zd I KwK,y ,
Calculation according to the consistent TWK = 'tw,s I KwK,s ,
version of Miner's rule 65
Calculation using a class of utilization 66 crW,zd, 'tw,s material or weld specific fatigue limit for
completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.2.1,
Calculation using a damageequivalent
stress amplitude KWK,x, ... design factor, Chapter 2.3.1.
2.4.3.2 Component constant amplitude SN curve Eq. (2.4.2) is based on the fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Eq. (2.2.1) or (2.2.3) and (2.2.4), and on
the design factor, Eq. (2.3.2) or (2.3.5) and (2.3.7). It
2.4.0 General applies to nonwelded and to welded components.
According to this chapter the component fatigue
strength is to be calculated as follows:
Step 1: component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress in considering the design factor,
Chapter 2.4.1,
Step 2: component fatigue limit in considering the
mean stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2,
Step 3: component variable amplitude fatigue
strength in considering the variable amplitude
fatigue strength factor, Chapter 2.4.3.
1 The component fatigue limits for completely reversed stress are
different for normal stress and for shear stress, and moreover because of
different stress gradients ordifferent weld characteristics depending onthe
2.4.1 Component fatigue limit for type ofstress.
completely reversed stress
2 The material fatigue limit forcompletely reversed stress isthebasis for
According to this chapter the component fatigue limit both axial and bending stress. The difference is allowed for bythe design
factor. Forshear and torsion inanalogy.
for completely reversed stress is to be calculated in
considering the design factor.
58
2.4 Component strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress using nominal stresses
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to KAK,zd .., mean stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.1,
KE,cr ... residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3,
mean stress 1R242 EN.dog
SWK,zd ... component fatigue limit for completely
2.4.2.0 General reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1.
According to this chapter the amplitude of the Eq. (2.4.6) applies to nonwelded and to welded
component fatigue limit is to be determined according to components.
a given mean stress, and where appropriate, in
considering a multi axial state of stress.
Shellshaped (2D) components
Comment: For nonwelded components of austenitic
steel, or of wrought or cast aluminum alloys the The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component
component fatigue limit is different from the component fatigue limit of shellshaped (2D) components for
endurance limit for N = 00 , Chapter 2.4.3.2. normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for
shear stress are
Observing the specific input values the calculation
applies to nonwelded and to welded components. SAK,x = KAK,x . KE,cr' SWK,x, (2.4.7)
SAK,y = KAK,y . KE,cr . SWK,y,
An improved procedure for nonwelded components of TAJ( = KAK,s' KE,'t' TWK,
steel to compute the component fatigue limit in the case
of synchronous multiaxial stresses is given in Chapter KAK,x... mean stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.1,
5.9. KE,cr... residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3,
SWK,x ... component fatigue limit for completely
In combination with a stress spectrum the indicated reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1.
stress ratio Rzd, ... commonly refers to step I of the
Eq. (2.4.7) applies to nonwelded arid to welded
stress spectrum (maximum amplitude), R zd,l, .,. *1 *2.
components.
The mean stress factor, Figure 2.4.1, allows for the
influence of the mean stress on the fatigue strength.
Without mean stress the mean stress factor is Type of overloading
KAK,zd = ... = I. (2.4.4) The mean stress factor KAK,zd, ... is dependent on the
type of overloading, FI to F4. It distinguishes the way
The residual stress factor accounts for the influence of how the stress may increase in the case of a possible
the residual stress on the fatigue strength. For non overload in service (not by crash). Therefore it is to be
welded components the residual stress factor for normal determined in the sense of "safety of operation in
stress and for shear stress is service", that is for normal stress as follows:
(2.4.5)  Type FI:
the mean stress Sm,zd remains the same,
Rodshaped (ID) and shellshaped (2D) components are  TypeF2:
to be distinguished. the stress ratio Rzd remains the same,
 Type F3:
Rodshaped (ID) components the minimum stress Smin,zd remains the same,
 TypeF4:
The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component the maximum stress Smax,zd remains the same.
fatigue limit of rodshaped (lD) components for axial,
for bending, for shear and for torsional stress are For bending, shear or torsion Sm,zd, Rzd, .., are to be
replaced by Sm,b, ~, ..., T rn.s Rg, ... or T m.t Rt .
SAK,zd = KAK,zd . KE,cr . SWK,zd, (2.4.6) Intermediate types of overloading are possible.
SAK,b = KAK,b . KE,cr' SWK,b, Dependent on the type of overloading the amplitude of
TAK,s = KAK,s . KE;t . TWK,s , the component fatigue limit is different, Figure 2.4.1.
TAK,t = KAK,t . KE,'t . TWK,t ,
Normal stress:
Calculation for the type of overloading F2 * 4
Field I: Rzd > 1, field of fluctuating compression stress,
In case of a possible overload in service the stress ratio
where Rzd = + or  ex) is the zero compression stress.
Rzd remains the same.
Field II:  ex) ~ Rzd~ 0, where Rzd < 1 is the field of
alternating compression stress, Rzd = 1 is the Normal stress:
completely reversed stress, Rzd > 1 is the field of
Field I: Rzd > 1:
alternating tension stress.
KAK,zd = 1/ ( 1 Ma) , (2.4.9)
Field III: 0 < Rzd < 0,5, field of fluctuating tension
stress, where Rzd = 0 is the zero tension stress.
Field IV: Rzd ~ 0,5, field of high fluctuating tension
stress. 1
KAK,zd , (2.4.10)
1+M cr . Sm,zd / Sa,zd
For bending b the index zd is to be replaced by the index
b, "tension stress" by "tension bending stress", and
"compression stress" by "compression bending stress". Field III, 0< Rzd < 0,5:
1+ M cr /3
I+M cr
Shear stress: *3: KAK,zd = M S ' (2.4.12)
1+ _cr_ . m,zd
Field I: (not existing),
3 Sa,zd
Field II:  1 ~ Rs~ 0 (lower boundary changed),
Field III: 0 < n, < 0,5 (unchanged),
Field IV: Rs~ 0,5 (unchanged). Field IV, Rzd~ 0,5:
K  3+M cr (2.4.13)
For torsion the index s is to be replaced by the index 1. AK,zd 3.(I+M ) 2 '
cr
2.4.2.1 Mean stress factor Rzd stress ratio *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2,
Ma mean stress sensitivity, Chapter 2.4.2.4,
The mean stress factor KAK,zd ... is dependent on the Sm,zd mean stress *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2,
mean stress and on the mean stress sensitivity. Sa,zd stress amplitude.
For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.
3 The fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for normal stress shows
. increasing amplitudes for Rzd < 1 (negative mean stress). For negative
mean stress the fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for shear stress is
the same as for positive mean stress and symmetrical to Tm,s = O. 5 Sm,zd / Sa,zd=(l+Rzd)/(lRzd)' (2.4.11)
Practically it is restricted to the fields of positive mean stress or a
stress ratio Rs ~ 1 , as the mean stress in shear is always regarded to Using the term Sm zd I Sa zd instead of (1 + Rzd ) I (1  Rzd ) avoids
be positive, Tm,s ~ O. numerical probl~, when the stress ratio becomes Rzd = 00.
4 The type of overloading F2 is described first because it is of primary 6 Or equivalent mean stress, equivalent minimum stress, equivalent
practical importance . maximum stress, Chapter 2.4.2.2.
60
2.4 Component strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress using nominal stresses
Shear stress: For positive mean stresses, tm,s ~ 0, the same equations
are valid if Sm,zd is replaced by tm,s and M, is replaced
For KAK,s Field I is not existing and Field II is
by M,
restricted to positive mean stresses R, ~ 1 . For
positive mean stress, or R, ~ 1 , the same equations For torsion the index s is to be replaced by t.
are valid if M cr is replaced by M.
For torsion the index s is to be replaced by t. Calculation for the type of overloading F3
In case of a possible overload in service the minimum
stress Smin,zd remains the same.
Calculation for the type of overloading Fl
In case of a possible overload in service the mean stress Normal stress:
Sm,zd remains the same.
Smzd 1
<    there is
KAK,zd = 1 1 (1  Ma ), (2.4.18)
For Sm,zd = ' *7
KE,oo ,SWK,zd IM cr
Field II
KAK,zd = 11 (1  M cr), (2.4.14)
for  2 1(1  Ma)~ Smin,zd ~ 0 there is
Field II 1M cr .Smin,zd
(2.4.19)
for 1 1 (1  Ma) s Sm,zd s 1 1 (1 + Ma) there is I+M oo
Field IV
Field IV
_2 . 3 + Moo
for Smin,zd;?: there is
3 (I+M oo Y
K  3+Moo (2.4.21)
AK,zd  (
3 I+M oo
)2'
(2.4.17)
for Smax,zd>
~ . 3+M cr Sa,zd individual stress amplitude,
( )2 there is
3 1+ M cr Rzd,v equivalent stress ratio,
Smin,zd,v equivalent minimum stress,
Smax,zd,v equivalent maximum stress.
(2.4.25)
For bending, shear and torsion the appropriate variables
are Smin,b,v, ..., ~,v, Tmin,s,v , ..., Rs,v or Tmin,t,v
Smax,zd maximum stress *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2,
residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3, Rt,v
K Ecr
SWK,zd component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1, The equivalent mean stress, Eq. (2.4.27), for normal
mean stress sensitivity, Chapter 2.4.2.4. stress is
For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.
Sm,v = q . Sm,v,NH + (l  q) . Sm,v,GH, (2.4.28)
Shear stress:
where
For shear stress the type of overloading F4 (Tmax,s
remaining constant) can practically not being realized.
q=
13 (l/fc) (2.4.29)
131
Sm,v,NH ~ (ISml+~S~ +4.T~ )
2.4.2.2 Individual or equivalent mean stress
In each case Rzd , ..., Smin,zd, ... and Smax,zd , ... are
. determined by mean stress and stress amplitude. The Sm,vGH
, =~S2m +3.Tm2 .
mean stress may be taken either as the individual mean
stress according to type of stress or as an equivalent
mean stress from the individual mean stresses of all
types of stress.
62
2.4 Component strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress using nominal stresses
Assessment ofthe fatigue limit = endurance limit: where the damage potential is *6 *7
KBK,zd = 1 forN > No,cr. (2.4.48)
Component constant amplitude SN curve model II: '"j h i (S
Vzd_ k cr L.=' 
a,zd,i )kcr , (2.4.54)
slopingfor N > ND,cr (nonwelded aluminum alloys) . i=l H l
Sa,zd,l
Assessment ofthe endurance limit: 5 Direct calculation without iteration. The results obtained from the
elementary version of Miner's rule approach the results obtained from the
consistent version of Miner's rule on the safe side.
KBK,zd = f n,e forN > NO,cr,II. (2.4.52)
6 When computing the damage potential (and also in the following
N number of cycles of the component constant equations) the values ni and N according to the required total number of
amplitude SN curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2, cycles can be replaced by the values hi and H according to the total
number of cycles in the given standard type spectrum, see Chapter 2.1.
N required number of cycles,
No,cr number of cycles at knee point of the component 7 Instead of Alcon after Eq. (2.4.58) is here
constant amplitude SN curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2, A
ele
= 11 (v zd)kcr (2.4.55)
65
2.4 Component fatigue strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength using nominal stresses
slope of the component constant amplitude SN Calculation according to the consistent version of
curve for N < ND,cr , Chapter 2.4.3.2, Miner's rule *9 *10
DM critical damage sum, Table 2.4.3,
Using the consistent version of Miner's rule the variable
ND,cr number of cycles at knee point of the component
constant amplitude SN curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2, amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be computes!
iteratively for differing values of Sa,zd,l , until a value N
H total number of cycles of the given spectrum,
equal to the required total number of cycles N is
H = H, = L hi (summed up for i = 1 toj), obtained. The respective value of Sa,zd,l is used to derive
h1 related number of cycles in step i, the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor.
Hi = L hi (summed up for i = 1 to i) *8,
j total number of steps in the spectrum, Component constant amplitude SN curve model I:
number of the step in the spectrum, horizontal/or N > ND,u (Steel and cast iron material)
Sa,zd,i stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum,
Sa,zd,l stress amplitude in step i = 1 of the spectrum. In case of a component constant amplitude SN curve
model I ( horizontal for N > ND,cr or slope kD,o = (0) the
If for a component constant amplitude SN curve model
number of cycles N to be computed for an value Sa,zd,l
I (horizontal for N > ND,cr ) a value KBK,zd < 1 is is (2.4.57)
obtained from Eq. (2.4.53), then the value to be used is
N = {[ Akon  1 ] . DM + I}' SAK,zd
s )kcr
. ND,cr ,
KBK,zd = 1. (2.4.56)
[ a,zd,l
If for a component constant amplitude SN curve model
where
II (sloping for N > ND,cr ) a value KBK,zd is obtained
from Eq. (2.4.53) that is smaller than the value obtained cr1
from Eq. (2.4.50) or (2.4.52), then the higher value Ak _ [ 
Sa,zd,l

)k .
[ZI
+ L j Z2]
 (2.4.58)
on SAK,zd Nl v=m N2
from Eq. (2.4.50) or (2.4.52) is to be used.
kcr 1 [S )k cr1
Zl = ~AK'Zd _ Sa,zd,m , (2.4.59)
[ a,zd,l ) a.zd.l
sa
[~a,zd'v )k
cr1 cr1
(lg) Z2 = _ [S;,Zd,V+1 )k (2.4.60)
v,Sa.l
a,zd,l a,zd,l
Stress spectrum
m1
Nl= L .: ~ ~
h. [S cr
d.i )k (2.4.61)
i=l H Sa,zd,l
kcr
v h. S .
N2=L .:. ~ (2.4.62)
2:U N (lg) i=l H [ Sa,zd,l )
Figure 2.4.4 Elementary version of Miner's rule, com For the summation of the term Z2, Eq. (2.4.60), it is to
ponent constant amplitude SN curve model I, DM = 1. be observed that Sa,zd,j+l = O.
Characteristics ofthe stress spectrum according toChapter 2.1,
component constant amplitude SoN curve according toChapter 2.4.3.2. N number of cycles of the component constant
amplitude SN curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2,
ND,cr number of cycles at knee point of the component
constant amplitude SN curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2,
Table 2.4.3 Critical damage sum DM , recommended DM critical damage sum, Table 2.4.3,
value. Sa,zd,i stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum,
Sa,zd,l stress amplitude in step i = 1 of the spectrum,
nonwelded welded SAK,zd amplitude of the component fatigue limit,
components components ka slope of the component constant amplitude SN
Steel, GS, 0,3 0,5 curve for N < ND,cr , Chapter 2.4.3.2,
Aluminum alloys j total number of steps in the spectrum,
GGG, GT, GG 1,0 1,0
9 The consistent version of Miner's rule allows for the fact, that the
component fatigue limit will decrease as the damage sum increases.
The decrease applies tocomponent constant amplitude SN curves model
8 hi / H may be replaced by n, / N , I as well as tomodel II for ND,s ~ 106 .
N Required total number ofcycles according to the required fatigue life, 10 The consistent version ofMiner's rule was first developed by Haibach.
N = ~ ni (summed up for 1toj), A simplified version allowing for the decrease ofthe fatigue limit became
nj number ofcycles instep i according tothe required fatigue life. known as the modified version orthe Haibach method ofMiner's rule.
66
2.4 Component fatigue strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength using nominal stresses
If a value KBK,zd < I is obtained from Eq. (2.4.63), then 2.4.3.2 Component constant amplitude SN curve
the value to be applied is
Component constant amplitude SN curves for non
KBK,zd = 1. (2.4.64) welded components (without surface hardening) and for
welded components *13 are shown for normal stress and
for shear stress in Figure 2.4.5 and 2.4.6. The particular
Component constant amplitude SN curve model II: number of cycles at the knee point ND,O' , ... and the
slopingfor N > N D, 0' (nonwelded aluminum alloys) values of slope ka, ... are given in Table 2.4.4.
*11
The component fatigue limit SAK,zd, ... is the reference
In case of a component constant amplitude SN curve fatigue strength value for calculation. It follows from
model II (sloping for N > ND,O' or slope kD,a < kD,a < (0) Chapter 2.4.2. For SN curves Model I the fatigue limit
the number of cycles N is first to be computed for a SAK and the endurance limit SAK,n for N = 00 are
. ' 1/3
smgle value Sa,zd,1 = SAK,zd / (fn,O' ) as follows identical, while for SN curves Model II (valid for non
O welded components of austenitic steel or of aluminum
N={[A 1]'D +1}.[SAK'Zd)k ND,a alloys) they are different by a factor fn,O' , Table 2.4.4
kon M S f )kal3
a.zd.l ( II a and Figure 2.4.5.
with (2.4.65) A lower boundary of the numbers of cycles is implicitly
Akon after Eq. (2.4.58) to (2.4.62) defined by the maximum stress being limited according
and the explanations as before, to the static strength requirements, Chapter 1.
fn,O' factor by which the endurance limit is lower
than the fatigue limit, Table 2.4.4. For surface hardened components "14 the slope of the
component constant amplitude SN curves is more
shallow. Instead of the values of slope kO' = 5 and k, = 8
If a value N = N* > N is obtained then the calcu for not surface hardened components, Table 2.4.4, the
lation of N, Eq. (2.4.65), is to be continued for values that apply to surface hardened components are
differing values Sa,zd,1 > SAK,zd / ( fn,O' )1/3 until a value ka = 15 and k, = 25 ,while the number of cycles at the
N equal to the required total number of cycles N is knee point ND,O' and ND,'t remain unchanged, see also
obtained. From the respective value of Sa,zd,1 the Chapter 5.8.
variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is obtained as
The component constant amplitude SN curves for
KBK,zd = Sa,zd,1 . (fn,O' )1/3 / SAK,zd (2.4.66) welded components are valid for the toe section and for
the throat section.
If a value N = N* ~ N is obtained then the variable
amplitude fatigue strength factor is
(4.4.67)
II Simplified and approximate calculation.
If a value KBK,zd < fn,O' is obtained from Eq. (2.4.67) 12 Class of utilization as a characteristic of the stress spectrum. It is an
then the value to be applied is approximately dam~e equivalent combination of the required total
number of cycles N with the shape of a particular standard stress
KBK,zd = fn,O' . (2.4.68) spectrum the frequency distribution of which is of binomial or exponential
type modified by a spectrum parameter p. It provides a result that
corresponds to a calculation based on the elementary version of Miner's
rule.
Component IND,o IND,o,II Ik, IkD,o fu,o Component IND,t 1 ND,t,ll Ik, IkD;t fu,t
Steel and cast iron materials ( SN curve model I ) Steel and cast iron materials (SN curve model I)
6
nonwelded 110 1 15 1 1,0 nonwelded 110
6
1 18 1 1,0
welded 15 ' 106 1 13 1 1,0 welded 110
8
1 15 1 1,0
Aluminum alloys (SN curve modell II Aluminum alloys (SN curve model II \
nonwelded 110 6 1108 15 115 0,74 nonwelded 110
6
110
8
18 125 10,83
15' 10 1
6
welded 13 1 1,0 welded 110
8
1 15 1 11,0
Sa,zd
(lg) (Ig)
SAK,zdf~"~ SAC
II
SAK.zd.IlIt ];~~~~",,""_ SAK.zd
Nc = NDo=
6
2 '10 5 .'10 6
ails bildw. N (Ig) aila bIJdw12
N (lg)
T a s Ta . s
(lg) (Ig)
I T
AC
TAK.s + ..:c~~
II
TAK,s,II 1+.::...';~=~s.."8
TAK.s
Nc= ND'7 8
. 06 =10
aif. bildwl6 N (lg)
ails bildll'l5 N (lg)
2.5.1 Steel
regular no 1,9 I 1,65
Inspection yes ~3 1,7 I 1,5
The basic safety factor concerning the fatigue strength ~1 See footnote ~1 of Table 2.5.1.
'IS
~2 Compared to Table 2.5.1 an additional partial safety factor
.in = 1,5. (2.5.1) jF = 1,4 is introduced to account for inevitable but allowable defects
in castings.
This value may be reduced under favorable conditions,
~3 Regular inspection in the sense of damage monitoring. Reduction
that is depending on the possibilities of inspection and by about 10 %.
on the consequences of failure, Table 2.5.1.
~4 Compared to Table 2.5.1 an additional partial safety factor
jF = 1,25 is introduced, for which it is assumed that a higher quality
of the castings is obviously guaranteed when testing.
Table 2.5.1 Safety factors for steel *3 (not for GS) and
for ductile wrought aluminum alloys (A:2: 12,5 %).
jD Consequences of failure
severe moderate ~1
regular no 1,5 1,3
yes~2 2 Statistical confidenceS ; 50 %.
inspections 1,35 1,2
3 Steel is always considered as a ductile material.
~1 Moderate consequences of failure of a less important component
in the sense of "non catastrophic" effects of a failure; for example
4 In mechanical engineering cast. components are of standard quality
because of a load redistribution towards other members of a statical
for which a further reduction of the partial safety factor to jF = 1,0
indeterminate system. Reduction by about 15 %.
does not seem possible up to now.
~2 Regular inspection in the sense of damage monitoring. Reduction
A safety factor jF = 1,0 may be applied to high quality cast
by about 10 %.
components in the aircraft industry however. Those high quality cast
components have to meet special demands on qualification and
checks of the production process, as well as on the extent of quality
and product testing in order to guarantee little scatter of their
1 Chapters 2.5 and 4.5 are identical. mechanical properties.
69
2.5 Safety factors 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
2.5.2.2 Nonductile cast iron materials 2.5.3.2 Nonductile wrought aluminum alloy
Cast iron materials with an elongation AS < 12,5 % Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation
(for GT A3 < 12,5 %) are considered as nonductile A < 12,5 % are considered as nonductile materials.
materials, in particular some types of GGG as well as Values of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
all types of GT and GG. Values of elongation for GGG
For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys all safety
and GT see Table 5.1.12 or 5.1.13. The value for GG
factors from Table 2.5.1 are to be increased by adding a
is AS = O.
value Llj , Eq. (2.5.2).
For nonductile cast iron materials the safety factors
from Table 2.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value
Llj, Figure 2.5.1 *s: 2.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys
Llj = 0,5 JAs /50%, (2.5.2) Cast aluminum alloys are always considered as non
ductile materials. All safety factors from Table 2.5.2
AS Elongation, to be replaced by A3 for GT. are to be increased by adding a value Llj , Eq. (2.5.2).
Values of elongation see Table 5.1. 31 to 5.1. 38.
GG
0,5 2.5.5 Total safety factor
Llj
Similar to an assessment of the component static
strength, Chapter 1.5.5, a "total safety factor" jges is
to be derived:
o 1U 12,5 20
As ,A3 in % jges = i D
T,D
, (2.5.4)
Figure 2.5.1 Value Llj to be added to the safety Jn safety factor, Table 2.5.1 or 2.5.2,
factor In , defined as a function of the elongation As or Kt,D temperature factor, Chapter 2.2.3.
A3 , respectively.
2.6.0 General Sa,zd, ... , constant stress amplitude for which the
required number of cycles is N,
According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue Sa,zd,eff, ... , damageequivalent stress amplitude,
strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out. ND,cr number of cycles at knee point of the
In general the assessments for the individual types of component constant amplitude SN
stress and for the combined types of stress are to be curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2.
carried out separately *1.
The procedure of assessment applies to both nonwelded Superposition
and welded components.
For proportional or synchronous stress components of
For welded components assessments are generally to be same type of stress the superposition is to be carried out
carried out separately for the toe section and for the according to Chapter 2.1.
throat section. They are to be carried out in the same
way, but using the respective crosssection values, If different types of stress like axial stress, bending
nominal stresses and fatigue classes FAT as these are in stress, ... *4 act simultaneously and if the resulting stress
general different for the toe and throat section. is multiaxial, Chapter 0.3.5 and Figure 0.0.9, both the
individual types of stress and the combined types of
stress are to be considered as described below *5.
Degree of utilization
The assessment is to be carried out by determining the Kinds of component
degree of utilization of the component fatigue strength.
In the general context of the present Chapter the degree Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D) components are
of utilization is the quotient of the (nominal) to be distinguished. They can be both nonwelded or
characteristic stress amplitude Sa,zd,l , ..., divided by the welded.
allowable (nominal) stress amplitude of the component
fatigue strength at the reference point *2. The allowable
stress amplitude is the quotient of the component
variable amplitude fatigue strength after Chapter 2.4.3,
SBI<,zd, ... , divided by the total safety factor jges . The
degree of utilization is always a positive value *3.
4 Bending stresses intwo planes, Sa,b,y and Sa,b,z ' are different types of
stress, also shear stresses in two planes, T a,s,y and T a.s.z .
5 Proportional, synchronous and nonproportional multiaxial stresses are
tobe distinguished. , Chapter 0.3.5.
Only under special conditions ofproportional stresses the character ofEq.
(2.6.4) and (2.6.12) is that of a strength hypothesis from a material
mechanics point ofview. For example the extreme stresses from bending
and shear will . as a rule  occur atdifferent points ofthe crosssection, so
1 It is essential to examine the degree of utilization not only of the that different reference points W are to be considered. As a rule bending
combined types ofstress but also that ofthe individual types ofstress in will be more important. More general Eq. (2.6.4) and (2.6.12) have the
general, and inparticular ifthese may occur separately. character of an empirical interaction formula. They are applicable for
proportional stresses and approximately applicable for synchronous
2 The reference point is the critical point ofthe considered crosssection stresses; an improved procedure for nonwelded components is given in
that observes the highest degree ofutilization. Chapter 5.9. For nonproportional stresses they are not suitable; an
approximate procedure applicable for nonproportional stresses is
3 As the degree of utilization is the quotient of two amplitude which proposed in Chapter 5.10.
always are positive.
71
2.6 Assessment 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
2 2 2
J
1lGH = sa,x + sa,y  sa,x . sa,y + t a '
q
13 (lIfw,'t) (2.6.12)
131
fw,'t shear fatigue strength factor, Table 2.2.1 or 2.6.1.
3.1.1.1 Rodshaped (ID) components For the root of the weld equivalent structural stresses
have to be computed from the structural stresses
RodshapedHD) nonwelded components resulting from the normal and shear loadings, Figure
For rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components a normal 3.1.1, *8
stress O'zd = 0' and a shear stress ". =" are to be
considered *5. The extreme maximum and minimum (3.1.2)
stresses are
O'.L normal stress normal to the weld seam *9,
O'max,ex , "max,ex , (3.1.1) ".l shear stress normal to the weld seam,
O'min,ex , "min,ex . "II shear stress parallel to the weld seam.
Stresses of different sign (O'max,ex positive, O'min,ex "wv in analogy.
negative for instance) are generally to be considered
separately *6. For shear and for torsion the highest The extreme maximum and muumum values of the
absolute value is relevant. equivalent nominal stresses are
O'max,ex,wv and O'min,ex,wv, .... (3.1.3)
4 See Figure 0.0.6 and 0.0.7 for definition of structural stresses and of 7 For welded components in general an assessment of the static strength
effective notch stresses. For effective notch stresses the assessment is to be carried out for the toe section and for the throat section, because
procedure has not been developed up to now. the crosssectional areas may be different and because the strength
behavior is evaluated in a different way. The assessment for the toe
5 For rodshaped (ID) components the different types of stress (axial, section is to be carried out as for nonwelded components. The assessment
bending, shear and/or torsion) may also occur independent of each other. for the throat section is to be carried out with the equivalent structural
This case is not considered in the following, however, as it is supposed stress (Jwv.
that (J will contain all normal stresses and t will contain all shear stresses.
8 According to DIN 18 800 part 1, page 36. The structural stress (JII
6 Particularly in the case of cast iron materials with different tension and (normal stress parallel to the orientation ofthe weld) is to be neglected.
compression strength values, and moreover because of the nonlinear
elastic stressstrain characteristic of grey cast iron. 9 Normally (Jwv will result mainly from (J.l. 'twv in analogy.
75
3.1 Characteristic stresses 3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses
10 See footnote *6. And moreover because the second normal stress 0y 11 See footnote *6. An moreover because the second and/or third
may reduce the degree ofutilization. principle stress 0zand 03 may reduce the degree ofutilization.
3.2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength
76
using nominal stresses
Contents Page
3.2.0 General 76
3.2.1 Component values according to standards 77
3.2.1.0 General
3.2.1.1 Component values according to standards
of semifinished products or test pieces
3.2.1.2 Component values according to
the drawing
3.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values
3.2.2 Technological size factor 78
3.2.2.0 General
3.2.2.1 Dependence on the effective diameter Rm,N
3.2.2.2 Effective diameter
3.2.3 Anisotropy factor 80
Values
3.2.4 Compression strength factor and according
to standards
shear strength factor Component
3.2.4.0 General values 
of the particular component in case of a service failure, product *3 , in the case of cast iron or cast aluminum it
if for that purpose all safety factors are set to 1,00 in is the value from the test piece according to the material
addition. standard.
The yield strength, Rp,N , is the guaranteed minimum
value specified for the smallest size of the semifinished
Component values according to standards
product *3 or for the test piece defined by the material
The component values according to standards <Rm , Rp) standard *4.
apply to an average probability of survival PD = 97,5 %
and are valid for the effective diameter, c1eff, of the Moreover there are to be considered: for compressive
component. Their application is not limited to a stresses the compression strength factor fa , Chapter
particular component, and therefore they may be used 3.2.4, for shear stresses the shear strength factor f, ,
for an assessment of strength, valid for the entirety of Chapter 3.2.4, and for elevated temperature the
all those components. temperature factors Kt,m , ..., Chapter 3.2.5.
3.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values For milled steel there is deff,max,m = deff,max,p = 250 mm.
For all other kinds of material there are no upper limit
If only an experimental value of the tensile strength Rm,I
values deff,max, ... ,
is known the value of the yield strength Rp,I may be
computed from Eq. (3.2.3) with Rm = Rm,I. deft:max.m = deft:max.p = 00 , (3.2.11)
unless otherwise specified in the material standards.
For stainless steel within the dimensions given in For all kinds of material the technological size factor for
material standards there is the toe section and for the throat section of welded
components is *11
Kd,m = Kct,p =1. (3.2.7)
KcI,m = Kct,p = 1. (3.2.15)
For all other kinds of steel and cast iron materials the
technological size factor is: For deff s deff,N,m For materials such as conditionally weldable steel,
stainless steel or weldable cast iron the subsequent
KcI,m = Kd,p =1, (3.2.8) . calculation is provisional and therefore it is to be
for deff,N,m < deff :s; deff,max,m *9: (3.2.9) applied with caution.
Table 3.2.1 Constants deff,N,m, ... , and adm' ... , for Table3.2.2 Constants cleff,N,m , ..., and adm, ... , for
steel cast iron materials
Values inthe upper row refer tothe tensile strength R m , Values inthe upper row refer tothe tensile strength Rm ,
Values inthe lower row refer to the yield strength Rp . Values inthe lower row refer to the yield strength Rp .
~
1 d d the strength values as depending on the testing
direction, the anisotropy factor is not to be applied:
(3.2.21)
~
2 2s s For aluminum alloys the anisotropy factor for the
strength values in the main direction of processing is
(3.2.22)
for the strength values transverse to the main direction
3
~ s[ 2s s
of processing the anisotropy factor from Tab. 3.2.4 is
to be applied.
~
4 2bs s
 Table 3.2.4 Anisotropy factor K A .
b+s
Steel'
Rm up to 600 from 600 from 900 above
r:fE
5 b b inMpa to 900 to 1200 1200
Alumtnum aIIoys:
Rm up to 200 from 200 from 400
3.2.3 Anisotropy factor inMpa to 400 to 600
The anisotropy factor allows for the fact that the 1,00 0,95 0,90
KA
strength values of milled steel and forgings are lower
transverse to the main direction of milling or forging
than in the main direction of processing. It is to be
supposed that the specified strength values are valid for
3.2.4 Compression strength factor and
the main direction of processing.
shear strength factor
In case of multiaxial stresses, and also with shear stress,
the anisotropy factor is 3.2.4.0 (;eneral
KA = 1. (3.2.17) The compression strength factor allows for the fact that
in general the material strength is higher in compression
than in tension.
Steel and cast iron material The shear strength factor allows for the fact that the
The anisotropy factor for cast iron material is material strength in shear is different from the tensile
strength.
KA = 1. (3.2.18)
For milled steel and forgings *12 the anisotropy factor
in the main direction of processing is 3.2.4.1 Compression strength factor
The values Rc,m and Rc,p are not explicitly needed for The temperature factors allow for the fact that the
an assessment of the static strength, as only the material strength decreases with increasing temperature.
compression strength factor fa is needed. *13. Normal temperature, low temperature and higher
temperature are to be distinguished.
For shear stresses the tensile strength Rm and the yield In the field of elevated temperatures  up to 500C for
strength Rp are to be replaced by the shear strength R, m steel and cast iron materials and up to 200 C for
and the yield strength in shear Rs,p: ' aluminum materials  the influence of the temperature
on the mechanical properties is to be considered. In case
Rs,m = f, . Rm, (3.2.25) of elevated temperature the tensile strength R m is to be
Rs,p = f, . Rp, replaced by the high temperature strength Rrn,T or by
f, shear strength factor, Table 3.2.5 the creep strength Rrn,Tt . The yield strength Rp is to be
R m, Rp tensile strength and yield strength, replaced by the high temperature yield strength Rp,T or
Eq. (3.2.1) to (3.2.3). by the 1 % creep limit Rp,Tt *14.
The values Rs,m and Rs,p are not explicitly needed for For the shortterm values Rm,T and Rp,T as well as for
an assessment of the strength, as only the shear strength the longterm values Rm,Tt and Rp,Tt the Eq. (3.2.27) to
factor f, is needed. (3.2.35) apply.
13 Tensile strength and yield strength incompression are supposed to be 14 The relevant temperature factors will be applied in combination
positive, Rc,rn, Rc,p > 0, therefore for compression fO" > 1. with the safety factors at the assessment stage.
3.2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength
82
using nominal stresses
Shortterm values
For GG a yield strength value is not defined and
therefore the value Rp,T does not exist.
Short term values of the static strength are
Hightemperarure
Rm,T = KT,m . R m , (3.2.27) yield strength Rp T
Rp,T = KT,p . R p ,
I % creep limit Rp,Tt
KT,m, Kt,p. temperature factors,
Rp,Tt Rp I
Eq. (3.2.28) to (3.2.33), ~'RII1'jpt
R m, R p tensile strength and yield strength,
Creep Strength R;";Tt
Eq. (3.2.1) to (3.2.3). O,21~++++>o&..,....j Rrn.Tt I
The values Rm,T and Rp,T are not explicitly needed for ~'jmt
an assessment of the static strength, as only the
temperature factors KT,m and KT,p are needed. 0,1114'44'\1.
aT,m Constant
Eq. (3.2.28) to (3.2.31) are valid from the indicated o 100 200300 400 500
temperature T up to 500 DC. For a temperature above 3.2.2b Tin C
350 C they are valid only, if the relevant characteristic
stress does not act on long terms. Figure 3.2.2 Temperature dependent values of the
static strength of nonalloyed structural steel and of GG
plotted for comparison.
Table 3.2.6 Constant aT,m .
Safety factors after Chapter 3.5.
Kind of material GGG GT GG Rm,T/Rm= KT,m, Rp,T/Rp=KT,p,
2,4 2,0 1,6 Rm,Tt/ Rm = KTt,m, Rp,Tt / Rp = KTt,p'
aT,m
Top: Nonalloyed structural steel with Rp / Rm = Re / Rm = 0,65,
Rm,T, Rp,T aswell as Rm,T1> Rp,Tt fort = 105 h,
Jm= 2,0, jp =Jmt= 1,5 , Jpt= 1,0.
Bottom: 00,
Rm,T aswell as Rm,Tt fort = 105 h,
Jm= 3,0, jmt= 2,4.
17 LarsenMillerparameter P andLarsenMillerconstant C.
~2
steel
~3 ~4 ~5
R"..TI {R".
0,8
\
Creep strength 0,6
\\
aTt.m  0,994 1,127  3,001
0,4
b Tlm 2,485 2,485 3,987
CTtm  1,260  1,260  1,423 0,2
\ i
Cm 20
1 % Creep limit
20 24,27
o i ~
RT 100 200 300 400
Trc
aTt.n  5,019  6,352  3,252
bTt.n 7,227 9,305 5,942 Figure 3.2.4 Temperature factor KTl,m ~ R.n.Tt/ R.n for
5
cTt.n  2,636  3,456  2,728 aluminum alloys and t = 10 hours.
Co 20 20 17,71 The given curve is the same as in Figure 3.2.3, except that the factor
(1 / jm ) is different.
Creep strength
Contents Page For welded components the design factors are generally
to be determined separately for the toe and for the root
3.3.0 General 85 of the weld.
3.3.1 Design factors For the toe of the weld the calculation is to be carried
3.3.1.0 General out as for nonwelded components.
3.3.1.1 Nonwelded components
3.3.1.2 Welded components For the root of the weld of rodshaped (ID) welded
components the design factors for normal stress (tension
3.3.2 Section factors or compression) and for shear stress are
3.3.3 Plastic notch factors 87
3.3.4 Weld factor CI.w KSK,a = 1/ (npl,a . fJ.w KNd , (3.3.4)
3.3.5 Constant KNL 88 KsK,~ = 1 / (npl,~ . fJ.w ) .
Aluminum alloys
10 15 For cast aluminum alloys as well as for wrought
~
3.3.1 Rp/E aluminum alloy with small elongation, A '< 8 %, the
section factors are *3:
1(dlD)
analysis. To reduce the computing effort for such an
d, D inner and outer diameters.
analysis a simplified elasticidealplastic stress strain
1 (b 1 B) (h 1 H)2
curve may be used and the finite element mesh may be ~6 Kp,b = 1,5 . 3 (3.3.15)
less fine than for computing notch stresses. 1 (b 1 B) . (h 1 H)
b, B inner and outer width, h, H inner and outer hight.
Approximately the plastic limit load may be derived as
follows:
Definition and plotting of the cross section which
will determine the limit state,
Entering the yield stresses o = Rp and 't = f~' Rp 3.3.4 Weld factor Uw
into the plotted cross section (f~ from Table 3.2.5),
. Balancing the areas of the section under + Rp and The weld factor CJ..w accounts for the effect of a weld. It
Rp to obtain a similarity between these stresses and applies to the root of the weld of welded components
the external loading situation. only, Table 3.3.3 *9 .
In general realization of the described procedure is not
easy and the formulation of an appropriate algorithm is
difficult. Table 3.3.3 Weld factor CI..w ~1 .
3.3.5 Constant K NL
The Constant KNL allows for the nonlinear elastic
stress strain characteristic of GG in tension and
compression or in bending.
For all kinds of material except for GG there is
K NL = 1. (3.3.16)
For GG the values
K NL = KNL,Zug (3.3.17)
apply to the tension side of the cross section (tension or
tension from bending).
The reciprocal values
KNL,Druck = 1/ KNL,Zug (3.3.18)
apply to the compression side of the cross section
(compression or compression in bending).
Values of the KNL,Zug and KNL,Druck from Table 3.3.4.
Type of GG GG GG GG GG GG
material 10 15 20 25 30 35
1 The component static strength values are different for normal stress and
for shear stress, and moreover they are different due to different section
factors according to the type of stress.
2 Basically the tensile strength Rm is the reference value of static
strength, even if in the case of a low Rp / Rm ratio the yield strength is
to be used for the assessment of the static strength, a fact that is accounted
for in Chapter 1.5.5.
90
3.5 Safety factors 3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses
jges = (3.5.4)
Simplifications
The following simplifications apply to Eq. (3.5.4):
7 MAX means that the maximum value of the four terms in the
parenthetical expression is valid.
9 The terms containing the factors KTt,m and KTt,p must not be applied
in the case of normal temperature, as they will produce misleading results.
Kinds of component
3.6.0 General
Rodshaped (lD), shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped
According to this chapter the assessment of the (3D) components are to be distinguished. They can be
component static strength using local stresses is to be both nonwelded or welded
carried out.
In general the assessments for the individual types of
stress and for the combined stress are to be carried out 3.6.1 Rodshaped (ID) components
separately * I *2. 3.6.1.1 Individual types of stress
In general the assessments for the extreme maximum Rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components
and minimum stresses (normal stresses in tension and
compression and/or shear stress) are to be carried out The degrees of utilization of rodshaped nonwelded
separately. For steel or wrought aluminum alloys the components for the different types of stress like normal
highest absolute value of stress is relevant *3. stress or shear stress are
Rodshaped (ID) welded components For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) there is q = 0,5 , otherwise
For the toe of the weld of rodshaped (lD) welded
components the calculation is to be carried out as for ./3(l/f't) 7
rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components. q
./31
*' (3.6.7)
For the root of the weld of rodshaped (lD) welded f, shear strength factor, Table 3.2.5.
components the degrees of utilization for normal stress
and/or shear stress follow from the equivalent nominal Rodshaped (ID) welded components
stresses, Chapter 3.1.1.1:
For the toe of the weld of rodshaped (lD) welded
. O"max,ex wv components the calculation is to be carried out as for
aSK, wv,e = / .'.$; 1, (3.6.2) rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components.
O"SK Jges
For the root of the. weld of rodshaped (ID) welded
'tmax, ex,wv components the degree of utilization for combined types
aSK,wv,'t = ..$; 1,
'tSK / Jges of stress (or loadings) is *8
s = aSK,cr , (3.6.6)
t = aSK,cr , 7Table 1.6.1 Constant q(f t ) .
Sx = aSK,crx , (3.6.14)
Total safety factor, Chapter 3.5.5.
Sy = aSK,cry ,
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In
general normal stresses in tension or compression are to t = aSK,.,
be considered separately. For shear stress the highest
asK,crx, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (3.6.9).
absolute value is relevant.
For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) there is q = 0,5 , otherwise
Shellshaped (2D) welded components
./3 (lIf.) 9
./31 * '
For the toe of the weld of shellshaped (2D) welded q (3.6.15)
components the calculation is to be carried out as for
shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components. f. shear strength factor, Table 3.2.5.
For the root of the weld of shellshaped (2D) welded
components the degrees of utilization for normal Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress always act
stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear unidirectionally at the reference point *9, the degrees of
stress follow from the equivalent local stresses, Chapter utilization aSK,crx and asK,cry are to be inserted into Eq.
3.1.1.2: (3.6.14) with equal (positive) signs (summation). If they
always act opposingly, however *10, the degrees of
aSK,  0"
max,ex,wv,x ~ 1, utilization aSK,crx and aSK,cry are to be inserted into Eq.
wv.ox  / . (3.6.10) (3.6.14) with different signs.
O"SK,x Jges
In the general case  without knowing whether the
a 
SK,wv,cry 
0"
max,ex,wv,y
/ .
s 1
, stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly *11  the
O"SK,y Jges degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (3.6.14)
both with equal or with different signs; then the least
'tmax,ex,wv favorable case is relevant.
aSK,wv;t = . ~ 1,
'tSK / J ges
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with
crmin,ex,x , crmin,ex,y and 'tmin,ex,s are to be included in this
O"max,ex,wv, ... extreme maximum stresses (equivalent
comparative evaluation.
local stresses); the extreme minimum
stresses, O"min,ex,wv, ... , are to be
considered in the same way as the
Shellshaped (2D) welded components
maximum stresses, Chapter 3.1.1.1,
For the toe of the weld of shellshaped (2D) welded
O"SK,x ... related static component strength values,
components the calculation is to be carried out as for
Chapter 3.4.2,
shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components.
total safety factor, Chapter 3.5.5.
For the root of the weld of shellshaped (2D) welded
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In components the degree of utilization for combined types
general normal stresses in tension or compression are to of stress (or loadings) is "8
be considered separately. For shear stress the highest (3.6.16)
absolute value is relevant. 2 2 2
J
aSK, crwv = aSK,wv,crx +aSK,wv,cry +aSK,wv,. '
3.6.3 Blockshaped (3D) components For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) there is q = 0,5 , otherwise
3.6.3.1 Individual types of stress
The degrees of utilization of blockshaped (3D) non q
/3 (lIf't) *9 (3.6.23)
welded components in terms of the principal stresses in /31 '
the directions 1,2 and 3 are
f't Shear strength factor, Table 3.2.5.
(J
aSK,O'I I, max, ex <1 (3.6.17) Rules of sign: If the individual principal stresses always
(Jl,SK / jges  ,
act unidirectionally at the reference point *13, the
aSK,O'2 =1 (J2,max,~x 1~
(J2,SK / Jerf
1,
degrees of utilization aSK,O'I , aSK,cr2 and aSK,cr3 are to be
inserted into Eq. (3.6.22) with equal (positive) signs
(summation). If they always act opposingly, however
aSK,O'3 = I (J3,max,ex < ,
1 *14, the degrees of utilization aSK,crl , aSK,cr2 and aSK,cr3
/ . 1 are to be inserted into Eq. (3.6.22) with different signs.
(J3,SK Jer
In the general case  without knowing whether the
O'I,max,ex,'" extreme maximum principal stresses; the stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly  the degrees
extreme minimum principal stresses, of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (3.6.22) both
O'I,min,ex , ..., are to be considered in the with equal or with different signs; then the least
same way as the extreme maximum favorable case is relevant.
principal stresses, Chapter 3.1.1.3,
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with
O'SK,1 , ... related static component strength,
O'l,min,ex , 0'2,min,ex and 0'3,min,ex are to be included in this
Chapter 3.4.1,
comparative evaluation.
total safety factor, Chapter 1.5.3.
All extreme principal stresses may be positive or
negative (or zero). Tension and compression are
generally to be considered separately.
(3.6.21)
SI = aSK,O'I , (3.6.22)
s2 = aSK,O'2 ,
s3 = aSK,O'3 ,
aSK, 0'1, ... degrees of utilization, Eq. (3.6.17).
Contents Page
A special case is the constant amplitude spectrum,
4.1.0 General 97 consisting of one step i = j = 1 only. For normal stress
4.1.1 Characteristic service stresses there is O"a = O"a,i = 0"a,1, O"m = O"m,i = O"m,1 .
according to the kind of component
4.1.1.0 General Superposition
4.1.1.1 Rodshaped (lD) components 98
4.1.1.2 Shellshaped (2D) components Proportional or synchronous stresses
4.1.1.3 Blockshaped (3D) components 99 If several proportional or synchronous stress
4.1.2 Parameters of the service stress spectrum components act simultaneously at the reference point,
4.1.2.0 General Chapter 0.3.5, they are to be overlaid. For the same type
4.1.2.1 Mean stress spectrum of stress (for example unidirectional normal stresses
4.1.2.2 Stress ratio spectrum 0"a,1, 0"m,1 and O"a,2 , 0"m,2) the superposition is to be
carried out at this stage, so that in the following a single
4.1.3 Adjusting a stress spectrum to match the 100 stress component (O"a, O"m ...) exists for each type of stress
component constant amplitude SN curve *3. For different types of stress (normal stress and shear
4.1.4 Determination of the parameters stress or normal stress in x and ydirection) the
of a service stress spectrum superposition is to be carried out at the assessment
4.1.4.0 General stage, Chapter 4.6.
4.1.4.1 Standard stress spectrum
4.1.4.2 Class of utilization 102 Nonproportional stresses
4.1.4.3 Damageequivalent stress amplitude
If several nonproportional stress components act
simultaneously at the reference point, Chapter 0.3.5,
4.1.0 General they are to be overlaid according to Chapter 5.10.
Cl"a,i , 'ta,i , (4.1.2) Structural stresses are to be applied to the toe of a weld
Cl"m,i , 'tm,i . only. For the root of a weld the calculation is to be
carried out with effective notch stresses *7
When performing a calculation of welded shellshaped
Calculation with effective notch stresses (2D) components with structural stresses, the normal
Effective notch stresses may be applied to the toe and to stresses in the directions x and y , Cl"x and Cl"y , as well as
the root of a weld *6. a shear stress 't are to be considered. The respective
amplitudes and mean values are
When performing a calculation of welded rodshaped
(ID) components with effective notch stresses a normal Cl"a.x.i Cl"a.y.i 'ta,i, (4.1.5)
stress Cl"K and a shear stress 'tK are to be considered. The Cl"m,x,i, Cl"m,y,i, 'tm,i
respective amplitudes and mean values are
Cl"K,a,i , 'tK,a,i , (4.1.3) Calculation with effective notch stresses
Cl"K,m,i , 'tK,m,i .
When performing a calculation of welded shellshaped
(2D) components with effective notch stresses, the
normal stress in the direction of the maximum effective
4 Rodshaped (10) components may be subject to normal stresses notch stress, Cl"K , as well as the shear stress, 'tK , are to
resulting from tensioncompression and from bending and to shear
stresses resulting from shear and torsion. The case that these stresses may
be considered. The respective amplitudes and mean
occur separate from each other, is not considered here, however, as both values are
tensioncompression stresses and bending stresses as well as both shear
stresses and torsion stresses are supposed to be contained in cr or in 't, Cl"K,a,x,i , Cl"K,a,y,i , 'tK,a,i,. (4.1.6)
respectively. Cl"K,m,x,i, Cl"K,m,y,i, 'tK,m,i
5 Definition of structural stresses and of effective notch stresses see
Figure 0.0.6 and Figure 0.0.7, Chapter 5.4 and 5.5
8 In the following all variables and equations are presented for the local
normal stress o only, but written with the appropriate indices they are
valid for all other types ofstress as well. 11 The values N total number ofcycles required and II total num~
ofcycles ofa given spectrum  are different ingeneral. The terms ni IN
9 In this case anassessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength is and hi I H are equivalent.
tobe carried out.
12 The damage potential is a characteristic for the shape of a stress
lOin this case an assess~nt ofthe fatigue limit isto be carried out for spectrum. The values kcr = 5for normal stress and k't = 8for shear stress
type I SoN curves if N= N ;:: ND,cr.,.2r an assessment ofthe endurance are valid for nonwelded components. The values kcr = 3 and ~ = 8 are
limit for type II SoN curves if N = N ;:: NDcr II , respectively, oran valid for welded components.
assessment for finite life based on the constant amplitude SoN curve The term hi IH may be replaced by ni IN .
(formally similar.20 an assessment ~ the variable amplitude fatigue
strength) if N = N < ND,cr or N= N ;:: ND,cr, II for Typ I orTyp II 13 A mean stress spectrum, for example, results from a static load with
SoN curves, respectively. ND,cr orND,cr, II isthe number ofcycles at dynamic loads superimposed, a fluctuating stress spectrum, for example,
the fatigue limit ofthe component constant amplitude SoN curve, Chapter results for a crane hook when lifting variable loads.
2.4.3.2.
100
4.1 Characteristic service stresses 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
nonwelded welded
p binom. I expon. binom. Expon,
Vcr normal stress
ka= 5 k, =3
0,326 0,196 0,267 0,155
Step i Ga i / Ga I hI H1
1/6 0,400 0,297 0,366 0,286
P
1 1
1
1/3
1
2/3
2 2
1/3
1/2
0,499
0,615
0,430
0,570
0,483
0,608
0,426
0,569
2 0,950 0,967 0,983 16 18 2/3 0,739 0,713 0,737 0,712
3 0,850 0,900 0,950 280 298 5/6 0,868 0,856 0,868 0,856
4 0,725 0,817 0,908 2720 3018 1 1 1 1 1
5 0,575 0,717 0,858 20000 23000 shear stress
Vt
6 0,425 0,617 0,808 92000 115000
k, =8 k, = 5
7 0,275 0,517 0,758 280000 395000
0,399 0,275 0,326 0,196
8 0,125 0,417 0,708 604982 1000000
1/6 0,452 0,330 0,400 0,297
1/3 0,527 0,438 0,499 0,430
1/2 0,627 0,573 0,615 0,570
1
1,0 2~3 1 2/3 0,743 0,713 0,739 0,713
4
aa,i 5/6 0,869 0,856 0,868 0,856
p
aa,l 8 1 1 1 1 1
2/3
0,5
1/3
Step i Ga i/ Gal hi H1
P
1 1
1
1/3
1
2/3
2 2 Application: In case of existing experiences about the
2 0,875 0,917 0,958 10 12 shape of the stress spectrum a suitable standard stress
3 0,750 0,833 0,917 64 76 spectrum may be applied to assess the variable
4 0,625 0,750 0,875 340 416
amplitude fatigue strength in two ways:
5 0,500 0,667 0,833 2000 2400  Application of the damage potential v.,; Eq. (4.1.10)
6 0,375 0,583 0,792 11000 13400 for an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
7 0,250 0,500 0,750 61600 75000 strength according to the elementary version of
8 0,125 0,417 0,708 924984 1000000 Miner's rule, Chapter 4.4.3.1.
Figure 4.1.3 Standard stress spectra  Application of the data on Ga,i / Ga,1 and hi of the
steps i = 1 to j from Figure 4.1.3 for assessing the
Top: Binomial distribution. Bottom: Exponential distribution (straight variable amplitude fatigue strength according to the
line distribution). Spectrum parameter p, total number of cycles H = Hj consistent version of Miner's rule, Chapter 4.4.3.1.
= ~ hi = 106, number of steps j = 8 , damage potential Vcr for an exponent
k cr = 5 of the component constant amplitude SN curve.
The appropriate standard stress spectrum has to be
specified separate from this guideline.
102
4.1 Characteristic service stresses 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
cra,1
Cl'a,cJt ~~......,,...i ....~~
ND,Q' N Iii'
Figure 4.1.5 Damageequivalent stress amplitude
Component constant amplitude SN. curve WL, number of cycles at the
knee point ND cr, component variable amplitude fatigue life curve LL.
N Characteristic stress amplitude 0"a,1, required total number ofcycles.
The damageequivalent stress amplitude O"a,eff is. assigned to ND,O" and
Figure 4.1.4 Spectra corresponding to the same class of hence itallows an assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength to
utilization be performed asan assessment ofthe fatigue limit.
Example: Welded component, stress spectra with binomial distribution,
normal stress. All three stress spectra are approximately damage spectrum, the required total number of cycles and the
equivalent and correspond to the same class of utilization B5,
Table 5.7.4. characteristic (largest) stress amplitude, Figure 4.1.5.
4.1.4.3 Damageequivalent stress amplitude Application: In case of existing experiences about the
The damageequivalent stress amplitude is a constant damaging effect of the stress spectrum a damage
stress amplitude with an assigned number of cycles equivalent stress amplitude O"a,eff may be applied. It
equal to the number of cycles at the knee point of the allows an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
component constant amplitude SN curve, ND CJ It is strength to be performed as an assessment of the fatigue
damageequivalent to the stress spectrum in limit, Chapter 2.6.
The damageequivalent stress amplitude has to be
specified separate of this guideline.
4.2 Material properties *1 1R42 EN.dog fw,cr fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
normal stress, Chapter 4.2.2,
Contents Page fW,"t fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
4.2.0 General 47 shear stress, Chapter 4.2.2,
R m tensile strength, Chapter 3.2.1.1.
4.2.1 Component values according to standards
4.2.1.0 General Caution: For nonwelded wrought and cast aluminum
4.2.1.1 Nonwelded components alloys the fatigue limit is different from the endurance
4.2.1.2 Welded components limit associated with N ~ No.e.n =ND,"t,n= lOS cycles.
4.2.2 Fatigue strength factors 48
for normal stress and for shear stress
4.2.1.2 Welded components
4.2.3 Temperature factor
4.2.3.0 General For the base material of welded components the material
4.2.3.1 Normal temperature fatigue strength for completely reversed stress are the
4.2.3.2 Low temperature same as for nonwelded components.
4.2.3.3 Elevated temperature Steel and cast iron materials
For the toe and the root of the weld of professionally
4.2.0 General welded components from weldable structural steel *5
According to this chapter the material fatigue strength specific values of the fatigue strength apply independent
values (component values according to standards) are to of the kind of material. These are for completely
be determined, These are the material fatigue limit for reversed normal stress at N ~ ND,cr = 5' 106 cycles
completely reversed normal stress, aW,zd , and shear and for completely reversed shear stress at
stress, "Cw,s ' as well as further characteristics *2 N ~ ND,"t = 1 . lOS cycles *6, Chapter 5.5,
aW,zd = aw,w = 92 MPa, (4.2.3)
4.2.1 Component values according to "Cw,s = "Cw,w = 37 MPa.
standards
Caution: For other kinds of material (conditionally
4.2.1.0 General weldable steel, stainless steel, weldable cast iron
The determination of the material fatigue strength is material) these values are to be considered as
different for nonwelded and for welded components. provisional and are to be applied with caution.
Aluminum alloys
4.2.1.1 Nonwelded components For the toe and the root of the weld of professionally
For nonwelded components the values according to welded components from aluminum alloys *5 specific
standards of the material fatigue strength for completely values of the fatigue strength apply in analogy to steel
independent of the kind of material. These are for
reversed normal stress and shear stress *3 and for a
completely reversed normal stress at N ~ ND,cr = 5 . 106
number of cycles N = 106 *4 are
cycles and for completely reversed shear stress at
aW,zd = fw,cr . Rm , (4.2.1) N ~ ND,"t = 1 . 108 cycles *6, Chapter 5.5,
rw., = fW,"t' aW,zd, (4.2.4)
aW,zd = aw,w = 33 MPa,
"Cw,s = "Cw,w = 13 MPa.
I Chapters 2.2 and 4.2 are identical. Caution: These values are provisional and are to be
applied with caution *7 .
2 An influence offrequency on the material fatigue strength values is not
considered up to now although it might be ofimportance for aluminum
alloys.
4 The values crW.zd and "tw.s correspond tothe fatigue limit which isequal
3 For the tensile strength according to standards, Rm , a probability of
survival Po = 97,5 % ispresumed. That probability should also apply to to the endurance limit of steel and cast iron material, but not of
aluminum alloys, however, Figure 4.4.5 and Chapter 5.1.0.
the values crW,zd and "tW,s computed from Rm . Moreover Eq. (1.2.1)
applies here too: 5 Weld imperfections occurring with normal production standards are
crw zd = Kd m. KA . crw zd N, (2.2.2) allowable.
"tw~ = Kd:n KA'"tW s'N',
" " 6 The values crw.w and "tw.w correspond tothe fatigue limit which is equal
Kd,m technological size factor as for the tensile strength, tothe endurance limit ofwelded steel and cast iron material aswell as of
Chapter 3.2.2. welded aluminum alloys, Figure 4.4.6 and Chapter 5.1.0.
KA anisotropy factor, Chapter 3.2.3,
crW,zd,N, ... semifinished product fatigue strength value according to 7 Values derived from an average relation of0,36 ofthe FAT classes for
standards, Chapter 5.1. aluminum alloys and for structural steel, Chapter 5.4.
104
4.2 Material parameters 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
with local stresses
4.2.2 Fatigue strength factors for normal For normal temperature the temperature factor is
stress and for shear stress
KT,D'" 1. (4.2.5)
The fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
normal stress, fw,O" , is the quotient of the axial fatigue
strength value for completely reversed stress divided by 4.2.3.2 Low temperature
the tensile strength, Table 4.2.1.
Temperatures below the values listed above are outside
The fatigue strength factor for shear stress, fw,~ , the field of application of this guideline.
considers that the material fatigue strength is lower for
shear stress than for normal stress, Table 4.2.1.
4.2.3.3 Elevated temperature
Table 4.2.1 Fatigue strength factors for completely In the field of elevated temperatures  up to SOOC for
reversed normal stress, fw,O" , and shear stress, fw,~ ~1. steel and cast iron materials and up to 200C for
aluminum materials  the influence of the temperature
Kind of material fw,O" fw,~ on the fatigue strength is to be considered. For elevated
temperature the fatigue strength values for completely
Case hardening steel 0,40 ~2 0,577 ~2 ~3
reversed normal stress and shear stress are
Stainless steel 0,40 ~4 0,577
Forging steel 0,40 ~4 0,577 <JW,zd,T = KT,D . <JW,zd, (4.2.6)
Steel other than these 0,45 0,577 't:W,s,T = KT,D . 't:w,s ,
GS 0,34 0,577 KT,D temperature factor, Eq. (4.2.7) to (4.2.11),
GGG 0,34 0,65 <JW,zd material fatigue strength value for completely
GT 0,30 0,75 reversed normal stress, Chapter 4.2.1.1 and
GG 0,30 0,85 4.2.1.2.
Wrought aluminum alloys 0,30 ~5 0,577 't:W,s material fatigue strength value for completely
Cast aluminum alloys 0,30 ~5 0,75 reversed normal stress, Chapter 4.2. 1. 1 and
4.2.1.2.
~1 fw 0" and fw ~ are valid fora number of cycles N = 106
fw' ~ is equal 'to f~ , Table 3.2.5.
~2 Bla'nkhardened. The influence of the carburization on the According to the temperature T the temperature factor
component fatigue strength is to be considered by the surface KT,D is
treatment factor, Kv, Chapter 4.3.4.
~3 0,577 = 1//3, according tothe v. Mises criterion. Also valid for for fme grain structural steel, T > 60 DC:
welded components. KT,D"'I1O3'T/oC, (4.2.7)
~4 Preliminary values.
~5 fW,O" does not correspond tothe endurance limit for N = co here! for other kinds of steel *7, T> 100C, Figure 4.2.1:
KT,D = 11,4' 10 3. (T / C100), (4.2.8)
for GS, T> 100C:
4.2.3 Temperature factor
KT,D = 1 1,2 . 10 3. (T / C 100), (4.2.9)
4.2.3.0 General
 for GGG, GT and GG, T > 100C, Figure 4.2.1:
The temperature factor considers that the material KT,D'" 1 aT,D' (10  3. T / 0C)2, (4.2.10)
fatigue strength for completely reversed stress decreases
with increasing temperature. for aluminum alloys, T > 50C:
KT,D = 1 1,2' 10 3. (T / C  50)2, (4.2.11)
Normal temperature, low temperature and elevated Figure 3.2.3 in the Chapter 3.2,
temperature are to be distinguished.
aT,D Constant, Table 4.2.2.
4.2.3.1 Normal temperature
Normal temperatures are as follows:
for fine grain structural steel from 40C to 60C,
 for other kinds of steel from 40C to + 100C, Table 4.2.2 Constant aT,D *8.
for cast iron materials from 25C to + 100C,
Kind of material GGG GT GG
 for agehardening aluminum alloys
aT,D 1,6 1,3 1,0
from 25C to 50C,
 for nonagehardening aluminum alloys
from 25C to 100e.
0;1
o
o 100 ZOO 300 400 500
2.2.1. Tin "C
Creep$trengthR,.;Tt
Rm,Tt I
Rm 'jmt
0,1 t====J=::='=bL....,,=1..+1
o
o 100 200 300 400 500
Z,2.1b Till 'c
KwK,crx = (4.3.2)
4.3 Design parameters 1R43 EN.dog
=_1_'(1+_1_.(_1_ _ 1)) 1
Content Page ncr,x Kf KR,cr K y .K s .KNL,E '
4.3.0 General 106
'(1+~.(_1
w
4.3.1 Design factors K : ,O"Y1= 1)1
4.3.1.0 General
ncr,y Kf KR,cr ) K y .K s .KNL,E
4.3.1.1 Nonwelded components
4.3.1.2 Welded components 107 KwK,~ =
4.3.2
4.3.2.0
KtK f ratios
General
108
~ n1, {1+ ~f K~, I)J Ky l Ks
( >
4.3.2.1 Computation of KjK, ratios
4.3.2.2 KjK, ratio for superimposed notches 109
The design factors of blockshaped nonwelded
4.3.3 Roughness factor components for the principle stresses in the directions 1,
4.3.4 Surface treatment and coating factor 110 2 and 3 (normal to the surface) are *2
4.3.5 Constant KNL,E III
4.3.6 Fatigue classes (FAT) 112 KWK,crl = (4.3.3)
Nonwelded and welded components are to be ncr, .., KtK f ratio, Chapter 4.3.2,
distinguished. Kf constant, Table 4.3.1,
if no better estimate is available,
KR,cr, ... roughness factor, Chapter 4.3.3,
4.3.1.1 Nonwelded components Ky surface treatment factor, Chapter 4.3.4,
Ks coating factor, Chapter 4.3.4,
Rodshaped (lD), shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped constant for GG, Chapter 4.3.5.
KNL,E
(3D) nonwelded components are to be distinguished.
The design factors of rodshaped (lD) nonwelded
Table 4.3.1 Constant K, .
components for normal stress and for shear stress are 1
KWK,cr = (4.3.1) Kind of Steel GS GGG GT GG
=_1
n,
'(1+~.(_1
x,
1))' 1
KR,~
Ky.K s
A better estimate of K f may be obtained from stress
concentration factors Kt,cr and Kt,~ of a substitute
structure, Chapter 5.12, and the KtK f ratios, Chapter
4.3.2.1: Kf~Kt:cr=Kt,cr/ncr or Kf~Kf,~=Kt,~/n~.
The design factors of shellshaped (2D) nonwelded
components for normal stresses in the directions x and y
as well as for shear stress are
Rodshaped (lD), shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped For certain applications blockshaped (3D) components
(3D) welded components are to be distinguished. The may be welded at the surface, for example by surfacing
calculation can be carried out with structural stresses or welds. Then the design factors are to be calculated as for
with effective notch stresses. shellshaped (2D) welded components.
Steel and cast iron material Steel and cast iron material as well as aluminum
alloys
The design factors of rodshaped (lD) welded
The design factors of rodshaped (lD) welded
components made of steel or of cast iron materials *3 for
steel, of cast iron materials l'' , and
components made of ~
normal stress and for shear stress are,
of a1uminum alloys for normal stress and for shear
KWK,cr = 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL,E), (4.3.4) stress are *6,
KWK,~ = 145/ (FAT' ft' Ko ),
KWK,crK = 1/ (Kv Kg' KNL,E), (4.3.8)
The design factors of shellshaped (2D) welded KWK,~K = 1/ !Ky' Kg).
components for normal stresses in the directions x and y
as well as for shear stress are For shellshaped (2D) welded components, as a rule,
only the effective notch stress in direction of the
KWK,crx = 225 / (FAT' ft' Ky' KNL,E), (4.3.5) maximum effective notch stress and the corresponding
KwK,cry = 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL,E), shear stress are to be considered. The design factors are
KwK,~ = 145/ (FAT' ft' Ko ). as before
3 To some part the FAT values where derived with reference to the IIW
recommendations and Eurocode 3 (Ref. /9/, /81). Moreover the design
factors are supposed tobe valid, however, not only for weldable structural
ste~1 but also for other kinds of steel (conditionally weldable steel, 5 As a rule Ky is not relevant for welded components, that is Ky = I.
stainless steel) and weldable cast iron materials).
6 On principle for steel: KWK,crK = 225 / (FAT ... ) where FAT = 225,
4 To some part the FAT values where derived with reference tothe IIW and K~K,~K = 145 / (FAT ... ) where FAT = 145; aluminum alloys
reco~endations (Ref. /91). Moreover the design factors are supposed to
accordingly, Weld quality conforming tonormal production standard.
be v.ahd, however, for all weldable aluminum alloys, except the
aluminum alloys 5000, 6000 and 7000. Numerical values see Footnote 7 In combination with effective notch stresses the thickness factor ft is not
on page 103. applied, since the thickness effect isaccounted for by the stress analysis.
108 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
4.3 Design parameters
using local stresses
., ',.I "/V
/ 1/0.65'
Condition for the application of a KjK; ratio is a stress v
/ / 1 10,70 800
gradient normal to the direction of stress as shown in 1,4 ~/1/ . 7'"" i : 400
Figure 3.3.1 *7. V/ /V
/ 1 10,75 G S:/
800
IIV~
1/
/ ~/10,80 : //'
Stah~ 1200
1,2 /
:V
~
/ 1/0,85
4.3.2.1 Computation of KtKr ratios
KtKr ratios for normal stress
1,1
./J V /{;!~ ,,/
The KtKr ratio for normal stress, Ocr, Figure 4.3.1, is to j/I/;;/ I / / /
~/I//il /
/
be computed from the related stress gradient GO" after / 110,95
/v
Eq. (4.3.13) to (4.3.15).
1,04 II {III ill /
ForG 0" ;;;; 0,1 rnm" 1 there is (4.3.13) Iff; 1/ 1 //
n 0" = 1 +G 0" . mm Itl r
(a o 0,5+ Rm )
bo MPa ,
1,02
1~ /II til ,
~(f;
2/ do = r
for 1 mrrr ! < GO";;;; 100 mm" 1 there is Figure 4.3.1 KtKr ratios Ocr for normal stress.
Kind Stain Other GS GGG GT GG Wrought aluminum alloys: Threshold values forGO" = 1 mm 1 :
of less kinds largest value:"cr = 1,69 for Rm = 95 MPa and
mate steel of smallest value:"cr = 1,18 for Rm = 590 MPa.
rial steel
Cast aluminum alloys: Threshold values for: GO" = 1 mm 1 :
aa 0,40 0,50 0,25 0,05 0,05 0,05 largest value: "cr = 2,02 for Rm = 130 MPa and
bo 2400 2700 2000 3200 3200 3200 smallest value: "cr = 1,88 for Rm = 330 MPa.
8 Does not apply to cold rolled or shot peened surfaces. See the summary
7 A stress gradient in direction of stress is supposed not to cause any of special features of the fatigue strength of surface hardened components,
effect. This restriction concerns blockshaped (3D) components only. Chapter 5.8
109
4.3 Design parameters 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
KtK, ratios for shear stress The point below the surface is to be chosen such that the
maximum values of Ga and G, being calculated.
The KjK. ratio for shear stress, n, , is to be computed
from the related stress gradient G, according to Eq. If stress amplitudes below the surface (as in Figure 4.3.2
(4.3.13) to (4.3.15), after having replaced a by 't and provided by an FE analysis, e.g.) are not available, an
the tensile strength Rm by fw" . Rm , where fw" is the approximate computation of the related stress gradients
fatigue strength factor for shear stress, Table 4.2.1. for normal stress and for shear stress is as follows:
With the radius r at the reference point (influence of the
contour) and the dimension d (influence of a loading in
Related stress gradients
bending or torsion) there is *12
The related stress gradients normal to the direction of
G a = 2 / r + 2 / d, (4.3.17)
stress , G a and G, necessary to compute the KcK r
ratios, are to be determined from the stress amplitudes G, = 1/ r + 2 / d.
for normal stress, ()a , and for shear stress, 't a , at the
reference point and a point below the reference point, 4.3.2.2 KtK, ratio for superimposed notches
Figure 4.3.2 * 11,
For superimposed notches  for example a boring
located in a groove, the partial KK; ratios of which are
G a=_l . ",,"aa =_1 . (1 a2a), (4.3.16)
a la ",,"s ",,"s a la n 1 and n2 according to the related stress gradients G I
and G 2  a most favorable KjK, ratio n is to be
G, =_1_ . ",,"'t a =_1 '(1 't2a) , computed for a related stress gradient
'tla ",,"s ",,"s 'tla
G=Gl+ G 2 ' (4.3.24)
ala, 'tla stress amplitudes at the reference point,
If the distance of notches is 2 r or above
a2a, 't2a stress amplitudes in a distance ",,"s below, (where r is the larger one of both radii) *13 a
",,"s distance between the reference point and superposition is not to be considered. If a value of a
the neighboring point below the surface, radius is missing, a fictitious radius may be estimated
Figure 4.3.2.
fromEq. (4.3.17)(for example r:::o 2/G a ) .
0,8
R ~ "'~ 400 400 400 350 100
...>:1'\., f" r
~
Rm,N,min
inMPa
~'"
~ r., ~
0,7 <I'~~,
25
Kind of Wrought Cast
i' ~ material aluminum alloys aluminum alloys
0,6
J.Q.o aR,oo 0,22 0,20
0,4
300 500 700 1000 2000
2.3.3a RminMPa
4.3.4 Surface treatment factor and
coating factor
KR,11
1,0 ~r'
A complete catalogue of the fatigue classes of structural Table 4.3.7 Exponent n for the thickness factor.
stresses according to the IIWRecommendations is given
in Chapter 5.4.2 *17. Type of the welded joint n
cruciform joints, transverse Tjoints, plates with
Calculation with effective notch stresses transverse attachments
Effective notch stresses are applicable for the toe and for  as welded 0,3
the root of a weld and do not require a fatigue classes to  toe ground 0,2
be considered as the fatigue strength values given by Eq. transverse butt welds,
(4.3.8) or (4.3.9) are those determined for effective  as welded 0,2
notch stresses (normal stress or shear stress, butt welds ground flush, base material, longitudi
respectively) *18. nal welds or attachments,  as welded or ground 0,1
Rodshaped (lD), shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped 1 The component fatigue limits for completely reversed stress are
(3D) components are to be distinguished. different for normal stress and for shear stress, and moreover because of
different stress gradients or different weld characteristics depending on the
The component fatigue limits of rodshaped (lD) type of stress.
components for completely reversed normal stress and
2 Structural stresses crWK, ... or effective notch stresses crWK,K . The
shear stress are *I index K is to be added where appropriate.
r
I
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress with nominal stresses
According to this chapter the amplitude of the 0'AK = KAK,cr . KE,cr . O'WK , (4.4.6)
component fatigue limit is to be determined according to 1:AK = KAK;t . KE,~ . 1:WK ,
a given mean stress and, where appropriate, in
considering a multiaxial state of stress. KAK,cr, .. , mean stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.1,
KE,cr, . residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
Comment: For nonwelded components of austenitic O'WK, . component fatigue limit for completely
steel, or of wrought or cast aluminum alloys the reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1.
component fatigue limit is different from the component
endurance limit for N = 00 , Chapter 4.4.3.2. Eq. (4.4.6) applies' to nonwelded and to welded
components.
Observing the specific input values the calculation
applies to nonwelded components (with local stresses)
and to welded components (with structural stresses or Shellshaped (2D) components
effective notch stresses) *1. The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component
An improved procedure for nonwelded components of fatigue limit of shellshaped (2D) components for
steel to compute the component fatigue limit in the case normal stress in the directions x and y as well as for
of synchronous multiaxial stresses is given in Chapter shear stress are
5.9. 0'AK,x = KAK.,x . KE,cr . O'WK,x , (4.4.7)
In combination with a stress spectrum the indicated 0'AK,y = KAK.,y . KE,cr . O'WK,y ,
stress ratio R, , ... commonly refers to step I of the 1:AK = KAK.,~ . KE,~ . 1:WK ,
stress spectrum (maximum amplitude), Ra,I, ... *2 *3. KAK.,x, ... mean stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.1,
The mean stress factor, Figure 4.4.1, allows for the KE,cr, '" residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
influence of the mean stress on the fatigue strength. O'WK,x' .. , component fatigue limit for completely
Without mean stress the mean stress factor is reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1.
2 This definition is necessary only for mean stress spectra, not for
stress ratio spectra or for fluctuating stress spectra, for which the
stress ratios of all steps are identical. 4 For certain applications blockshaped (3D) components may be
welded at the surface, for example by surfacing welds. Then the
3 For more details see Chapter 5.6. calculation may be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) components.
115
4.4 Component strength 4 assessment of the fatigue strength
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress with nominal stresses
Type of overloading
The mean stress factor, KAK,cr or KAK,~, depends on
the type of overloading, Fl to F4. It distinguishes the Shear stress: *5:
way how the stress may increase in the case of a possible
Field I: (not existing),
overload in service (not by crash). Therefore it is to be
Field II:  1S; R~S; 0 (lower boundary changed),
determined in the sense of a safety of operation in
Field III: 0 < R~ < 0,5 (unchanged),
service, that is for normal stress as follows:
Field IV: R~~ 0,5 (unchanged).
 Type Fl:
the mean stress am remains the same,
 Type F2: 4.4.2.1 Mean stress factor
the stress ratio Rcr remains the same,
The mean stress factor for normal stress, KAK,cr , or
 Type F3:
shear stress, KAK,1: , depends on the mean stress and on
the minimum stress amin remains the same,
the mean stress sensitivity.
 Type F4:
the maximum stress a max remains the same.
For shear stress a is to be replaced by L. Intermediate Calculation for the type of overloading F2 *6
types of overloading are possible. Dependent on the type
In case of a possible overload in service the stress ratio
of overloading the amplitude of the component fatigue
limit is different, Figure 4.4.1.
Rcr remains the same.
Normal stress:
Fields of mean stress Field I: n, > 1:
In determining the mean stress factor, KAK,cr , ... , four KAK,cr= 1/ (1  Ma), (4.4.9)
fields of mean stress are to be distinguished. These
depend on the stress ratio Rcr or on the mean stress am
respectively, see Chapter 4.4.2.2.
(4.4.10)
Normal stress:
Field I: Rcr > I, field of fluctuating compression stress,
where Rcr = + or  00 is the zero compression stress.
Field II: 00 S; Rcr S; 0, where R, < 1 is the field of
alternating compression stress, R, = 1 is the 5 The fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for normal stress shows
increasing amplitudes for R < 1 (compression mean stress). For
completely reversed stress, R; > 1 is the field of negative mean stress the fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for shear
alternating tension stress. stress is the same as for positive mean stress and symmetrical to ~m = O.
Practically it is restricted to the fields of positive mean stress or a
Field III: 0 < Rcr < 0,5, field of fluctuating tension stress, stress ratio R~ 2: 1 , as the mean stress in shear is always regarded to
where R, = 0 is the zero tension stress. be positive, ~m 2: 0 .
6 The type of overloading F2 is described first because it is of primary
Field IV: R, ~ 0,5, field of high fluctuating tension practical importance.
stress.
(4.4.11)
Field II
for  2 /(1  Mcr)~ Smin ~ there is
1M cr .Smin.,zd
for I / (l  M cr ) ~ sm s 1 / (l + M cr ) there is (4.4.19)
I+M cr
(4.4.15)
Field III
Field III
for < Smin <  2
3
.
3+M
cr there is
(I+M cr ) 2
1+ M cr /3 M cr
s
I+M cr 3 mm
(4.4.16) KAK, cr = ~~ (4.4.20)
I+M cr /3
Field IV
fw,< shear strength factor, Table 4.2.1. The mean stress sensitivity M, or M. , in connection
with the mean stress factor, describes to what extent the
mean stress affects the amplitude of the component
Rodshaped (ID) components fatigue strength, Figure 4.4.1.
For rodshaped (ID) components the equivalent mean For nonwelded components the mean stress sensitivity
stress after Eq. (4.4.28) is to be computed only if for normal stress and for shear stress, applicable in case
am~ O. of normal or elevated temperature, is
M, = aM . 10. 3 . Rm / MFa + bM, (4.4.34)
Shellshaped (2D) components M. = fw,< Ma: '
For shellshaped (2D) components the equivalent mean aM, bM constants, Table 4.4.2,
stress after Eq. (4.4.28) is to be computed only if fw ,< shear fatigue strength factor, Table 4.2.1.
am,y = 0 and am,x ~ 0 (or in reverse). It is
For components that have been surface hardened *11 the
am = am,x (or am = am,y), (4.4.32) mean stress sensitivity is greater because of the tensile
strength Rm of the hardened surface is higher than that
am,x, ... individual mean stresses, Chapter 4.1.1.2. of components not surface hardened.
For welded components the mean stress sensitivity for
normal stress and for shear stress, applicable in case of
4.4.2.3 Residual stress factor normal or elevated temperature, is dependent on the
The residual stress factor for nonwelded components is intensity of the residual stress, but independent of the
tensile strength R; of the base material. Values are
KE,cr = KE;[ = 1. (4.4.33) . given in Table 4.4.1, see also Chapter 5.5.
For welded components of structural steel and of
aluminum alloys the residual stress factor is different for Table 4.4.2 Constants aM and bM .
high, moderate or low residual stresses. It is given for
normal stress and for shear stress in Table 4.4.1, see Steel 1>1
Kind of GS GGG GT GG
also Chapter 5.5.
material
aM 0,35 0,35 0,35 0,35 0
Table 4.4.1 Residual stress factor KE,cr, K E;[ and mean bM  0,1 0,05 0,08 0,13 0,5
stress sensitivity Mcr , M. for welded components.
Residual Ma M
stress
KE,cr K E;[ 1>1 Kind of Wrought Cast
material aluminum alloys aluminum alloys
high 1,00 0 1,00 0
aM 1,0 1,0
moderate 1,26 0,15 1,15 0,09 bM  0,04 0,2
low 1,54 0,30 1,30 0,17
1> 1 For Shear Stress there is M. = fw. M cr fw,. = 0,577, 1> 1 also stainless steel.
Table 4.2.1. "
According to this chapter the amplitude of the Rp yield strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1,
component variable amplitude fatigue strength is to be Kp,o , K p,. plastic notch factors, Table 1.3.2,
derived from the stress spectrum and the component f. shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
constant amplitude SN curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2.
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KBKa , ... , 4 N, '!Ii. Component fatigue life curve
to be calculated depends on the stress spectrum, that is
N Component sN curve
on the required total number of cycles *1 and on the
shape of the stress spectrum, as well as on the
component constant amplitude SN curve, and in
addition it depends on the type of stress (normal stress
or shear stress). 2
It has to be distinguished, whether  in case of a
constant amplitude spectrum  an assessment of the
fatigue limit (or endurance limit) or of the fatigue
strength for finite life is intended, or whether  in case
of a variable amplitude spectrum  an assessment of the
variable amplitude fatigue strength is intended *2.
lOB
The calculation for a constant amplitude stress 2.2 N, '!Ii
spectrum is a special case of the more general case of
Figure 4.4.2 Component constant amplitude SN curve,
calculation for a variable amplitude stress spectrum. In
component fatigue life curve derived by the consistent
any case the way of calculation is the same, but the
version of Miner's rule, and influence of the critical
variable amplitude fatigue strength factors are different.
damage sum DM .
Observing the specific input values the calculation
Highest amplitude in stress spectrum GSK, component fatigue limit GAJ(,
applies to both nonwelded components (component number of cycles N after the component constant amplitude SN curve,
constant amplitude SN curve model I or model II) and number of cyclesN after the component fatigue life curve for DM < 1 or
to welded components (component constant amplitude N' for DM = 1. It isN = N + (N'  N) DM. This formula implies
SN curve model I only). that a number of cycles N 7 N is obtaine~ for spectra of increasing
damage potential and a nu~er of cycles N = N for the constant
Rodshaped (lD), shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped amplitude stress spectrum as N'  N 7 O.
(3D) components are to be distinguished. In German the fatigue life curve is usually termed 'Gassner curve' and
the constant amplitude SN curve is usually termed' Woehler curve'.
KBK,crx , ... variable amplitude fatigue strength factor, KBK,cr = I forN > No,cr. (4.4.48)
Chapter 4.4.3.1,
O"AK,x, ... component fatigue limit, Chapter 4,4.2.
Component constant amplitude SN curve model II:
Except for GG, the following restrictions apply, Figure sloping for N > Nn,cr (nonwelded aluminum alloys)
4.4.3,
Assessment ofthe fatigue strength for finite Life:
O"BK,x :<:;0,75 Rp' Kp,crx, (4.4.44)
KBK,cr = (N D, I N) IIk cr for Nz; No,cr. (4.4.49)
O"BK,y :<:; 0,75 Rp . Kp,cry,
'tBK :<:; 0,75 f't' R p' Kp,'t, KBK,cr = (N D, I N)lIk o,cr for No,cr<N:<:; No.e.n ,
Rp yield strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1, (4.4.50)
Kp,crx, ... plastic notch factors, Chapter 3.3.2, Assessment ofthe fatigue Limit:
f't shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
KBK,cr = I forN > No,cr. (4.4.51)
The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude KBK,cr = f n,e forN > NO,cr,ll. (4.4.52)
fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum)
of blockshaped (3D) components for the principal N number of cycles of the component constant
stresses in the directions I, 2 and 3 are, Figure 4.4.2, amplitudeSN curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2,
N required number of cycles,
O"l,BK = KBK,crl . O"l,AK, (4.4.45)
No,cr number of cycles at knee point of the component
O"Z,BK = KBK,crZ . O"z,AK ,
constant amplitude SN curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2,
0"3,BK = KBK,cr3 . 0"3,AK, ka slope of the component constant amplitude SN
KBK,crl , ... variable amplitude fatigue strength factor, curve for N < No,cr, Chapter 4.4.3.2.
Chapter 4.4.3.1, No.e.n number of cycles at second knee point of the
O"l,AK, ... component fatigue limit, Chapter 4.4.2. component constant amplitude SN curve,
Chapter 4.4.3.2,
Except for GG, the following restrictions apply, Figure
ko,cr slope of the component constant amplitude SN
4.4.3:
curve for N > No,cr , Chapter 4.4.3.2,
O"l,BK s 0,75 Rp . Kp,crl , (4.4.46) f n.e factor by which the endurance limit is lower than
O"Z,BK s 0,75 Rp . Kp,crz, the fatigue limit, Chapter 4.4.3.2, Table 4.4.4.
0"3,BK :<:; 0,75 Rp ,
Rp yield strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1, Calculation for a variable amplitude spectrum
Kp,crl , Kp,crz plastic notch factors, Chapter 3.3.2 As a rule the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor
f't shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5. is to be computed by using the elementary version of
Miner's rule (not necessary for a constant amplitude
stress spectrum). Somewhat more favourable results,
4.4.3.1 Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor however, may be obtained by using the consistent
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factors version of Miner's rule. Moreover, the classes of
KBK,cr, ... , are to be derived as follows *3: utilization can be applied as a simplified method of
calculation; the so derived results approximately
correspond to those obtained by the elementary version
3 The following is written for axial stress, KBK,o , k,; ... , but applies to of Miner's rule. In an even more simplified manner the
other types of stress accordingly. For effective notch stresses the index K
is to be added.
variable amplitude fatigue strength can be derived on
the basis of a damageequivalent stress amplitude.
4 For welded components model 1 of the component constant amplitude
SN curve is of concern only, not model II.
121
4.4 Component fatigue strength 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength using local stresses
K BK,cr [(
 (v zd1)ka
If for a component constant amplitude SN curve model Using the consistent version of Miner's rule the variable
I (horizontal for N > No,a ) a value KBl<,cr < 1 is amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be computed
obtained from Eq. (4.4.53), then the value to be used is iteratively for differing values of Ga,l , until a value N
equal to the required total number of cycles N is
(4.4.56) obtained. The respective value of Ga,1 is used to derive
If for a component constant amplitude SN curve model the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor.
II (sloping for N > NO,a ) a value KBK,cr is obtained
from Eq. (4.4.53) that is smaller than the value obtained Component constant amplitude SN curve model I:
from Eq. (4.4.50) or (4.4.52), then the higher value horizontal for N > ND,a (Steel and cast iron material)
from Eq. (4.4.50) or (4.4.52) is to be used. In case of a component constant amplitude SN curve
model I ( horizontal for N > No,a or slope kD,o = (0) the
number of cycles N to be computed for a value Sa,1 is
5 Direct calculation without iteration. The results from the elementary (4.4.57)
version ofMiner's rule approach the results from the consistent version of a
Miner's rule on the safe side. N = {[ Akon 1] . DM + I}' [G AI< . NO,a,
G a.l
)k
6 When computing the d~ge potential (and also in the following
equations) the values ni and N according toth.:..;equired total number of where
cycles can be replaced by the values hi and H according to the total
number ofcycles inthe given standard type spectrum, see Chapter 4.1.
7 Instead ofAJcon after Eq. (4:4.57) and (4.4.63) ishere 9 The consistent version of Miner's rule allows for the fact, that the
component fatigue limit will decrease asthe damage sum increases.
A
ele = I / (va) ke . (4.4.55)
The decrease applies tocomponent constant amplitude SN curves model
8 hi / H may also be replaced by n, / N , Ias well astomodel IIfor N D,s 2': 10 6 .
N Required total number ofcycles according tothe required fatigue life, 10 The consistent version ofMiner's rule was first developed byHaibach.
N = Eni(summed up for I toj), A simplified version allowing for the decrease ofthe fatigue limit became
ni number ofcycles instep i according tothe required fatigue life. known as the modified version orthe Haibach method ofMiner's rule.
122
4.4 Component fatigue strength 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength using local stresses
ka  I [
Component constant amplitude SN curve model II:
aaI ZI J. Z2 ]
sloping for N > ND,a (nonwelded aluminum alloys)
Akon = ( a~ ) . NI + v~m N2 ' (4.4.58)
*11
Z2 = kI ( )k I
a a,v a a,v+!
the number of cycles N is first to be computed for a
single value aa,1 = a AK / (fn,a )1/3 as follows
( )
a a.l
a _
a a,1
a
(4.4.60)
N= {[ Akon  I ] , DM + I}' (aa AK ) k
a
N D:" / 3
Nl = mJ hi (aa,i
L =' 
)k a
, (4.4.61)
a.l ([n,,,)
i=1 H a a,1 with (4.4.65)
Akon after Eq. (4.4.58) to (4.4.62)
N2 = v hi (aa,i
L='  )k a (4.4.62) and the explanations as before,
i=1 H aa,1 fn,a factor by which the endurance limit is lower
than the fatigue limit, Table 4.4.4.
For the summation of the term Z2, Eq. (4.4.60), it is to
be observed that aaj+! = O.
If a value N = N* > N is obtained then the calcu
N number of cycles of the component constant lation of N, Eq. (4.4.65), is to be continued fqr
amplitude SN curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2, differing values aa,1 > a AK / ( fn,a )1/3 until a value N
N D, number of cycles at knee point of the component equal to the required total number of cycles N is
constant amplitude SN curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2, obtained. From the respective value of aa,1 the variable
DM critical damage sum, Table 4.4.3, amplitude fatigue strength factor is obtained as
stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum,
stress amplitude in step 1 of the spectrum, KSK,a = aa,1 . (fn,a )1/3/ aAK (4.4.66)
component fatigue limit, If a value N = N *:s N is obtained then the variable
slope of the component constant amplitude SN amplitude fatigue strength factor is
curve for N < No, a , Chapter 4.4.3.2,
j total number of steps in the spectrum, (4.4.67)
i number of the step in the spectrum,
m number i = m of the first step below a AK , If a value KSK,a < fn,a is obtained from Eq. (4.4.67)
H total number of cycles in the given spectrum, then the value to be applied is
H = Hj = L: hi (summed up for 1 to j),
KSK,a = fn,a . (4.4.68)
hI number of cycles in step i,
Hi = L: hi (summed up for I to i) '8.
The computation is to be repeated iteratively for Calculation using a class of utilization
differing values a a,I > a AK , until a value N equal to the The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KSK,a is
required total number of cycles N is obtained. From the
to be determined according to the appropriate class of
respective value of aa,1 the variable amplitude fatigue
utilization *12 , Chapter 5.7.
strength factor is obtained as
Component IND,cr IND,cr,II Ik, IkD,cr flI,cr Component IND,< IND,<,II Ik, IkD,< IflI,<
Steel and cast iron materials (SN curve model I ) Steel and cast iron materials (SN curve model I )
nonwelded 110
6
1 15 1 1,0 nonwelded 11086 1 18 1 11,0
welded 15 . 10 1
6
13 1 1,0 welded 110 1 15 1 11,0
Aluminum alloys (SN curve modell II Aluminum alloys (SN curve model II )
nonwelded 1106 1108 /5 /15 0,74 nonwelded 1106 1108 18 125 10,83
welded 15 . 106 1 13 1 1,0 welded 110
8
1 15 1 11,0
1 (lg)
ND,D =10 6
aifa bild'W13
!Iifa bildll'JI N (lg) N (lg)
(Ig)
TAK f~""_=~
TAK I+~~
TAK,1I fl~'~.:~~~
Nc = 6 Nn,T
2 '10 =10 8
ND,T =10 6
etra bild,,14 N (lg)
Bifa bildwl7 N (lg)
Figure 4.4.5 Component constant amplitude SN curve Figure 4.4.6 Component constant amplitude SN curve
for nonwelded components *14 for welded components *13
Top: Normal stress a. Top: Normal stress a.
Bottom: Shear stress t. Bottom: Shear stress t;
Steel and cast iron materials, except austenitic steel, (Model I): Steel, cast iron materials and aluminum alloys, welded (Model I):
horizontal for N > NO,a, kO,a = co
or for N > NO,~, k O,~ = co horizontal for N > NO a, kO a = co
or for N > NO' ~, k ~ = co D
Aluminum alloys and austenitic steel (Model II): NC is the reference number of cycles
sloping for N > NO a, kO a,
corresponding to the characteristic strength values a AC and ~ AC.
or for N > NO:~, kO:~'
aAK / aAC = (Nc / NO,a ) 11ko = 0,736 and
horizontal for N > NO,a,lI, kO,a,1I = co ~AK / ~AC = (Nc / NO,~) 11kr = 0,457.
or for N > N0, ~,II ' kO, ~,II = co.
125
4.5 Safety factors 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
jo Consequences of failure
severe moderate ?1
regular I no 1,5 1,3
2 Statistical confidence S = 50 % .
inspections I yes?2 1,35 1,2
3 Steel is always considered as a ductile material.
? 1 Moderate consequences of failure of a less important component
in the sense of "non catastrophic" effects of a failure; for example 4 In mechanical engineering cast components are of standard quality
because of a load redistribution towards other members of a statical for which a further reduction of the partial safety factor to jF = 1,0
indeterminate system. Reduction by about 15 %. does not seempossible up to now.
? 2 Regular inspection in the sense of damage monitoring. Reduction A safety factor jF = 1,0 may be applied to high quality cast
by about 10 %. components in the aircraft industry however. Those high quality cast
components, have to meet special demands on qualification and
checks of the production process, as well as on the extent of quality
and product testing in order to guarantee little scatter of their
1 Chapters 4.5 and2.5 are identical. mechanical properties.
4.5 Safety factors
126
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
1
I
4.5.2.2 Nonductile cast iron materials 4.5.3.2 Nonductile wrought aluminum alloy
Cast iron materials with an elongation As < 12,5 % Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation
(for GT A3 < 12,5 %) are considered as nonductile A < 12,5 % are considered as nonductile materials.
materials, in particular some types of GGG as well as Values of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
all types of GT and GG. Values of elongation for GGG
For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys all safety
and GT see Table 5.1.12 or 5.1.13. The value for GG
factors from Table 4.5.1 are to be increased by adding a
is As = O.
value Aj , Eq. (4.5.2).
For nonductile cast iron materials the safety factors
from Table 4.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value
~j, Figure 4.5.1 *s: 4.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys
~j = 0,5 ~ As /50%, (4.5.2) Cast aluminum alloys are always considered as non
ductile materials. All safety factors from Table 4.5.2
AS Elongation, to be replaced by A3 for GT. are to be increased by adding a value 4i , Eq. (4.5.2).
Values of elongation see Table 5.1. 31 to 5. 1.38.
GG
0,5 ~.GGG,r~1
4.5.5 Total safety factor
~j GT
Similar to an assessment of the component static
strength, Chapter 3.5.5, a "total safety factor" .lges is
to be derived:
o 10 12,5 20
As, A3 in % . _ In (4.5.4)
Jges~ ,
T,O
Figure 4.5.1 Value ~j to be added to the safety safety factor, Table 4.5.1 or 4.5.2,
factor Jn , defined as a function of the elongation As or temperature factor, Chapter 4.2.3.
A3 , respectively.
(Jn = 1,5 from Table 4.5.2, j = 0,5 after Eq. (4.5.2) for AS = 0).
127
4.6 Assessment 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
4.6 Assessment 1R46 EN.doq fatigue strength after Chapter 4.4.3, GBK , ... , divided
by the total safety factor jges. The degree of utilization is
Contents Page always a positive value *4.
4.6.0 General 127 An assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
4.6.1 Rodshaped (lD) components 128 strength, an assessment of the constant amplitude
4.6.1.1 Individual types of stress fatigue strength for finite life, or an assessment of the
4.6.1.2 Combined types of stress fatigue limit or of the endurance limit are to be
distinguished. In each case the calculation is the same
4.6.2 Shellshaped (2D) components when using the appropriate variable amplitude fatigue
4.6.2.1 Individual types of stress strength factors KBK,o , ... , Chapter 2.4.3, and when
4.6.2.2 Combined types of stress taking
4.6.3 Blockshaped (3D) components 129 G a,l = G a , ... , (4.6.1)
4.6.3.1 Individual types of stress
4.6.3.2 Combined types of stress in case of a constant amplitude spectrum, or
Ga , l = Ga,eff (4.6.2)
According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue Ga , ... , characteristic constant amplitude stress for
strength using local stresses is to be carried out. which the required number of cycles is N,
Ga"eff, ... , damageequivalent stress amplitude.
In general the assessments for the individual types of
stress and for the combined types of stress are to be
carried out separately *1. Superposition
The procedure of assessment applies to both nonwelded For proportional or synchronous stress components of
and welded components. same type of stress the superposition is to be carried out
For welded components the assessment is to be carried according to Chapter 4.1.
out with structural stresses or effective notch stresses *2. If different types of stress like normal stress and shear
Assessments are generally to be carried out separately stress act simultaneously and if the resulting stress is
for the toe and for the root of a weld. They are to be multiaxial, Chapter 0.3.5 and Figure 0.0.9, both the
carried out in the same way, but using the respective individual types of stress and the combined types of
local stresses and fatigue classes FAT as these are in stress are to be considered as described below *5.
general different for the toe and the root of a weld.
Kinds of component
Degree of utilization
Rodshaped (10), shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped
The assessment is to be carried out by determining the (3D) components are to be distinguished. They can be
degree of utilization of the component fatigue strength. both nonwelded or welded.
In the general context of the present Chapter the degree
of utilization is the quotient of the (local) characteristic
stress amplitude Ga,l> ... , divided by the allowable (local)
stress amplitude of the component fatigue strength at 4 As the degree of utilization is the quotient of two amplitude which
the reference point *3. The allowable stress amplitude is always are positive.
the quotient of the component variable amplitude 5 Proportional, synchronous and nonproportional multiaxial stresses are
to be distinguished. , Chapter 0.3.5.
0'., x, I
aSK,crx = ~ 1, (4.6.8)
4.6.1.2 Combined types of stress 0' BK,x / j erf
The degree of utilization of rodshaped (ID) O'.,y,]
aSK,cry = ~ 1,
components for combined types of stress is *6
0' BK,y / j erf
aSK,Sv = q' aNH + (l  q) . aoH s 1, (4.6.4)
where
For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation 4.6.3.2 Combined types of stresses
A < 12.5 %) q = 0,5 is to be applied. For surface
The degree of utilization of blockshaped (3D)
hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to' be
components for combined types of stresses is *6 *9
applied. Otherwise there is, Table 4.6.1,
aSK,sv = q . aNH + (1  q) . aGH~ 1, (4.6.14)
J3(l/fw,)
q
J3 1
(4.6.12)
,I ,I
aNH = MAX (Isa,d Sa,21 Sa,31) , (4.6.15)
J3(l/fw,)
q (4.6.17)
4.6.3 Blockshaped (3D) components *8 J3 1
4.6.3.1 Individual types of stress fw" shear fatigue strength factor, Tab. 4.2.1.
The degrees of utilization of blockshaped (3D)
components for the principle stresses in the directions 1, Rules of signs: If the principle stresses al , a2 and a3
2 and 3 are always act proportional or synchronous in phase the
degrees of utilization aSK,al , aSK,a2 and aSK,a3 are to
(J l,a,1 be inserted in Eq. (4.6.16) with the same (positive)
aSK,al = ~ 1, (4.6.13) signs. If they act always proportional or synchronous
(J I BK / j erf 1800 out of phase, however, the respective degrees of
(J 2,0,1 utilization aSK,aI , aSK,a2 and aSK,a3 are to be inserted
aSK,a2 = ~ 1, in Eq. (4.6.16) with opposite signs *12. If the individual
(J 2,BK / j erf principle stresses act nonproportional (that is in a non
(J 3,0,1
constant direction), the Eq. (4.6.14) to (4.6.16) are not
aSK,a3 = ~ 1, applicable and the procedure proposed in Chapter 5.10
(J3 BK / jerf is to be applied instead.
to standards Rm,N , ... . They apply in the case of steel to Comment: The values crw, zd , ... , Eq. (5.1)6to (5.5), apply
the smallest dimension of a semifinished product *2, in to a number of cycles N = ND,s = ND,t = 10 .
the case of cast iron materials and cast aluminum alloys
for the test piece. In the case of wrought aluminum For steel and cast iron materials (constant amplitude
alloys the tables give component values Rm= Rm.N, ... , SN curve modell, Figure 2.4.4 and Table 2.4.4)
of the semifinished product indicated. Properties ac crW,zd, ..., is the fatigue limit = endurance limit.
cording to standards, component values and component Example: Quenched and tempered steel,
properties according standards are to be distinguished,  fw,o = 0,45 (Tab. 2.2.1),
as explained in the Chapters 1.2,2.2, 3.2 or 4.2.  fatigue limit crW,zd = fw,o . Rm = 0,45 Rm .
Rm,N or Rm are the minimum value, the guaranteed For aluminum alloys (constant amplitude SN curve
value or the lower boundary of the specified range of the model II, Figure 2.4.4 and Table 2.4.4) crW,zd, ..., is the
tensile strength. The minimum value or the guaranteed fatigue limit, while the endurance limit crW,II,zd, ..., is
value ofthe yield strength are Rp,N or R, *3 *4. achieved at a number of cycles N = ND, II,o = ND,II;, = 108 .
The material fatigue strength values in the tables for It is lower than crW,zd or cw,s by a factor fII, or fn,t :0
completely reversed loading, crW,zd,N , or for zero _ fILo = (108/106 ) 1/15 = 0,74
tension loading, crSch zd N ' ..., are intended for (kD,o= 15 for normal stress) and
information only, because they can be computed as _ fILt = (108/106 ) 1/25 = 0,83
described below and are not necessary for the
(kD,t = 25 for shear stress).
assessment therefore.
Example:
All following equations are supposed to be valid for a
material test specimen of the diameter do = 7,5 mm  fw,o = 0,30 (Tab. 2.2.1),
independent of the real dimension of the semifinished fILo = 0,74,
product or of the raw casting (index N left out, e.g.  Endurance limit crW,II,zd = fILo . fw,o . Rm=
crW,zd instead of crW,zd,N , etc.) = 0,74 . 0,30 . Rm = 0,22 . Rm .
Material fatigue strength for completely reversed normal
stress
4 Rp stands both for the yield stress R, orthe 0.2 proofstress RpO,2 .
crW.zd = fw,o . Rm , (2.2.1) (5.1)
5 Eq. (5.3) for bending (and Eq. (5.4) for torsion in analogy) results from
a combination ofthe following equations:
 Eq. (2.4. I) (crW,b in the meaning ofa component value SWK,b )
 Eq. (2.3.1) (KWK,b = K(b),
I Kinds of material (e.g. nonalloyed structural steel) and types of
material within the kind ofmaterial (e.g. St372) are distinguished.  Eq. (2.3. 10) (Kt,b = I ; ncr(r) = I ; K(b = 11 ncr(d) ),
 Eq. (2.3.14) (ncr(d) with d = do = 7,5 mrn for the material in question,
2 Ifdifferent dimensions ofa semifinished product are given.
 Eq. (2.3.17) (Ocr (do) = 2/ do = 0,267 mrn I ).
3 For the values Rm,N ' Rp,N, Rm ' Rp , an average probability of
survival PO = 97,5 % is supposed that should also apply to the further 6 Eq. (5.5) follows from Eq. (2.4.10) with Rzrl = 0 orSm,zd / Sa,zd = I,
values crW,zd,N ' "" crW,zd , "', derived therefrom. respectively.
132
5.1 Material tables 5 Appendices
5.1.1 Material tables for steel and cast iron 5.1.2 Material tables for aluminum alloys
materials Table 5.1.21 on page 142 gives a survey of the
The tables 5.1.1 to 5.1.14, from page 132 on, contain aluminum materials.
mechanical properties according to standards, Rm.N, ... , The tables 5.1.22 to 5.1.30, from page 143 on, contain
for the following kinds of material: for rolled steel (non component properties according to standards, R.ll , ...,
alloyed structural steel, weldable fine grain structural for wrought aluminum alloys according to the type of
steel, quenched and tempered steel, case hardening material and its condition. They are valid for the
steel, nitriding steel and stainless steel), for forging steel indicated dimensions.
and for cast iron materials (cast steel, heat treatable steel
castings, nodular cast iron (GGG), malleable cast iron The tables 5.1.31 to 5.1.38, from page 172 on, contain
(GT) and cast iron with lamellar graphite (GG)). material properties according to standards, RrnN , ... , for
cast aluminum alloys according to the type of material
From these and according to Chapter 1.2.1 or 3.2.1 the and its condition, from which  and according to
component properties according to standards Rrn are to Chapter 1.2.1 or 3.2.1  the component properties
be computed under observation of the technological size according to standards, Rm , ... , are to be computed
factor according to the diameter or width of the semi under observation of the technological size factor
finished product or of the raw casting, respectively. according to the width of the raw casting.
The fatigue limit values O"W.zd.N. .., correspond to the The fatigue limit values O"W.zd , O"W.zd.N , ... , are different
endurance limit as well. from those of the endurance limit, however, see page
131.
Table 5.1.1 Mechanical properties in MPa for nonalloy structural steels, after DIN EN 10 025 (19940300) c 1.
Table 5.1.2 Mechanical properties in MFa for weldable fine grain structural steels in the normalized condition, after
DIN 17102 (19831000) ~1.
Type of material Material Rm,N Re,N ()W,zd,N ()Sch,zd,N ()W,b,N 1:W,s,N 1:W,t,N ad,rn ad,p
No. ~2 ~3 ~3
StE 255 1.0461 360 255 160 160 180 95 105 0,33 0,41
StE 285 1.0486 390 285 175 170 195 100 115 0,31 0,38
StE 315 1.0505 440 315 200 190 220 115 130 0,28 0,35
StE 355 1.0562 490 355 220 205 245 125 145 0,26 0,30
StE 380 1.8900 500 380 225 210 250 130 145 0,26 0,34
StE 420 1.8902 530 420 240 220 265 140 155 0,24 0,31
StE 460 1.8905 560 460 250 230 280 145 165 0,23 0,30
StE 500 1.8907 610 500 275 245 300 160 180 0,22 0,31
~ 1 Effective Diameter for the tensile strength deff,N = 70 mm, for the yield strength deff,N = 40 mm.
~ 2 Re,N / ~N < 0,75 up to and including StE 355, Re,N / ~N > 0,75 from StE 380 on.
~ 3 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.
Table 5.1.3 Mechanical properties in MFa for weldable fine grain structural steels in the normalized condition, after
DIN EN 10 113 (19930400) c 1.
Type of material Material Rrn,N Re,N ()W,zd,N ()Sch,zd,N ()W,b,N 1:W,s,N 1:W,t,N ad,rn ad,p
No. ~2 ~3 ~3
S 275 N 1.0490 370 275 165 160 185 95 110 0,30 0,30
S 275 NL 1.0491
S 355 N 1.0545 470 355 210 200 235 120 140 0,25 0,28
S 355 NL 1.0546
S 420N 1.8902 520 420 235 215 260 135 150 0,23 0,30
S 420 NL 1.8912
S460N 1.8901 550 460 245 225 275 140 160 0,00 0,22
S 460 NL 1.8903
S275M 1.8818 360 275 160 158 180 95 105 0,30 0,30
S 275 ML 1.8819
S 355M 1.8823 450 355 205 190 225 115 130 0,25 0,28
S 355 ML 1.8834
S420M 1.8825 500 420 225 210 250 130 145 0,23 0,30
S 420 ML 1.8836
S460M 1.8827 530 460 240 220 265 140 155 0,00 0,22
S 460 ML 1.8838
~ I Effective Diameter for the tensile strength deff,N = 100 mm, for the yield strength deff,N = 30 mm.
~ 2 Re,N / ~N < 0,75 up to and including S 275 NL, Re,N / ~N > 0,75 from S 355 Non.
~ 3 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.
134
5.1 Material tables 5 Appendices
Table 5.1.4 Mechanical properties in MFa for quenched and tempered steels in the quenched and tempered
condition, after DIN EN 10 0831 (19961000) 1. Notes? 1 to 4 see next page.
Table 5.1.5 Mechanical properties in MPa for quenched and tempered steels in the normalized condition,
after DIN EN 10 0831 (19961000) 91.
Type of Type of Material Rn,N Re,N crW,zd,N CJSch,zd,N CJW,b,N 't W,s,N 'tW,I,N ~m ad,p
material, material, No. 92 93 93
after DIN EN after
10 0271 DIN 17200
Table 5.1.6 Mechanical properties in MPa for case hardening steels in the blank hardened condition :> 1,
after DIN EN 10 084 (19980600) (selected types of material only) :>2.
6
Type of material Material Rm,N Re,N O'W,zd,N O'Sch,zd,N O'W,b,N 1: W,s,N 1:W,t,N ad,rn :>
:>3 No. ad,p
:> 4 :> 5
ClOE 1.1121 500 310 200 185 220 115 130 0,56
C15E 1.1141 800 545 320 270 345 185 205 0,68
C16E 1.1148 800 545 320 270 345 185 205 0,68
17Cr3 1.7016 800 545 320 270 345 185 205 0,37
28Cr4 * 1.7030 900 620 360 295 385 210 230 0,33
16MnCr5 * 1.7131 1000 695 400 320 430 230 255 0,44
20MnCr5 * 1.7147 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,48
18CrMo4 * 1.7243 1100 775 440 340 470 255 280 0,52
18CrMoS4 * 1.7244 1100 775 440 340 470 255 280 0,52
22CrMoS35 * 1.7333 1100 775 440 340 470 255 280 0,28
20MoCr3 1.7320 900 620 360 295 385 210 230 0,33
20MoCr4 1.7321 900 620 360 295 385 210 230 0,33
16NiCr4 1.5714 1000 695 400 320 430 230 255 0,30
10NiCr54 * 1.5805 900 620 360 295 385 210 230 0,61
18NiCr54 * 1.5810 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
l7CrNi66 * 1.5918 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
l5NiCr13 * 1.5752 1000 695 400 320 430 230 255 0,30
20NiCrMo22 * 1.6523 1100 775 440 340 470 255 280 0,52
l7NiCrMo64 * 1.6566 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
20NiCrMoS64 * 1.6571 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
18CrNiMo7~6 * 1.6587 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
14NiCrMo134 * 1.6657 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
:> 1 Values after DIN EN 10084 Appendix F ("tensile strength values after quenching and tempering at 200C") given for information only.
c 2 Effective diameter deff,N = 16 mm,
c 3 Only up to 40 mm diameter, types of material marked by * up to 100 mm diameter, however.
:> 4 Re,N after DIN 17210 (Draft 19841000), fitted.
:> 5 Re,N / ~,N < 0,75 for all types of material listed.
:> 6 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.
Table 5.1. 7 Mechanical properties in l\1Pa for nidriding steels in the quenched and tempered condition,
after DIN EN 10 085 (20010700) :>1.
Type of material Material Rm,N Re,N O'W,zd,N O'Sch,zd,N O'W,b,N 1: W,s,N 1:W,t,N ad,rn ad,p
No. :>2 :>3 :>3
24CrMo136 1.8516 1000 800 450 360 480 260 285 0,22 0,26
31CrMo12 1.8515 1030 835 465 370 495 270 295 0,21 0,27
32CrAIMo71O 1.8505 1030 835 465 370 495 270 295 0,21 0,27
3lCrMoV5 1.8519 1100 900 495 385 525 285 315 0,31 0,36
33CrMoV129 1.8522 1150 950 520 395 550 300 330 0,30 0,35
34CrAINi71O 1.8550 900 680 405 335 435 235 260 0,17 0,17
41CrAlMo71O 1.8509 950 750 430 345 460 250 275 0,23 0,24
40CrMoV139 1.8523 950 750 430 345 460 250 275 0,23 0,24
34CrAIMo51O 1.8507:>4 800 600 360 305 390 210 230 0,00 0,00
Table 5.1.8 Mechanical properties in MFa for stainless steels, after DIN EN 10 0882 (19950800) (selected types of
material only) v I v 2
Table 5.1.9 Mechanical properties in MFa of steels for bigger forgings, after SEW 550 (19760800) <, I <,2.
Type of material Material Rn,N R,N O"W,zd,N O"Sch,zd,N O"W,b,N 1: W,s,N 1:W,t,N ~,m ad,p
No. <,3 <03
Ck22 1.1151 410 225 165 155 185 95 105 0,00 0,16
Ck 35 1.1181 490 295 195 185 215 115 130 0,00 0,22
Ck45 1.1191 590 345 235 215 260 135 155 0,00 0,19
Ck 50 1.1206 630 365 250 280 275 145 165 0,00 0,25
Ck60 1.1221 690 390 275 240 300 160 180 0,00 0,27
20Mn5 1.1133 490 295 195 185 215 115 130 0,00 0,22
28Mn6 1.1170 590 390 235 215 260 135 155 0,26 0,31
20 MnMoNi 45 1.6311 580 420 230 210 255 135 150 0,18 0,23
22 NiMoCr 47 1.6755 560 400 225 205 245 130 145 0,00 0,00
24 CrMo 5 1.7258 640 410 255 230 280 150 165 0,24 0,26
34 CrMo4 1.7220 690 460 275 240 300 160 180 0,23 0,30
42 CrMo 4 1.7225 740 510 295 255 320 170 190 0,34 0,37
50 CrMo 4 1.7228 780 590 310 265 340 180 200 0,23 0,30
32 CrMo 12 1.7361 880 685 350 290 380 205 225 0,27 0,33
34 CrNiMo 6 1.6582 780 590 310 265 340 180 200 0,19 0,26
30 CrNiMo 8 1.6580 880 685 350 290 380 205 225 0,19 0,22
28 NiCrMoV 85<>' 1.6932 780 635 265 225 290 155 170 0,22 6,26
2
33 NiCrMo 145<0 1.6956 930 785 315 260 340 185 200 0,35 0,37
Normalized condition.
Ck22 1.1151 410 225 165 155 185 95 105 0,00 0,16
Ck 35 1.1181 490 275 195 180 215 115 130 0,00 0,19
Ck45 1.1191 590 325 235 215 260 135 155 0,00 0,16
Ck 50 1.1206 620 345 250 220 270 145 160 0,00 0,15
Ck60 1.1221 680 375 270 220 295 155 175 0,00 0,14