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I,

ANALYTICAL STRENGTH
ASSESSMENT
5t h Edition

VDMA Verlag Forschungskuratorium


Maschinenbau
II
I I
FKM-Guideline

ANALYTICAL STRENGTH ASSESSMENT


OF COMPONENTS
IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

5 th , revised edition, 2003, English Version

Translation by E. Haibach

Title of the original German Version:


RECHNERISCHER FESTIGKEITSNACHWEIS
FUR MASCHINENBAUTEILE
5., iiberarbeitete Ausgabe, 2003

Editor:

Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM)


Postfach 71 0864, D - 60498 Frankfurt / Main
Phone *49 - 69 - 6603 - 1345
(c) 2003
byVDMA Verlag GmbH
Lyoner StraBe 18
60528 Frankfurt am Main
www.vdma-verlag.de

All rights reserved

AIle Rechte, insbesondere das Recht


der Vervielfaltigung und Verbreitung
sowie der Ubersetzung vorbehalten.

Kein Teil des Werkes darfin irgend-


einer Form (Druck, Fotokopie,
Mikrofilm oder anderes Verfahren) ohne
schriftliche Genehmigung des Verlages
reproduziert oder unter Verwendung
elektronischer Systeme gespeichert,
verarbeitet, vervielfaltigt oder
verbreitet werden.

ISBN 3-8163-0425-7
3

This FKM-Guideline was elaborated under contract between


Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau e. V. (FKM), Frankfurt / Main, and
IMA Materialforschung und Anwendungstechnik Gmhfl, Dresden,
as contractor in charge,
by

Dr.-Ing. Bernd Hanel,


IMA Materialforschung und Anwendungstechnik GmbH, Dresden,

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Erwin Haibach,


Wiesbaden,

Prof. Dr.-Ing. TimID Seeger,


Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Fachgebiet Werkstoffmechanik,

Dipl.-Ing. Gert Wlrthgen,


IMA Materialforschung und Anwendungstechnik GmbH, Dresden,

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Zenner,


Technische Universitat Clausthal, Institut fur
Maschinelle Anlagentechnik und Betriebsfestigkeit,

and it was discussed among experts from industry and research institutes
in the FKM expert group "Strength of components" .

Financial grants were obtained from the "Bundesministerium fUr Wirtschaft (BMWi, Bonn)" through
the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen 'Otto von Guericke ' e.V. (AiF,
K6ln)" under contract AiF-No. D-156 and B-9434. The "Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau e.V."
gratefully acknowledges the financial support from BMWi and AiF and the contributions by the experts
involved.

Terms of liability

The FKM-Guideline is intended to conform with the state of the art. It has been
prepared with the necessary care. The user is expected to decide, whether the
guideline meets his particular requirements, and to observe appropriate care in
its application. Neither the publisher nor the editor, the involved experts, or the
translator shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with
respect to any liability, loss, or damage caused or alleged to have been caused
directly or indirectly by this guideline.
4

Preface to the English Version of


the 5th Edition.

For engineers concerned with construction and Textual declarations are given where appropriate to
calculation in mechanical engineering or in related fields ensure a reliable application.
of industry the FKM-Guideline for analytical strength Its content complies with the state of knowledge to an
assessment is available since 1994. This guideline was extend that may be presented in a guideline and it
elaborated by an expert group "Strength of components" enables quite comprehensive possibilities of calculation.
of the "Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM), The employed symbols are adapted to the extended
Frankfurt/Main," with financial support by the requirements of notation. The presented calculation
Bundesministerium fur Wirtschaft (BMWi), by the procedure is complemented by explanatory examples.
"Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereini-
gungen 'Otto von Guericke" and by the "Forschungs- Practically the described procedure of strength
kuratorium Maschinenbau. assessment should be realized by means of a suitable
computer program. Presently available are the PC
Based on former TGL standards and on the former computer programs "RIFESTPLUS" (applicable for a
guideline VDI 2226, and referring to more recent calculation using elastically determined local stresses, in
sources it was developed to the current state of particular with shell-shaped (2D) or block-shaped (3D)
knowledge. components) and "WELLE" (applicable for a calculation
The FKM-Guideline using nominal stresses as it is appropriate in the
- is applicable in mechanical engineering and in related frequently arising case of axles or shafts with gears etc).
fields of industry, The preceding editions of the FKM-Guideline observed
- allows the analytical strength assessment for rod- a remarkably great interest from which the need of an up
shaped (lD), for shell-shaped (2D) and for block-shaped to date guideline for analytical strength analyses
(3D) components under consideration of all relevant becomes apparent. Moreover the interest of users was
influences, confirmed by the well attended VDI conferences on
"Computational Strength Analysis of Metallic
- describes the assessment of the static strength and of Components", that were organized for presentation of
the fatigue strength, the latter according to an assessment the FKM-Guideline at Fulda in 1995, 1998 and 2002.
of the fatigue limit, of the constant amplitude fatigue
strength, or of the variable amplitude fatigue strength The contents-related changes introduced with the third
according to the service stress conditions, edition from 1998 were mainly concerned with the
consideration of stainless steel and of forging steel, with
- is valid for components from steel, cast steel, or cast the technological size factor, with the section factor for
iron materials at temperatures from -40C to 500 C, as assessing the static strength, with the fatigue limit of
well as for components from aluminum alloys and cast grey cast iron and of malleable cast iron, with additional
aluminum alloys at temperatures from -40C to 200 C, fatigue classes of welded structural details and with the
- is applicable for components produced with or without local stress analysis for welded components, with the
machining, or by welding, specification of an estimated damage sum smaller than
- allows an assessment in considering nominal stresses as one for the assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
well as local elastic stresses derived from finite element strength, with the assessment of multiaxial stresses, and
or boundary element analyses, from theoretical with the experimental determination of component
mechanics solutions, or from measurements. strength values.

A uniformly structured calculation procedure applies to An essential formal change in the third edition was a
all of these cases of application. The calculation new textual structure providing four main chapters, that
procedure is almost completely predetermined. The user describe the assessment of the static strength or of the
has to make some decisions only. fatigue strength with either nominal stresses or local
stresses, respectively. For ease of application each of
The FKM-Guideline is a commented algorithm, these chapters gives a complete description of the
consisting of statements, formulae, and tables. Most of particular calculation procedure, although this results in
the included figures have an explanatory function only. repetitions of the same or almost the same parts of text in
the corresponding sections.
5

The major change in the forth edition from 2002 is the


possibility of considering structural components made
from aluminum alloys or cast aluminum alloys by
applying the same calculation procedure that was
developed for components from steel, cast steel and cast
iron materials so far.
The decisions necessary to include aluminum materials
were derived from literature evaluations. It had to be
recognized, however, that some of the relevant factors of
influence were not yet examined with the desirable
clearness or that available results could not be evaluated
objectively due to large scatter. In these cases the
decision was based on a careful consideration of
substantial relations.
Concerning an analytical strength assessment of
components from aluminum alloys or from cast
aluminum alloys this guideline is delivered to the
technical community by supposing that for the time Notes of the translator
being it will be applied with appropriate caution and
with particular reference to existing experience so
far. This English translation is intended to keep as close as
possible to the original German version, but by using a
The involved research institutes and the "Forschungs-
common vocabulary and simple sentences. If the given
kuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM)" will appreciate any
translation is different from a literal one, the technical
reports on practical experience as well as any proposals
meaning of the sentence and/or of the paragraph is
for improvement.
maintained, however.
Further improvements may also be expected from
The translation observes an almost identical structure of
ongoing research projects concerning the procedure of
the headlines, of the chapters, of the paragraphs and of
static strength assessment using local elastic stresses,
the sentences, and even of the numbering of the pages.
Chapter 3, and the fatigue assessment of extremely sharp
notches. Also the tables and the figures as well as their numbering
and headlines are adapted as they are, while only the
Last not least the fifth edition of the FKM-Guideline is a
verbal terms have been translated.
revision of the forth edition with several necessary,
mainly formal amendments being introduced. It is In particular the original German notation of the
presented in both a German version and an English mathematical symbols, indices and formulas, as well
as their numbering, has not been modified in order to
version with the expectation that it might observe similar
insure identity with the German original in this
attention as the preceding editions on a broadened respect.
international basis of application.
The applier of this guideline is kindly asked to accept
the more or less unusual kind of notation which is
due to the need of clearly distinguishing between a
great number of variables.
In particular the applier is pointed to the speciality,
that a comma ( , ) is used with numerical values
instead of a decimal point ( . ), hence 1,5 equals 1.5
for example. .

For updates and amendments see


www.fkm-guideline.de
6

References
/1/ TGL 19 340 (1983). Ermiidungsfestigkeit, Dauerfestigkeit der Maschinenbauteile.
/2/ TGL 19 341 (1988). Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Bauteile aus Eisengusswerkstoffen.
/3/ TGL 19 333 (1979). Schwingfestigkeit, Zeitfestigkeit von Achsen und Wellen.
/4/ TGL 19 350 (1986). Ermiidungsfestigkeit, Betriebsfestigkeit der Maschinenbauteile.
/5/ TGL 19 352 (Entwurf 1988). Aufstellung und Uberlagerung von Beanspruchungskollektiven.
/6/ Richtlinie VDI 2226 (1965). Empfehlung fiir die Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile.
/7/ DIN 18 800 Teil 1 (1990). Stahlbauten, Bemessung und Konstruktion.
/8/ DIN ENV 1993 (1993). Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten, Teil1-1:
Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln, ... (Eurocode 3).
/9/ Hobbacher, A.: Fatigue design of welded joints and components. Recommendations of the Joint Working
Group XIII-XV, XIII-1539-96 / XV-845-96. Abbington Publishing, Abbington Hall, Abbington,
Cambridge CB1 6AH, England, 19996
/10/ Haibach, E.: Betriebsfestigkeits - Verfahren und Daten zur Bauteilberechnung, 2.Aufl.
Berlin und Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-540-43142-X.
/11/ Radaj, D.: Ermiidungsfestigkeit. Grundlage fur Leichtbau, Maschinenbau und Stahlbau.
Berlin und Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2003, ISBN 3-540-44063-1.
/12/ FKM-Forschungsheft 241 (1999). Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Bauteile aus Alumininiumwerkstoff.
/13/ FKM-Forschungsheft 230 (1998). Randschichthartung.
/14/ FKM-Forschungsheft 227 (1997). Lebensdauervorhersage II.
/15/ FKM-Forschungsheft 221-2 (1997). Mehrachsige und zusammengesetzte Beanspruchungen.
/16/ FKM-Forschungsheft 221 (1996). Wechselfestigkeit von Flachproben aus Grauguss.
/17/ FKM-Forschungsheft 183-2 (1994). Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fur Maschinenbauteile, Richtlinie. *1
/18/ FKM-Forschungsheft 183-1 (1994). Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Maschinenbauteile, Kommentare.
/19/ FKM-Forschungsheft 180 (1994). Schweillverbindungen II.
/20/ FKM-Forschungsheft 143 (1989). Schweillverbindungen I.
/21/ FKM-Richtlinie Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Maschinenbauteile,
3., vollstandig iiberarbeitete und erweiterte Ausgabe (1998).
/22/ FKM-Richtlinie Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fur Maschinenbauteile,
4., erweiterte Ausgabe (2002).

Related Conference Proceedings


Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile, Empfehlungen fur Konstrukteure und Entwicklungsingenieure.
VDI Berichte 1227, Diisseldorf, VDI-Verlag, 1995.
Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile, Empfehlungen fur Entwicklungsingenieure und Konstrukteure.
VDI Berichte 1442, Diisseldorf, VDI-Verlag, 1998.
Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile, Empfehlungen fur Entwicklungsingenieure und Konstrukteure.
VDI Berichte 1698, Dusseldorf, VDI-Verlag, 2002.
Bauteillebensdauer Nachweiskonzepte. DVM-Bericht 800, Deutscher Verband fur Materialsforschung und
-prufung, Berlin 1997.
Betriebsfestigkeit - Neue Entwicklungen bei der Lebensdauerberechnung von Bauteilen. DVM-Bericht 802,
Deutscher Verband fur Materialsforschung und -prufung, Berlin 2003.

1 1'" and 2 nd Edition ofthe FKM-Guideline


7

Contents
Page 5 Appendices Page
0 General survey 5.1 Material tables. 131
0.1 Scope 9 5.2 Stress concentration factors 178
0.2 Technical background 5.3 Fatigue notch factors 187
0.3 Structure and elements 5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded
components of structural steel and of
1 Assessment of the static strength aluminum alloys 195
using nominal stresses 5.5 Comments about the fatigue strength
1.0 General 19 of welded components 209
1.1 Characteristic stress values 5.6 Adjusting the stress ratio of a stress
1.2 Material properties 22 spectrum to agree with that of the S-N curve
1.3 Design parameters 30 and deriving a stepped spectrum 216
1.4 Component strength 33 5.7 Assessment using classes of utilization 218
1.5 Safety factors 34 5.8 Particular strength characteristics of
1.6 Assessment 36 surface hardened components 222
5.9 An improved method for computing the
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength component fatigue limit in the case of
using nominal stresses synchronous multiaxial stresses 223
2.0 General 41 5.10 Approximate assessment of the fatigue
2.1 Parameters of the stress spectrum strength in the case of non-proportional
2.2 Material properties 47 multiaxial stresses 226
2.3 Design Parameters 50 5.11 Experimental determination of
2.4 Component strength 57 component strength values 227
2.5 Safety factors 68 5.12 Stress concentration factor for a substitute
2.6 Assessment 70 structure 230

3 Assessment of the static strength 6 Examples


using local stresses
6.1 Shaft with shoulder 231
3.0 General 73 6.2 Shaft with V-belt drive 236
3.1 Characteristic stress values 6.3 Compressor flange made of grey
3.2 Material properties 76 cast iron 241
3.3 Design parameters 85 6.4 Welded notched component 245
3.4 Component strength 89 6.5 Cantilever subject to two independent loads 250
3.5 Safety factors 90 6.6 Component made of a wrought
3.6 Assessment 93 aluminum alloy 256
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength 7 Symbols and basic formulas
using local stresses
7.1 Abbreviations 259
4.0 General 97 7.2 Indices
4.1 Parameters of the stress spectrum 7.3 Lower case characters
4.2 Material properties 103 7.4 Upper case characters 260
4.3 Design parameters 106 7.5 Greek alphabetic characters 261
4.4 Component strength 113 7.6 Basic formulas 262
4.5 Safety factors 125
4.6 Assessment 127 8 Subject index 263
8
9
o General survey

o General survey lRo2 EN.dog 0.2 Technical Background


Basis of the guideline are the references listed on page
0.1 Scope 7, in particular the former TGL-Standards, the former
This guideline is valid for components in mechanical Vlrl-Guideline 2226, as well as the- regulations of DIN
engineering and in related fields of industry. Its 18 800, the IIW-Recommendations and Eurocode 3.
application has to be agreed between the contracting Moreover the guideline was developed to the current
parties. state of knowledge by taking into account the results of
more recent investigations.
For components subjected to mechanical loadings it
allows an analytical assessment of the static strength
and of the fatigue strength, the latter as an assessment of
the fatigue limit, of the constant amplitude fatigue 0.3 Structure and elements
strength or of the variable amplitude fatigue strength, Contents Page
according to the service stress conditions.
0.3.0 General 9
Other analytical assessments, for example of safety
against brittle fracture, of stability, or of deformation 0.3.1 Procedure of calculation 10
under load, as well as an experimental assessment of 0.3.2 Service stresses
strength *1, are not subject of this guideline.
0.3.3 Methods of strength assessment 11
It is presupposed, that the components are professionally 0.3.3.0 General
produced with regard to construction, material and 0.3.3.1 Assessment of the static strength
workmanship, and that they are faultless in a technical using nominal stresses, Chapter 1
sense. 0.3.3.2 Assessment of the fatigue strength 12
The guideline is valid for components produced with or using nominal stresses, Chapter 2
without machining or by welding of steel, of iron or of 0.3.3.3 Assessment of the static strength
aluminum materials that are intended for use under using local stresses, Chapter 3
normal or elevated temperature conditions, and in detail 0.3.3.4 Assessment of the fatigue strength 13
- for components with geometrical notches, using local stresses, Chapter 4
for components with welded joints, 0.3.4 Kinds of components 13
for static loading, 0.3.4.0 General
- for fatigue loading with more than about 104 0.3.4.1 Rod-shaped (lD) components
constant or variable amplitude cycles, 0.3.4.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components 14
- for milled or forged steel, also stainless steel, cast 0.3.4.3 Block-shaped (3D) components 15
iron materials as well as aluminum alloys or cast
aluminum alloys, 0.3.5 Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses 16
- for component temperatures
from- 40C to 500C for steel,
from- 25C to 500C for cast iron materials and 0.3.0 General
from- 25C to 200C for aluminum materials, An assessment of the static strength is required prior to
- for a non-corrosive environment. an assessment of the fatigue strength.
If an application of the guideline is intended outside the Before applying the guideline it has to be decided
mentioned field of application additional specifications
are to be agreed upon. - what cross-sections or structural detail of the
2
component shall be assessed * and
The guideline is not valid if an assessment of strength is
what service loadings are to be considered.
required according to other standards, rules or
guidelines, or if more specific design codes are The service loadings are to be determined on the safe
applicable, as for example for bolted joints. side, that is, with a sufficient probability they should be
higher than most of the normally occurring loadings *3.
The strength values are supposed to correspond to an
anticipated probability of 97,5 % (average probability of
1 Subject of Chapter 5.11 "Experimental determination of component survival Po = 97,5 %).
strength values" is not the realization of an experimental assessment of
strength, but the question how specific and sufficiently reliable
component strength values suitable for the general procedure of strength
assessment may be derived experimentally.

2 In particular, what critical points of the considered cross-sections or


component. 3 Usually this probability can hardly be quantified, however.
10
o General survey
0.3.1 Procedure of calculation At the assessment stage (box at bottom of either Figure)
the characteristic values of service stress occurring in
The procedure of calculation for an assessment of the the component (box at top on the left) and the
static strength is presented in Figure 0.0.1, the almost component strength values derived from the mechanical
identical procedure for an assessment of the fatigue material properties and the design parameters (middle
strength in Figure 0.0.2 *4. column) are compared by including the required safety
factors (box at bottom on the right). In specifying
Sequential component fatigue strength values the mean stress and
procedure of
calculation the variable amplitude effects are regarded as essential
factors of influence. The assessment of strength is
successful if the degree of utilization is less or equal
1,00, where the degree of utilization is defined by the
ratio of the characteristic service stress to the component
strength value that has been reduced by the safety factor,
Chapter 1.6.
In Figure 0.0.1 and Figure 0.0.2 the arrangements of the
individual boxes from top to bottom illustrate the
Safety
factors
sequential procedure of calculation.

0.3.2 Service stresses


For an application of the guideline the stresses resulting
Figure 0.0.1 Procedure of calculation for an assessment from the service loadings have to be determined for the
of the static strength. so-called reference point of the component, that is the
potential point of fatigue crack initiation at the cross-
section or at the component under consideration. In case
of doubt several reference points are to be considered,
for example in the case of welded joints the toe and the
-- root of the weld.
Characteristic Sequential
service S~resses procedure of
There is a need to distinguish the names and subscripts
caJc.ulation
of the different components or types of stress, that may
act in rod-shaped (lD), in shell-shaped (2D) or in
block-shaped (3D) components, respectively, Chapter
0.3.4.
The stresses are to be determined according to known
Component fati;~~l;it~~~~~~~l principles and techniques: analytically according to
forzeromean stress : elementary or advanced methods of theoretical
.,
mechanics, numerically after the finite element or the
Component fatigiielimlt Component
for-the actualmean stress fatigue boundary element method, or experimentally by
strength measurement.
i
I All stresses, except the stress amplitudes, are combined
.~~-- JI
with a sign, in particular compressive stresses are
Safety negative.
factors
To perform an assessment it is necessary to decide about
the kind of stress determination for the reference point
considered: The stresses can be determined
as nominal stresses *5 (notation S and T),
as elastically determined local stresses, effective
Figure 0.0.2 Procedure of calculation for an assessment notch stresses or structural (hot spot) stresses *
6
of the fatigue strength. (notation o and r).

6 The elastic stress at the root of a notch exceeds the nominal stress by a
stress concentration factor. In the case of welded joints effective notch
4 A survey on the analytical procedures of assessment based on the stresses are applied to the assessment of the fatigue strength only.
equations of the guideline may be found in Chapter 7.6. Structural stresses, also termed geometrical or hot spot stresses, are
normally in use with welded joints only. For further information see
5 Nominal stresses can be computed for a well defmed cross-section only. Chapter 5.5.
11
o General survey
Correspondingly the component strength values are to 0.3.3.1 Assessment of the static strength using
be determined nominal stresses, Chapter 1
as nominal strength values or
Relevant nominal characteristic service stresses are the
as local strength values of the elastic local stress, of
extreme maximum and extreme minimum values of the
the effective notch stress or of the structural stress.
individual types of stress or stress components, e.g.
With the procedures of calculation structured uniformly nominal values of the axial (or tension-compression)
for both types of stress determination it is intended that stress, Szd, of the bending stress, Sb, and so forth *7 *8,
more or less identical results will be obtained from Chapter 1.1.
comparable strength assessments based on either
nominal stresses or local stresses. Relevant material properties are the tensile strength and
the yield strength (yield stress or 0.2 proof stress) as
well as the strength values for shear derived from these.
A technological size effect is taken into account if
0.3.3 Methods of strength assessment
appropriate. The influence of an elevated temperature
0.3.3.0 General on the material properties - strength at elevated
temperature and creep strength, yield strength at
In order to present the guideline clearly arranged and
elevated temperature and I% creep limit - is allowed for
user-friendly, it is organized in four chapters, Figure
by means of temperature factors, Chapter 1.2.
0.0.3:
- Assessment of the static strength Design parameters are the section factors, by which an
using nominal stresses, Chapter I, experienced partial plasticity of the component is
Assessment of the fatigue strength allowed .according to yield strength, type of loading,
using nominal stresses, Chapter 2, shape of cross-section, and stress concentration factor.
Assessment of the static strength From the section factor and from further parameters an
using local stresses, Chapter 3, overall design factor is derived, Chapter 1.3.
Assessment of the fatigue strength
The nominal values of the static component strength are
using local stresses, Chapter 4.
derived from the tensile strength, divided by the
respective overall design factor, Chapter 1.4.

.~.
As common in practice the safety factor against the
Static strength LNoml?al
~
Fatii:ue strength
tensile strength is 2,0. For materials with a yield
Nominalstresses ) stresses Nominal stresses strength less than 0,75 times the tensile strength the
;/
safety factor is 1,5 against the yield strength, however.
Static
I
Fatigue
Under favorable conditions these safety factors may be
strength strength' reduced, Chapter 1.5.
aSseSSlllent assessment

~~.
The assessment is carried out by proving that the degree
of utilization is less or equal 1,00 . The degree of
.r" Chapter 3: "<. Chapter 4: -,
(
Stresses \.Li ..
~tb
Stade. strength ) - . LO.cal. -....ali.ou. estr.c..n.. \
.)
utilization for an individual stress component or type of
"..
.~
IAcalstrcsses/" ~~ stress is the ratio of its nominal characteristic service
stress value, divided by the allowable nominal static
Figure 0.0.3 Organization of the guideline. component strength value, which follows from the
nominal static component strength divided by the safety
factor.
In particular the procedure of calculation is completely If there are several stress components or types of stress
presented in everyone of the four chapters, even if this their individual degrees of utilization are combined to
results in repetitions of the same or almost the same obtain an entire degree of utilization. The interaction
parts of text in Chapter I and Chapter 3 or in Chapter 2 formula to be applied to that combination allows for the
and Chapter 4, respectively. ductility of the material in question, Chapter 1.6.
The procedure of calculation using nominal stresses is For welded components the assessment of the static
to be preferred for simple rod-shaped (lD) and for shell- strength has to be carried out for the toe section as for
shaped (2D) components. The procedure of calculation non-welded components, and for the throat section with
using local stresses has to be applied to block-shaped
(3D) components, and moreover in general, if the
stresses are determined by a finite-element or a
boundary-element calculation, if there are no well- 7 According to rod-, shell- or block-shaped components, Chapter 0.3.4.
defined cross-sections or no simple cross-section shapes,
8 The extreme maximum or minimum stresses for the assessment of the
if stress concentration factors or fatigue notch factors static strength may be different from the maximum and minimum stresses
are not known, or (concerning the assessment of the for the assessment of the fatigue strength, that are determined from the
static strength) in the case ofbrittIe materials. largest amplitude and the related mean value of a stress spectrum.
12
o General survey
an equivalent nominal stress, that is computed from the amplitude value follows from the nominal amplitude of
components of nominal stress acting in the weld seam the derived component fatigue strength divided by the
*9. safetyfactor.
If there are several stress components or types of stress
their individual degrees of utilization are combined to
0.3.3.2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using
obtain the total degree of utilization. The interaction
nominal stresses, Chapter 2
formula to be applied to that combination allows for the
Relevant nominal characteristic service stresses are the ductility of the material in question, that is in the same
largest stress amplitudes in connection with the way as for the assessment of the static strength, Chapter
respective stress spectra and the related mean stress 2.6.
values. They are determined for the individual stress
For the assessment of the fatigue strength of welded
components or types of stress, e.g. amplitudes and mean
components using nominal stresses basic fatigue limit
values of the nominal axial (tension-compression)
7 8 values for completely reversed stress are given. They are
stresses, Sa,zd and Sm,zd, and so forth * *, Chapter 2.1. independent of the tensile strength of the base material
Relevant material properties are the fatigue limit for (which is different to non-welded components). They
completely reversed axial stress and the fatigue limit for are converted by design factors that follow from a
completely reversed shear stress of the material in classification scheme of structural weld details. The
question. A technological size effect is taken into combined effect of mean stress and of residual stresses
account where appropriate. The influence of an in welded components is considered by means of a mean
elevated temperature is allowed for by means of stress factor together with a residual stress factor *10.
temperature factors, Chapter 2.2.
Design parameters to be considered in particular are the
0.3.3.3 Assessment of the static strength using local
fatigue notch factors, allowing for the design of the
stresses, Chapter 3
component (shape, size and type of loading), as well as
the roughness factor and the surface treatment factor, by Relevant characteristic local service stresses are the
which the respective surface properties are accounted extreme maximum and extreme minimum stresses of
for. By specific combination of all these factors a the individual types of stress or stress components, e.g.
summary design factor is calculated, Chapter 2.3. local values of the normal (axial and/or bending) stress,
7
The nominal values of the component fatigue limit for o, and of the shear (shear and/or torsional) stress * *8,
completely reversed stresses follow from the derived Chapter 3.1.
fatigue limit values of the material, divided by the Relevant material properties are to be determined as for
respective design factors, Chapter 2.4.1. From these nominal stresses, Chapter 3.2.
fatigue limit values the amplitudes of the component
fatigue limit according to the mean stress values (or the Design parameters are the section factors, by which an
stress ratios) are to be derived, Chapter 2.4.2. The experienced partial plasticity of the component is
amplitudes that specify the variable amplitude fatigue allowed according to yield strength, type of loading, and
strength of the component are obtained from the fatigue shape of the component. The section factors are
limit values multiplied by a factor depending on the calculated on the basis of Neuber's formula, but by
parameters of the stress spectrum (total number of observing individual upper bound values that follows
cycles and amplitude frequency distribution), Chapter from the plastic limit load (plastic notch factor). From
2.4.3. the .section factors and from further parameters an
overall design factor is derived, Chapter 3.3 *11.
The basic value of the safety factor is 1,5. Under
favorable conditions this safety factor may be reduced, The local values of the static component strength are
Chapter 2.5. derived from the tensile strength, divided by the
respectiveoverall design factor, Chapter 3.4.
The assessment is carried out by proving that the degree
of utilization is less or equal 1,00 . The degree of The safety factors are to be determined as for nominal
utilization for an individual stress component or type of stresses, Chapter 3.5.
stress is the ratio of its nominal characteristic service
stress amplitude, divided by the allowable amplitude of
the component fatigue limit or of the component
variable amplitude fatigue strength. The allowable 10 The assessment of the fatigue strength for welded components makes
reference to the llW-Recommendations and Eurocode 3. As far as
conditionally weldable steel, stainless steel, weldable cast iron materials
or weldable aluminum alloys are concerned this kind of calculation is
9 This assessment of the static strength for welded components is provisional and may be applied with caution only.
according to DIN 18 800 part 1. As far as conditionally weldable steel,
stainless steel, weldable cast iron materials or weldable aluminum alloys 11 The assessment ofthe static strength using local stresses on the basis of
are concerned, the rules of DIN 18 800 are provisional and may be Neuber's formula and the plastic limit load is an approximation which has
applied with caution only. to be regarded as provisional and is to be applied with caution only.
13
o General survey
The assessment is carried out by means of the degree of nominal stresses by means of a mean stress factor
utilization as for nominal stresses, but with the together with a residual stress factor *10.
respective local values of the characteristic service stress
and the local component strength values, Chapter 3.6.
For welded components the assessment of the static 0.3.4 Kinds of components
strength using local stresses is carried out using 0.3.4.0 General
structural stresses (not with notch root stresses), for the
weld toe as for non-welded components, for the root of Rod-shaped (10), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
the weld using an equivalent structural stress, that is to (3D) components are to be distinguished, as in each case
be derived from the structural stress components acting other stress components or types of stresses, identified
in the weld seam *9. by differing symbols and subscripts, are of concern. The
distinction is only a formal one, however, and the
procedure of calculation is the same in all cases.
0.3.3.4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local Specific particulars apply to welded components.
stresses, Chapter 4
Relevant local characteristic service stresses are the 0.3.4.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
largest stress amplitudes in connection with the
respective stress spectra and the related mean stress For rod-shaped (10) components - rod, bar, shaft, or
values. They are determined for the individual stress beam for example - the following system of co-ordinates
components or types of stress, e.g. amplitudes and mean is introduced: x-axis is the longitudinal center line of
values of the local normal (axial and/or bending) stress, the component, y- and z-axes are the main axes of the
7 8 cross-section that are to be specified so, that for the
0"a and O"m , and so forth * * , Chapter 4.1.
moments of inertia Iy~ Iz is valid, Figure 0.0.4.
The relevant material properties are determined as for
nominal stresses, Chapter 4.2.
Design parameters to be considered in particular are the
Kt-Kf ratios, allowing for the design of the component
(shape and size), as well as the roughness factor and the
surface treatment factor, by which the respective surface
properties are accounted for. By specific combination of
all these factors a summary design factor is calculated,
Chapter 4.3.
The local values of the component fatigue limit for
"0.0...
'z
completely reversed stresses follow from the derived
fatigue limit values of the material, divided by the
Figure 0.0.4 Rod-shaped (ID) component (round
respective design factors, Chapter 4.4.1. The
specimen with groove) in bending. Nominal stress S,
conversions to the amplitude of the component fatigue
and maximum local stress O"m"" at the reference point W.
limit and to the amplitude of the component variable
amplitude fatigue strength are as for nominal stresses,
Chapter 4.4.2 to 4.4.3.
Calculation using nominal stresses
The safety factors are to be determined as for nominal
stresses, Chapter 4.5. If the assessment of rod-shaped (ID) components is
carried out by using nominal stresses, Chapter I and 2,
The assessment by means of the degree of utilization is the nominal stresses to be computed at the reference
as for nominal stresses, but with the respective local point are Szd from an axial load, Sb from a bending
values of the characteristic stress amplitude and the moment, T, from a shear load, and/or Tt from a
value of the component fatigue limit or of the torsional moment acting at the respective section.
component variable amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter
4.6. For the equations given in Chapter 1 and 2 it is
provided, that both the bending stress Sb and the shear
For the assessment of the fatigue strength of welded stress T, act in the x-z-plane. Otherwise stress
components using structural stresses or effective notch components Sb,y and Sb,z , Ts,y and Ts,z are to be
stresses the same basic fatigue limit values for considered *12.
completely reversed stresses apply as for nominal
stresses. They hold for effective notch stresses without
conversion, but for structural stresses they have to be
converted by factors given for some typical weld details.
The combined effect of mean stress and of residual
12 The indices y and z describe the direction ofthe related vectors ofthe
stresses in welded components is to be considered as for bending moments My, Mz and ofthe lateral loads Fy, Fz .
14
o General survey
In case of rotationally symmetrical cross-sections with 0.3.4.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components Rod-shaped
circumferential notches a resultant bending stress and a (ID) welded components
resultant shear stress can be calculated from these stress
For shell-shaped (2D) components - disk, plate, or shell
components,
for example - the following system of coordinates is
s, =Jr-S-~,y-+-S-~,-z ' (0.3.1) introduced: The x- and y-axis are placed in the surface
at the reference point, the z-axis is normal to the surface
2 2
Ts = Ts,y +TS,z in thickness direction. The normal stress and the shear
stress in thickness direction are supposed to be
The equations given in Chapter 1 and 2 may be applied negligible, Figure 0.0.5.
to Sb and T;
In the general case of not rotationally symmetrical
cross-sections a calculation using local stresses is
normally to be preferred.
Additional stresses at notches (as for example the
circumferential stress associated with an axial stress of a
shaft with groove) may be included in the stress
concentration factor, otherwise they will be neglected.

Figure O. O. 5 Shell-shaped (2D) component (shell with


Calculation using local stresses cutout detail). Local stresses aa,x at the reference point
W (peak value) and aa,x,ru. at the neighbouring point B.
If the calculation of rod-shaped (ID) components is
carried out using local stresses *13, Chapter 3 and 4, the
local normal stresses at the reference point from axial
and from bending loading (in x-direction), azd = a as Calculation using nominal stresses
well as the local shear stresses "ts = "t from shear and If the assessment of shell-shaped (2D) components is
from torsion (normal to the x-direction) are considered. carried out using nominal stresses, Chapter 1 and 2, the
nominal stresses at the reference point to be computed
If the local stresses are calculated from the nominal
stresses by multiplication with the respective stress are the normal stresses Szdx = S, and Szdy = S, from
loadings in the x- and y-directions and T, = T from a
concentration factors, the equations given in Chapter 3
shear loading.
and 4 are applicable.
However, if the calculation yields the complete local
state of stress at the reference point (as for example a Calculation using local stresses
finite-element calculation does), the principle stresses
If the assessment of shell-shaped (2D) components is
0"1, 0"2, 0"3 are computed *14 and treated as described for
carried out using local stresses, Chapter 3 and 4, the
block-shaped (3D) components.
local stresses at the reference point azdx = ax and
azdy = a y in the x- and y-directions and the local shear
stress r, = t are considered.
Rod-shaped (ID) welded components
If the local stresses are computed from the nominal
For rod-shaped (ID) welded components *15 the
stresses by multiplication with the respective stress
notations a and "t apply to structural stresses and the concentration factors, the equations given in Chapter 3
notation aK and "tK apply to effective notch stresses *16. and 4 are applicable.
However, if the calculation yields the complete local
state of stress at the reference point (as for example a
finite-element calculation does), the principle stresses
0"1,0"2,0"3 are computed *14 and treated as described for
block-shaped (3D) components.

13 The assessment of rod-shaped (ID) components should preferably be


carried out using nominal stresses whenever possible.

14 Principle stresses are independent of the chosen coordinate system. In


the special case of a proportional loading the directions of the principle
stresses remain fixed to the coordinates of the component. In the more 15 Rod-shaped (ID) welded components are rolled sections with circular,
general case of non-proportional loading the directions and the amounts tube, 1-, box or other cross-sections connected or joined with butt welds
of the three principle stresses will change with time, see Chapter 0.3.5. and/or fillet welds.
15
o General survey
Shell-shaped (2D) welded components 0.3.4.3 Block-shaped (3D) components
For shell-shaped (2D) welded components the notations In the general case block-shaped (3D) components are
o"x , O"y and 't apply to structural stresses and the to be calculated using local stresses, Chapter 3 and 4
*17 ~~--'-"
notations O"Kx , O"Ky and 'tK apply to effective notch
stresses *16 . For block-shaped (3D) components the coordinate
system at the reference point may be of cartesian,
0':,x'1l!~.
_.-
;70.
- . .,
.. . . ; (
... J~.~
... '. . - S x
/-~
cylindrical or spherical type.
The calculation is supposed to yield the complete state
/Io-{ (It'd --of local stress at the reference point (as for example a
<;,fI"c-(<lC<{ ,finite-element calculation does). From that the principle
1 : - - - ' = - -_ _ nO)'jJIr'rtfl.{ >tl~esses_~!.....~2-,.~~~.,are computed *14, and for these the
:....--+--~-"'i , degrees of utilization are determined.
If the reference point W is located at a free surface of a
block-shaped (3D) component, Figure 0.0.8, it is
supposed that 0"1 and 0"2 are the principle stresses at the
surface, while the principle stress 0"3 is supposed to point
normally to the surface inwards the component.
In general stress gradients exist for all three principle
Figure 0.0.6 Shell-shaped (2D) welded component. stresses, both normal to the surface and in either
Example: Strap with longitudinal stiffner. After Radaj direction of the surface. However, only the stress
/10/. gradients for 0" 1 and 0"2 normal to the surface can be
Top: Joint, Centre: Stress distribution, Bottom: Profile. Relevant is the considered in the procedure of calculation, while the
stress at the reference point W (at the toe line of the weld).
stress gradients for 0"1 and 0"2 in any directions of the
Calculation using nominal stresses: Stress Sx . surface and the gradients of 0"3 can not.
Calculation using structural stress: Maximum stress O"x,max obtained from Block-shaped (3D) components can be calculated as
extrapolating the stress distribution towards the weld toe. shell-shaped (2D) components if the stresses O"x , O"y and
Calculation using effective notch stresses: Maximum stress O"Kx,max 't at the load free surface are of concern only.
occurring at the weld toe, see Figure 0.0.7 .

.......Radius r = 1 mm
/ I \
F
\/ F

Figure 0.0.7 Shell-shaped (2D) welded component.


Example: Cruciform joint and butt weld. After Radaj
/l0/.
Calculation using effective notch stresses: The maximum stress O"Kx,max
occurring at the toe or at the root of the weld has to be computed by
introducing a fictitious effective notch radius r = 1 rom, unless the real
radius is r > 1 rom (the fictitious notch radius is intended for the Figure 0.0.8 Block-shaped (3D) component (flange).
assessment of the fatigue strength only). Local longitudinal stress 0"1 and circumferential stress 0"2
The fictitious notch radius r = 1 rom applies to welded joints from at the reference point W (peak values), stresses O"u,s and
structural steel. It is supposed, however, that it is applicable for other 0"2,~s at neighboring point B.
kinds of material as well, although this has to be considered as a
preliminary specification for welded aluminum materials so far.

16 Structural stresses can be applied to the assessment of the static


strength and to the assessment of the fatigue strength. Effective notch
stresses can be applied to the assessment of the fatigue strength, but not to 17 For block-shaped components the determination of a nominal stress is
the assessment of the static strength. not possible since there is no well defmed cross-section.
16
o General survey
Block-shaped (3D) welded components Assessment of the static strength
Welds at a load-free surface of block-shaped (3D) For the assessment of the static strength the most
components having no inner defects can be assessed as unfavorable case to be considered is that the extreme
shell-shaped (2D) welded components. Then the values of all maximum and minimum stresses occur
notations G x , Gy and 't apply to structural stresses and simultaneously. Accordingly the entire degree of
the notations O"Kx , O"Ky and 'tK apply to the notch root utilization has to be computed. However, stresses of
stresses at the surface, Figure 0.0.6. different sign that will decrease the entire degree of
utilization are to be included only if they definitely
occur together with the remaining stresses, Chapter 1.6
0.3.5 Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses or 3.6.

The stresses occurring in the cross-section or at the


reference point of a component may be caused Assessment of the fatigue strength
by a single load or
- by several loads acting simultaneously. For the assessment of the fatigue strength *18 multiaxial
stresses varying with time have to be distinguished as
In both cases follows:
an uniaxial stress or proportional stresses,
multiaxial stresses synchronous stresses, or
may result at the reference point. non-proportional stresses.
An uniaxial stress occurs under special circumstances
only, as for example in a tension loaded prismatic bar,
or at an unloaded edge of shell-shaped (2D) or block- Proportional stresses
shaped (3D) components, the latter even if several loads Normally proportional stresses result from a single
act on these components simultaneously, Figure 0.0.9. loading acting on the component.
In addition an uniaxial stress may be assumed at the
reference point if, by comparison, any further stresses Examples of proportional stresses are the
are small. circumferential and the longitudinal stresses of a
cylindrical vessel loaded by internal pressure, or the
In general components are subject to multiaxial stresses, bending and torsional stresses of a round cantilever
however. Then two or three normal stresses, or normal loaded eccentrically by a single load.
stresses and shear stresses occur at the reference point.
If this single acting loading is varying with time, all
t T
s,"-,-+ Sy t multiaxial stresses are varying proportionally to that
-"-+T
loading and proportionally to each other, which also is

+-~ +~at ..
-
f

~
t-': x

-{Q:Jt..:' true with regard to their amplitudes and their mean


values. Further, as a consequence, the principle stresses
observe non-changing directions relative to the

~ ~
component. The amounts of the stresses, also in the
stress amplitude spectra, may be converted by constant
Figure 0.0.9 Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses. factors. Hence all stress spectra are of similar shape, but
may differ in intensity (amount of their characteristic
Nominal stresses Sx- Sy and T. maximum stress).
Left: multiaxial stresses in a sheet section,
Right: uniaxial stress in a sheet section at the edge of a cutout. Proportional stresses my also result from several
loadings that act on the component simultaneously and,
for their part, change proportionally with time as well.
In this guideline a basic principle is defined both for an Then several stresses of the same kind are to be overlaid
assessment of the static strength and of the fatigue additively.
strength in case of multiaxial stresses: For proportional multiaxial stresses, the interaction
the individual degrees of utilization for everyone of formulas given in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6 are exactly valid
the computed types of stress or stress components in the sense of material mechanics, if the related rules of
have to be determined and assessed separately in a signs are observed.
first step, and
thereafter these individual degrees of utilization will
be combined by means of an appropriate interaction
formula to obtain the entire degree of utilization for
18 Both for the assessment ofthe fatigue limit and for the assessment of
final assessment. the variable amplitude strength.
17
o General survey
Synchronous stresses determined degrees of utilization for the individual
loadings are then added linearly in order to estimate the
Synchronous stresses are a simple case of non-
entire degree of utilization. Compared to usual
proportional stresses. They are proportional with regard
interaction formulas developed for proportional stresses
to their amplitudes, however non-proportional with
the linear addition may be assumed to produce results
regard to their mean values.
on the safe side *19.
Normally synchronous stresses result from a combined
A necessary reservation for applying this approximate
action of a constant loading with a second, different
way of calculation is, that a thorough stress analysis is
kind of loading, that is varying with time. Examples are
performed in every case and that careful evaluation of
a shaft with a non-changing torsional loading and a
the result is performed finally.
rotating bending loading. Or a long, lying cylindrical
vessel under pulsating internal pressure, where the In order to reach an optimum degree of utilization of the
longitudinal stress is non-proportional to the component fatigue strength in the case of non-
circumferential stress because of the bending stress from proportional multiaxial stresses, an experimental
the dead weight is additively overlaid. assessment of the fatigue strength has to be
recommended according to the contemporary state of
For synchronous multiaxial stresses, the interaction
the art.
formulae given in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6 - if observing the
related rules of sign - are valid as a useful
approximation, because they are applied to the stress
amplitudes, which are proportional to each other, and
because the fatigue strength is determined by the stress
amplitudes in the first place. Additional rules for
considering the mean stresses are required, however.
An improved procedure for the assessment of the
component fatigue limit in the case of synchronous
multiaxial stresses is presented in Chapter 5.9.

Non-proportional stresses
Non-proportional stresses result from the action of at
least two loadings that vary non-proportionally with
time in a different manner.
In this most general case of non-proportional loading
different spectra apply to the individual types of stress
that result from the combined loadings. In particular the
amounts and the directions of the principle stresses are
variable with time.
The case of variable directions of the principle stresses
can not be considered with the interaction formulas
given in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6.
Appropriate methods of calculation proposed for the
assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of non-
proportional stresses, that have been developed from a
material mechanics point of view, require much
computing effort and are applicable with computer
programs for short stress sequences only. Their
plausibility is currently subject of investigations.
Therefore only an approximate way of calculation for
the assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of non- 19 For non-proportional multiaxialloadings the reference point may be at
proportional multi-axial stresses can be given, Chapter different positions in the case ofthe combined loadings and in the case of
5.10: As proportional stresses result from each of the each ofthe individual loadings, respectively. This is because the most
damaging stresses from the combined loadings may occur at positions
acting loadings the degrees of utilization of these different from the positions ofthe maximum stresses from the individual
individual loadings can be correctly computed and loadings. By the above mentioned approximation, however, the full
assessed as described in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6. The so damaging effect of each loading may be assumed to be superimposed at
the reference point in question.
18
o General survey
19
1.1 Characteristic stress values 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

1 Assessment of the static 1.1 Characteristic stress values


strength using nominal stresses Contents Page
IR>11 N.doq 1.1.0 General 19
1.1.1 Characteristic stress values
1.0 General 1.1.1.0 General
According to this chapter the assessment of the static 1.1.1.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components 20
strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out. 1.1.1.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
It should be observed that not necessarily the component
static strength is determined by a failure occurring at a
notched section. Likewise a global failure occurring at a 1.1.0 General
different, unnotched or moderately notched section of According to this chapter the characteristic service
the component may be determining, Figure 1.0.1. stress values are to be determined.

Kt,A
Relevant are the extreme maximum and rmmmum

~
stresses Smax,ex,zd and Smin,ex,zd, ... of the individual stress
-__ c------- ~ _ components expected for the most unfavorable operating
conditions and for special loads according to
.~--+._._. -- -------'---- .-...-... specification or due to physical limits *3. Both the
F F maximum and minimum stresses can be positive or
negative. It is assumed, that all stresses reach their
extreme values simultaneously.
Figure 1.0.1 Different sections for a static failure
occurring as a local failure (A) or as a global failure (B).
Elevated temperature
In case of elevated temperature the values Smax,ex,zd, ...
and Smin,ex,zd,... are relevant for a short-term loading
For GGG sorts and wrought aluminium alloys with low
(related to the high temperature strength or high
elongation, A < 12,5 % , for all sorts GT and GG as
temperature yield strength).
well as for cast aluminium alloys the assessment of the
static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses For a long-termloading (related to the creep strength or
according to Chapter 3 *1. 1% creep limit) correct results will only be obtained in
case of a constant (static) tensile stress Smax,ex,zd equally
In the case of very high stress concentration factors the distributed over the section of concern.
assessment of the static strength is to be carried out by
using local stresses according to Chapter 3 *2. In all other cases of constant or variable loading the
assessment will be more or less on the safe side if the
For block-shaped (3D) components the assessment of values Smax,ex,zd , ... and Smin,ex,zd, ... refer to a stress
the static strength is to be carried out by using local distribution with a stress gradient, and/or if they refer to
stresses according to Chapter 3. the peak values of a variable stress history, which are of
For all other kinds of material (GGG sorts and short duration only, while for the rest of time the stress
wrought aluminium alloys with high elongation, is lower.
A'2 12,5 % , GS, milled steel and forging-steel) and for If in those cases it becomes necessary to make best use
smaller stress concentration factors of rod-shaped (lD) of the long-term load bearing capacity of the component
and of shell-shaped (2D) components the assessment of
the static strength using nominal stresses is applicable.
3 In general the values Smax,ex,zd and Smin,ex,zd for the assessment of
the static strength are the extreme values of a stress history. For the
assessment ofthe fatigue strength a stress spectrum is tobe derived from
that history consisting ofstress cycles ofthe amplitudes Sa,zd,i and the
mean values Sm,zd,i , Chapter 2.1.
The largest amplitude ofthis stress spectrum is Sa,zd, 1 , and the related
mean value is Sm,zd,l . The related maximum and minimum values are
Smax,zd,l = Sm,zd,l + Sa,zd,l and Smin,zd,l = Sm,zd,l - Sa,zd,l .The
values Smax,ex,zd and Smin,ex,zd may be different from the values
1 Because these materials lack sufficient plasticity. Smax,zd, 1 and Smin,zd, 1 . This is because extreme, very seldom
occurring events are important only for the assessment of the static
2 Because extremely high local strains are associated with a very high strength, but hardly for the assessment ofthe fatigue strength. In a stress
stress concentration factor. The stress concentration factor Kt = 3 ofaflat spectrum which issupposed toapply tonormal service conditions they do
bar with a hole issuggested asa limit value. not have tobe considered therefore.
20
1.1 Characteristic stress values 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

(because otherwise the assessment cannot be achieved)


an expert stress analysis is recommended to define the
appropriate stress value to be used for the assessment.
Such an analysis is beyond the scope of the present
guideline, however.

Superposition
If several stress components act simultaneously at the
reference point, they are to be overlaid. For the same Figure 1.1.1 Components of nominal stress SII' Til' SJ.
type of stress (for example tension and tension and TJ. in welds. After DIN 18800, Part 1.
Smax,ex,zd,l, Smax,ex,zd,2 , ... ) the superposition is to be Left: Butt weld, Right: Fi)let weld; the nominal stress isto becomputed
carried out at this stage, so that in the following a single with the throat thickness a.
stress value (Smax,ex,zd, ...) exists for each type of stress
*4. For different types of stress (for example bending
and torsion, or tension in direction x and tension in Rod-shaped (ID) welded components
direction y) the superposition is to be carried out at the
For rod-shaped (ID) welded components the nominal
assessment stage, Chapter 1.6.
stresses are in general to be determined separately for
Stress components acting opposed to each other and the toe section and for the throat section *7.
which do not or can not occur simultaneously, are not to
For the toe section the nominal stresses are to be
be overlaid however.
computed as for non-welded components, Eq. (1.1.1)
.For the throat section equivalent nominal stresses have
to be computed from the nominal stresses resulting from
1.1.1 Characteristic stress values the particular types of loading, Figure 1.1.1 *8.
1.1.1.0 General
2 2 2
Swv,zd = S..L,zd + T..L,zd + 1j1 ,zd ' (1.1.2)
Rod-shaped (lD) and shell-shaped (2D), as well as non-
welded and welded components are to be distinguished.
S..L,zd Axial stress normal to the weld seam
T..L,zd Shear stress normal to the weld seam,
TII,zd Shear stress parallel to the weld seam.
11.1.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
Swv,b, T WV,s and T wv,t in analogy.
Rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components
For rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components an axial The extreme maximum and minimum values of the
stress Szd , a bending stress Sb, a shear stress T, *5 equivalent nominal stresses are
and/or a torsional stress T t are to be considered. The
Smax,ex,wv,zd and Smin,ex,wv,zd, .... (1.1.3)
extreme maximum and minimum stresses are
Smax,ex,zd, Smax,ex,b, Tmax.exs . Tmax,ex,t, (1.1.1)
Stresses of different sign (Smax,ex,wv,zd posiuve,
Smin,ex,zd, Smin,ex,b, T min.ex,s, Tmin,ex,t . Smin,ex,wv,zd negative for instance) are generally to be
Stresses of different sign (Smax,ex,zd positive, Smin,ex,zd considered separately. For shear and for torsion the
negative for instance) are generally to be considered highest absolute value is relevant.
separately *6. For shear and for torsion the highest
absolute value is relevant.

7 For welded components ingeneral anassessment ofthe static strength


isto be carried out for the toe section and for the throat section, because
the cross-sectional areas may be different and because the strength
behavior is evaluated in a different way. The assessment for the toe
4 Stress components having different signs may cancel out each other in section istobecarried out asfor non-welded components. The assessment
part orcompletely. for the throat section is to be carried out with the equivalent nominal
stress Swv.zd . ...
5 Bending and shear in two planes (components y and z) are to be
considered if appropriate, see Chapter 0.3.4.1 . 8 According to DIN 18 800 part 1, page 36. The nominal stress SII
(normal stress parallel tothe orientation ofthe seam) istobeneglected.
6 Particularly inthe case ofcast iron materials with different tension and
compression strength values aswell asinthe case ofunsymmetrical cross- 9 Normally Swv,zd will result mainly from S..Lzd. Further types of
sections. loading analogous.
21
1.1 Characteristic stress values 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

1.1.1.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components


Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components
For shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components normal
stresses in the x- and y-directions Szd,x = Sx and
Szd,y = Sy as well as a shear stress Ts = T are to be
considered.
The extreme maximum and minimum stresses are
Smax,ex,x , Smax,ex,y , Tmax,ex , (1.1.4)
Smin,ex,x , Smin,ex,y , Tmin,ex .
Tension stresses (positive) or compression stresses
(negative) are generally to be considered separately *10.
For shear the highest absolute value is relevant.

Shell-shaped (2D) welded components


For shell-shaped (2D) welded components, Figure 0.0.6,
the nominal stresses are in general to be determined
separately for the toe section and for the throat
section *7.
For the toe section the nominal stresses are to be
computed as for non-welded components, Eq. (1.1.4),
For the throat section equivalent nominal stresses Swv,x,
Swv,y and Twv have to be computed from the nominal
stresses resulting from the particular types of loading,
Figure 1.1.1, according to Eq (1.1.2). The extreme
maximum and minimum values of the equivalent
stresses are
Smax,ex,wv,x and Smin,ex,wv,x , .... (1.1.5)
In case of opposing effect Smax,ex,wv,x is to be regarded
as positive and Smin,ex,wv,x as negative. Tension and
compression are generally to be considered separately.
For shear the highest absolute value is relevant.

10 See footnote *6. And moreover because the second normal stress Sy
may reduce the degree ofutilization.
22
1.2 Material properties 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

1.2 Material properties 11m EN.dog

Contents Page
1.2.0 General 22
1.2.1 Component values according to standards 23.
1.2.1.0 General
1.2.1.1 Component values according to standards
of semi-finished products or test pieces
1.2.1.2 Component values according to the
drawing
1.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values 24
1.2.2 Technological size factor
1.2.2.0 General
1.2.2.1 Dependence on the effective diameter
1.2.2.2 Effective diameter
1.2.3 Anisotropy factor 26
values '.'
1.2.4 Compression strength factor and liCCj)tding.
to s.tanqai"ds
shear strength factor Component
1.2.4.0 General values -
1.2.4.1 Compression strength factor
1.2.4.2 Shear strength factor 27
fIg)
1.2.5 Temperature factors Figure 1.2.1 Values according to standards and com-
1.2.5.0 General ponent values according to standards, Rm and Rp, or
1.2.5.1 Normal temperature values specified by drawings, R.n.z and Rp,z .
1.2.5.2 Low temperature
1.2.5.3 Elevated temperature Top: All kinds of material except GG, Rm =:; Rm,N, Rp =:; Rp,N .
Semi-logarithmic decrease of the mechanical material properties with the
effectivediameter deft'.
1.2.0 General
Bottom: GG, Rm =:; or ~ Rm,N . Double-logarithmic decrease of the
According to this chapter the mechanical material mechanicalmaterial propertieswith the effectivediameter deff.
properties like tensile strength R.n, yield strength R, and
further characteristics for non-welded and welded Specified values according to drawings Rm,z and Rp,z.
components are to be determined *1.
All mechanical material properties are those of the Values according to standards
material test specimen. Values according to standards,
component values and component values according to The values according to standards <Rm.N , R.n, Rp,N, Rp)
standards are to be distinguished, Figure 1.2.1. correspond to an average probability of survival
Po = 97,5 % and depend on the effective diameter cleft'
and on the technological size factor.
Material test specimen
In the context of this guideline the material test Component values
specimen is an unnotched polished round specimen of
do = 7,5 mID diameter *2 .. The component values <Rm , R.n.z , R, , Rp,z ) are valid
for the effective diameter cleft' of the component, they
may correspond to different probabilities of survival Po ,
however.
1 If in this chapter values are given for GT, GG or cast aluminum
alloys, they are needed for the assessment of the fatigue strength
only, Chapter 2, but not for the assessment of the static strength, Special case of actual component values
which is to be carried out using local stresses for these materials,
Chapter 3. If specific values for a component <Rm.r , Rp,v have been
2 This definition is the basis of the presented calculation, although determined experimentally, they normally apply to a
specimens for tensile tests may usually have diameters different from probability of survival Po = 50 % ,. and therefore they
7,5mm.
23
1.2 Material properties 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

are valid only for the particular component, but not for product *4 , in the case of cast iron or cast aluminum it
the entirety of all those components. They may be used, is the value from the test piece defined by the material
for instance, fora subsequent assessment of the strength standard.
of the particular component in case of a service failure,
The yield strength, Rp,N , is the guaranteed minimum
if for that purpose all safety factors are set to 1,00 in
value specified for the smallest size of the semi-finished
addition.
product *4 or for the test piece defined by the material
standard *5.
Component values according to standards Moreover there are to be considered: for compressive
The component values according to standards <Rm , Rp) stresses the compression strength factor f, , Chapter
apply to an average probability of survival Pu = 97,5 % 1.2.4, for shear stresses the shear strength factor :4 ,
and are valid for the effective diameter, delI, of the Chapter 1.2.4, and for elevated temperature the
component. Their application is not limited to a temperature factors Kt,m, ..., Chapter 1.2.5.
particular component, and therefore they may be used
for an assessment of strength, valid for the entirety of
all those components. 1.2.1.2 Component values according to the drawing
To determine the tensile strength Rm and the yield The component value of the tensile strength, RID, is
strength R, *3 the technological size factor, the Rm = 0,94 . Rm,z . (1.2.2)
anisotropy factor and the temperature factors are to be
considered in general. Furthermore compression The component value according to the drawing Rm,z is
strength and shear strength values are to be considered. the tensile strength of the material specified on the
drawing. As the value Rm,z is normally verified by
random inspection of small samples only *6, it is
assumed to have a probability of survival less than Pu =
1.2.1 Component values according to 97,5 % . Eq. (1.2.2) converts the value Rm,z to a
standards component value R; that is expected to conform with
1.2.1.0 <Teneral the probability of survival of Pu = 97,5 %.

The component values according to standards, Rm and The yield strength R, corresponding to the tensile
R, , are to be determined from the values of semi- strength Rm is *7 .
finished products or of test pieces defined by standards,
Rp= Kd,p . Rp,N . Rm, (1.2.3)
Rm,N and Rp,N , or from the component value specified in
the drawing, Rm,z . As a special case the experimentally Kd,m Rm,N
determined actual component values, Rm,r and Rp,r , may technological size factors, Chapter 1.2.2,
be applied. values of the semi-finished product or
of a test piece defined by standards,
Chapter 5.1 .
1.2.1.1 Component values according to standards of
semi-finished products or of test pieces
The component values according to standards of the
tensile strength, Rm , and of the yield strength, Rp, are
Rm = KJ,m' K A' Rm,N, (1.2.1)
R, = KJ,p . K A' Rp,N,
KJ,m, KJ,p technological size factors, Chapter 1.2.2, 4 If different dimensions of that semi-finished product are given by
KA anisotropy factor, Chapter 1.2.3, the standard.
Rm,N , Rp,N values of the semi-finished product or 5 A probability of survival Po = 97,5 % is assumed for the component
of a test piece defined by standards, prop~ies according to standards Rm,N ' Rp,N . This probability of
Chapter 5.1 . survival should also apply to the values Rm ' Rp calculated therefrom.

In the case of steel or wrought aluminum alloys the 6 The value Rm Z is checked by three hardness measurements
tensile strength, Rm,N js the guaranteed minimum value (n=3) for exampl~, where every test has to reach or to exceed the
required value. The probability of survival of the lowest ofn=3 tests
specified for the smallest size of the semi-finished may be estimated to 75 % (= 1 - 1/(n+l) = 1 - 11(3+1) = 0,75), and
may be assigned to Rm,Z . With a likely coefficient of variation of
4% the conversion to Po = 97,5 % follows from Eq. (1.2.2).
3 The term yield strength is used as a generalized term for the yield
stress (of milled or forged steel as well as cast steel) and for the 0.2 7 A conversion proportional to Rp N I Rm N would not be correct
proof stress (of nodular cast iron or malleable cast iron as well as since the technological size effect is more pronounced for the yield
aluminum alloys). strength than for the tensile strength.
24
1.2 Material properties 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

1.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values For milled steel there is deff,max,m = deff,max,p = 250 mm.
For all other kinds of material there are no upper limit
If only an experimental value of the tensile strength Rm,r
values cleff,max,... ,
is known the value of the yield strength Rp,r may be
computed from Eq. (1.2.3) with Rm = Rm,r. (1.2.11)
unless otherwise specified in the material standards.

1.2.2 Technological size factor Aluminum alloys


1.2.2.0 <ieneral For wrought aluminum alloys the component values of
The technological size factor accounts for a decrease of the tensile strength, Rm , and of the yield strength, Rp,
the material strength values usually observed with are given in Chapter 5 according to the type of material
increasing dimensions of the component, It is specified and its condition, and depending on the thickness or
as a function of the effective diameter, Figure 1.2.1. It diameter of the semi-finished product. To these values
is different for non-welded and for welded components the technological size factors Kt,m = Kt,p = 1 apply.
*8
For cast aluminum alloys the technological size factors
for the tensile strength and for the yield strength are as
1.2.2.1 Dependence on the effective diameter follows: For deff~ defl;N,m = defl;N,p = 12 mm
Non-welded components :KI,m = :KI,p = 1, (1.2.12)
Steel and cast iron materials for 12 mm < deff < defl;max.m = defl;max,p = 150 mm
For GG the following technological size factor applies v.
..I.~m
= v.
.I.~p
= 1, 1 . (,I
Ueff / 7 , 5 mm) - 0,2 , (1.2.13)
to the tensile strength: For cleff 5 7,5 mm
for deff~ defl;max,m = defl;max,p = 150 mm
Kt,m = 1,207, (1.2.4)
:KI,m = :KI,p = 0,6 . (1.2.14)
for cleff > 7,5 mm *9
Kt,m = 1,207 . (cleff /7,5 mm) - 0,1922 . (1.2.5) Welded components *11

For stainless steel within the dimensions given in For all kinds of material the technological size factor for
material standards there is the toe section and for the throat section of welded
components is *12
Kt,m = Kd,p = 1. (1.2.7)
(1.2.15)
For all other kinds of steel and cast iron materials the
technological size factor is: For cleff 5 cleff,N,m For materials such as conditionally weldable steel,
stainless steel or weldable cast iron the subsequent
Kt,m = Kd,p =1, (1.2.8) calculation is provisional and therefore it is to be
for cleff,N,m < cleff 5 cleff,max,m *10: (1.2.9) applied with caution.

!Cd, 1-0, 7686ad,m lg(deff /7,5mm)


. m 1- 0, 7686 ad,m lg(deff,N,m /7,5mm) , 1.2.2.2 Effective diameter
For components with a simple shape of the cross section
for cleff ~ deff,max,m it is: the effective diameter is given according to the cross
Kt,m = Kt,m (cleff,max,m) (1.2.10) section in Table 1.2,3.

cleff effective diameter, Chapter 1.2.2.2 , In general the upper limit of the effective diameter is
cleff,N,m, ~m constants, Table 1.2.1 and 1.2.2 . specified in the material standards.

Considering the yield strength the values Kt,m, cleff,N,m , For the determination of the effective diameter cleff two
and ~m have to be replaced by the values Kt,p , deff,N,p , cases are to be distinguished as to the kind of material.
and ~p (except for GG). .

8 The influence factors according toChapter 1.2.3 (KA ), Chapter 1.2.4


(fer, f't) and Chapter 1.2.5 (KT m- ...) aresupposed tobe valid for both
non-welded and welded compon~ts.
11 Valid for steel, cast iron material and aluminum alloys.
9 Footnote and Eq. (1.2.6) cancelled. 12 For structural steel and fine grain structural steel according to
10 0,7686 = l/ig 20. DIN 18800, part 1, page 40.
25
1.2 Material properties 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

Table 1.2.1 Constants deff,N,m , ... , and adm, ... , for steel Table 1.2.2 Constants deff,N,m, ... , and amn, ..., for cast
iron materials
Values in the upper row referto thetensile strength R m ,
Values in the lower rowreferto the yield strength R p . Values in theupper row referto thetensile strength Rm '
Values in the lower row refer to the yield strength R p .
Kinds of material ~ 1 deff,N,m ad,m
cleff,N,p ad,p cleff,N,m 3.d,m
Kinds of material
~2 deff,N,p ad,p
inmm
inmm
Non-alloyed structural steel 40 0,15
DIN-EN 10 025 40 0,3 Cast steel 100 0,15
Fine grain structural steel 70 0,2 DIN 1681 100 0,3
DIN 17102 40 0,3 Heat treatable steel casting, 300 ~1 0,15
Fine grain structural steel 100 0,25 DIN 17 205 300 0,3
DIN EN 10 113 30 0,3 Heat treatable steel casting,
Heat treatable steel, q&t 16 ~3 0,3 q&t, DIN 17 205, 100 0,3
DIN EN 10 083-1 16 0,4 types ~2 No.1, 3, 4 100 0,3
Heat treatable steel, n 16 0,1 as above 200 0,15
DIN EN 10083-1 16 0,2 types ~3 No. 2 200 0,3
Case hardening steel, bh 16 0,5 as above 200 0,15
DIN EN 10 083-1 16 0,5 . types No.5, 6, 8 200 0,3
Nitriding steel, q&t 40 0,25 as above 500 0,15
DIN EN 10 083-1 40 0,30 types No.7, 9 500 0,3
stainless steel - - GGG 60 0,15
DIN EN 10 088-2 ~4 DIN EN 1563 60 0,15
Steel for big forgings, q&t 250 0,2 GT~4 15 0,15
SEW 550 ~5 250 0,25 DIN EN 1562 15 0,15
Steel for big forgings, n 250 0
q&t= quenched and tempered
SEW 550 250 0,15
~ 1 For GS-30 Mn 5 or GS-25 CrMo 4 there is deff N m = 800 mm
q&t=quenched a. tempered, n=normalized, bh=blank hardened or 500mm respectively, values ad,mand ad,p as gi~ed above.
~ 1 Within the kinds of material there are thetypes of material. ~2 Material types see Table 5.1.11.
~2 More precise values depending on the kind of material (except ~3 Valid for strength level V I, for level V II deff,N,m = deff,N,p
for non-alloyed structural steel) seeTable 5.1.2 to Table 5.1.7. = 100 mm with values ad,mandad,p as above.
~2 For 30 CrNiMo 8 and 36 NiCrMo 16: deff N m = 40 mm, ~4 The values for GT are needed for the assessment of the fatigue

values ad,mand ad,p as given above. ' , strength only.

~4 No technological size effect within the dimensions mentioned in


the material standards.
Case 2
~5 For 28 NiCrMoV 8 5 or 33 NiCrMo 145: deff,N,m = deff,N,p
= 500mm or 1000 ~ resp., values ad.mandad,p asgiven above. Components (also forgings) made of non-alloyed
structural steel, of fine grained structural steel, of
normalized quenched and tempered steel, of cast steel,
Case 1 or of aluminum materials.

Components (also forgings) made of heat treatable steel, The effective diameter d eff is equal to the diameter or
of case hardening steel, of nitriding steel, both nitrided wall thickness of the component, Table 1.2.3, Case 2.
or quenched and tempered, of heat treatable cast steel,
of GGG, GT or GG. Rod-shaped (1D) components made of quenched and
The effective diameter cleff from Table 1.2.3, Case 1, tempered steel
applies. The effective diameter is the diameter existing while the
In general it is: heat treatment is performed.

deff= 4 . V /0, (1.2.16) In case of machining subsequent to the heat treatment


the effective diameter cleff is the largest diameter of the
V,O Volume and surface rod. In case of machining prior to the heat treatment the
of the section of the component considered. effective diameter cleff is defined as the local diameter in
question. The diameter cleff according to the first
sequence of machining is an estimate on the safe side .
26
1.2 Material properties 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

Table 1.2.3 Effective diameter deff Aluminum alloys


The anisotropy factor for cast aluminum alloys is
No. Cross section deff deff
KA = 1. (1.2.20)
Case 1 Case 2
For forgings 13, for which material standards specify
1
~ d d the strength values as depending on the testing
direction, the anisotropy factor is not to be applied:
(1.2.21)

~
2 2s s For aluminum alloys the anisotropy factor for the
strength values in the main direction of processing is
(1.2.22)
For the strength values transverse to the main direction
~
3 2s s
of processing the anisotropy factor from Tab. 1.2.4 is
to be applied.

2bs

~
4 s
-- Table 1.2.4 Anisotropy factor K A
b+s
Steel:
Rm up to 600 from 600 from 900 above
5
r:13 b b in Mpa

KA 0,90
to 900

0,86
to 1200

o.ss
1200

0,80

Aluminum aIIovs:

1.2.3 Anisotropy factor


Rm up to 200 from 200 from 400
in Mpa to 400 to 600
The anisotropy factor allows for the fact that the
KA 1,00 0,95 0,90
strength values of milled steel and forgings are lower
transverse to the main direction of milling or forging
than in the main direction of processing. It is to be
supposed that the specified strength values are valid for
the main direction of processing. .
1.2.4 Compression strength factor and
shear strength factor
In case of multiaxial stresses, and also with shear stress,
the anisotropy factor is 1.2.4.0 (;eneral

KA = 1. (1.2.17) The compression strength factor allows for the fact that
in general the material strength is higher in compression
than in tension.
Steel and cast iron material The shear strength factor allows for the fact that the
The anisotropy factor for cast iron material is material strength in shear is different from the tensile
strength.
KA = 1. (1.2.18)
For milled steel and forgings *13 the anisotropy factor
in the main direction of processing is 1.2.4.1 Compression strength factor

(1.2.19) For tensile stresses (axial or bending) the compression


strength factor is
For the strength values transverse to the main direction
of processing the anisotropy factor from Table 1.2.4 is (1.2.23)
to be applied. For compression stresses (axial or bending) the tensile
strength Rm and the yield strength Rp are to be replaced
by the compression strength Rc,m and the yield strength
in compression Rc,p:

13 With material properties depending on the direction.


27
1.2 Material properties 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

Rc,m = f, . Rm , (1.2.24) 1.2.5.1 Normal temperature


Rc,F = f, . Rp,
Normal temperatures are as follows:
f" compression strength factor, Table 1.2.5, - for fine grain structural steel from -40C to 60C,
Rm , Rp tensile strength and yield strength, see for other kinds of steel from -40C to + lOOC,
Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3). for cast iron materials from -25C to + lOOC,
for age-hardening aluminum alloys
The values Rc,m and Rc,p are not explicitly neededfor
from -25C to 50C,
an assessment of the static strength, as only the
for non-age-hardening aluminum alloys
compression strength factor f, is needed *14. from -25C to lOOC.
For normal temperature the temperature factors are
Table 1.2.5 Compression strength factor f, and shear KT,m = ... = I. (1.2.26)
strength factor f,;

Kinds of material r, f, f, 1.2.5.2 Low temperature


for for ~1
tension compress. Temperatures below the values listed above are outside
1 the field of application of this guideline.
Case harden'g steel 1 0,577
Stainless steel 1 1 0,577
Forging steel 1 1 0,577
1.2.5.3 Elevated temperature
Other kinds of steel 1 1 0,577
GS 1 1 0,577 In the field of elevated temperatures - up to 500 C for
GGG 1 1,3 0,65 steel and cast iron materials and up to 200C for
Aluminum alloys 1 1 0,577 aluminum materials - the influence of the temperature
on the mechanical properties is to be considered. In case
~ 1 0,577 = 1 /.J3, according to v. Mises criterion, of elevated temperature the tensile strength Rm is to be
also valid for welded components. replaced by the high temperature strength Rrn, T or by
the creep strength Rrn, Tt The yield strength Rp is to be
replaced by the high temperature yield strength Rp,T or
1.2.4.2 Shear strength factor by the 1 % creep limit Rp,Tt *15.
For shear stresses the tensile strength Rm and the yield For the short-term values Rm,T and Rp,T as well as for
strength Rp are to be replaced by the shear strength Rs,m the long-term values Rm,Tt and Rp,Tt Eq. (1.2.27) to
and the yield strength in shear Rs,p: (1.2.35) apply.
Rs,m = f't . Rm, (1.2.25)
Rs,p = f't . Rp ,
Short-term values
f't shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5
Rm , Rp tensile strength and yield strength, Short term values of the static strength are
Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3). Rm,T = KT,m . R m, (1.2.27)
The values Rs,m and Rs,p are not explicitly needed for Rp,T = KT,p . R p ,
an assessment of the strength, as only the shear strength KT,m, Kt,p. temperature factors,
factor f't is needed. Eq. (1.2.28) to (1.2.33),
Rm, Rp tensile strength and yield strength,
Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3).
1.2.5 Temperature factors The values Rm,T and Rp,T are not explicitly needed for
1.2.5.0 General an assessment of the static strength, as only the
temperature factors KT,m and KT,p are needed.
The temperature factors allow for the fact that the
material strength decreases with increasing temperature. Steel and cast iron materials
Normal temperature, low temperature and higher According to the temperature T the temperature factors
temperature are to be distinguished. KT,m and KT,p apply as follows:

14 Tensile strength and yield strength in compressionare supposedto be 15 The relevant temperature factors will be applied in combination
positive, Rc,rn, Rc,p > 0, therefore for compressionfcr > 1. with the safety factors at the assessment stage.
28
1.2 Material properties 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

for fme grain structural steel, T > 60C *16. Kr,m = 1 - 4,5 . 10 -3 . (T / C - 50) ~ 0,1,
KT,m = KT,p = 1 - 1,2 . 10 -3 T / DC, (1.2.28) KT=,1p - 4, 5 . 10 -3 . (T / C - 50) >
- 0"1

for other kinds of steel *17, T > 100C, Figure - for not age-hardening aluminum alloys:
1.2.2: (1.2.29) T> 100C, Figure 1.2.3 (1.2.33)
3
KT,m = KT,p = 1-1,7' 10- (T / C-100), Kr,m = 1 - 4,5 . 10 -3 . (T / C - 100) ~ 0,1,
Kr,p = 1- 4,5' 10- . (T / C - 100) ~ 0,1,
3
for GS, T> 100C: (1.2.30)
1 - 1,5 . 10 -3 . (T /
Kr,m = Kr,p = c - 100), Eq. (1.2.32) and (1.2.33) are valid from the indicated
temperature T up to 200C, and in general only, if the
- for GGG, T > 100C: relevant characteristic stress does not act on long terms.
1 - 2,4 . (10
K r. m = Kr,p = -3 . T / "C) 2. (1.2.31)

o,s High temperature


Eq. (1.2.28) to (1.2.31) are valid from the indicated strength Rm,T
temperature T up to 500C. For a temperature above Rm;T 1
350C they are valid only, if the relevant characteristic R. 'jm.
stress does not act on long terms.
Cre.ep.Strength
I~TI
Rm.Tl. .1
If,;"' i.I

I 0/0 creep Iimit' Rp."f'


0,3 t--e-~+--'----+-~*+~'-Th-iL.".j Rp,TiR p I I
.High temperature
Rp'Rm'}pt fatigueslrength
CreepStreiiglh RmiTt O,l c:sw,zdiT-,....,...+~-------i'\----f'\-,--....-+\~-1
O,21----,--+---+-~-+.......,,..-.;.1~~ Rm,TI. I <rW,zd,1'. O'W,~. I
~'jml' CW;Ul.. R m 'JD
. I
Q
() 5&lliQ ISO 20.0 2S0 300
1.2.3 TIT.

o Figure 1.2.3 Temperature dependent values of the static


o 100200300 400 500 strength of aluminum alloys plotted for comparison.
~~ Tin'C
Static strength values:
Figure 1.2.2 Temperature dependent values of the
static strength of non-alloyed structural steel plotted for Rp,T/Rm= KT,m= KT,p/Rp= KT,p

comparison. Rm,Tt/Rm=KTt,m= KTt,p/Rp= KTt,p


5
Rp I Rm = Rei Rm = 0,65, Rm, rr. Rp,Tt for 1= 10 h.
Rm,T/Rm = KTm = Rp,T/R = KT,p,
r
Rm,Tt/Rm=KTt,m = Rp,Tt Rp=KTt,p Fatigue limit for completely reversed stress (N = 106 cycles):
O'W,zd I Rm = 0,30; O'W,zd,T I O'w,zd = KT,D.
Rm,T, Rp,T as well as Rm,Tt- Rp,Tt for t = 10 5 h,

Safety factors according to Chapter 1.5 and 2.5: Safety factors according to Chapter 1.5 and 2.5:
jm = 2,0, jp = Jmt = 1,5, jpt = 1,0 .Jn = 1,5 .
Jm = 2,0 , jp = Jmt = 1,5 , jpt = 1,0, Jn = 1,5 .

Aluminum alloys
Long-tenn values
According to the temperature T the temperature factors
Long term values of the static strength are
KT,m and KT,p for aluminum alloys apply as follows:

- for age-hardening aluminum alloys: T > 50C, R""Tt = KTt,m R", , (1.2.34)
Figure 1.2.3 (1.2.32) ~,Tt = KTt,p R, ,
KTt,m, KTt,p temperature factors,
Figure 1.2.2 and 1.2.3, Eq. (1.2.35),
R"" R, tensile strength and yield strength,
16 There is an insignificant discontinuity at T = 60C. Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3).
17 For stainless steel no values are known up to now.
29
1.2 Material properties 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

The values ~Tl and ~,Tl are not explicitly needed for
an assessment of the static strength, as only the Table 1.2.7 Constants aTt,m, ..., Cp ~1
temperature factors KTl,m and KTt,p are needed.
Steel Non- Fine grain Heat-
Steel and cast iron materials alloyed structural treatable-
structural steel steel
Depending on the temperature T and on the operation steel
time t at that temperature the temperature factors Krt,m ~2 ~3 ~4 ~5

and KTt,p apply, Figure 1.2.2 *18


Creep strength
=10(aTt,m+ bTt,m . Pm+ CTt,m . Pm 2 )
K Tt,m , (1.2.35)
aTLm - 0,994 -1,127 - 3,001
= lO(aTt,p+ bTt,p . Pp+ CTt,p . Pp2 ) bTLm 2,485 2,485 3,987
K np ,
cTt.m - 1,260 - 1,260 - 1,423
Pm = 10 -4. (T / C + 273)' (C m + 19(t/h)),
em 20 20 24,27
Pp = 10 - 4. (T / C + 273) . (C m + 19(t/ h)), 1 % Creep limit
aTt,m, ..., C p constants, Table 1.2.7, aTt.n - 5,019 - 6,352 - 3,252
t operation time in hours h atthe 7,227 9,305 5,942
bTLn
temperature T. - 2,636 - 3,456 - 2,728
Cn n
Cn 20 20 17,71
Eq. (1.2.35) apply to temperatures from approximately
350C up to 500C, but only for stresses acting on long
terms. In general they do not apply to temperatures Cast iron GS <>6 GGG<>7
below about 350C *19. materials
Creep strength
Aluminum alloys
aTt.m -7,524 2,50
5
For aluminum alloys and t = 10 hours Krt,m is given by bTLm 9,894 - 1,83
Figure 1.2.4 *20. CTtm -3,417 0

1,0
em 19,57 20
R""TI I R",
0,8
1\ 1 % Creep limit

0,6 \ \
aTtn
bTt.D
- 10,582
8,127
0,12
1,52
cTt.n - 1,607 - 1,28
0,4 Co 35,76 18

0,2 \ :
<>1 Approximate values, applicable from about 350Cto 500C.

o I
RT 100
\..t-
200 300 400
<>2 Not valid for stainless steel.
<>3 Initially for St38,Rm = 360MPa, similar toSt37.
TrC
<>4 Initially for H 52, Rm = 490 MPa, similar to StE 355; the absolute
Figure 1.2.4 Temperature factor Krt,m ~ Rm,Tt I R.n for values Rill,Tt are thesame asfor St38.
aluminum alloys and t = 105 hours. <>5 Initially for C 45 N (normalized) with Rm = 620 MPa. For C 35 N,
The given curve is the same as in Figure 1.2.3, except that the factor with Rm = 550 MPa the constants -3,001 and -3,252areto bereplaced
(1 /jm ) isdifferent. by -2,949 and -3,198. The absolute values Rill,Tt arethe same asfor
C45N.
<>6 Initially for GS-C 25 with Rm = 440 MPa.
-c-7 Initially for GGG-40 with Rm = 423 MPa.
18 Larsen-Miller-parameter P andLarsen-Miller-constant C.
19 Because the values would be unrealistic for temperatures
T < 350C, where the values KT,m and KT,p are relevant instead.
20 The temperature factor Kt,p is not defmed up to now. It may be
assumed, however, as it is essential for the assessment of the static
strength, thattheterm Rp,Tt / jpt is more or less equal to Rill,Tt/ Jmt ,
see Figure 1.2.2 (required safety factorsjpt = 1,0 andjmt = 1,5).
ALarsen-Miller equation similar to Eq. (1.2.32) or(1.2.33) applicable to
derive the values of KTt,m and KTt,p according to temperature T and
operation time T has notbeen specified for aluminum alloys uptonow.
30
1.3 Design parameters 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

1.3 Design parameters 11m EN.dog 1.3.1.2 Welded components


For welded components the design factors are generally
to be determined separately for the toe section and for
Contents Page the throat section.
1.3.0 General 30 For the toe section the calculation is to be carried out as
1.3.1 Design factors for non-welded components.
1.3.1.0 General For the throat section of rod-shaped (lD) welded
1.3.1.1 Non-welded components components the design factors for axial (tension or
1.3.1.2 Welded components compression), for bending, for shear and for torsional
1.3.2 Section factors stress are
1.3.3 Weld factor a.w 31 KSK,zd = 1/ a.w, . (1.3.4)
KSK,b = I / (npl,b . a.w ),
KsK,s = 1/ a.w ,
1.3.0 General KSK,t = I / (npl,t . a.w ).
According to this chapter the design parameters are to For the throat section of shell-shaped (2D) welded
be determined. components the design factors for normal stresses in the
directions x and y as well as for shear stress are

1.3.1 Design factors KsK,x= 1/ a.w, (1.3.5)


KsK,y= 1/ a.w,
1.3.1.0 General KsK,s = I / a.w ,
Non-welded and welded components are to be npl,b ... section factor, Chapter 1.3.2,
distinguished. They can be both rod-shaped (lD) or a.w weld factor, Chapter 1.3.3.
shell-shaped (2D).
Weld factors a.w are given for tension, for compression
and for shear stress.
1.3.1.1 Non-welded components For tension and tension in bending a.w for tension is to
The design factors of rod-shaped (lD) non-welded be applied. For compression and compression in
components for axial (tension or compression), for bending a.w for compression is to be applied. For shear
bending, for shear, and for torsional stress are and for torsion a w for shear is to be applied.
KSK,zd=l, (1.3.1)
KSK,b = I / npl,b ,
KSK,s = I, 1.3.2 Section factors
KSK,t = I / npl,t , The section factors npl,b and npl,t allow for the influence
npl,b ... section factor *1, Chapter 1.3.2. of the stress gradient in bending and/or torsion in
connection with the shape of the cross section on the
The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) non-welded static strength of components, Figure 1.3.1. They serve
components for normal stresses in the directions x and y to make best use of the load carrying capacity of a
as well as for shear stress are component by accepting some yielding as the outside
KSK,x= I, (1.3.2) fiber stress exceeds the yield strength.
KsK,y = I, An essential condition is the existence of a stress
KsK,s = 1. gradient normal to the surface of the component, Figure
1.3.1.
It has to be observed, however, that the derived section
factors only apply to the notched section considered and
not to the component as a whole. Therefore other
sections may have to be considered in addition, see
Chapter 1.0 and Figure 1.0.1.

1 KsK,zd = = 1 means, that the value ofthe related section factor


is npl,zd = = 1.
31
1.3 Design parameters 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

For other types of steel, GS and GGG *4 the section


factors for tension or compression, for bending, for
1- SSK,b (npl,b)
1-- R p ~I-----+-""':: shear, and for torsion are *5 *6

npl,zd = 1, (1.3.9)
npl,b = MIN (JRp,max / R p ; Kp,b ),
npl,s = 1,
npl,t = MIN (JRp,max / R p ; Kp,t),

Rp,max constant, Table 1.3.1,


n, yield strength, Chapter 1.2,
t Kp,b,Kp,t plastic notch factors, Table 1.3.2.

Figure 1.3.1 Definition of the section factor npl,b for


bending of a notched bar, for instance.
Table 1.3.1 Constant Rp,max ~ 1.
Bending moment Mb, yield strength R p , static component strength
for bending SSK,b , section factor npl,b = SSK,b I Rp . Kind of material Steel, GS GGG Aluminum
alloys.
Light straight line: fictitious distribution of the stress calculated
elastically. Solid angular line: real stress distribution when providing Rp,max'/ MFa 1050 320 250
elastic ideal-plastic material behavior.
-c- 1 Constant defining an upper bound value of the sectionfactor
dependingon the kind of material.

Surface hardened Components

The section factors are not applicable if the component


Table 1.3.2 Plastic notch factors Kp,b and Kp,t .
has been surface or case hardened, see Table 2.3.5 *2
npl,b, ... = I (1.3.6) Cross-section Bending Torsion
Kp,b Kp,t
Steel and cast iron material rectangle ~ 1 1,5 -
For austenitic steel in the solution annealed condition *3 circle 1,70 ~2 1,33 ~3
the section factors for tension or compression, for circular ring 1,27 ~4 1 ~5
bending, for shear, and for torsion are I-section or box ~6
-
npl,zd = I, (1.3.8) ~1 or plate, ~2 1,70 = 16/ (3 . It), d 1,33 = 4/3.
npl,b = Kp,b , ~4 thin-walled, 1,27 = 4 / It.
npl,s = 1, ~ 5 thin-walled, otherwisethere is

n p1,t = Kp,t . 3
K p t = 1,33' 1- (dID) , (1.3.14)
, 1-(dID)4
d, D inner and outer diameters.
1- (b I B) . (h I H)2
~6 Kp b = 1,5 --'-----'---'---'-:- (1.3.15)
, 1- (b I B) (h I H)3
b, B inner and outer width, h, H inner and outer hight.

2 Because the plasticity of a hard surface layer - for example as a


result of case hardening - is limited, it may observe cracks when
yielding occurs, particularly at notches where the calculation of
nominal stress neglects the stress and strain concentration. 4 GT and GO are not consideredhere becausethe assessmentof the static
strengthhas to be carried out using local stressesfor these materials.
Possibly this rule is too far on the safe side, as npl = 1,1 is allowedfor
case hardenedshafts accordingto the recent DIN 743 (launchedin 2000).
5 MIN means that the smaller value from the right side of the equation is
valid.
3 Because of the high ductility of austenitic steel in the solution annealed
conditionthe plastic notch factors Kp,b and Kp,t are relevant and not the 6 Upper and lower bound values of the section factors are the plastic
givenmaterial dependentsectionfactors. notch factor and 1,00
32
1.3 Design parameters 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

Aluminum alloys
For ductile wrought aluminum alloys (A 2 12,5 %) the
section factors are to be determined from Eq (1.3.9) *7.

1.3.3 Weld factor Uw

The weld factor Ci.w accounts for the effect of a weld. It


applies to the throat section of welded components only,
Tab. 1.3.3 *8.

Table 1.3.3 Weld factor Ci.w ~1 .

Weld quality
Type of RmS Rm >
Joint
stress 360 MPa 360Mua
full all Compression
~2
penetration
weld verified 1,0 1,0
or with Tension 10
back weld not
verified
partial all Compression 0,95 0,80
penetration or 0,80
or fillet Tension
weld
all all Shear
welds
butt weld Tension 0,55 -
~3
055
~1 According to DIN 18 800 part 1, Table 21 and Eq. (75).
~2 For aluminum alloys (independent of Rm ) the values typed in
in boldface should be applied for the time being.
~3 Butt welds of sectional steel from St 37-2 or USt 37-2 with a
product thickness t> 16 mm.

7 Less ductile aluminum alloys (A < 12,5 %) and cast aluminum alloys
are not considered here because the assessmentof the static strength has to
be carried out using local stressesfor these materials.

8 For the toe section the calculation is to be carried out as for non-
welded components.
33
1.4 Component strength 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

1.4 Component strength 1R14 EN.do~ 1.4.2 Welded components


Contents Page For welded components the strength values are
generally to be determined separately for the toe section
1.4.0 General 33 and for the throat section.
1.4.1 Non-welded components
1.4.2 Welded components For the toe section the calculation is to be carried out as
for non-welded components.
For the throat section of rod-shaped (lD) welded
1.4.0 General components the nominal values of the component static
According to this chapter the nominal values of the strength for axial (tension or compression), for bending,
component static strength are to be determined. for shear, and for torsional stress are

Non-welded and welded components are to be SSK,zd = fa' Rut/ KSK,zd, (1.4.4)
distinguished. They can be both rod-shaped (10) or SSK,b = fa . Rut/ KSK,b ,
shell-shaped (2D). TSK,s = f't' Rut/KSK,s,
TSK,t = f't . Rut/ KSK,t .
For the throat section of shell-shaped (2D) welded
1.4.1 Non-welded components components the nominal values of the component static
strength for axial (tension or compression) stresses in
The nominal values of the component static strength of the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
rod-shaped (lD) components for axial (tension or
compression), for bending, for shear, and for torsional SSK,x = fa . Rut/ KsK,x , (1.4.5)
stress are * 1 *2 *3 SSK,y = fa . Rut/ KsK,y ,
TSK = f't' Rut/ KsK,s,
SSK,zd = fa' Rut/ KSK,zd, (1.4.1)
SSK,b = fa . Rut/ KSK,b , fa compression strength factor, Chapter 1.2.4,
TSK,s = f't . Rut/ KSK,s, Rut tensile strength, Chapter 1.2.1,
TSK,t = f't' Rut/ KSK,t. KsK,zd, ... design factor, Chapter 1.3.1.
f't shear strength factor, Chapter 1.2.4.
The nominal values of the component static strength of
shell-shaped (2D) components for normal stresses
(tension or compression) in the directions x and y as
well as for shear stress are
SSK,x = fa . Rut/ KsK,x , (1.4.2)
SSK,y = fa . Rut/ KsK,y ,
TSK = f't' Rut/ KsK,s,
fa compression strength factor, Chapter 1.2.4,
Rut tensile strength, Chapter 1.2.1,
SSK,zd ... design factor, Chapter 1.3.1,
f't shear strength factor, Chapter 1.2.4.

1 The component static strength values are different for normal stress and
for shear stress, and moreover they are different due todifferent section
factors according tothe type ofstress.
2 Basically the tensile strength Rm is the reference value of static
strength, even if inthe case ofa low Rp / Rm ratio the yield strength
should to be used for the assessment ofthe static strength, a fact that is
accounted for in Chapter 1.5.5, however.
3 The tensile static strength isthe reference value for the bending static
strength, too. The difference instatic strength inbending compared tothe
static strength intension orcompression is accounted for by the design
factor. Torsional static strength inanalogy.
34
1.5 Safety factors 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

Table 1.5.1 Safety factors jm and jp for steel


1.5 Safety factors IR015 EN.dog (not for GS) and for ductile wrought aluminum alloys
Contents Page A5 ~ 12,5 %).
--1 Consequences offailure
jm
1.5.0 General 34 --2 severe moderate
jp
1.5.1 Steel --3
jmt --5
1.5.2 Cast iron materials . --4
Jpt
1.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys
1.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys
high 2,0 1,75
1.5.5 Total safety factor 35
1,5 1,3
Probability of 1,5 1,3
occurrence of 1,0 1,0
1.5.0 General the characteristic.
low 1,8 1,6
According to this chapter the safety factors are to be service stress --6 1,35 1,2
determined. values
1,35 1,2
The safety factors are valid under the condition that the 1,0 1,0
design loads are reliably determined on the safe side and --1 referring tothe tensile strength Rm ortothe strength at elevated
that the material properties correspond to an average temperature RmT ,
probability of survival of Po = 97,5 % *1 . --2 referring tothe yield strength Rp ortothe hot yield strength Rp,T ,
The safety factors may be reduced under favorable --3 referring tothe creep strength Rm, Tt ,
conditions, that is depending on the probability of --4 referring tothe creep limit Rp,Tt .
occurrence of the characteristic stress values in question --5 moderate consequences offailure of a less important component in
and depending on the consequences of failure. the sense of"no catastrophic effects" being associated with a failure; for
example because of a load redistribution towards other members of a
The safety factors are valid for both non-welded and statically undeterminate system. Reduction by approximately 15 %.
welded components. --6 or only infrequent occurrences of the characteristic service stress
values, for example stresses due toanapplication ofproof loads ordue to
The safety factors given in the following are valid for loads during anassembling operation. Reduction by approximately 10 %.
ductile materials. In this respect any types of steel are
ductile materials, as well as cast iron materials
and wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation 1.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys
A5 ~ 12,5 %. *2.
Safety factors for ductile wrought aluminum alloys are
the same as given for steel in Table 1.5.1, in particular
1.5.1 Steel all types of wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation
A5 ~ 12,5 %, see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30 2.
Safety factors that generally apply to the tensile strength
and to the yield strength, to the creep strength and to the
creep limit are given in Table 1.5.1.
1.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys
Cast aluminum alloys are non-ductile materials for
1.5.2 Cast iron materials which there is no need of giving safety factors here 2.

Cast iron materials with an elongation


As ~ 12,5 % are considered as ductile, in particular all
types of GS and some types of GGG, see Table 5.1.12. 2 All types of GT, GG and cast aluminum alloys have elongations
As < 12,5 % and are considered as non-ductile materials. Wrought
Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials are given in aluminum alloys with elongations As < 12,5 % are considered asnon-
Table 1.5.2. Compared to Table 1.5.1 they are higher ductile materials, too. Fornon-ductile materials the assessment of the
because of an additional partial safety factor jp that static strength is to be carried out with local stresses according to
Chapter 3.
accounts for inevitable but allowable defects in
castings. The factor is different for castings that have 3 In mechanical engineering cast components are of standard quality
been subject to non-destructive testing or have not *3 . for which a further reduction of the partial safety factor to jF = 1,0
does not seem possible up to now.
A safety factor jF = 1,0 may be applied to high quality cast
components in the aircraft industry however. Those high quality cast
components have to meet special demands and checks on
qualification of the production process, as well as on the quality and
extent of product testing in order to guarantee little scatter of their
1Statistical confidence S = 50 %. mechanical properties.
35
1.5 Safety factors 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

Table 1.5.2 Safety factors jm and jp for ductile cast iron 1.5.5 Total safety factor
materials (GS; GGG with A 5 ~ 12,5 %) ~1
From the individual safety factors the total safety factor
jm Consequences offailure jgesis to be derived *4:
jp severe moderate
jmt
Jpt

castings not subject to non-destructive testing ~2


high 2,8 2,45 jm ... safety factors, Table 1.5.1 and 1.5.2,
2,1 1,8 temperature factors, Chapter 1.2.5 *5.
2,1 Kt,m
Probability of 1,8
occurrence 1,4 1,4
of the characteristic low 2,55 2,2 Simplifications
stress 1,9 1,65 The following simplifications apply to Eq. (1.5.4) :
1,9 1,65
1,4 1,4 In the case of normal temperature the third and j
fourth term have no relevance *6, and moreover
castings subject to non-destructive testing ~3
there is KT,m = KT,p = 1,
high 2,5 2,2
1,9 1,65 - for Rp / Rm~ 0,75 the first term has no relevance,
Probability of 1,9 1,65 for Rp / Rm > 0,75 the second term has no
occurrence 1,25 1,25 relevance *7.
of the characteristic low 2,25 2,0
stress 1,7 1,5
1,7 1,5
1,25 1,25

~1 Explanatory notes for the safety factors see Table 1.5.1.


~2 Compared to Table 1.5.1 anadditional partial safety factor iF = 1,4
isintroduced toaccount for inevitable but allowable defects incastings.
~3 Compared toTable 1.5.1 anadditional partial safety factor iF = 1,25
is introduced, for which it isassumed that a higher quality ofthe castings
isobviously guaranteed when testing.

4 MAX means that the maximum value of the four terms in the
parenthetical expression isvalid.
5 Applicable to the tensile strength Rm orthe yield strength Rp toallow
for the tensile strength at elevated temperature ~ T ' the creep strength
Rm,Tt , the hot yield strength ~,T' or the creep limit Rp,Tt ,
respectively.

6 The terms containing the factors KTt,m and KTt,f must not beapplied
in the case of normal temperature, as they wil produce misleading
results.
7 If there is a ratio ofthesafety factors ip lim = 0,75.
36
1.6 Assessment 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

1.6 Assessment 1*16 EN. dog Superposition

Contents Page For stress components of the same type of stress the
superposition is to be carried out according to Chapter
1.6.0 General 36 1.1.
1.6.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components If different types of stress like axial stress, bending
1.6.1.1 Individual types of stress stress ... *5 are to be considered and if the resulting
1.6.1.2 Combined types of stress 37 state of stress is multiaxial, see Figure 0.0.9 *6, the
1.6.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components 38 particular extreme maximum stresses and the extreme
1.6.2.1 Individual types of stress minimum stresses are to be overlaid as indicated in the
1.6.2.2 Combined types of stress 39 following.

1.6.0 General Kinds of component

According to this chapter the assessment of the static Rod-shaped (lD) and shell-shaped (2D) components are
strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out. to be distinguished. They can be both non-welded or
welded
In general the assessments for the individual types of
stress and for the combined types of stress are to be
carried out separately *1 *2. 1.6.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
In general the assessments for the extreme maximum 1.6.1.1 Individual types of stress
and the extreme minimum stresses (axial stresses in
tension or compression and/or bending stresses in Rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components
tension or compression) are to be carried out separately. The degrees of utilization of rod-shaped non-welded
For steel or wrought aluminum alloys and a symmetrical components for the different types of stress like axial,
cross-section the highest absolute value is relevant *3. bending, shear or torsional stress are
The calculation applies to both non-welded and welded - S max,ex,zd < 1
components. For welded components assessments are aSK,zd - . -, (1.6.1)
SSK,zd / Jges
generally to be carried out separately for the toe section
and for the throat section as indicated in the following. Smax,ex,b
aSK,b = .:s:; 1,
SSK,b / Jges
Degree of utilization a - Tmax,ex,s :s:; 1,
sK,s - T. / .
The assessments are to be carried out by determining the SK,s Jges
degrees of utilization of the component static strength.
In the context of the present Chapter the degree of _ Tmax,ex,t
aSK,t - .:s:; 1,
utilization is the quotient of characteristic service stress TSK,t / Jges
(extreme stress Smax,ex,zd, ...) divided by the allowable
static stress at the reference point *4. The allowable Smax,ex,zd ... extreme maximum stresses according to
static stress is the quotient of the nominal component type of stress; the extreme minimum
static strength, SSK,zd, ... , divided by the total safety stresses, Smin,ex,zd ... , are to be considered
factor jges . The degree of utilization is always a positive in the same way as the maximum stresses,
value. Chapter 1.1.1.1,
SSKzd ... related component static strength,
Chapter 1.4.1,
total safety factor, Chapter 1.5.5.
1 It is a general principle for an assessment of the static strength to
suppose that all types of stress observe their maximum (or minimum)
values atthe same time.
5 Bending stresses in two planes,' Sb,z and Sb,y, are different types of
2 This is in order to examine the degrees ofutilization ofthe individual stress, also shear stresses intwo planes, Ts,z and Ts,y .
types ofstress ingeneral, and inparticular ifthey may occur separately.
6 Only inthe case ofstresses acting simultaneously the character of Eq.
3 Not so for cast iron materials orcast aluminium alloys with different (1.6.4) and (1.6.12) is that ofa strength hypothesis. If Eq. (1.6.4) and
static tension and compression strength values orfor an unsymmetrical (1.6.12) are applied inother cases, they have the character ofan empirical
cross-section. interaction formula only. For example the extreme stresses from bending
and shear will - as a rule - occur atdifferent points ofthe cross-section, so
4 The reference point is the critical point ofthe cross section that observes that different reference points W are to be considered. As.a rule bending
the highest degree ofutilization. will be more important. Moreover see Footnote 1.
37
1.6 Assessment 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In aSK,Sv = q . aNH+ (l - q)' aoH:::; 1, (1.6.4)
general axial stresses (tension and compression) and
where *8
bending stresses (tension and compression) are to be
considered separately. For shear and torsion the highest aNH=~{lsl+~s2 +4.t 2), (1.6.5)
absolute value of shear stress is relevant.

aoH =Js 2
2
+t ,
Rod-shaped (ID) welded components
S = aSK,zd + aSK,b , (1.6.6)
For the toe section of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components the calculation is to be carried out as for t = aSK,s + aSK,t ,
rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components. aSK,zd, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (1.6.1).
For the throat section of rod-shaped (lD) welded and
components the degrees of utilization for an axial,
bending, shear and/or torsional type of loading follow (1.6.7)
from the equivalent nominal stresses, Chapter 1.1.1.1:

a = S max,ex,wv,zd < 1 f, shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.


SK,wv,zd S /. -, (1.6.2)
SK,zd Jges
Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress (axial and
bending, or shear and torsion, respectively) always act
a - Smax,ex,wv,b :::; 1
SK,wv,b - S / . , unidirectionally at the reference point *10, the degrees
SK,b Jges
of utilization aSK,zd and aSK,b and/or asK,s and asK,t are
Tmax,ex,wv,s to be inserted into Eq. (1.6.6) with equal (positive) signs
asK,wv,s = .:::; 1, (summation); then the result will be on the safe side. If
TSK,s / Jges
they act always opposingly, however, *ll, they are to be
T inserted into Eq. (1.6.6) with different signs
aSK,wvt= max,ex,wv,t :::; 1,
, T /. (subtraction) *12.
SK,t Jges

Smax,ex,wv,zd, ... extreme maximum stresses (equivalent


nominal stresses); the extreme minimum
stresses, Smin,ex,wv,zd ... , are to be
considered in the same way as the
maximum stresses, Chapter 1.1.1.1,
8 Inthe the case ofassessing the static strength the degrees ofutilization
SSK,zd ... related component static strength, aSK,zd and aSK,b are defined by the static component strength values
SSK,zd and SSK,b . Contained inthese are the section factors for tension
values, Chapter 1.4.2, or compression, npl,zd , and for bending, npl,b . aSK,zd and aSK,b are
overlaid linearly when computing the value s. For shear and torsion in
total safety factor, Chapter 1.5.5. analogy. Compared to a more precise solution this procedure is on the
safe side. .
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In
general axial stresses (tension and compression) and 9 Table 1.6.1 Constant q(f,).
bending stresses (tension and compression) are to be
considered separately. For shear and torsion the highest Steel, GOG GT, GG
absolute value of shear stress is relevant. Wrought Cast
Al-allovs Al-allovs
f', 0,577 0,65
1.6.1.2 Combined types of stress q 0,00 0,264

Rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components Caution: Here only ductile wrought aluminium alloys are considered
(elongation A > 12,5 %). For non-ductile wrought aluminium alloys (as
For rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components the degree well asfor cast aluminium alloys, and for GT or GG) the assessment of
the static strength istobe carried out according toChapter 3.
of utilization for combined types of stresses is *7
10 For example a tension stress from axial loading and a tension stress
from bending acting at the reference point, where both result from the
same single extemalload affecting the component
7 The applied strength hypothesis for combined types of stress is a
combination ofthe normal stress criterion (NH) and the v. Mises criterion 11 For example a tension stress from axial loading and a compression
(GH). Depending on the ductility of the material the combination is stress from bending acting atthe reference point, where both result from
controlled by a parameter q as a function off, according to Eq. (1.6.7) the same single external load affecting the component.
and Table 1.6.1. For steel is q = 0 so that only the v. Mises criterion isof
effect. For GOG is q = 0,264 so that both the normal stress criterion and 12 Stress components acting opposingly may cancel each other inpart or
the v. Mises criterion are of partial influence. completely.
38
1.6 Assessment 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

In the general case - without knowing whether the 1.6,2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly *13 - the
degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (1.6.6) 1.6.2.1 Individual types of stress
both with equal or with different signs; then the least Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components
favorable case is relevant.
The degrees of utilization of shell-shaped (2D) non-
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with welded components for the types of stress like normal
Smin,ex,zd , Smin,ex,b , T min.ex,s and T min.ex.t are to be included stress in the directions x and y as well as shear stress are
in this comparative evaluation.
Smax,ex,x
aSK,x = s 1, (1.6.9)
SSK,x / jges
Rod-shaped (1D) welded components
Smax,ex,y
For the toe section of rod-shaped (10) welded aSK,y = ::;; 1,
components the calculation is to be carried out as for SSK,y / jges
rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components.
aSK,s = Tmax,ex s 1,
For the throat section of rod-shaped (10) welded
TSK / jges
components the degree of utilization for combined types
of stresses (or loadings) is *14 Smax,ex,x ... extreme maximum stresses according to
aSK,Swv = (1.6.8) type of stress; the extreme minimum
stresses, Smin,ex,x ... , are to be considered
J(aSK,WV,Zd +aSK,wv,b)2 +(aSK,wv,s +aSK, wv.t )2 , in the same way as the extreme maximum
stresses, Chapter 1.1.1.2,
aSK,wv,zd, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (1.6.2). SSK,x ... related component static strength,
Chapter 1.4.1,
Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress (tension
Jges total safety factor, Chapter 1.5.5.
or compression and bending, or shear and torsion,
respectively) always act unidirectionally at the reference All extreme stresses may be positive or negative (or
point *10, the degrees of utilization aSK,wv,zd and aSK,wv,b zero). In general tension and compression stresses are to
and/or aSK,wv,s and aSK,wv,t are to be inserted into Eq. be considered separately. For shear stress the highest
(1.6.8) with equal (positive) signs (summation); then the absolute value is relevant.
result will be on the safe side. If they act always
opposingly, however, *11, they are to be inserted into Eq.
(1.6.8) with different signs (subtraction) *12. Shell-shaped (2D) welded components
In the general case - without knowing whether the For the toe section of shell-shaped (2D) welded
stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly '13 - the components the calculation is to be carried out as for
degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (1.6.8) shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components.
both with equal or with different signs; then the least
For the throat section of shell-shaped (2D) welded
favorable case is relevant.
components the degrees of utilization for normal
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear
Smin,ex,wv,zd , Smin,ex,wv,b , Tmin,ex,wv,s and Tmin,ex,wv,t are to be stress follow from the equivalent nominal stresses,
included in this comparative evaluation. Chapter 1.1.1.2:

a - Smax,ex,wv,x < 1 (1.6.10)


SK,wv,x - S / . -,
SK,x Jges

aSK,wv,y =ISmax, ex,wv,y


. < ,
- 1 I
SSK,y / Jges

a = T.max,ex,wv < 1
SK,wv,s T. / . -,
SK,s Jges

Smax,ex,wv,x ... extreme maximum stresses (equivalent


13 For example, iftwo loadings vary with time in a different manner. nominal stresses); the extreme minimum
stresses, Smin,ex,wv,x ... , are to be
14 Eq. (1.6.8) does not agree with the structure ofEq. (1.1.2) onpage 20 considered in the same way as the .
in all respects. It is an approximation which has to be regarded as maximum stresses, Chapter 1.1.1.1,
provisional and therefore it istobeapplied with caution.
39
1.6 Assessment 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

SSK,x'" related component static strength, Shell-shaped (2D)"welded components


Chapter 1.4.2,
For the toe section of shell-shaped (2D) welded
total safety factor, Chapter 1.5.5. components the calculation is to be carried out as for
shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components.
All extreme stresses may be positive or negative (or
zero). In general tension and compression stresses are to For the throat section of shell-shaped (2D) welded
be considered separately. For shear stress the highest components the degree of utilization for combined types
absolute value is relevant. of stress (or loadings) is *14
222
asK,Swv = aSK,wv,x +aSK,wv,y +aSK,wv,s' (1.6.16)
1.6.2.2 Combined types of stress
aSK,wv,x, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (1.6.10).
Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components
The degree of utilization of shell-shaped (2D) non-
welded components for combined stresses is *7
aSK,Sv = q . aNH + (1 - q) . aGH:::; 1, (1.6.12)
where

aNH=1{lsx +syl+~(Sx _Sy)2 +4.t 2)' (1.6.13)

2 2 2
J
aaH= Sx +Sy -sx 'Sy +t ,
(1.6.14)
sx= aSK,x,
Sy= asK,y,
t = aSK,s,
aSK,x, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (1.6.9),
and

(1.6.15)

f't shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.

Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress always act


unidirectionally at the reference point *15, the degrees
of utilization aSK,x and aSK,y are to be inserted into Eq.
(1.6.14) with equal (positive) signs (summation). If they
always act opposingly, however *16, the degrees of
utilization aSK,x and asK,y are to be inserted into Eq.
(1.6.14) with different signs.
In the general case - without knowing whether the
stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly *13 - the
degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (1.6.14)
both with equal or with different signs; then the least
favorable case is relevant.
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with
Smin,ex,x , Smin,ex,y and Tmin.ex,s are to be included in this
"comparative evaluation.

15 For example tension in direction x and tension in direction y from a


single loading affecting the component.

16 For example tension in direction x and compression in direction y from


a single loading affecting the component.
40
1.6 Assessment 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
41
2.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

A special case is the constant amplitude spectrum,


2 Assessment of the fatigue consisting of one step i = j = 1 only. For axial stress
strength using nominal stresses there is Sa,zd = Sa,zd,i = Sa,zd,1, Sm,zd = Sm,zd,i = Sm,zd,1 .
1R21 EN.do~

2.0 General Superposition


According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue Proportional or synchronous stresses
strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out.
If several proportional or synchronous stress
components act simultaneously at the reference point,
2.1 Parameters of the stress spectrum Chapter 0.3.5, they are to be overlaid. For the same type
of stress (for example unidirectional axial stresses
Contents Page Sa,zd,l. Sm,zd,1 and Sa,zd,2, Sm,zd,2 , ...) the superposition
2.1.0 General 41 is to be carried out at this stage, so that in the following
a single stress component (Sa,zd, Sm,zd, ...) exists for each
2.1.1 Characteristic service stresses type of stress *2. For different types of stress (for
according to the kind of component example bending and torsional stress or axial stresses in
2.1.1.0 General x- and y-direction) the superposition is to be carried out
2.1.1.1 Rod-shaped (lD) components at the assessment stage, Chapter 2.6.
2.1.1.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components 42
2.1.2 Parameters of the service stress spectrum Non-proportional stresses
2.1.2.0 General
If several non-proportional stress components act
2.1.2.1 Mean stress spectrum 43
simultaneously at the reference point, Chapter 0.3.5,
2.1.2.2 Stress ratio spectrum
they are to be overlaid according to Chapter 5.10.
2.1.3 Adjusting a stress spectrum to match the
component constant amplitude S-N curve
2.1.4 Determination of the parameters 2.1.1 Characteristic service stresses
of a service stress spectrum according to the kind of component
2.1.4.0 General
2.1.4.1 Standard stress spectrum 44 2.1.1.0 General
2.1.4.2 Class of utilization 45 Rod-shaped (10) and shell-shaped (2D) components are
2.1.4.3 Damage-equivalent stress amplitude to be distinguished. They may be both non-welded or
welded.
2.1.0 General
According to this chapter the parameters of the service 2.1.1.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
stress spectra are to be determined. Spectra are Rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components
applicable for N > 104 cycles approximately.
For rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components an axial
Relevant are the stress spectra of the individual stress stress Szd , a bending stress Sb , a shear stress T s- and a
components. They are specified by a number of steps, torsional stress Tt are to be considered *3 . The
i = 1 to j , giving the amplitudes Sa,zd,i. ... and the respective amplitudes and mean values are
related mean values Sm,zd,i , ... of stress cycles, Figure
Sa,zd,i , Sa,b,i , Ta,s,i , Ta,t,i , (2.1.1)
2.1.1, as well as the related numbers of cycles n,
Sm,zd,i, Sm,b,i, Tm.s.i s Tm,t,i .
according to the required fatigue life *1.

S.,zd,i
Figure 2.1.1
Sm,zd,f - -- -
Stress cycle
Example: S.,zd,1 1 As a rule a stress spectrum is to be determined for normal service
stress cycle (axial stress),
stress ratio: conditions, see footnote 3 on page 19. The largest amplitude Sa zd 1 ofa
service stress spectrum with its related mean stress value Sm,zd,1' defme
R . = Sm,zd,i -Sa,zd,i the step i = 1 and serve as the characteristic stress values.
Zd,1 Sm,Z,1 d . + Sa,Z,1
d t
2 Stress components acting opposingly can cancel each other inpart or
completely.
42
2.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

Rod-shaped (ID) welded components Parameters of the stress spectrum are: (2.1.9)
For rod-shaped (lD) welded components the (nominal) Sa,zd 1 characteristic (largest) stress amplitude of the
stress values are in general to be determined separately , stress spectrum, equal to the amplitude in step 1
for the toe section and for the throat section *4. Sa,zd,i amplitude in step i,
Respective amplitudes and mean values see Eq. (2.1.1). Sa,zd,i > 0, Sa,zd,i+ 1 / Sa,zd,i :s: 1,
Sm,zd,i mean value in step i,
N total number of cycles corresponding to the
2.1.1.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components required fatigue life
Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components (required total number of cycles),
N = Lni (summed up for 1 to j),
For shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components the n.1 related number of cycles in step i,
(nominal) axial stresses in x- and y-direction, Szdx = Sx N, = Lni (summed up for 1 to i),
and Szdy = Sy, as well as a shear stress T, = T are to be H total number of cycles of a given spectrum,
considered. The respective amplitudes and related mean - 8
values are H = Hj = Lhi (summed up for 1 to j) * ,
h1 related number of cycles in step i,
Sa,x,i, , Sa,y,i , Ta,i , (2.1.4) Hi = Lhi (summed up for 1 to i),
Sm,x,i, , Sm,y,i, Tm,i . step, i = 1 to j,
j total number of steps, step for the smallest
amplitudes
Shell-shaped (2D) welded components Yzd damage potential.
For shell-shaped (2D) welded components, Figure 0.0.6,
stress values are in general to be determined separately The damage potential is defined by *5 *9,
for the toe section and for the throat section *4. kO"
Respective amplitudes and mean values see Eq. (2.1.4). j hi Sa zd,i
Yzd = ke L-=""' --'- (2.1.10)
i=l H [ Sa,zd,l )
2.1.2 Parameters of the stress spectrum
where 1<" is the exponent of the component S-N curve.
2.1.2.0 General
Sa,zd,i / Sa,zd,l and hi /H describe the shape of the stress
A stress spectrum describes the stress cycles contained spectrum. The amplitudes Sa,zd,i are always positive, the
in the stress history of concern *5 mean values Sm,zd.i may be positive, negative, or zero.
If the stress cycles show variable amplitudes a stress As a rule a restriction to the following kinds of stress
spectrum is to be determined for every stress component spectra is possible: Mean stress spectra and stress ratio
*6. The constant amplitude stress spectrum may be spectra (with the fluctuating stress spectra as a special
regarded in the following as a special case '7 , for which case), Figure 2.1.2 *10.
i = I and
Sa,zd = Sa,zd,i = Sa,zd,l , (2.1.8)
7 In this case an assessment ofthe fatigue limit is to be carried out for
N= N = ni = n1
type I S-N curves if N = N ~ ND 0" oranassessment ofthe endurance
limit for type 11 S-N curves if N:" N ~ ND,O", 11 , respectively, oran
assessment for fmite life based on the constant amplitude S-N curve
(formally similar to an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
strength) if N = N < ND,O" or N = N ~ ND,O", II for Typ I orTyp 11
S-N curves, respectively. ND,O" or ND,O", 11 isthe number ofcycles at
the fatigue limit ofthe component constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter
2.4.3.2.
3 Where appropriate bending and shear stresses in two planes are to be
considered (components yand z), see Chapter 0.3.4.1 . 8 The valuesN - total number ofcycles required - and if - total num~
ofcycle!!j!fa given spectrum - are different ingeneral. The terms niIN
4 For welded components separate assessments ofthe fatigue strength for and hi I H are equivalent.
both the toe section and the throat section ofthe weld are to be carried 9 The damage potential is a value characterising the shape of a stress
out. Both assessments are ofthe same kind, but ingeneral the respective spectrum. The values ka = 5for normal stress and Ie,; = 8 for shear stress
stresses and fatigue classes FAT are different. are valid for non-welded components. The values ka = 3 and k't = 8 are
5 In the following all variables and equations are presented for the axial
valid for welded components.
stress component Szd only, but written with the appropriate indices they The term hi I H may be replaced by ni IN.
are valid for all other types ofstress aswell..
lOA mean stress spectrum, for example, results from a static load with
6 In thiscase an assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength isto dynamic loads superimposed, a fluctuating stress spectrum, for example,
be carried out. results for a crane hook when lifting variable loads.
43
2.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

or
Sm,zd,i / Sa,zd,i = (1 + ~d) / (l - ~d)' (2.1.14)

Special case: Fluctuating stress spectrum


A constant stress ratio of zero applies to all steps of a
fluctuating stress spectrum:
(2.1.15)
or
Sm,zd,i / Sa,zd,i = 1. (2.1.16)

2.1.3 Adjusting a stress spectrum to match


the component constant amplitude S-Ncurve
This chapter mainly applies to stress spectra, the steps
of which do not have the same stress ratio *11.
A mean stress spectrum, for example, has different
amplitudes Sa,zd,i ' and constant mean stress values
Sm,zd,i = Sm,zd ' and consequently the individual steps
have different stress ratios Rzd,i . On the other hand the
component constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter
"1" 4.4.3.2, is derived for a constant stress ratio Rzd . To
allow the proper application of Miner's rule, Chapter
4.4.3.1, all steps of a spectrum, however, must have or
must be converted to that stress ratio RZd,i = Rzd ,
Smin,zd=O Chapter 5.6.1.

Figure 2.1.2 Stress spectra


2.1.4 Determination of the parameters of a
Top: Mean stress spectrum. Midle: Stress ratio spectrum. Bottom:
Fluctuating stress spectrum. Example: The presented stress spectra are
stress spectrum
standard type stress spectra, basicaUy defined by a binomial frequency 2.1.4.0 General
distribution, a coefficient p = 1/3 , a total number of cyclesH = 106 , and
extrapolated to the required total number of cyclesN. If the stress spectrum of a component under
consideration is not known, or in case of high demands
on its accuracy, the parameters of the stress spectrum
are to be determined by calculation, by simulation, or by
2.1.2.1 Mean stress spectrum
measurement. The determination of the stress spectrum
A constant mean stress applies to all steps of a mean from a stress history has to be realized according to the
stress spectrum: rainflow cycle counting procedure or in the sense of this
procedure.
Sm,zd,i = Sm,zd. (2.1.11)
From a measured and graphically presented continuous
stress spectrum a stepped stress spectrum may be
2.1.2.2 Stress ratio spectrum obtained according to Chapter 5.6.2.
A constant stress ratio applies to all steps of a stress In case of existing experiences - depending on the
ratio spectrum: component and its application - the determination of the
parameters of a stress spectrum may be simplified by
RZd,i = Rzd, (2.1.12) applying a standard stress spectrum, a class of
where utilization, or a damage-equivalent stress amplitude.
~d = (Sm,zd,i - Sa,zd,i) / (Sm,zd,i -+ Sa,zd,i) (2.1.13)

11 Applies to a mean stress spectrum, for instance, but not for a stress
ratio spectrum or a fluctuating stress spectrum.
44
2.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

2.1.4.1 Standard stress spectrum 1 2


Standard stress spectra are used to describe the shape of
typical stress spectra. Standard stress spectra having a P
binomial or an exponential frequency distribution that 2/3
vzd = 1
may be modified by the spectrum parameter p , are 0,5 0,739
presented in Figure 2.1.3. In addition, damage 0,499
potentials Vzd according to Eq. (2.1.10) and Figure 2.1.1 1/3
0,326
are given in the graphical presentations. (These apply to
an exponent of the component constant amplitude S-N
a .j........--,---,--~--.---,-----lO
curve 1<:" = 5 and a total number of cycles H = 106 ). 106

Parameters of a so derived stress spectrum


Sa,zd,l characteristic (largest) stress amplitude ofthe Step i Sa' / Sal hi H-I
stress spectrum, equal to the amplitude in step 1 P 0 1/3 2/3
1 1 1 1 2 2
N required total number of cycles,
2 0,950 0,967 0,983 16 18
Yzd or Sa,zd,i / Sa,zd,l and hi, i = 1 to j, 3 0,850 0,900 0,950 280 298
according to the shape 4 0,725 0,817 0,908 2720 3018
of the standard stress spectrum 5 0,575 0,717 0,858 20000 23000
Sm,zd,i mean values, i = 1 to j. 6 0,425 0,617 0,808 92000 115000
7 0,275 0,517 0,758 280000 395000
8 0,125 0,417 0,708 604982 1000000

Table 2.1.1 Damage potentials Vzd and v, for standard


1
stress spectra having a binomial or exponential 1,0 I"""~-' --.---.....,.---~1
frequency distribution, modified by the spectrum Sa,zd,1
parameter p, a total number of cycles H = 106 , for non- Sa,zd,l
welded and welded components, for normal stress and
shear stress (exponents of the constant amplitude S-N 0,5
curve 1<:" and k, ). ......--""'1/3

non-welded welded
p binom. I expon. binom. expon.
Vzd normal stress
k, = 5 1<:" = 3
0 0,326 0,196 0,267 0,155
1/6 0,400 0,297 0,366 0,286 Step i H-I
Sa' / Sa hi
1/3 0,499 0,430 0,483 0,426 0 1/3 2/3
P
1/2 0,615 0,570 0,608 0,569
1 1 1 1 2 2
2/3 0,739 0,713 0,737 0,712
2 0,875 0,917 0,958 10 12
5/6 0,868 0,856 0,868 0,856
3 0,750 0,833 0,917 64 76
1 1 1 1 1
4 0,625 0,750 0,875 340 416
v, shear stress 5 0,500 0,667 0,833 2000 2400
k, = 8 k, = 5 6 0,375 0,583 0,792 11000 13400
0 0,399 0,275 0,326 0,196 7 0,250 0,500 0,750 61600 75000
1/6 0,452 0,330 0,400 0,297 8 0,125 0,417 0,708 924984 1000000
1/3 0,527 0,438 0,499 0,430
1/2 0,627 0,573 0,615 0,570 Figure 2.1.3 Standard stress spectra.
2/3 0,743 0,713 0,739 0,713 Top: Binomial distribution. Bottom: Exponential distribution (Straight
5/6 0,869 0,856 0,868 0,856 line distribution). Spectrum parameter p, total number of cyclesII = Hj
1 1 1 1 1 = E hi = 106, number of steps j = 8 , damage potential Yzd for an
exponent ko = 5 of the component constant amplitude SoN curve.
45
2.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

Analytical relationship:For standard stress spectra with Parameters of a so derived stress spectrum
spectrum parameters p > 0 (p = 1/6, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 5/6)
characteristic (largest) stress amplitude of the
there is
stress spectrum, equal to the amplitude in step 1
B class of utilization (a combination of the shape of
[ Sa,zd,1 p
J
Sa,zd,i = p + (l - p) .[Sa,zd,i J . (2.1.17) the stress spectrum and of the required total
Sa,zd,1 p=o
number of cycles),
Application: In case of existing experiences about the Sm,zd mean stress *13.
shape of the stress spectrum a suitable standard stress
spectrum may be applied to assess the variable
amplitude fatigue strength in two ways: Analytical relationship: See Chapter 5.7.

Application of the damage potential Vzd. Eq. (2.1.10) Application: In case of existing experiences about the
for an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue shape of stress spectrum and the required total number
strength according to the elementary version of of cycles a class of utilization may be applied to assess
Miner's rule, Chapter 2.4.3.1. the variable amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter 2.4.3.1.
Application of the data on Sa,zd,i / Sa,zd,1 and hi of the The class of utilization has to be specified separate from
steps i = I to j from Figure 2.1.3 for an assessment this guideline.
of the variable amplitude fatigue strength according
to the consistent version of Miner's rule, Chapter
2.4.3.1. 2.1.4.3 Damage-equivalent stress amplitude
The appropriate standard stress spectrum has to be The damage-equivalent stress amplitude is a constant
specified separate from this guideline. stress amplitude with an assigned number of cycles
equal to the number of cycles at the knee point of the
component constant amplitude S-N curve, ND,cr . It is
2.1.4.2 Class of utilization *12 damage-equivalent to the stress spectrum in question, In
particular it is defined by the shape of stress spectrum,
A class of utilization is an approximately damage-
equivalent combination of different shapes of stress the required total number of cycles, N, and the largest
spectra and of specific figures of the required total stress amplitude Sa,zd,b Figure 2.1.5.
numbers of cycles, Figure 2.1.4, see also Chapter 5.7.
S,;z!il WL

Sa,zd,i
Sa,zd,1

S.,UI'l
S.,zd:;~tr~~""""",----<J--";>-.....-.t-..:-

2;1.5'

N
Figure 2.1.5 Damage-equivalent stress amplitude.
Figure 2.1.4 Spectra corresponding to the same class of
utilization. Component constant amplitude S-N curve, WL, number ofcycles atthe
knee point ND,C" ' component variable amplitude fatigue life curve, ~.
Example: Welded component, stress spectra with binomial distribution, characteristic stress amplitude Sa,zd,l, required total number ofcycles N.
axial stress. All three stress spectra are approximately damage-equivalent
and correspond tothe same class ofutilization B5, Table 5.7.4. Shown is the situation when full use is made of the fatigue strength
capacity of the component (degree of utilization aBl(,zd = 100 %,
Eq.2.6.3).
As the damage-equivalent stress amplitude Sa,zd,eff isassigned toND,C"
it allows an assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength to be
performed as an assessment ofthe fatigue limit.

12 According toDIN 15018.


46
2.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

Parameters of the so derived stress spectrum


Sa,zd,eff Damage-equivalent stress amplitude
(damage-equivalent to a combination of the
shape of the stress spectrum, the required total
number of cycles and of the largest amplitude
in the stress spectrum).
Sm,zd Related mean value.

Analytical relationship: Based on the elementary


version of Miner's rule the damage-equivalent stress
amplitude is obtained as *14

1 j
Sa,zd,eff = k -
N _.L. '"
. Il:1 ska
a,zd,i (2.1.18)
D, 1=1

= (N / NO,a ) 111m. Vzd . Sa,zd,1 ,

ka exponent of the component constant


amplitude S-N curve
No,a number of cycles at the knee point of the
component constant amplitude S-N curve
j, i, ni, ... seeEq. (2.1.9),
Yzd damage potential, Eq. (2.1.10).

Application: In case of existing experiences about the


damaging effect of the stress spectrum a damage-
equivalent stress amplitude Sa,zd,eff may be applied. It
allows an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
strength to be performed as an assessment of the fatigue
limit, Chapter 2.6.
The damage-equivalent stress amplitude has to be
specified separate from this guideline.

14 Eq. (2.1.18) is valid for a damage sum OM = 1 , see Chapter 2.4.3.1.


47
2.2 Material properties 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

2.2 Material properties *1 11m EN.do~ fw,cr fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
normal stress, Chapter 2.2.2,
Contents Page fw,'t fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
2.2.0 General 47 shear stress, Chapter 2.2.2,
Rm tensile strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1.
2.2.1 Component values according to standards
2.2.1.0 General Caution: For non-welded wrought and cast aluminum
2.2.1.1 Non-welded components alloys the fatigue limit is different from the endurance
2.2.1.2 Welded components limit associated with N ~ NO,cr,II =NO,'t,ll= 108 cycles.
2.2.2 Fatigue strength factors 48
for normal stress and for shear stress 2.2.1.2 Welded components

2.2.3 Temperature factor For the base material of welded components the material
2.2.3.0 General fatigue strength values for completely reversed stress are
2.2.3.1 Normal temperature the same as for non-welded components.
2.2.3.2 Low temperature
2.2.3.3 Elevated temperature Steel and cast iron materials
For the toe section and for the throat section of
professionally welded components from weldable
2.2.0 General
structural steel *5 specific values of the fatigue strength
According to this chapter the material fatigue strength apply independent of the kind of material. These are for
values (component values according to standards) are to completely reversed normal stress at N ~ No,cr = 5' 106
be determined. These are the material fatigue limit for cycles and for completely reversed shear stress at
completely reversed normal stress, crW,zd , and shear N ~ No,'t = 1 . 108 cycles *6, Chapter 5.5,
stress, 'tW,s, as well as further characteristics *2.
crW,zd = crw,w = 92 MPa, (2.2.3)
'tw,s = 'tw,w = 37 MPa.
2.2.1 Component values according to Caution: For other kinds of material (stainless steel
standards conditionally weldable steel, weldable cast iron
2.2.1.0 General material) these values are to be considered as
provisional and are to be applied with caution.
The determination of the material fatigue strength is
different for non-welded and for welded components. Aluminum alloys
For the toe section and for the throat section of
2.2.1.1 Non-welded components professionally welded components from aluminum
For non-welded components the values according to alloys *5 specific values of the fatigue strength apply in
standards of the material fatigue strength for completely analogy to steel independent of the kind of material.
reversed normal stress and shear stress *3 and for a These are for completely reversed normal stress at
number of cycles N ~ No,cr = No,'t = 106 are *4 N ~ NO,cr = 5 . 106 cycles and for completely reversed
shear stress at N ~ No,'t = 1 . 108 cycles *6, Chapter 5.5,
crW,zd = fw,cr Rm, (2.2.1)
'tw,s = fw,'t' crW,zd, crW,zd = crw,w = 33 MPa, (2.2.4)
'tw,s = 'tw,w = 13 MPa.
Caution: These values are provisional and are to be
I Chapters 2.2 and 4.2 are identical. applied with caution *7

2 An influence offrequency on the material fatigue strength values isnot


considered up to now although itmight be ofimportance for aluminum
alloys. 4 The values crW,zd and 'tw., correspond tothe fatigue limit which is equal
to the endurance limit of steel and cast iron material, but not of
3 For the tensile strength according to standards, Rm , a probability of aluminum alloys, however, Figure 2.4.5 and Chapter 5.1.0.
survival Po = 97,5 % ispresumed. That probability should also apply to
the values crW,zd and 'tW,s computed from Rm . Moreover Eq. (1.2.1) 5 Weld imperfections occurring with normal production standards are
applies here too: allowable.
crW,zd = I<d,m . KA' crW,zd,N , (2.2.2)
'tW,s = I<d,m . KA . 'tW,s,N , 6 The values crw,w and 'tw.w correspond tothe fatigue limit which is equal
Kd,m technological size factor asfor the tensile strength, tothe endurance limit ofwelded steel and cast iron material aswell as of
Chapter 1.2.2. welded aluminum alloys, Figure 2.4.6 and Chapter 5.1.0.
KA anisotropy factor, Chapter 1.2.3,
crW,zd,N, ... semi-fmished product fatigue strength value according to 7 Values derived from an average relation of0,36 ofthe FAT classes for
standards, Chapter 5.1. aluminum alloys and for structural steel, Chapter 5.4.
48
2.2 Material properties 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

2.2.2 Fatigue strength factors for normal For normal temperature the temperature factor is
stress and for shear stress KT,D = 1. (2.2.5)
The fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
normal stress, fw,O" , is the quotient of the axial fatigue
strength value for completely reversed stress divided by 2.2.3.2 Low temperature
the tensile strength, Table 2.2.1. Temperatures below the values listed above are outside
the field of application of this guideline.
The fatigue strength factor for shear stress, fw,~ ,
considers that the material fatigue strength is lower for
shear stress than for normal stress, Table 2.2.1.
2.2.3.3 Elevated temperature
In the field of elevated temperatures - up to 500C for
Table 2.2.1 Fatigue strength factors for completely
steel and cast iron materials and up to 200C for
reversed normal stress, fw,O" , and shear stress, fw,~ -c- 1.
aluminum materials - the influence of the temperature
on the fatigue strength is to be considered. For elevated
Kind of material fw,O" fw,~ temperature the fatigue strength values for completely
Case hardening steel 0,40 ~2 0,577 ~2 ~3 reversed normal stress and shear stress are
Stainless steel 0,40 ~4 0,577 crW,zd,T = KT,D . crW,zd, (2.2.6)
Forging steel 0,40 ~4 0,577 'tW,s,T = KT,D . 'tw,s ,
Steel other than these 0,45 0,577
KT,D temperature factor, Eq. (2.2.7) to (2.2.11),
GS 0,34 0,577
crW,zd, ... material fatigue strength value for completely
GGG 0,34 0,65
reversed normal stress, Chapter 2.2.1.1 and
GT 0,30 0,75
2.2.1.2.
GG 0,30 0,85
'tw,s, ... material fatigue strength value for completely
Wrought aluminum alloys 0,30 ~5 0,577 reversed shear stress, Chapter 2. 2. 1. 1 and
Cast aluminum alloys 0,30 ~5 0,75 2.2.1.2.
fw,O" and fw, ~ arevalid for a number of cycles N = 106
-c- 1
fw ~ equal to f~ , Table 1.2.5. According to the temperature T the temperature factor
~2 Bl~-hardened. The influence of the carburization on the
component fatigue strength is to by considered by the surface KT,D is
treatment factor, Ko, Chapter 2.3.4. for fine grain structural steel, T > 60C:
~3 0,577 = 1 / J3, according tothe v. Mises criterion. Also valid for
welded components. KT,D = 1-10- 3 . T / DC, (2.2.7)
~4 Preliminary values.
for other kinds of steel *7, T> 100C, Figure 2.2.1:
~5 fW,O" does not correspond tothe endurance limit for N = <:i) here! KT,D = 1-1,4' 10- 3 . (T / C-IOO), (2.2.8)
for GS, T > 100C:
KT,D = 1- 1,2 . 10 -3. (T / C_ 100), (2.2.9)
2.2.3 Temperature factor - for GGG, GT and GG, T > 100C, Figure 2.2.1:
2.2.3.0 General KT,D = 1- aT,D . (10 - 3 . T / oC)2, (2.2.10)

The temperature factors considers that the material for aluminum alloys, T > 50C:
fatigue strength for completely reversed stress decreases KT,D = 1-1,2' 10 -3. (T / C - 50)2, (2.2.11)
with increasing temperature. Figure 1.2.3 in the Chapter 1.2,

Normal temperature, low temperature and elevated aT,D Constant, Table 2.2.2.
temperature are to be distinguished.

2.2.3.1 Normal temperature


Table 2.2.2 Constant aT,D *8.
Normal temperatures are as follows:
for fine grain structural steel from -40C to 60C, Kind of material GGG GT GG
for other kinds of steel from -40C to + 100C, aT,D 1,6 1,3 1,0
for cast iron materials from-25C to + 100C,
- for age-hardening aluminum alloys
from -25C to 50C,
- for non-age-hardening aluminum alloys
from - -25C to 100C.
8 Forstainless steel values aT.D arenot known up to now.
49
2.2 Material properties 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

Eq. (2.2.7) to (2,1.10) apply to steel and cast iron


Higb 'temperature materials from the indicated temperature T up to 500 o e.
strength Rm,T Eq. (2.2.11) applies to aluminum alloys up to 200 o e.
1i1ghtemperature
The values crW,zd,T and "CW,s,T are not explicitly needed
yieidStl'ellgthRp,t
for an assessment of the fatigue strength, as only the
temperature factor KT,D is used.
For elevated temperature, and in particular when the
mean stress Sill, i- 0 , the fatigue strength in terms of
the maximum stress may be higher than the static
strength so that the assessment is governed by the static
strength.

Ojlf-~=

o
o lOO 200 300 400 500
nt. TinC

Rrn;T .~
R ln . 1m

Crecp.Stn~ngth It,,.,TI
Rrn;Tt J
~:m'jlJ1t

0,1 F:=:q:~::J=--.L--d-~~
oW~Z(n
aW,m

o
o 100 200 300 400 500
2;2,lb TinC

Figure 2.2.1 Temperature dependent values of the static


strength and of the fatigue strength, plotted for
comparison.
Safety factors j according to Chapter 1.5 or 2.5, respectively.
Rm,T/Rm = KT,m, Rp,T / Rp = KT,p,
Rm,Tt/Rm = KTt,m, Rp,Tt / Rp = KTt,p .
Rm,T, Rp,T as well as Rill,Tt, Rp,Tt for t = io' h.
Fatigue strength value at elevated temperature:
crW,zd,T / crW,zd = KT,O
Top: Non-alloyed structural steel, as in Figure 1.2.2,
Rp / Rm = n, / Rm = 0,65, crW,zd/ Rm = 0,45,
Jm = 2,0, jp = Jmt = 1,5, Jpt = 1,0, In = 1,5 .

Bottom: GG, as in Figure 3.2.2,


crW,zd/ Rm = 0,30, jm = 3,0, Jmt = in = 2,4.
50
2.3 Design parameters 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

2.3 Design parameters 1R23 EN. dog The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) non-welded
components for normal stresses in the directions x and y
as well as for shear stress are (2.3.2)
Contents Page KwK, =[K +_1_ _ 1) . 1 _
2.3.0 General 50 f
x ,x KR,cr K y K s .KNL,E
2.3.1 Design factors
2.3.1.0 General KWK,y=[K f y +_1_ _ 1) . 1
2.3.1.1 Non-welded components , KR,cr K y .K s .KNL,E
2.3.1.2 Welded components
KwK,s = [Kf,S +_1__ 1)' 1
2.3.2 Fatigue notch factors 51 KR,'t Ky.K s
2.3.2.0 General
2.3.2.1 Fatigue notch factors computed Kf,zd ... fatigue notch factors,
from stress concentration factors Chapter 2.3.2,
2.3.2.2 Fatigue notch factors computed roughness factor, Chapter 2.3.3,
from experimental values 52 surface treatment factor, Chapter 2.3.4,
2.3.2.3 Fatigue notch factors for coating factor, Chapter 2.3.4,
superimposed notches 54 constant for GG, Chapter 2.3.5.
2.3.3 Roughness factor
2.3.4 Surface treatment and coating factors 55
2.3.1.2 Welded components
2.3.5 Constant KNL,E 56
2.3.6 Fatigue classes (FAT) For the base material of welded components the design
2.3.7 Thickness factor factors are to be computed as for non-welded
components.
For the toe section and for the throat section of welded
2.3.0 General components the design factors are in general to be
According to this chapter the design parameters are to determined separately, since the cross-section values,
be computed in terms of design factors. the nominal stresses and the fatigue classes FAT may be
different.
Rod-shaped (10) and shell-shaped (2D) .welded
2.3.1 Design factors components are to be distinguished.
2.3.1.0 General
Steel and cast iron material
Non-welded and welded components are to be
distinguished. The design factors of welded rod-shaped (lD)
components made of steel or of cast iron materials *2 for
axial, for bending, for shear and for torsional stress are,
2.3.1.1 Non-welded components
KWK,zd = 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL,E), (2.3.4)
Rod-shaped (10) and shell-shaped (2D) non-welded KWK,b = KWK,zd ,
components are to be distinguished. KwK,s = 145/ (FAT' it Ko ),
KWK,t = KwK,s .
The design factors of rod-shaped (ID) non-welded
components for axial, for bending, for shear and for The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) welded
torsional stresses are *1, (2.3.1) components made of steel or of cast iron materials for
normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for
KWK,Zd=[K f Zd +_1__ 1)' 1 shear stress are
, KR,cr K y K s .KNL,E

KWKb=[K fb +_1__ 1) . 1
, , KR,cr K y K s .KNL,E
1 The additive combination of the fatigue strength notch factor Kfzd ...
with the reciprocal roughness factor Kk,c, ... reduces the effect 'of
KwK,s = [Kf,S +_1__ 1) . 1 roughness for components with sharp notched (Kj is large) incomparison
KR,'t Ky.K s tocomponents with mild ornonotches (Kf '" 1).
2 To a major part the FAT values where derived with reference to the
KWK,t =[K f t +_1__ 1) , 1 . nw recommendations and Eurocode 3 (Ref 191, 18/). The design factors
, KR,'t Ky.K s are supposed, however, to be valid notonly for weldable structural steel
but also for other kinds of iron based materials (conditionally weldable
steel, stainless steel, weldable cast iron materials).
51
2.3 Design parameters 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

KwK,x = 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL,E), (2.3.5) concentration factors, K, , and from the Kj-K, ratios,
KwK,y = 225 / (FAT' ft' Ko KNL,E), l1o(r) , Ilo(d) , nt(r) , n'[(d) , *5.
KwK,s = 145/ (FAT' it Ky).
(2.3.10)
Aluminum alloys
The design factors of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components made of aluminum alloys *3 for axial, for
bending, for shear and for torsional stress are
KWK,zd = 81 / (FAT:tt Ky' K s), (2.3.6)
KWK,b = KWK,zd ,
KwK,s = 52 / (FAT' ft' Kv Ks),
KWK,t = KwK,s . The fatigue notch factors, Kf,x ,... , for normal stress in
The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) welded com- the directions x and y as well as for shear stress of shell-
ponents made of aluminum alloys for normal stresses in shaped (2D) components are
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
Ktx
Kf,x =--'(-) , (2.3.11)
KwK,x = 81 / (FAT' ft' Ke : Ks), (2.3.7) n crx r
KwK,y = 81 / (FAT' ft' Kv Ks), _ Kt,y
KWK,s = 52 / (FAT' ft), Kf,y- Day (r) ,

FAT fatigue class, Chapter 2.3.6, K - Kt,s


ft thickness factor, Chapter 2.3.7, f,s - n't (r) ,
Kv surface treatment factor, Chapter 2.3.4 *4,
Kt,zd ... stress concentration factor according to type
Ks coating factor, Chapter 2.3.4,
of stress, Chapter 5.2,
KNL,E constant for GG, Chapter 2.3.5.
ncr (r) ... Kt-Kf ratio of the component for normal
The fatigue classes FAT are in general different for stress or for shear stress as a function of r,
normal stress in the direction x and in the direction y, as ncr (d), .. Kj-K, ratio of the component for normal
well as for shear stress. stress or for shear stress as a function of d,
r notch radius at the reference point,
d diameter or width of the net notch section.
2.3.2 Fatigue notch factors
Caution: IfEq. (2.3.10) or (2.3.11) yield a fatigue notch
2.3.2.0 General factors Kfzd, '" < 1 the realistic value to be applied is *7,
The fatigue notch factors, Kf,zd , ... , allow for the Kf,zd = ... = 1. (2.3.12)
influence on the fatigue strength resulting from the
design (contour and size) of a non-welded component.
They are to be computed from stress concentration Kt-Kr ratios for normal stress
factors or, if these are not applicable or not known, from The Kt-Kf ratios for normal stress, ncr (r) and ncr (d),
experimental values. Figure 2.3.1, are to be computed from the related stress
gradients Gcr(r) and Gcr(d), Eq. (2.3.13) to (2.3.15).
2.3.2.1 Fatigue notch factors computed from stress
concentration factors ForG cr ;; 0,1 mrrr ! there is (2.3.13)

Rod-shaped (lD) and shell-shaped (2D) components are -(a G - 0,5 + R m )


to be distinguished. Ocr = 1 +G cr . mmTO bGMPa ,

The fatigue notch factors , Kf,zd , ... , for axial, for for 0,1 mrrr ! <G cr ;; 1 mnr ! there is
bending, for shear and for torsional stress of the rod-
shaped (lD) non-welded structural details presented in -(aG + R m )
Chapter 5.2 are to be computed from the stress Ocr = 1 +~Gcr'rom 10 bG' MPa, (2.3.14)

for 1 mrrr ! < Gcr;; 100 mnr ! there is

3 Tosome part the FAT values where derived with reference tothe IIW -(aG + R m )
recommendations. Moreover the design factors are supposed tobevalid, vo = 1 +~Gcr -rnm '10 bG.MPa, (2.3.15)
however, for all weldable aluminum alloys, except for the aluminum
alloys 5000, 6000 and 7000. Numerical values see Footnote 6 onpage
47.
a G, bo constants, Table 2.3.2.
4 As a rule Ky isnot relevant for welded components, that isKy = 1.
52
2.3 Design parameters 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

For surface hardened components *8 (components with


thermal or with chemo-thermal surface treatment) the
K,-K r ratios are lower than for non surface hardened
components *9 * 10.

Kt-Kr ratios for shear stress


The Ki-K, ratios for shear stress, n, (r) und n, (d), are to
be computed from the related stress gradients G,(r) and
.r /VV V.
. IJ
1/ 800
V:/VlI
1/. / /1 0,80 V G,(d) according to Eq. (2.3.13) to (2.3.15), after having
1,2 .SteeV 1200 replaced cr by 't and the tensile strength Rm by

1,1
~~V~~{t~V fw" . Rm, where fw" is the fatigue strength factor for
shear stress, Table 2.2.1.

/l/Pl/ f/ l/
Related stress gradients
The related stress gradients as a function of the notch
radius r at the reference point, G cr (r) andG,(r), are to be
determined from Table 2.3.3. The related stress
gradients from bending and torsion as a function of the

1,02 V/tVI Z I do= I


diameter or width d at the notch net section are

G cr (d) =G,(d) = 2/ d. (2.3.17)


101
. "",
'1111
..
1 I I
0;01 0,020,050;1 0,2 0,5
0;267'

1 2
I
5 to
2.3.2.2 Fatigue notch factors computed from
G(Jinmm~l experimental values
Figure 2.3.1 Kj-K; ratios ncr for normal stress. Rod-shaped (lD) and shell-shaped (2D) components are
The diagram may be extended up to G cr = 100 mm r l to be distinguished.
Indicated numerical values 1/0,65 to 1/0,95: Difference of the fatigue
limit for completely reversed stress in tension-compression and in
bending, valid for the material test specimen ofthe diameter do = 7,5 mm.

Not included in the figure 2.3.1:


Stainless steel. Threshold values forGcr = I mm -1 :
largest value: ncr = 1,27 for Rm = 400 MPa and
smallest value: ncr = 1,14 for Rm = 1070 MPa. 5 The fatigue notch factor depends on the notch root radius r and
Wrought aluminum alloys: Threshold values forGcr = 1 mm -1 : moreover in the case of bending or torsion on the diameter or width d at
the notch net section.
largest value: ncr = 1,69 for Rm = 95 MPa and
smallest value: ncr = 1,18 for R m = 590 MPa.
6 See footnote 12.
Cast aluminum alloys: Threshold values for: G cr = 1 mm -1 :
largest value: ncr = 2,02 for Rm = 130 MPa and 7 Exception in case of bending: IfKt,b / Ilo (r) < 1 then Kt,b / Ilo (r) = 1 is
smallest value: ncr = 1,88 for Rm = 330 MPa. to be applied (without considering Ilo(d) ). Accordingly in case oftorsion.

8 Does not apply to cold rolled or shot peened surfaces. See the summary
Table 2.3.2 Constants l1G and bG . of special features ofthe fatigue strength of surface hardened components,
Chapter 5.8.
Kind Stain- Other GS GGG GT GG 9 The Kt - Kf ratio for a crack originating in the hardened surface layer is
of less kinds lower because the tensile strength R m of the hard surface layer is higher
mate- steel of than the tensile strength Rm of the core material according to the material
standard.
rial steel
0,40 0,50 0,25 0,05 -0,05 -0,05 The Kt - Kf ratio for a crack origgiating ~the core material is lower
l1G because the related stress gradientGcr (or G, ) in the core material has
bG 2400 2700 2000 3200 3200 3200 decreased from its maximum value at the surface.

10 The tensile strength of the surface layer may be estimated


Kind of material Wrought Cast approximately as Rm = (3,3 . HV) MPa , where HV is the Vickers
Al-alloys Al-alloys hardness number. As this equation, however, was not specifically
established for hardened surface layers, it is to be applied with caution. In
l1G 0,05 -0,05 particular the fatigue strength value crW,zd of the hardened surface layer
bG 850 3200 must not be derived from that estimate of the tensile strength
(crW,zd * fW,cr' Rm)
53
2.3 Design parameters 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

Table 2.2.3 Related stress gradients G c (r) andG't (r)


for simple structural details ~ 1.

G (r) ~2~3 G~(r) ~4


Structural detail cr

2
-1
Mb~r
The fatigue notch factors for shell-shaped (2D) non-
-(I+<p)
~(iD
Fzd
. d' ~--
. FZd
r r welded components applying to normal stresses in the
I
directions x and y as well as shear stress are:
t

MbBtfb
_( D
FZd
-d'

t
x.,
I Fzd
2,3
-'(l+<p)
r
1,15
r
K - K (d) n crx (rp )
f,x-f,xP' ()'
n crx r
(2.3.19)

-
Mb~rb
2
-. (1+<p)
- ( B--b
)- r
Fzd Fzd
~5
t Kf,zd (dp), .. fatigue notch factor of the test

- specimen according to type of stress,

Mb~b
-(-t B - -- b ) -
2,3. (l +<P)
r ncr (rp)...
Chapter 5.3 *13,
Kt-Kf ratio of the test specimen for normal
Fzd ' FZd ~5 stress or for shear stress according to r p *14,
t ncr (r) ... Kt-Kf ratio of the component for normal

2,3 - stress or for shear stress according to r *14,


Mb Mb ncr (d)...
_(.~-Efr -\--~-
- Kt-Kf ratio of the component for normal
r stress or for shear stress according to d,
Fzd '- "0 , I Fzd

Round specimen or flat ~5

member
11 In this case the fatigue notch factor depends on the notch radii r and
~ 1 r > O. The equations are valid for round members, approximately
rp and for bending and torsion on the diameter or width d at the notch
they apply to round members with a central borehole too. net section.
~2 rp = 0 for t! d > 0,25 ort! b > 0,25,
12 The basic definition of the fatigue notch factor Kf,b for bending is:
q>= 1I(4.M +2) for t!d~ 0,25 or t!b~ 0,25.
Kf,b = crW,zd/ SWK,b ' (2.3.20)
~3 The related stress gradient Gcr(r) applies to axial stress and to
crW,zd fatigue strength value for completely reversed axial stress
bending stress; nevertheless there is a difference for bending because of
of the unnotched test specimen of the diameter do ,
the Kt-KfTatio ncr(d) additionally contained in Eq. (2.3.10) and (2.3.18). fatigue strength value for completely reversed bending stress
SWK,b
of the notched component of the diameter or width d.
~4 The related stress gradient G~(r) applies to shear stress and to
torsion stress; nevertheless there is a difference for torsion because of the Kfb in bending is dependent on the notch radius r and on the diameter or
Kt-KfTatio n~(d) additionally contained in Eq. (2.3.10) and (2.3.18). width d of the notch net section. Kf,t for torsion in analogy.
~5 flat member of thickness s. The .defmition of the fatigue notch factor for bending derived from
experimental data - under the provision that the unnotched and the
notched specimen have the same diameter dp - is:

The fatigue notch factors, Kf,zd , ... , for axial, for Kf,b (d p) = SW,b,P / SWK,b,P, (2.3.21)
bending, for shear and for torsional stress of the rod- SW,b,P fatigue limit for completely reversed bending stress of the
shaped (lD) non-welded structural details presented in unnotched test specimen of diameter dp,
SWK,b,P Fatigue limit for completely reversed bending stress of the
Chapter 5.3 are to be computed from the experimentally notched test specimen of diameter dp.
derived fatigue notch factors of test specimens given
there, and from the respective Kf -K, ratios. In Kf,b is dependent on the notch radius rp and on the diameter or width of
particular *II the notch net section d. Kf,t for torsion in analogy.

13 The fatigue notch factors given in Chapter 5.3 are applicable to


K - K (d) ncr (rp ) (2.3.18) components from steel without surface treatment. Additionally, however,
f,zd - f,zd p ' --(-)- ,
ncr r a procedure for components being surface hardened and for components
made of cast iron materials and aluminum alloys is described there.

14 For computing Kt-Kf ratios the notch radii, r or rp , are required.


Particularly for cases that may produce some doubt the radii are specified
in Chapter 5.3. A possible incorrectness that may occur will be reduced
by the division of ncr(rp ) / ncr(r).
54
2.3 Design parameters 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

r notch radius of the component,


d diameter or width of the component, 1,0 ..
rp notch radius of the test specimen, r:::.::- '--": 1.1>
KR,ta
~ :-:::: r--.. r--...
i"'-
dp diameter or width of the test specimen. .,1:'.: 32
O~9 .zz:
The Kt-Kf ratios Ila (rp), .., are to be computed
~ ~ i'.. <,
63
according to the related stress gradient Gcr(rp ) with
'\( ~. <,", --.!...

...: ::\\.. <, 12


reference to Chapter 2.3.2.1 .... Q~ "
~
~~~'\
. ~"":,\,, 25
Because of similarity of the test specimen and 0,1 ~~ '\ r'.
component it is
i' $
rid = rpl dp. (2.3.22) 0,6
J-.00
Caution: If a fatigue notch factors Kf,zd , ... < 1 is
obtained from Eq. (2.3.18) or (2.3.19) the realistic 2bo
value to be applied is *15

Kf,zd = ... = 1. (2.3.12) 0,4


300500 700. 1000 2000
2,Uil Rlil in MPil
2.3.2.3 Fatigue notch factors for superimposed
notches
For superimposed notches (for example a fillet and a KR;l!
borehole), the partial fatigue notch factors of which are
0;9 '!o...~~-,-,,+-~+--"""'t-;;;;:
Kf,1 and Kf,2 , the resulting fatigue notch factor in the
most unfavorable case is
Kf= 1 + (Kf,l- 1) + (Kf,2- 1). (2.3.24)
If the distance of notches is 2 r or above
(where r is the larger one of both notch radii) *16 a
superposition does not need to be considered.

40n 600800 lOtIO


2.3.3 Roughness factor Rm hll\-IPafiir as, Cfu'G; GT
OJ. ,

The roughness factor KR,cr or KR;t accounts for the "r .... J

100 200 30ll 400


influence of the surface roughness on the fatigue
strength of the component. R m in MPa fUr G~

The roughness factor valid for a polished surface is


Figure 2.3.3 Roughness factor KR,cr .
KR,cr = KR,'t = 1. (2.3.25)
Top, Steel.
For a rolling skin, a forging skin or the skin of castings
Bottom: Cast iron materials with skin, steel with rolling skin for
an average roughness value R, = 200 11m applies.
comparison
The roughness factors for normal stress, Figure 2.3.3,
and for shear stress are *17

KKR,cr (2.3.26)
= 1 - aR,cr . 19 (Rz 111m ) . 19(2Rm I Rm,N,min ),
KKR,'t=
= 1 - fw,'t . aR,cr -lg (Rz /um) -lg (2Rm!Rm, N, min), 15 Exception in case of bending: If Kr.b(lip ) . Ilo(rp ) / Ilo(r) < 1 then
Kf,b(lip) . Ilo(rp) / Ilo(r) = 1 is to be applied (without considering Ilo(d) ).
aR,cr constant, Table 2.3.4, Accordingly in case of torsion.
Rz average roughness value of the surface
16 The distance of 2 r is likely to be on the safe side.
in 11m , according to DIN 4768,
Rm tensile strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1, 17 In particular residual stresses as a result of manufacturing and of a
surface treatment are determining the influence of the surface on the
Rm,N,min minimum tensile strength, Table 2.3.4,
component fatigue limit, rather than the surface roughness. According to
fw,'t fatigue strength factor for shear stress, the current state of knowledge, however, improved regulations to allow
Table 2.2.1. for the surface effect are not yet developed, so that the traditional
equations based on a roughness value have to be accepted for the time
being.
55
2.3 Design parameters 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

Table 2.3.4 Constant aR,cr and nummum tensile Table 2.3.5 Upper and lower limits of the surface
strength. ~l1,N,min , for the kind of material considered. treatment factor for steel and cast iron materials ~H2.

Kind of Steel GS GGG GT GG


Surface unnotched notched
material
treatment components components
aR,cr 0,22 0,20 0,16 0,12 0,06 ~3

Rm,N,min 400 400 400 350 100 Steel


inMPa Chemo-thermal treatments
Nitriding 1,10 - 1,15 1,30 - 2,00
Depth of case 0,1...0,4 mm (1,15 - 1,25) (1,90 - 3,00)
Kind of Wrought Cast Surface hardness
material aluminum alloys aluminum alloys 700 to 1000 HV 10
aR,cr 0,22 0,20 Case hardening 1,10 - 1,50 1,20 - 2,00
Depth of case 0,2 ... 0,8 mm (1,20 - 2,00) (1,50 - 2,50)
~,N,min 133 133 Surface hardness
inMPa 670 to 750 HV 10
Carbo-nitriding
Depth of case 0,2 ... 0,8 mm (1,80)
Surface hardness
670 to 750 HV 10
For surface hardened components *8 and an expected
Mechanical treatment
crack origine at the surface the roughness factor is less
Cold rolling 1,10 - 1,25 1,30 - 1,80
favorable (smaller) than for components not surface
(1,20 - 1,40) (1,50 - 2,20)
hardened, because of the higher tensile strength ~ of
the hardened surface layer *10. Shot peening 1,10 - 1,20 1,10 - 1,50
(1,10 - 1,30) (1,40 - 2,50)
Normally, in the case of experimentally determined Thermal treatment
fatigue notch factors the roughness factor does not need 1,20 - 1,50 1,50 - 2,50
to be considered (KR,cr = KR,'t = 1). Otherwise, in the Inductive hardening
(1,30 - 1,60) (1,60 - 2,80)
case of fatigue notch factors that are experimentally Flame-hardening
Depth of case 0,9 ... 1,5 mm
determined for specimens with a different surface
Surface hardness
roughness, KR,cr and KR,'t are to be replaced by 51 to 64 HRC

K R,o = KR,cr (Rz ) / KR,cr (Rz,p ), (2.3.27) Cast iron materials


Nitriding 1,10 (1,15 ) 1,3 (1,9)
KR,'t = KR,'t (Rz) / KR,'t (Rz,p), 1,1 (1,2) 1,2 (1,5)
Case hardening
Rz average surface roughness of the component in urn, Cold rolling 1,1 (1,2) 1,3 (1,5)
Rz,p average surface roughness of the specimen in urn, Shot peening 1,1 (1,1) 1,1 (1,4)
Inductive hardening, 1,2 (1,3) 1,5 (1,6)
Flame-hardening
~ 1 Concerning typical component values and further kinds of treatments,
2.3.4 Surface treatment and coating factors see also FVA-worksheet "Schwingfestigkeitssteigerung (increasing the
fatigue strength)".
The surface treatment factor, Kv , allows for the
influence of a treated surface layer on the fatigue ~ 2 The given values typically apply to the component fatigue limit.
Values applying to the variable amplitude fatigue strength are in general
strength of the component. somewhat lower.
Without a surface treatment there is The values are valid for specimens of 30 to 40 mm diameter; values in
parenthesis for specimens of 8 to 15 mm diameter.
Kv= 1. (2.3.28)
~ 3 For unnotched or slightly notched components.
For components with surface treatment *8 the surface
treatment factor depends on whether a crack origin is to
be expected at the surface or in the core. Essential
factors of influence are the ratio of the fatigue limits of
the surface layer and of the core material, as well as the
ratio of the local stress values on the surface and in the
core just below the surface layer.
Upper and lower limits of the surface treatment factors
for steel and cast iron materials are given in Table 2.3.5. 18 Provided that the procedures of surface treatment can be applied to
A definite value is to be determined by the user *18. components of aluminum alloys, the Ko-values for cast iron material
may approximately be taken into account.
56
2.3 Design parameters 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

The coating factor K s allows for the influence of a 2.3.6 Fatigue class (FAT)
surface coating on the fatigue strength of a component
made of an aluminum alloy. The fatigue classes (FAT) for nominal stresses allow for
the influences of both the form of welded components,
For steel and cast iron material there is of the shape of the weld seam and of the weld seam
Ks = 1. (2.3.29) itself on the fatigue strength of the toe section or of the
throat section) *19.
For aluminum alloy without coating there is
A complete catalogue of fatigue classes with reference to
Ks = 1. (2.3.30) the IIW Recommendations is given in Chapter 5.4.1 *20
For aluminum alloy with coating there is
K s < 1. (2.3.31)
Ks for example after Figure 2.3.4 (provisional values). 2.3.7 Thickness factor
When using nominal stresses for the calculation of
transversely loaded welds the thickness factor ft

'Ks 0.9
--..,J
r.
I
, I
1-'111T1-
I
"f
I!'
Ii
.;- !
,.
I ;; !;-1!
accounts for the influence of the sheet metal thickness
on the fatigue strength *21 ..
'"""
--- 'ffi'!r
.r...........
0,1 , "'" .I
I. o

n .

0.7 _...LL.1.J The thickness factor ft is of no effect, however,


~ ~:. d-H~~JJ. - if there is no weld,
o..s .ld
1--1-'rn.-rr
r-irti. - if there is no transversely loaded weld, or
.I I
I 1 I .: l:\!. - if the sheet metal thickness is t :::: 25 mm. -
'B.~
T--T~i . iiTi'Y
o,a '_--H-'-'l~,"L. In these cases the thickness factor is
! l _ "j j- :!:J'iJ
! f4+!- r'
:1 _
Q~ r
ft = 1. (2.3.33)
0;1

o
..iH+i-H
I ! !',.1i For a transversely loaded weld and a sheet metal
1 10 100
thickness t > 25 min the thickness factor is a function of
Thickness .of layerinp.ID
the sheet metal thickness t (in mm):
:tt = (25 mm / t) n, (2.3.34)
Figure 2.3.4 Influence of anodic coating on the fatigue
limit (at 106 cycles) of a component from aluminum n after Table 2.3.7.
alloy as a function of the layer thickness (after Wilson).
Provisional values.
Table 2.3.7 Exponent n for the thickness factor.

Type of the welded joint n


2.3.5 Constant KNL,E
cruciform joints, transverse T-joints, plates with
The constant KNL,E accounts for the non-linear elastic transverse attachments
stress strain behavior of GG when loaded in tension- - as welded 0,3
compression or bending. - toe ground 0,2
For all kinds of material except for GG there is transverse butt welds,
- as welded 0,2
KNL,E = 1. (2.3.32) butt welds ground flush, base material, longitudi-
KNL,E for GG after Table 2.3.6. nal welds or attachments, - as welded or ground 0,1

Table 2.3.6 Constant KNL,E ~ I.


19 Different from an assessment with structural stresses or with effective
Kind of
material
GG
-10
I GG
-15
GG
-20
I
GG
-25
GG
-30
I GG
-35
notch stresses, see Chapter 4.3 and Chapter 5.5.

20 All fatigue classes, except those for the base material, are considered
KNL,E 1,075 1,05 1,025 here: for steel FAT::;; 140 for nomial stress and FAT::;; 100 for shear
stress, for aluminum alloys FATS; 50 for normal stress and FAT::;; 36
for shear stress.
-e- 1 For unnotched or slightly notched components in tension-compression
KNL.E = 1. The assessment ofthe base material ofwelded components is to be carried
out as for non-welded components.

21 The thickness factor is supposed to be valid for steel, but also for
aluminum alloys.
57
2.4 Component strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.1 Component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress with nominal stresses

2.4 Component strength \R24 EN.dog Caution: See the comment in the second paragraph of
Chapter 4.4.2.
Content Page
Rod-shaped (lD) and shell-shaped (2D) components are
2.4.0 General 57 to be distinguished.
2.4.1 Component fatigue limit for completely The component fatigue limits of rod-shaped (lD)
reversed stress components for completely reversed axial, bending,
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit 58 shear and torsional stress are *1
according to mean stress SWK,zd = crW,zd I KWK,zd , (2.4.1)
2.4.2.0 General
SWK,b = crW,zd I KWK,b *2 ,
2.4.2.1 Mean stress factor 59
TwK,s = 'tw,sl KwK,s,
Calculation for type of overloading F2 TWK,t = 'tw,sl KWK,t,
Calculation for type of overloading Fl 60
crW,zd, 'tW,s material or weld specific fatigue limit for
Calculation for type of overloading F3
completely reversed stress, Chapter
Calculation for type of overloading F4 61
2.2.1,
2.4.2.2 Individual or equivalent mean stress
KWK,zd... design factor, Chapter 2.3.1.
2.4.2.3 Residual stress factor 62
2.4.2.4 Mean stress sensitivity Eq. (2.4.1) is based on thefatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Eq. (2.2.1) or (2.2.3) and (2.2.4), and on
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue
the design factor, Eq. (2.3.1) or (2.3.4) and (2.3.6). It
strength 63
applies to non-welded and to welded components.
2A.3.G General
2.4.3.1 Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor 64
Calculation for a constant amplitude
The component fatigue limits of shell-shaped (2D)
spectrum
components for completely reversed normal stresses in
Calculation for a variable amplitude
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
spectrum
Elementary version of Miner's rule SWK,x = crW,zd l KwK,x , (2.4.2)
based on the damage potential SWK,y = crW,zd I KwK,y ,
Calculation according to the consistent TWK = 'tw,s I KwK,s ,
version of Miner's rule 65
Calculation using a class of utilization 66 crW,zd, 'tw,s material or weld specific fatigue limit for
completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.2.1,
Calculation using a damage-equivalent
stress amplitude KWK,x, ... design factor, Chapter 2.3.1.
2.4.3.2 Component constant amplitude S-N curve Eq. (2.4.2) is based on the fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Eq. (2.2.1) or (2.2.3) and (2.2.4), and on
the design factor, Eq. (2.3.2) or (2.3.5) and (2.3.7). It
2.4.0 General applies to non-welded and to welded components.
According to this chapter the component fatigue
strength is to be calculated as follows:
Step 1: component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress in considering the design factor,
Chapter 2.4.1,
Step 2: component fatigue limit in considering the
mean stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2,
Step 3: component variable amplitude fatigue
strength in considering the variable amplitude
fatigue strength factor, Chapter 2.4.3.
1 The component fatigue limits for completely reversed stress are
different for normal stress and for shear stress, and moreover because of
different stress gradients ordifferent weld characteristics depending onthe
2.4.1 Component fatigue limit for type ofstress.
completely reversed stress
2 The material fatigue limit forcompletely reversed stress isthebasis for
According to this chapter the component fatigue limit both axial and bending stress. The difference is allowed for bythe design
factor. Forshear and torsion inanalogy.
for completely reversed stress is to be calculated in
considering the design factor.
58
2.4 Component strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress using nominal stresses

2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to KAK,zd .., mean stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.1,
KE,cr ... residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3,
mean stress 1R242 EN.dog
SWK,zd ... component fatigue limit for completely
2.4.2.0 General reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1.
According to this chapter the amplitude of the Eq. (2.4.6) applies to non-welded and to welded
component fatigue limit is to be determined according to components.
a given mean stress, and where appropriate, in
considering a multi axial state of stress.
Shell-shaped (2D) components
Comment: For non-welded components of austenitic
steel, or of wrought or cast aluminum alloys the The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component
component fatigue limit is different from the component fatigue limit of shell-shaped (2D) components for
endurance limit for N = 00 , Chapter 2.4.3.2. normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for
shear stress are
Observing the specific input values the calculation
applies to non-welded and to welded components. SAK,x = KAK,x . KE,cr' SWK,x, (2.4.7)
SAK,y = KAK,y . KE,cr . SWK,y,
An improved procedure for non-welded components of TAJ( = KAK,s' KE,'t' TWK,
steel to compute the component fatigue limit in the case
of synchronous multiaxial stresses is given in Chapter KAK,x... mean stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.1,
5.9. KE,cr... residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3,
SWK,x ... component fatigue limit for completely
In combination with a stress spectrum the indicated reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1.
stress ratio Rzd, ... commonly refers to step I of the
Eq. (2.4.7) applies to non-welded arid to welded
stress spectrum (maximum amplitude), R zd,l, .,. *1 *2.
components.
The mean stress factor, Figure 2.4.1, allows for the
influence of the mean stress on the fatigue strength.
Without mean stress the mean stress factor is Type of overloading

KAK,zd = ... = I. (2.4.4) The mean stress factor KAK,zd, ... is dependent on the
type of overloading, FI to F4. It distinguishes the way
The residual stress factor accounts for the influence of how the stress may increase in the case of a possible
the residual stress on the fatigue strength. For non- overload in service (not by crash). Therefore it is to be
welded components the residual stress factor for normal determined in the sense of "safety of operation in
stress and for shear stress is service", that is for normal stress as follows:
(2.4.5) - Type FI:
the mean stress Sm,zd remains the same,
Rod-shaped (ID) and shell-shaped (2D) components are - TypeF2:
to be distinguished. the stress ratio Rzd remains the same,
- Type F3:
Rod-shaped (ID) components the minimum stress Smin,zd remains the same,
- TypeF4:
The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component the maximum stress Smax,zd remains the same.
fatigue limit of rod-shaped (lD) components for axial,
for bending, for shear and for torsional stress are For bending, shear or torsion Sm,zd, Rzd, .., are to be
replaced by Sm,b, ~, ..., T rn.s- Rg, ... or T m.t- Rt .
SAK,zd = KAK,zd . KE,cr . SWK,zd, (2.4.6) Intermediate types of overloading are possible.
SAK,b = KAK,b . KE,cr' SWK,b, Dependent on the type of overloading the amplitude of
TAK,s = KAK,s . KE;t . TWK,s , the component fatigue limit is different, Figure 2.4.1.
TAK,t = KAK,t . KE,'t . TWK,t ,

Fields of mean stress


In determining the mean stress factor KAK,zd, ... four
fields of mean stress are to be distinguished. These are
dependent on the stress ratio Rzd, ..., or on the mean
stress Sm,zd, ... , respectively, see Chapter 2.4.2.2.
1 This definition is necessary only for mean stress spectra, not for
stress ratio spectra or for fluctuating stress spectra, for which the
stress ratios of allsteps are identical.
2 For more details see Chapter 5.6.
59
2.4 Component strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress using nominal stresses

Figure 2.4.1 Amplitude of the component fatigue Rad=-=


strength as a function of mean stress or stress ratio Rzd =-1
(Haigh diagram), described in four fields of mean stress
(M~=M.)
Example: Nonnal stress, types of overloading F1 and F2. S .
WK.zd
Given: Component fatigue strength for completelyreversed SAK,zd,Fl

stress SWK,zd , service stress amplitude Sa,zd ,


(M~=M<T/3) (M~=O)
stress ratio Rzd ,
Derived: Amplitudes of the componentfatigue limit SAK,zd b2U

for the types of overloading F1 and F2.

Normal stress:
Calculation for the type of overloading F2 * 4
Field I: Rzd > 1, field of fluctuating compression stress,
In case of a possible overload in service the stress ratio
where Rzd = + or - ex) is the zero compression stress.
Rzd remains the same.
Field II: - ex) ~ Rzd~ 0, where Rzd < -1 is the field of
alternating compression stress, Rzd = -1 is the Normal stress:
completely reversed stress, Rzd > -1 is the field of
Field I: Rzd > 1:
alternating tension stress.
KAK,zd = 1/ ( 1- Ma) , (2.4.9)
Field III: 0 < Rzd < 0,5, field of fluctuating tension
stress, where Rzd = 0 is the zero tension stress.
Field IV: Rzd ~ 0,5, field of high fluctuating tension
stress. 1
KAK,zd- , (2.4.10)
1+M cr . Sm,zd / Sa,zd
For bending b the index zd is to be replaced by the index
b, "tension stress" by "tension bending stress", and
"compression stress" by "compression bending stress". Field III, 0< Rzd < 0,5:
1+ M cr /3
I+M cr
Shear stress: *3: KAK,zd = M S ' (2.4.12)
1+ _cr_ . m,zd
Field I: (not existing),
3 Sa,zd
Field II: - 1 ~ Rs~ 0 (lower boundary changed),
Field III: 0 < n, < 0,5 (unchanged),
Field IV: Rs~ 0,5 (unchanged). Field IV, Rzd~ 0,5:

K - 3+M cr (2.4.13)
For torsion the index s is to be replaced by the index 1. AK,zd- 3.(I+M ) 2 '
cr

2.4.2.1 Mean stress factor Rzd stress ratio *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2,
Ma mean stress sensitivity, Chapter 2.4.2.4,
The mean stress factor KAK,zd ... is dependent on the Sm,zd mean stress *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2,
mean stress and on the mean stress sensitivity. Sa,zd stress amplitude.
For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.

3 The fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for normal stress shows
. increasing amplitudes for Rzd < -1 (negative mean stress). For negative
mean stress the fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for shear stress is
the same as for positive mean stress and symmetrical to Tm,s = O. 5 Sm,zd / Sa,zd=(l+Rzd)/(l-Rzd)' (2.4.11)
Practically it is restricted to the fields of positive mean stress or a
stress ratio Rs ~ -1 , as the mean stress in shear is always regarded to Using the term Sm zd I Sa zd instead of (1 + Rzd ) I (1 - Rzd ) avoids
be positive, Tm,s ~ O. numerical probl~, when the stress ratio becomes Rzd =- 00.

4 The type of overloading F2 is described first because it is of primary 6 Or equivalent mean stress, equivalent minimum stress, equivalent
practical importance . maximum stress, Chapter 2.4.2.2.
60
2.4 Component strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress using nominal stresses

Shear stress: For positive mean stresses, tm,s ~ 0, the same equations
are valid if Sm,zd is replaced by tm,s and M, is replaced
For KAK,s Field I is not existing and Field II is
by M,
restricted to positive mean stresses R, ~ -1 . For
positive mean stress, or R, ~ -1 , the same equations For torsion the index s is to be replaced by t.
are valid if M cr is replaced by M.
For torsion the index s is to be replaced by t. Calculation for the type of overloading F3
In case of a possible overload in service the minimum
stress Smin,zd remains the same.
Calculation for the type of overloading Fl
In case of a possible overload in service the mean stress Normal stress:
Sm,zd remains the same.

Normal stress: Smin,zd -2 *7


For Smin,zd = < there is
KE,cr ,SWK,zd I-Moo

Smzd -1
< - - - there is
KAK,zd = 1 1 (1 - Ma ), (2.4.18)
For Sm,zd = ' *7
KE,oo ,SWK,zd I-M cr
Field II
KAK,zd = 11 (1 - M cr), (2.4.14)
for - 2 1(1 - Ma)~ Smin,zd ~ 0 there is
Field II 1-M cr .Smin,zd
(2.4.19)
for -1 1 (1 - Ma) s Sm,zd s 1 1 (1 + Ma) there is I+M oo

KAK,zd = 1 - Ma . Sm,zd, (2.4.15) Field III

Field III 2. 3+M oo


for 0 < Smin,zd < - there is
3 (1 + M cr )2
1 3 +M cr
for - - < Sm,zd < ( )2 there is 1+M cr 13 M cr
I+M oo I+M cr 1+ M - -3-' Smin,zd
KAK, d - _ _----"'cr _ (2.4.20)
z - I+Moo 13
(2.4.16)

Field IV
Field IV
_2 . 3 + Moo
for Smin,zd;?: there is
3 (I+M oo Y
K - 3+Moo (2.4.21)
AK,zd - (
3 I+M oo
)2'
(2.4.17)

minimum stress *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2,


Sm,zd mean stress *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2,
residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3,
KE,cr residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3,
component fatigue limit for completely
SWK,zd component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1,
reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1,
M, mean stress sensitivity, Chapter 2.4.2.4.
M, mean stress sensitivity, Chapter 2.4.2.4.
For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.
For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.
Shear stress:
Shear stress:
For KAK,s Field I is not existing and Field II is
For KAK,s Field I is not existing and Field II is restricted to positive mean stresses Tm,s ~ 0 or
restricted to positive mean stresses tm,s ~ 0 or - 1 s tmin,s = Tmin,s 1 (KE,< . TWK,s) s 0 .
o ~tm,s = Tm,s I(KE,< ' TWK,s) ~ 1/(1 + M"t). For positive mean stresses, tm,s ~ 0 , the same equations
are valid if Smin,zd is replaced by tmin,s and M, is
replaced by M r .
7 The abbreviation Srn,zd = Sm,zd / (KE,cr' SWK,zd) applies inthe For torsion the index s is to be replaced by t.
following to Smin,zd, Smax,zd , tm,s , ..., accordingly.
61
2.4 Component strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress using nominal stresses

Calculation for the type of overloading F4 Individual mean stress


In case of a possible overload in service the maximum As a rule the individual mean stress Sm,zd is used to
stress Smax,zd remains the same. determine Smin,zd , Smax,zd and Rzd . For normal stress
the respective equations are
Normal stress: Smin,zd = Sm,zd - Sa,zd , (2.4.26)
Smax,zd = Sm,zd + Sa,zd ,
Rzd= Smin,zd 1 Smax,zd ,
Smax,zd *7
Sa,zd stress amplitude,
For Smax,zd = < 0 there is
KE,cr ,SWK,zd Smin,zd minimum stress,
Smax,zd maximum stress,
KAK,zd = 1 1 (l - 110- ), (2.4.22) Rzd stress ratio.

Field II For bending, shear and torsion the appropriate variables


are Smin,b, ..., ~, Tmin,s , ..., R, or Tmin,t , ..., Rt
for O:s; Smax,zd s 2 1 (l + 110-) there is
I-M cr 'smax
KAK,zd (2.4.23) Equivalent mean stress
I-M cr
In the case "bending and torsion", which is typical for
Field III numerous applications in machine design, and in
similar cases, where normal stresses are combined with
2 4 . 3 +M cr
for - - - < Smax,zd <- there is shear stresses, the variables Smin,zd,v , Smax,zd,v and
I+M cr 3 (1+ M cr)2 Rzd,v are to be used. They are derived from an
equivalent mean stress Sm,v , to be computed as a
1+ M cr 13 M
- - -cr . smax,zd function of the respective individual mean stress values,
1+ M cr 3 Eq. (2.4.28). For normal stress there is
KAK,zd = - - - - - - " - - - - - - - (2.4.24)
I-M cr /3
Smin,zd,v = Sm,v - Sa,zd , (2.4.27)
Smax,zd,v = Sill,v + Sa,zd ,
Field IV Rzd,v = Smin,zd,v l Smax,zd,v,

for Smax,zd->
~ . 3+M cr Sa,zd individual stress amplitude,
( )2 there is
3 1+ M cr Rzd,v equivalent stress ratio,
Smin,zd,v equivalent minimum stress,
Smax,zd,v equivalent maximum stress.
(2.4.25)
For bending, shear and torsion the appropriate variables
are Smin,b,v, ..., ~,v, Tmin,s,v , ..., Rs,v or Tmin,t,v
Smax,zd maximum stress *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2,
residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3, Rt,v
K Ecr
SWK,zd component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1, The equivalent mean stress, Eq. (2.4.27), for normal
mean stress sensitivity, Chapter 2.4.2.4. stress is
For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.
Sm,v = q . Sm,v,NH + (l - q) . Sm,v,GH, (2.4.28)
Shear stress:
where
For shear stress the type of overloading F4 (Tmax,s
remaining constant) can practically not being realized.
q=
13 -(l/f-c) (2.4.29)
13-1
Sm,v,NH -~ (ISml+~S~ +4.T~ )
2.4.2.2 Individual or equivalent mean stress
In each case Rzd , ..., Smin,zd, ... and Smax,zd , ... are
. determined by mean stress and stress amplitude. The Sm,vGH
, =~S2m +3.Tm2 .
mean stress may be taken either as the individual mean
stress according to type of stress or as an equivalent
mean stress from the individual mean stresses of all
types of stress.
62
2.4 Component strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress using nominal stresses

q material dependent parameter High residual stresses are to be assumed in case of


after Table 2.6.1. welding without residual stress reducing precautions.
Sm , Tm individual mean stress,
Moderate residual stresses are to be assumed in case of
Eq. (2.4.31) and (2.4.32),
welding with residual stress reducing precautions, for
example by observing a suitable weld sequence.
For shear stress there is
Low residual stresses are to be assumed in case of
Tm,v=fw,, ' Sm,v, (2.4.30) welding with subsequent stress-relief heat treatment, or
if residual stress may evidentially be excluded.
fw" shear strength factor, Table 2.2.1.

Rod-shaped (ID) components 2.4.2.4 Mean stress sensitivity


For rod-shaped (lD) components the equivalent mean The mean stress sensitivity M, or M, , in connection
stress after Eq. (2.4.28) is to be computed only if with the mean stress factor, describes to what extent the
Sm,zd + Sm,b ~ O. It is mean stress affects the amplitude of the component
fatigue strength, Figure 2.4.1.
Sm = Sm,zd + Sm,b, (2.4.31)
Tm = Tm,s + Tm,t, For non-welded components the mean stress sensitivity
for normal stress and for shear stress, applicable in case
Sm,zd, ... individual mean stresses, Chapter 2.1.1.1.
of normal or elevated temperature, is
Sm,zd , Sm,b , Tm,s and Tm,t are to be inserted into Eq.
M, = aM' 10 -3. Rm/ MPa + bl\.:f, (2.4.34)
(2.4.31) with proper sign to be added or subtracted.
M't = fw" . Mq,
aM, bM constants, Table 2.4.2,
Shell-shaped (2D) components
fw " shear fatigue strength factor, Table 2.2.1.
For shell-shaped (2D) components the equivalent mean
For components that have been surface hardened *8 the
stress afterEq. (2.4.28) is to be computed only if
mean stress sensitivity is greater because of the tensile
Sm,y = 0 and Sm,x ~ 0 (or in reverse). It is
strength R.n of the hardened surface being higher than
Sm = Sm,x (or Sm = Sm,y), (2.4.32) that of components not surface hardened.
T m = Tm,s,
For welded components the mean stress sensitivity for
Sm,x, ... individual mean stress, Chapter 2.1.1.2. normal stress and for shear stress, applicable in case of
normal or elevated temperature, is dependent on the
intensity of the residual stress, but independent of the
2.4.2.3 Residual stress factor tensile strength R.n of the base material. Values are
given in Table 2.4.1, see also Chapter 5.5.
The residual stress factor for non-welded components is
KE,cr = KE;t = 1. (2.4.33)
Table 2.4.2 Constants aM and bM .
For welded components of structural steel and of
aluminum alloys the residual stress factor is different for Kind of Steel ~1 GS GGG GT GG
high, moderate or low residual stresses. It is given for material
normal stress and for shear stress in Table 2.4.1, see
aM 0,35 0,35 0,35 0,35 0
also Chapter 5.5.
bM - 0,1 0,05 0,08 0,13 0,5

Table 2.4.1 Residual stress factor KE,cr , KE;t and mean


stress sensitivity Mcr, M, for welded components. Kind of Wrought Cast
material aluminum alloys aluminum alloys
Residual KE,cr Mcr KE,'t M't ~1
aM 1,0 1,0
stress - 0,04 0,2
bM
high 1,00 0 1,00 0
moderate 1,26 0,15 1,15 0,09
low 1,54 0,30 1,30 0,17 ~ 1 also stainless steel.

~ 1 For Shear Stress there is M't = fw r ' Mcr fw,'t = 0,577 ,


Table 2.2.1. "

8 Not applicable to components being cold rolled or shot-peened.


63
2.4 Component fatigue strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength using nominal stresses

Rp yield strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1,


2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue Kp,b, Kp,t plastic notch factors, Table 1.3.2,
strength \R243 EN.dog ~ shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
2.4.3.0 General
4 N; N* Componentfatigue lifecurve
According to this chapter the amplitude of the
component variable amplitude fatigue strength is to be N ComponentScbrcurve
derived from the stress spectrum and the component
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2.
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KBK,zd ,
. ... , to be calculated depends on the stress spectrum, that
is on the required total number of cycles '1 and on the
shape of the stress spectrum, as well as on the
component constant amplitude S-N curve, and in
addition it depends on the type of stress (normal stress
or shear stress).
It has to be distinguished, whether in case of a constant
amplitude spectrum an assessment of the fatigue limit
(or endurance limit) or an assessment of the fatigue N,N
strength for finite life is intended, or whether in case of Figure 2.4.2 Component constant amplitude S-N curve,
a variable amplitude spectrum an assessment of the component fatigue life curve derived by the consistent
variable amplitude fatigue strength is intended *2. version of Miner's rule, and influence of the critical
The calculation for a constant amplitude stress damage sum DM .
spectrum is a special case of the more general case of Highest amplitude in stress spectrum SBK , component fatigue limit SAl(,
calculation for a variable amplitude stress spectrum. In number ofcycles N after the component constant amplitude S-N curve,
each case the way of calculation is the same, but the ~mber ofcycles N aft3the com.?nent fatigue life curve for DM < 1 or
N * for DM = 1. Itis N = N + (N *- N) . DM. This formula implies that
variable amplitude fatigue strength factors are different. a number ofcycles N -7 N isobtained for se:.ctra ofincreasing damage
Observing the specific input values the calculation potential and the exact nu~er of cycles N = N for the constant
applies to both non-welded components (component amplitude stress spectrum as N * - N-7 O.
constant amplitude S-N curve model I or model II) and In German the fatigue life curve is usually termed 'Gassner curve' and
to welded components (component constant amplitude the constant amplitude SoN curve is usually termed 'Woehler curve'.
S-N curve model I only).
Rod-shaped (10) and shell-shaped (2D) components are
to be distinguished.

Rod-shaped (1D) components


The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude
fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum)
of rod-shaped (lD) components for axial stress,
bending stress, shear stress and for torsional stress are,
Figure 2.4.2,
SBl<,zd = KSK,zd . SAK,zd, (2.4.41)
SSK,b = KSK,b . SAK,b,
TSK,s = KsK,s . TAK,s , Figure 2.4.3 Restriction of the amplitudes of the
TSK,t = KSK,t . TAK,t , variable amplitude fatigue strength, SBK,I , or of the
KSK,zd, ... variable amplitude fatigue strength factor, maximum value Sm + SBK and the minimum value
Chapter 2.4.3.1, Sm - SBK respectively, in relation to the yield strength,
SAK,zd ... component fatigue limit, Chapter 2.4.2. displayed in terms of the Haigh-diagram.

Except for GG, the following restrictions apply, Figure


2.4.3:
1 Required total number ofcycles and required component fatigue life are
SSK,zd s 0,75 Rp, (2.4.42) corresponding denotations.
SSK,b s 0,75 Rp' Kp,b,
2 In a simplified manner the variable amplitude fatigue strength can be
TsK,s s 0,75 fW,"t . Rp , derived on the basis ofa damage-equivalent stress amplitude. Then the
TSK,t ~0,75 f"t' Rp' Kp,t, assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength turns out to be an
assessment ofthe fatigue limit being sufficient.
64
2.4 Component fatigue strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength using nominal stresses

Shell-shaped (2D) components ka slope of the component constant amplitude S-N


curve for N < No,cr , Chapter 2.4.3.2.
The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude
NO,cr,II number of cycles at second knee point of the
fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum)
component constant amplitude S-N curve,
of shell-shaped (2D) components for normal stresses in
Chapter 2.4.3.2,
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are,
Figure 2.4.2, ko,cr slope of the component constant amplitude S-N
curve for N > No,cr , Chapter 2.4.3.2,
SBK,x = KBK,x . SAK,x, (2.4.43) f n.e factor by which the endurance limit is lower than
SBK,y = KBK,y . SAK,y , the fatigue limit, Chapter 2.4.3.2, Table 2.4.4.
TBK,s = KBI<,s . TAK ,
KBI<,x" ... variable amplitude fatigue strength factor,
Calculation for a variable amplitude spectrum
Chapter 2.4.3.1, As a rule the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor
SAK,x, ... component fatigue limit, Chapter 2.4.2. is to be computed by using the elementary version of
Miner's rule (not necessary for a constant amplitude
Except for GG, the following restrictions apply, Figure
stress spectrum). Somewhat more favourable results,
2.4.3,
however, may be obtained by using the consistent
SBK,x s 0,75 Rp , (2.4.44) version of Miner's rule. Moreover, the classes of
SBK,y ::; 0,75 Rp , utilization can be applied as a simplified method of
TBK,s ::; 0,75 fw,'t . Rp , calculation; the so derived results approximately
correspond to those obtained by the elementary version
Rp yield strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1,
of Miner's rule. In an even more simplified manner the
fw.'t shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
variable amplitude fatigue strength can be derived on
the basis of a damage-equivalent stress amplitude.
2.4.3.1 Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor
Elementary version of Miner's rule based on the
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factors damage potential
KBK,zd , ... , are to be derived as follows *3:
Using the elementary version of Miner's rule, Figure
2.4.4, the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is to
Calculation for a constant amplitude spectrum *4
be computed directly as follows *5. The calculation
applies to both component constant amplitude S-Ncurve
Component constant amplitude S-N curve model I:
model I and model II (2.4.53)
horizontalfor N > ND,cr (steel and cast iron material)
Assessment ofthe fatigue strength for finite life:
KBK,zd = (N o.e / N) l/k cr forN ::; No,cr . (2.4.47)
KBK,zd = [( 1 cr -I).D + 1] k~ . ( N~cr
(v zd)
k M
N
) :0 ,

Assessment ofthe fatigue limit = endurance limit: where the damage potential is *6 *7
KBK,zd = 1 forN > No,cr. (2.4.48)
Component constant amplitude S-N curve model II: '"j h i (S
Vzd-_ k cr L.=-' --
a,zd,i )kcr , (2.4.54)
slopingfor N > ND,cr (non-welded aluminum alloys) . i=l H l
Sa,zd,l

Assessment ofthe fatigue strength for finite life:


KBK,zd = (N O,cr / N) l/k cr for N'< No,cr. (2.4.49)

KBK,zd = (N O,cr / N) l/kO,cr for No,cr<N s NO,cr,II ,


3 The following is written for axial stress, KBK.zd , k", ... , but applies to
(2.4.50) other types of stress accordingly.
Assessment ofthe fatigue limit:
4 For welded components only model I of the component constant
KBK,zd = 1 forN > No,cr. (2.4.51) amplitude SoN curve is of concern, not model II.

Assessment ofthe endurance limit: 5 Direct calculation without iteration. The results obtained from the
elementary version of Miner's rule approach the results obtained from the
consistent version of Miner's rule on the safe side.
KBK,zd = f n,e forN > NO,cr,II. (2.4.52)
6 When computing the damage potential (and also in the following
N number of cycles of the component constant equations) the values ni and N according to the required total number of
amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2, cycles can be replaced by the values hi and H according to the total
number of cycles in the given standard type spectrum, see Chapter 2.1.
N required number of cycles,
No,cr number of cycles at knee point of the component 7 Instead of Alcon after Eq. (2.4.58) is here
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2, A
ele
= 11 (v zd)kcr (2.4.55)
65
2.4 Component fatigue strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength using nominal stresses

slope of the component constant amplitude S-N Calculation according to the consistent version of
curve for N < ND,cr , Chapter 2.4.3.2, Miner's rule *9 *10
DM critical damage sum, Table 2.4.3,
Using the consistent version of Miner's rule the variable
ND,cr number of cycles at knee point of the component
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2, amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be computes!
iteratively for differing values of Sa,zd,l , until a value N
H total number of cycles of the given spectrum,
equal to the required total number of cycles N is
H = H, = L hi (summed up for i = 1 toj), obtained. The respective value of Sa,zd,l is used to derive
h1 related number of cycles in step i, the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor.
Hi = L hi (summed up for i = 1 to i) *8,
j total number of steps in the spectrum, Component constant amplitude S-N curve model I:
number of the step in the spectrum, horizontal/or N > ND,u (Steel and cast iron material)
Sa,zd,i stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum,
Sa,zd,l stress amplitude in step i = 1 of the spectrum. In case of a component constant amplitude S-N curve
model I ( horizontal for N > ND,cr or slope kD,o = (0) the
If for a component constant amplitude S-N curve model
number of cycles N to be computed for an value Sa,zd,l
I (horizontal for N > ND,cr ) a value KBK,zd < 1 is is (2.4.57)
obtained from Eq. (2.4.53), then the value to be used is
N = {[ Akon - 1 ] . DM + I}' SAK,zd
s )kcr
. ND,cr ,
KBK,zd = 1. (2.4.56)
[ a,zd,l
If for a component constant amplitude S-N curve model
where
II (sloping for N > ND,cr ) a value KBK,zd is obtained
from Eq. (2.4.53) that is smaller than the value obtained cr-1
from Eq. (2.4.50) or (2.4.52), then the higher value Ak -_ [ -
Sa,zd,l
-
)k .
[ZI
-+ L j Z2]
- (2.4.58)
on SAK,zd Nl v=m N2
from Eq. (2.4.50) or (2.4.52) is to be used.
kcr- 1 [S )k cr-1
Zl = ~AK'Zd _ Sa,zd,m , (2.4.59)
[ a,zd,l ) a.zd.l
sa
[~a,zd'v )k
cr-1 cr-1
(lg) Z2 = _ [S;,Zd,V+1 )k (2.4.60)
v,Sa.l
a,zd,l a,zd,l

Stress spectrum
m-1
Nl= L -.: ~ ~
h. [S cr
d.i )k (2.4.61)
i=l H Sa,zd,l

kcr
v h. S .
N2=L -.:. ~ (2.4.62)
2:U N (lg) i=l H [ Sa,zd,l )
Figure 2.4.4 Elementary version of Miner's rule, com- For the summation of the term Z2, Eq. (2.4.60), it is to
ponent constant amplitude S-N curve model I, DM = 1. be observed that Sa,zd,j+l = O.
Characteristics ofthe stress spectrum according toChapter 2.1,
component constant amplitude SoN curve according toChapter 2.4.3.2. N number of cycles of the component constant
amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2,
ND,cr number of cycles at knee point of the component
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2,
Table 2.4.3 Critical damage sum DM , recommended DM critical damage sum, Table 2.4.3,
value. Sa,zd,i stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum,
Sa,zd,l stress amplitude in step i = 1 of the spectrum,
non-welded welded SAK,zd amplitude of the component fatigue limit,
components components ka slope of the component constant amplitude S-N
Steel, GS, 0,3 0,5 curve for N < ND,cr , Chapter 2.4.3.2,
Aluminum alloys j total number of steps in the spectrum,
GGG, GT, GG 1,0 1,0

9 The consistent version of Miner's rule allows for the fact, that the
component fatigue limit will decrease as the damage sum increases.
The decrease applies tocomponent constant amplitude S-N curves model
8 hi / H may be replaced by n, / N , I as well as tomodel II for ND,s ~ 106 .

N Required total number ofcycles according to the required fatigue life, 10 The consistent version ofMiner's rule was first developed by Haibach.
N = ~ ni (summed up for 1toj), A simplified version allowing for the decrease ofthe fatigue limit became
nj number ofcycles instep i according tothe required fatigue life. known as the modified version orthe Haibach method ofMiner's rule.
66
2.4 Component fatigue strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength using nominal stresses

i number of the step in the spectrum, Calculation using a class of utilization


m number i = m of the first step below SAK,zd,
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KBK,zd is
H total number of cycles in the given spectrum,
to be determined according to the appropriate class of
H = Hj = L hi (summed up for I to j),
utilization "12 , Chapter 5.7.
hi number of cycles in step i,
Hi = L hi (summed up for I to i) "8.
Calculation using a damage-equivalent stress
The computation is to be repeated iteratively for amplitude
differing values Sa,zd,1 > SAK,zd , until a..!alue N equal
When using a damage-equivalent stress amplitude the
to the required total number of cycles N is obtained.
variable amplitude fatigue strength factor for both
From the respective value of Sa,zd,1 the variable
constant amplitude S-N curves model I and model II is
amplitude fatigue strength factor is obtained as
KBK,zd = 1. (2.4.69)
KBI<,zd = Sa,zd,1 / SAK,zd. (2.4.63)

If a value KBK,zd < I is obtained from Eq. (2.4.63), then 2.4.3.2 Component constant amplitude S-N curve
the value to be applied is
Component constant amplitude S-N curves for non-
KBK,zd = 1. (2.4.64) welded components (without surface hardening) and for
welded components *13 are shown for normal stress and
for shear stress in Figure 2.4.5 and 2.4.6. The particular
Component constant amplitude S-N curve model II: number of cycles at the knee point ND,O' , ... and the
slopingfor N > N D, 0' (non-welded aluminum alloys) values of slope ka, ... are given in Table 2.4.4.
*11
The component fatigue limit SAK,zd, ... is the reference
In case of a component constant amplitude S-N curve fatigue strength value for calculation. It follows from
model II (sloping for N > ND,O' or slope kD,a < kD,a < (0) Chapter 2.4.2. For S-N curves Model I the fatigue limit
the number of cycles N is first to be computed for a SAK and the endurance limit SAK,n for N = 00 are
. ' 1/3
smgle value Sa,zd,1 = SAK,zd / (fn,O' ) as follows identical, while for S-N curves Model II (valid for non-
O welded components of austenitic steel or of aluminum
N={[A -1]'D +1}.[SAK'Zd)k ND,a alloys) they are different by a factor fn,O' , Table 2.4.4
kon M S f )kal3
a.zd.l ( II a and Figure 2.4.5.
with (2.4.65) A lower boundary of the numbers of cycles is implicitly
Akon after Eq. (2.4.58) to (2.4.62) defined by the maximum stress being limited according
and the explanations as before, to the static strength requirements, Chapter 1.
fn,O' factor by which the endurance limit is lower
than the fatigue limit, Table 2.4.4. For surface hardened components "14 the slope of the
component constant amplitude S-N curves is more
shallow. Instead of the values of slope kO' = 5 and k, = 8
If a value N = N* > N is obtained then the calcu- for not surface hardened components, Table 2.4.4, the
lation of N, Eq. (2.4.65), is to be continued for values that apply to surface hardened components are
differing values Sa,zd,1 > SAK,zd / ( fn,O' )1/3 until a value ka = 15 and k, = 25 ,while the number of cycles at the
N equal to the required total number of cycles N is knee point ND,O' and ND,'t remain unchanged, see also
obtained. From the respective value of Sa,zd,1 the Chapter 5.8.
variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is obtained as
The component constant amplitude S-N curves for
KBK,zd = Sa,zd,1 . (fn,O' )1/3 / SAK,zd (2.4.66) welded components are valid for the toe section and for
the throat section.
If a value N = N* ~ N is obtained then the variable
amplitude fatigue strength factor is

(4.4.67)
II Simplified and approximate calculation.
If a value KBK,zd < fn,O' is obtained from Eq. (2.4.67) 12 Class of utilization as a characteristic of the stress spectrum. It is an
then the value to be applied is approximately dam~e equivalent combination of the required total
number of cycles N with the shape of a particular standard stress
KBK,zd = fn,O' . (2.4.68) spectrum the frequency distribution of which is of binomial or exponential
type modified by a spectrum parameter p. It provides a result that
corresponds to a calculation based on the elementary version of Miner's
rule.

13 With reference to nW-Recommendations and Eurocode 3.


14 Not applicable to cold rolled or shot-peened components.
67
2.4 Component fatigue strength 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength using nominal stresses

Table 2.4.4 Number of cycles at the knee point, slope


of the component constant amplitude S-N curves, and
values of fu,o- and fu,t.
Normal stress Shear stress

Component IND,o- IND,o-,II Ik, IkD,o- fu,o- Component IND,t 1 ND,t,ll Ik, IkD;t fu,t
Steel and cast iron materials ( S-N curve model I ) Steel and cast iron materials (S-N curve model I)
6
non-welded 110 1- 15 1- 1,0 non-welded 110
6
1- 18 1- 1,0
welded 15 ' 106 1- 13 1- 1,0 welded 110
8
1- 15 1- 1,0
Aluminum alloys (S-N curve modell II Aluminum alloys (S-N curve model II \
non-welded 110 6 1108 15 115 0,74 non-welded 110
6
110
8
18 125 10,83
15' 10 1-
6
welded 13 1- 1,0 welded 110
8
1- 15 1- 11,0

Sa,zd
(lg) (Ig)

SAK,zdf--------~"-~---- SAC
II
SAK.zd.IlI-----------t- ];~~~~",,""_ SAK.zd

Nc = NDo-=
6
2 '10 5 .'10 6
ails bildw. N (Ig) aila bIJdw12
N (lg)

T a s Ta . s
(lg) (Ig)

I T
AC
TAK.s +-- -----..:c~~-----
II
TAK,s,II 1----------+--.::...'--;~--=~s.."8
TAK.s

Nc= ND'7 8
. 06 =10
aif. bildwl6 N (lg)
ails bildll'l5 N (lg)

Figure 2.4.5 Component constant amplitude S-N curve


for non-welded components *14 Figure 2.4.6 Component constant amplitude S-N curve
Top: Normal stress S. for welded components *13
Bottom: Shear stress T. Top: Normal stress S.
Steel and cast iron materials, except austenitic steel, (Model I): Bottom: Shear stress T.
horizontal for N > ND,cr, kD,cr = co
Steel, cast iron materials and aluminum alloys, welded (Model I):
or for N > ND,"t, k D,"t = co
Aluminum alloys and austenitic steel (Model II): horizontal for N > ND,cr, kD,cr = co
Sloping for N > ND cr, kD o or for N>ND,"t, kD,"t=co
or for N > ND:"t, kD,~. NC is the referencenumber of cycles
correspondingto the characteristic strength values SAC and TAC.
horizontal for N > ND cr II, kD e II = co
or for N > ND:"t.it" ' kD:"t:II= co. SAK,zd/ SAC = (Nc / ND,cr) 11ko = 0,736 and
TAK,s / TAC = (Nc / ND,"t ) 11 kr = 0,457.
68
2.5 Safety factors 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

2.5 Safety factors *1 !R25 EN .docl 2.5.2 Cast iron materials


Contents Page 2.5.2.0 General
2.5.0 General 68 Ductile and non-ductile cast tron materials are to be
distinguished.
2.5.1 Steel
2.5.2 Cast iron materials
2.5.2.0 General 2.5.2.1 Ductile cast iron materials
2.5.2.1 Ductile cast iron materials Cast iron material with an elongation As :2: 12,5 % are
2.5.2.2 Non-ductile cast iron materials 69 considered as ductile cast iron materials, in particular
2.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys all types of GS and some types of GGG. Values of
2.5.3.0 General elongation see Table 5.1.12.
2.5.3.1 Ductile wrought aluminum alloys Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials are given in
2.5.3.2 Non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys Table 2.5.2. Compared to Table 2.5.1 they are higher
2.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys because of an additional partial safety factor jF that
accounts for inevitable but allowable defects in castings
2.5.5 Total safety factor *4. The factor is different for severe or moderate
consequences of failure and moreover for castings that
have been subject to non-destructive testing or have not.
2.5.0 General
According to this chapter the safety factors are to be
determined. Table 2.5.2 Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials
GS; GGG) (A,:2: 12,5%\
The safety factors are valid under the condition that the Consequences of failure
JD
design loads are reliably determined on the safe side and
that the material properties correspond to an average
severe I moderatev!
probability of survival of Po = 97,5 % *2. castings not subject to non-destructive testing ~2
The safety factors apply both to non-welded and welded regular no 2,1 I 1,8
components. Inspection yes ~3 1,9 I 1,7
castings subject to non-destructive testing ~4

2.5.1 Steel
regular no 1,9 I 1,65
Inspection yes ~3 1,7 I 1,5
The basic safety factor concerning the fatigue strength ~1 See footnote ~1 of Table 2.5.1.
'IS
~2 Compared to Table 2.5.1 an additional partial safety factor
.in = 1,5. (2.5.1) jF = 1,4 is introduced to account for inevitable but allowable defects
in castings.
This value may be reduced under favorable conditions,
~3 Regular inspection in the sense of damage monitoring. Reduction
that is depending on the possibilities of inspection and by about 10 %.
on the consequences of failure, Table 2.5.1.
~4 Compared to Table 2.5.1 an additional partial safety factor
jF = 1,25 is introduced, for which it is assumed that a higher quality
of the castings is obviously guaranteed when testing.
Table 2.5.1 Safety factors for steel *3 (not for GS) and
for ductile wrought aluminum alloys (A:2: 12,5 %).
jD Consequences of failure
severe moderate ~1
regular no 1,5 1,3
yes~2 2 Statistical confidenceS ; 50 %.
inspections 1,35 1,2
3 Steel is always considered as a ductile material.
~1 Moderate consequences of failure of a less important component
in the sense of "non catastrophic" effects of a failure; for example
4 In mechanical engineering cast. components are of standard quality
because of a load redistribution towards other members of a statical
for which a further reduction of the partial safety factor to jF = 1,0
indeterminate system. Reduction by about 15 %.
does not seem possible up to now.
~2 Regular inspection in the sense of damage monitoring. Reduction
A safety factor jF = 1,0 may be applied to high quality cast
by about 10 %.
components in the aircraft industry however. Those high quality cast
components have to meet special demands on qualification and
checks of the production process, as well as on the extent of quality
and product testing in order to guarantee little scatter of their
1 Chapters 2.5 and 4.5 are identical. mechanical properties.
69
2.5 Safety factors 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

2.5.2.2 Non-ductile cast iron materials 2.5.3.2 Non-ductile wrought aluminum alloy
Cast iron materials with an elongation AS < 12,5 % Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation
(for GT A3 < 12,5 %) are considered as non-ductile A < 12,5 % are considered as non-ductile materials.
materials, in particular some types of GGG as well as Values of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
all types of GT and GG. Values of elongation for GGG
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys all safety
and GT see Table 5.1.12 or 5.1.13. The value for GG
factors from Table 2.5.1 are to be increased by adding a
is AS = O.
value Llj , Eq. (2.5.2).
For non-ductile cast iron materials the safety factors
from Table 2.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value
Llj, Figure 2.5.1 *s: 2.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys
Llj = 0,5 -JAs /50%, (2.5.2) Cast aluminum alloys are always considered as non-
ductile materials. All safety factors from Table 2.5.2
AS Elongation, to be replaced by A3 for GT. are to be increased by adding a value Llj , Eq. (2.5.2).
Values of elongation see Table 5.1. 31 to 5.1. 38.

GG
0,5 2.5.5 Total safety factor
Llj
Similar to an assessment of the component static
strength, Chapter 1.5.5, a "total safety factor" jges is
to be derived:
o 1U 12,5 20
As ,A3 in % jges = i D
T,D
, (2.5.4)

Figure 2.5.1 Value Llj to be added to the safety Jn safety factor, Table 2.5.1 or 2.5.2,
factor In , defined as a function of the elongation As or Kt,D temperature factor, Chapter 2.2.3.
A3 , respectively.

2.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys


2.5.3.0 (;eneral
Ductile and non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys are to
be distinguished.

2.5.3.1 Ductile wrought aluminum alloys


Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation
A"C. 12,5 % are considered as ductile materials. Values
of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
Safety factors for ductile wrought aluminum alloys are
the same as for steel according to Table 2.5.1.

S For example the safety factor for GG is at least


in = I,S + O,S = 2,0 (2.S.3)
Gn = 1,5 from Table 2.5.2, j = O,S after Eq. (2.S.2) for AS = 0).
70
2.6 Assessment 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

2.6 Assessment 1R26 EN.dog An assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue


strength and an assessment of the fatigue limit or of the
Contents Page endurance limit are to be distinguished. In each case the
2.6.0 General 70 calculation is the same when using the appropriate
variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KBK,zd , ... ,
2.6.1 Rod-shaped (lD) components 71 Chapter 2.4.3, and when taking
2.6.1.1 Individual types of stress
2.6.1.2 Combined types of stress Sa,zd, I = Sa,zd , ... , (2.6.1)

2.6.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components in case of a constant amplitude spectrum, or


2.6.2.1 Individual types of stress Sa,zd,l ~ Sa,zd,eff and N = ND,cr (2.6.2)
2.6.2.2 Combined types of stress 72
in case of a damage-equivalent stress amplitude.

2.6.0 General Sa,zd, ... , constant stress amplitude for which the
required number of cycles is N,
According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue Sa,zd,eff, ... , damage-equivalent stress amplitude,
strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out. ND,cr number of cycles at knee point of the
In general the assessments for the individual types of component constant amplitude S-N
stress and for the combined types of stress are to be curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2.
carried out separately *1.
The procedure of assessment applies to both non-welded Superposition
and welded components.
For proportional or synchronous stress components of
For welded components assessments are generally to be same type of stress the superposition is to be carried out
carried out separately for the toe section and for the according to Chapter 2.1.
throat section. They are to be carried out in the same
way, but using the respective cross-section values, If different types of stress like axial stress, bending
nominal stresses and fatigue classes FAT as these are in stress, ... *4 act simultaneously and if the resulting stress
general different for the toe and throat section. is multiaxial, Chapter 0.3.5 and Figure 0.0.9, both the
individual types of stress and the combined types of
stress are to be considered as described below *5.
Degree of utilization
The assessment is to be carried out by determining the Kinds of component
degree of utilization of the component fatigue strength.
In the general context of the present Chapter the degree Rod-shaped (lD) and shell-shaped (2D) components are
of utilization is the quotient of the (nominal) to be distinguished. They can be both non-welded or
characteristic stress amplitude Sa,zd,l , ..., divided by the welded.
allowable (nominal) stress amplitude of the component
fatigue strength at the reference point *2. The allowable
stress amplitude is the quotient of the component
variable amplitude fatigue strength after Chapter 2.4.3,
SBI<,zd, ... , divided by the total safety factor jges . The
degree of utilization is always a positive value *3.

4 Bending stresses intwo planes, Sa,b,y and Sa,b,z ' are different types of
stress, also shear stresses in two planes, T a,s,y and T a.s.z .
5 Proportional, synchronous and non-proportional multiaxial stresses are
tobe distinguished. , Chapter 0.3.5.
Only under special conditions ofproportional stresses the character ofEq.
(2.6.4) and (2.6.12) is that of a strength hypothesis from a material-
mechanics point ofview. For example the extreme stresses from bending
and shear will . as a rule - occur atdifferent points ofthe cross-section, so
1 It is essential to examine the degree of utilization not only of the that different reference points W are to be considered. As a rule bending
combined types ofstress but also that ofthe individual types ofstress in will be more important. More general Eq. (2.6.4) and (2.6.12) have the
general, and inparticular ifthese may occur separately. character of an empirical interaction formula. They are applicable for
proportional stresses and approximately applicable for synchronous
2 The reference point is the critical point ofthe considered cross-section stresses; an improved procedure for non-welded components is given in
that observes the highest degree ofutilization. Chapter 5.9. For non-proportional stresses they are not suitable; an
approximate procedure applicable for non-proportional stresses is
3 As the degree of utilization is the quotient of two amplitude which proposed in Chapter 5.10.
always are positive.
71
2.6 Assessment 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

2.6.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components Table 2.6.1 Values of q as dependent on f W t ~1


2.6.1.1 Individual types of stress Steel. GGG GT, GG
wrought cast
The degrees of utilization of rod-shaped (lD)
AI alloys AI alloys
components for variable amplitude types of stress like
fWt 0.577 0.65 0,75 0,85
axial, bending. shear and torsional stress are
Q 0 0,264 0,544 0,759
Sa,zd,l ~1 Exceptions: For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
aSK,zd :5: 1, (2.6.3)
A < 12,5 %) q = 0,5 , for surface hardened or welded components
SBK,Zd / jerf
q = 1.
Sa,b,l
aSK,b :5: 1,
SBK,b / i,
Rules of signs: If the individual types of stress (axial
T a.s, 1 and bending, or shear and torsion, respectively) always
aSK,s :5: 1, act proportional or synchronous in phase the degrees of
TBK,s / jerf utilization aSK,zd and aSK,b and/or aSK,s and aSK,t are to
Ta,!,l be inserted in Eq. (2.6.6) with the same (positive) signs
aSK.t = :5: 1. *7. If they act always proportional or synchronous 1800
TBK,t / jerf out of phase, however. the above degrees of utilization
Sa,zd,1 ... characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress are to be inserted in Eq. (2.6.6) with oposite signs *8 *9.
amplitude in the spectrum) according to If the individual types of stresses act non-proportional,
type of stress. Chapter 2.1.1.1 and that is neither proportional nor synchronous, the Eq.
Eq. (2.6.1) or (2.6.2), (2.6.4) to (2.6.6) are not applicable and the procedure
SSK,zd ... , related amplitude of the component proposed in Chapter 5.10 is to be applied instead.
variable amplitude fatigue strength,
Chapter 2.4.3.
jges total safety factor, Chapter 2.5.5. 2.6.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
2.6.2.1 Individual types of stress

2.6.1.2 Combined types of stress The degrees of utilization of shell-shaped (2D)


components for variable amplitude types of stress like
The degree of utilization of rod-shaped (lD) normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as shear
components for combined types of stress is *6 are
aSK,Sv = q' aNH + (1 - q) . <lGH:5: 1. (2.6.4)
asK,x =
s., :5: 1, (2.6.8)
where SBK,X / jerf
aNH=1-(lsal+~s; +4.t;), (2.6.5)
aSK,y =
Sa,y,l
:5: 1.
SBK,y / jerf
<lGH=JS~+t~ ,
Ta,l
Sa = aSK,zd + aSK,b , (2.6.6) aSK,s :5: 1.
T BK / jerf
ta = aSK,s + aSK,t
aSK,zd,'" degrees of utilization after Eq. (2.6.3).
6 Eq. (2.6.4) or (2.6.12) isa combination ofthe normal stress criterion
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation (NH) and the v. Mises criterion (GH). Depending on the ductility ofthe
A < 12.5 %) q = 0,5 is to be applied. For surface material the combination is controlled by a parameter q as a function of
hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to be tW,t according toEq. (2.6.7) and Table 2.6.1. For instance q = 0 for steel
applied. Otherwise there is, Table 2.6.1. so that only the v. Mises criterion isofeffect, while q = 0,264 for GGG so
that both the normal stress criterion and the v. Mises criterion are of
./3 -(l/fw.'t) partial influence.
(2.6.7) 7 For example a tensile axial stress and a tensile bending stress acting at
q ./3-1 the reference point that both result from the sam single external load
affecting the component.
fw,'t shear fatigue strength factor, Table 2.2.1 or 2.6.1. 8For example an tensile axial stress and a compressive bending stress
acting atthe reference point that both result from the sam single external
load affecting the component.
9 Stress components acting opposingly may cancel each other inpart or
completely.
72
2.6 Assessment 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses

Sa,x,1 , ..., characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress


amplitude in the spectrum) according to
type of stress, Chapter 2.1.1.2 and Eq. (2.6.1)
or (2.6.2),
SB!(,x, ..., related amplitude of the component variable
amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter2.4.3,
jges total safety factor, Chapter 2.5.5.

2.6.1.2 Combined types of stress


The degree of utilization of shell-shaped (2D)
components for combined types of stresses is *7
aBK,Sv = q . aNH + (1 - q) . 1lGH:::; 1, (2.6.9)
where (2.6.10)

aNH =~{Isa,x +sa,yl+~~a,x -Sa,y)2 +4.t; ),

2 2 2
J
1lGH = sa,x + sa,y - sa,x . sa,y + t a '

sa,x = aBK,x , (2.6.11)


Sa,y = aBK,y ,
t a = aBK,s,
aBK,x ... degrees of utilization after Eq. (2.6.8).

For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation


A < 12,5 %) q = 0,5 is to be applied. For surface
hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to be
applied. Otherwise there is, Table 2.6.1,

q
13 -(lIfw,'t) (2.6.12)
13-1
fw,'t shear fatigue strength factor, Table 2.2.1 or 2.6.1.

Rules of signs: If the normal stresses Sx and Sy always


act proportional or synchronous in phase the degrees of
utilization aBK,x and aBK,y are to be inserted in Eq.
(2.6.11) with the same (positive) signs *10. If they act
always proportional or synchronous 1800 out of phase,
however, the degrees of utilization aBK,x and aBK,y are
to be inserted in Eq. (2.6.11) with oposite signs *11.
If the individual types of stress act non-proportional,
that is neither proportional nor synchronous, the Eq.
(2.6.9) to (2.6.11) are not applicable and the procedure
proposed in Chapter 5.10 is to be applied instead.

10 For example a tensile stress in direction x and a tensile stress in


directions y that both result from the same external load affecting the
component.

11 For example a tensile stress indirection x and a compressive stress in


directions y that both result from the same external load affecting the
component.
73
3.1 Characteristic stresses 3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses

maximum and mirumum stresses can be positive or


3 Assessment of the static negative. It is assumed, that all stresses reach their
strength using local stresses extreme values simultaneously.
IU-1---=EN-'-.-'-do-'q
r-I

3.0 General Elevated temperature


In case of elevated temperature the values O"max,ex ,
According to this chapter the assessment of the static
and O"min,ex , . . . are relevant for a short-term loading
strength using local stresses is to be carried out *1. (related to the high temperature strength or high
It should be observed that not necessarily the component temperature yield strength).
static strength is determined by a local failure occurring For a long-term loading (related to the creep strength or
at a notch. Likewise a global failure occurring ata 1% creep limit) correct results will only be obtained in
different, unnotched or moderately notched section of case of a constant (static) tensile stress O"max,ex equally
the component may be determining, Figure 3.0.1.
distributed over the section of concern.
In all other cases of constant or variable loading the
assessment will be more or less on the safe side if the
values O"max,ex , . . . and O"min,ex , ... refer to a stress
distribution with a stress gradient, and/or if they refer to
...-.;.. _._. the peak values of a variable stress history, which are of
F short duration only, while for the rest of time the stress
is lower.
Figure 3.0.1 Different locations for a static failure If in those cases it becomes necessary to make best use
occurring as a local failure (A) or as a global failure (B). of the long-term load bearing capacity of the component
(because otherwise the assessment cannot be achieved)
an expert stress analysis is recommended to define the
appropriate stress value to be used for the assessment.
3.1 Characteristic stress values Such an analysis is beyond the scope of the present
Contents Page guideline, however.
3.1.0 General 73
3.1.1 Characteristic stress values Superposition
3.1.1.0 General If several stress components act simultaneously at the
3.1.1.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components reference point, they are to be overlaid. For same type of
3.1.1.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components 74 stress (for example normal stress and normal stress,
3.1.1.3 Block-shaped (3D) components 75 O"max,ex,1 , O"max,ex,2, ... ) the superposition is to be carried
out at this stage, so that in the following a single stress
value (O"max,ex, ... ) exists for every type of stress *3. For
3.1.0 General different types of stress (for example normal stress and
shear stress, or normal stress in direction x and normal
According to this chapter the characteristic service
stress values are to be determined as elastic stresses.
Relevant are the extreme maximum and minimum
stresses O"max,ex and O"min,ex , ... of the individual stress
components expected for the most unfavourable assessment of the fatigue strength a stress spectrum is to be derived from
operating conditions and for special loads according to that history consisting of stress cycles of the amplitudes Ga,i and the mean
specification or due to physical limits *2. Both the values Grn,i' Chapter 2. I.
The largest amplitude of this stress spectrum is Ga,1 ' and the related
mean value is Grn,1 . The related maximum and minimum values are
Gmax,1 = Grn,1 + Ga,1 and Gmin,1 = Grn,1 - Ga,1 . The values Gmax,e.x
1 The assessment of the static strength with local stresses based on and Gmin,ex may be different from the .values Gmax,1 .and Gmin, 1 . This
Neuber's rule and the plastic. limit load, Chapter 3.3, is an approximation is because extreme, very seldom occunng events are Important only for
that has to be regarded as provisional and therefore it should be applied the assessment of the static strength, but hardly for the assessment of the
with caution. Also the assessment of the static strength for welded fatigue strength. In a stress spectrum which is supposed to apply for
components using structural stresses has to be regarded as provisional and normal service conditions they do not have to be considered therefore.
therefore it is to be applied with caution, as well.
3 Stress components having different sign may cancel out each other in
2 In general the values Gmax,ex and Gmin,ex for the assessment of the part or completely.
static strength are the extreme values of a stress history. For the
74
3.1 Characteristic stresses 3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses

stress in direction y) the superposition is to be carried


out at the assessment stage, Chapter 3.6.
Stress components acting opposed to each other, and /
t~
which do not always occur simultaneously, are not to be
overlaid however.
/-

3.1.1 Characteristic stress values


3.1.1.0 General
Rod-shaped (lD), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped Left: Butt weld. Right: Fillet weld. The structural stress is to be computed
(3D) as well as non-welded and welded components are with the throat thickness a.
to be distinguished.
For welded components the local stresses are _to be
'determined as structural stresses. An assessment of the
'stailc-stiength'- ()fwelcleclcomponents using effective Rod-shaped (ID) welded components
notch stresses is not possible up to now *4. For rod-shaped (I D) welded components the local
When using local stresses it is not necessary that a well stresses (structural stresses only) are generally to be
defined cross-section does exist. Hence it cannot be determined for the weld toe and for the root of the weld
presupposed that nominal stresses can be determined as separately *7.
well. For the weld toe the local stresses are to be computed as
for non-welded components, Eq. (3.1.1)..

3.1.1.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components For the root of the weld equivalent structural stresses
have to be computed from the structural stresses
Rod-shapedHD) non-welded components resulting from the normal and shear loadings, Figure
For rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components a normal 3.1.1, *8
stress O'zd = 0' and a shear stress ". =" are to be
considered *5. The extreme maximum and minimum (3.1.2)
stresses are
O'.L normal stress normal to the weld seam *9,
O'max,ex , "max,ex , (3.1.1) ".l shear stress normal to the weld seam,
O'min,ex , "min,ex . "II shear stress parallel to the weld seam.
Stresses of different sign (O'max,ex positive, O'min,ex "wv in analogy.
negative for instance) are generally to be considered
separately *6. For shear and for torsion the highest The extreme maximum and muumum values of the
absolute value is relevant. equivalent nominal stresses are
O'max,ex,wv and O'min,ex,wv, .... (3.1.3)

Stresses of different sign (O'max,ex,wv positive, O'min,ex,wv


negative for instance) are generally to be considered
separately. For shear and for torsion the highest absolute
value is relevant.

4 See Figure 0.0.6 and 0.0.7 for definition of structural stresses and of 7 For welded components in general an assessment of the static strength
effective notch stresses. For effective notch stresses the assessment is to be carried out for the toe section and for the throat section, because
procedure has not been developed up to now. the cross-sectional areas may be different and because the strength
behavior is evaluated in a different way. The assessment for the toe
5 For rod-shaped (ID) components the different types of stress (axial, section is to be carried out as for non-welded components. The assessment
bending, shear and/or torsion) may also occur independent of each other. for the throat section is to be carried out with the equivalent structural
This case is not considered in the following, however, as it is supposed stress (Jwv.
that (J will contain all normal stresses and t will contain all shear stresses.
8 According to DIN 18 800 part 1, page 36. The structural stress (JII
6 Particularly in the case of cast iron materials with different tension and (normal stress parallel to the orientation ofthe weld) is to be neglected.
compression strength values, and moreover because of the non-linear-
elastic stress-strain characteristic of grey cast iron. 9 Normally (Jwv will result mainly from (J.l. 'twv in analogy.
75
3.1 Characteristic stresses 3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses

3.1.1.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components <J1,max,ex, <JZ,max,ex , <J3,max,ex , (3.1.6)


The calculation for shell-shaped (2D) components can <J1,min,ex, <JZ,min,ex , <J3,min,ex .
be applied also for block-shaped (3D) components, if the Note: Independent of the value of the stresses the
stresses O"x, O"y, 't at the surface are of interest only, directions of the stresses <J1 and <Jz are parallel to the
otherwise Chapter 3.1.1.3 applies. free surface, and direction 3 points normally to the
surface into the interior of the component.

Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components Tension stresses (positive) or compression stresses


(negative) are generally to be considered separately *11.
For shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components normal
stresses in the x- and y-directions O"zd,x = o, and O"zd,y= O"y
as well as a shear stress "ts = r are to be considered. The Block-shaped (3D) welded components
extreme maximum and minimum stresses are
For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components
O"rnax.ex.x , O"rnax.ex.y , "trnax.ex , (3.1.4) may be welded at the surface, for example by surfacing
O"rnin,ex.x , O"rnin,ex.y , 'trnin,ex . welds. Then the calculation is to be carried out as for
Tension stresses (positive) or compression stresses shell-shaped (2D) welded components, if the stresses at
(negative) are generally to be considered separately *10 . the surface, <JX' <Jy and 't, are of interest only.
For shear the highest absolute value is relevant.

Shell-shaped (2D) welded components


For shell-shaped (2D) welded components, Figure 0.0.6,
the local stresses (structural stresses only) are in general
to be determined separately for the weld toe and for the
root of the weld *7.
For the weld toe the local stresses are to be computed as
for non-welded components, Eq. (3.1.4).
For the root of the weld an equivalent structural stresses,
O"wv,x , has to be computed from the structural stresses
resulting from the loading in x-direction, Eq. (3.1.2)
and Figure 3.1.1. Stresses O"wv,y and"twv in analogy. The
extreme maximum and minimum values of the
equivalent stresses are
O"max,ex,wv,x and O"min,ex,wv,y, ... (3.1.5)
Stresses of different sign (<Jmax,ex,wv,x positive,
<Jmin,ex,wv,x negative for instance) are generally to be
considered separately. Tension and compression are
generally to be considered separately. For shear the
highest absolute value is relevant.

3.1.1.3 Block-shaped (3D) components


Block-shaped (3D) non-welded components
For block-shaped (3D) non-welded components the
principal stresses <J1,zd = <J1 , <JZ,zd = <Jz and <J3,zd = <J3
are to be considered. The extreme maximum and
minimum stresses are

10 See footnote *6. And moreover because the second normal stress 0y 11 See footnote *6. An moreover because the second and/or third
may reduce the degree ofutilization. principle stress 0zand 03 may reduce the degree ofutilization.
3.2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength
76
using nominal stresses

3.2 Material properties 1R32 EN.dog

Contents Page
3.2.0 General 76
3.2.1 Component values according to standards 77
3.2.1.0 General
3.2.1.1 Component values according to standards
of semi-finished products or test pieces
3.2.1.2 Component values according to
the drawing
3.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values
3.2.2 Technological size factor 78
3.2.2.0 General
3.2.2.1 Dependence on the effective diameter Rm,N
3.2.2.2 Effective diameter
3.2.3 Anisotropy factor 80
Values
3.2.4 Compression strength factor and according
to standards
shear strength factor Component
3.2.4.0 General values -

3.2.4.1 Compression strength factor de ff .N -deff


(Jg)
3.2.4.2 Shear strength factor 81
3.2.5 Temperature factors Figure 3.2.1 Values according to standards and com-
3.2.5.0 General ponent values according to standards, Rm and Rp, or
3.2.5.1 ~ormal temperature values specified by drawings, Rm,z and Rp,Z .
3.2.5.2 Low temperature Top: All kinds of material except GG, Rm ::: Rm.N, R" ::: R",N
3.2.5.3 Elevated temperature Semi-logarithmic decrease of the mechanical material properties with the
effective diameter d.n- .

3.2.0 General Bottom: GG, Rm ::: or ~ Rm.N . Double-logarithmic decrease of the


mechanical material properties with the effective diameter dell'.
According to this chapter the mechanical material
properties like tensile strength R.n, yield strength R, and Specified values according to drawings Rm.z and R",z.
further characteristics for non-welded and welded'
components are to be determined. Values according to standards
All mechanical material properties are those of the The values according to standards (R.n,N , Rm , Rp,N , Rp)
material test specimen. Values according to standards, correspond to an average probability of survival
component values and component values according to Po = 97,5 % and depend on the effective diameter deff
standards are to be distinguished, Figure 3.2.1. and on the technological size factor.

Material test specimen Component values


In the context of this guideline the material test The component values CRm , R.n.z , R, , Rp,z ) are valid
specimen is an unnotched polished round specimen of for the effective diameter deff of the component, they
do = 7,5 mm diameter *1. may correspond to different probabilities of survival Po,
however.

Special case of actual component values


If specific values for a component (R.n,r , Rp,r) have been
determined experimentally, they normally apply to a
probability of survival Po = 50 % , and therefore they
1 This definition is the basis of the present calculation, although are valid only for the particular component, but not for
specimens for tensile tests may usually have diameters different from the entirety of all those components. They may be used,
7,5 mm. for instance, for a subsequent assessment of the strength
3.2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength
77
using nominal stresses

of the particular component in case of a service failure, product *3 , in the case of cast iron or cast aluminum it
if for that purpose all safety factors are set to 1,00 in is the value from the test piece according to the material
addition. standard.
The yield strength, Rp,N , is the guaranteed minimum
value specified for the smallest size of the semi-finished
Component values according to standards
product *3 or for the test piece defined by the material
The component values according to standards <Rm , Rp) standard *4.
apply to an average probability of survival PD = 97,5 %
and are valid for the effective diameter, c1eff, of the Moreover there are to be considered: for compressive
component. Their application is not limited to a stresses the compression strength factor fa , Chapter
particular component, and therefore they may be used 3.2.4, for shear stresses the shear strength factor f, ,
for an assessment of strength, valid for the entirety of Chapter 3.2.4, and for elevated temperature the
all those components. temperature factors Kt,m , ..., Chapter 3.2.5.

To determine the tensile strength Rm and the yield


strength R, *2 the technological size factor, the 3.2.1.2 Component values according to the drawing
anisotropy factor and the temperature factors are to be
considered in general. Furthermore compression The component value of the tensile strength, Rm, is
strength and shear strength values are to be considered. Rm = 0,94 . Rm.z. (3.2.2)
The component value according to the drawing Rm,z is
the tensile strength of the material specified on the
3.2.1 Component values according to drawing. As the value Rm.z is normally verified by
standards random inspection of small samples only *5, it is
3.2.1.0 General assumed to have a probability of survival less than
PD= 97,5 % . Eq. (1.2.2) converts the value Rmz to a
The component values according to standards, Rm and component value Rm that is expected to conform with
R, , are to be determined from the values of semi- the probability of survival of Pr, = 97,5 %.
finished products or of test pieces defined by standards,
Rm.N and Rp,N , or from the component value specified in The yield strength R, corresponding to the tensile
the drawing, Rm,z . As a special case the experimentally strength Rm is *6 .
determined actual component values, Rm.r and Rp,r , can
be applied. R, = Kd,p . Rp,N . Rm, (3.2.3)
Kd,m Rm,N
For GG the yield strength is not defined and Eq. (3.2.1)
is not applicable. technological size factors, Chapter 3.2.2,
values of the semi-finished product or
of a test pieces defined by standards,
3.2.1.1 Component values according to standards of Chapter 5.1 .
semi-finished products or of test pieces
The component values according to standards of the
tensile strength, Rm , and of the yield strength, Rp, are
Rm = Kd,m . KA ' Rm.N, (3.2.1)
R, = K<J,p . KA ' Rp.N,
K<J,m, K<J,p technological size factors, Chapter 3.2.2,
KA anisotropy factor, Chapter 3.2.3, 3 If different dimensions of that semi-finished product are given by
Rm.N, Rp.N values of the semi-finished product or the standard.
of a test piece according to standards,
4 A probability of survival Pii = 97,5 % is assumed for the component
Chapter 5.1 . properties according to standards Rm,N , Rp,N . This probability of
survival should also apply to the values Rm ' Rp is calculated therefrom.
In the case of steel or wrought aluminum alloys the
tensile strength, Rm.N , is the guaranteed minimum value 5 The value R m Z is checked by three hardness measurements
specified for the smallest size of the semi-finished (n=3) for exampl~, where every test has to reach or to exceed the
required value. The probability of survival of the lowest of n = 3 tests
may be estimated to 75 % (= I - I/(n+ 1) = 1 - 1/(3+1) = 0,75), and
may be assigned to R m Z . With a likely coefficient of variation of
4% the conversion to P; = 97,5 % follows from Eq. (3.2.2).
2 The term yield strength is used as a generalized tenn for the yield
stress (of milled or forged steel as well as cast steel) and for the 0.2 6 A conversion proportional to R p N f R m N would not be correct
proof stress (of nodular cast iron or malleable cast iron as well as since the technological size effect is more pronounced for the yield
aluminum alloys). strength than for the tensile strength.
3.2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength
78
using nominal stresses

3.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values For milled steel there is deff,max,m = deff,max,p = 250 mm.
For all other kinds of material there are no upper limit
If only an experimental value of the tensile strength Rm,I
values deff,max, ... ,
is known the value of the yield strength Rp,I may be
computed from Eq. (3.2.3) with Rm = Rm,I. deft:max.m = deft:max.p = 00 , (3.2.11)
unless otherwise specified in the material standards.

3.2.2 Technological size factor Aluminum alloys


3.2.2.0 General For wrought aluminum alloys the component values of
The technological size factor accounts for a decrease of the tensile strength, Rm , and of the yield strength, Rp,
the material strength values usually observed with are given in Chapter 5 according to the type of material
increasing dimensions of the component. It is specified and its condition, and depending on the thickness or
as a function of the effective diameter, Figure 3.2.1. It diameter of the semi-finished product. To these values
is different for non-welded and for welded components the technological size factors Kj., = :KI.p = 1 apply.
*7 For cast aluminum alloys the technological size factors
for the tensile strength and for the yield strength are as
3.2.2.1 Dependence on the effective diameter follows: For deft':::; deft:N,m = deft:N,p = 12 mm
Non-welded components :KI.m = :KI.p = 1, (3.2.12)
Steel and cast iron materials for 12 mm < deft' < deft:max.m = deft:max.p = 150 mm
For GG the following technological size factor applies v.
.J..~m
= v.
.J..~p
= 1, 1 . (d
Ueff /7 , 5 mm) -0,2 , (3.2.13)
to the tensile strength: For deff :s; 7,5 mm
for deft'~ deft:max.m = deft:max.p = 150 mm
Kd,m = 1,207, (3.2.4)
:KI.m = :KI.p = 0,6 . (3.2.14)
for deff > 7,5 mm *8
Kd,m = 1,207' (deff/7,5 mm)-0,1922. (3.2.5) Welded components *10

For stainless steel within the dimensions given in For all kinds of material the technological size factor for
material standards there is the toe section and for the throat section of welded
components is *11
Kd,m = Kct,p =1. (3.2.7)
KcI,m = Kct,p = 1. (3.2.15)
For all other kinds of steel and cast iron materials the
technological size factor is: For deff s deff,N,m For materials such as conditionally weldable steel,
stainless steel or weldable cast iron the subsequent
KcI,m = Kd,p =1, (3.2.8) . calculation is provisional and therefore it is to be
for deff,N,m < deff :s; deff,max,m *9: (3.2.9) applied with caution.

1-0, 7686ad,m lg(deff /7,5mm)


KcI,m , 3.2.2.2 Effective diameter
1-0, 7686ad,m .lg(deff,N,m /7,5mm)
For components with a simple shape of the cross section
for deff ~ deff,max,m it is: - as far as a cross section may be defined - the effective
~m = ~m (deff,max,m). (3.2.10) diameter is given according to the cross section in Table
3.2.3.
deff effective diameter, Chapter 3.2.2.2 ,
deff,N,m, ad,m constants, Table 3.2.1 and 3.2.2. In general the upper limit of the effective diameter is
specified in the material standards.
Considering the yield strength the values Kct,m , deff,N,m ,
and act,m have to be replaced by the values ~p , deff,N,p , For the determination of the effective diameter deff two
and ad,p (except for GG). cases are to be distinguished as to the kind of material.

Table 3.2.1 Constants deff,N,m, ... , and adm, ... , for


steel

7 The influence factors according toChapter 3.2.3 (KA), Chapter 3.2.4


(fer, f't) and Chapter 3.2.5 (KT m- ...) are supposed tobe valid for both
non-welded and welded compon~nts.
10 Valid for steel, cast iron material and aluminum alloys.
8 Footnote an Eq. (3.2.6) cancelled. 11 For structural steel and fine grain structural steel according to
9 0,7686 = 1 fig 20. DIN 18800, part 1, page 40.
3.2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength
79
using nominal stresses

Table 3.2.1 Constants deff,N,m, ... , and adm' ... , for Table3.2.2 Constants cleff,N,m , ..., and adm, ... , for
steel cast iron materials
Values inthe upper row refer tothe tensile strength R m , Values inthe upper row refer tothe tensile strength Rm ,
Values inthe lower row refer to the yield strength Rp . Values inthe lower row refer to the yield strength Rp .

Kinds of material -o1 cleff,N,m ad,m Kinds of material deff,N,m ~,m


cleff,N,p ad,p cleff,N,p ~,p

inmm -o2 inmm


Non-alloyed structural steel 40 0,15 Cast steel 100 0,15
DIN-EN 10 025 40 0,3 DIN 1681 100 0,3
Fine grain structural steel 70 0,2 Heat treatable steel casting, 300 -o1 0,15
DIN 17 102 40 0,3 DIN 17205 300 0,3
Fine grain structural steel 100 0,25 Heat treatable steel casting,
DIN EN 10 113 30 0,3 q&t, DIN 17 205, 100 0,3
Heat treatable steel, q&t 16 -o3 0,3 types -o2 No.1, 3,4 100 0,3
DIN EN 10 083-1 16 0,4 as above 200 0,15
Heat treatable steel, n 16 0,1 types -s No.2 200 0,3
DIN EN 10083-1 16 0,2 as above 200 0,15
Case hardening steel, bh 16 0,5 types No.5, 6, 8 200 0,3
DIN EN 10 083-1 16 0,5 as above 500 0,15
Nitriding steel, q&t 40 0,25 types No.7, 9 500 0,3
DIN EN 10 083-1 40 0,30 GGG 60 0,15
stainless steel - - DIN EN 1563 60 0,15
DIN EN 10 088-2 -o4 GT-o4 15 0,15
Steel for big forgings, q&t 250 0,2 DIN EN 1562 15 0,15
SEW 550-os 250 0,25
q&t= quenched and tempered
Steel for big forgings, n 250
SEW 550 250
0,15 l For GS-30 Mn 5 orGS-25 CrMo 4 there is deff,N,m = 800 mm
or 500 mm respectively, values ad,m and ad,p asgiven above.
q&t=quenched a. tempered, n=normalized, bh=blank hardened -o2 Material numbers see Table 5.1.11.
-e-I Within the kinds ofmaterial there are the types ofmaterial. -o3 Valid for strength level V I, for level V II deff,N,m = deff,N,p
-o2 More precise values depending on the kind of material (except = 100 mm with values ad,m and ad,p asabove.
for non-alloyed structural steel) see Table 5.1.2 toTable 5.1.7.
-o2 For 30 CrNiMo 8 and 36 NiCrMo 16: deffN m = 40 mm,
values ad,m and ad,p asgiven above. ' ,
Case 2
-o4 No technological size effect within the dimensions mentioned in
the material standards. Components (also forgings) made of non-alloyed
s For 28 NiCrMoV 8 5 or 33 NiCrMo 145: deff N m = deffN p structural steel, of fine grained structural steel, of
= 500mm or 1000 mm resp., values ad.m and ad.~ ~s given abo~e. normalized quenched and tempered steel, of cast steel,
or of aluminum materials.
The effective diameter deff is equal to the diameter or
Case 1
the wall thickness of the component, Table 3.2.3, case 2.
Components (also forgings) made of heat treatable steel,
of case hardening steel, of nitriding steel both nitrided
Rod-shaped (ID) components made of quenched and
or quenched and tempered, of heat treatable cast steel,
tempered steel
of GGG, GT or GG.
The effective diameter is the diameter existing while the
The effective diameters deff from Table 3.2.3, Case 1,
heat treatment is performed.
apply.
In case of machining subsequent to the heat treatment
In general it is:
the effective diameter deffis the largest diameter of the
deff= 4 V / 0, (3.2.16) rod. In case of machining prior to the heat treatment the
effective diameter deff is defined as the local diameter in
V,O Volume and surface
question. The diameter deff according to the first
of the section of the component considered.
sequence of machining is an estimate on the safe side.
3.2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength
80
using nominal stresses

Table 3.2.3 Effective diameter defi' Aluminum alloys


The anisotropy factor for cast aluminum alloys is
No. Cross section defi' defi'
KA = 1. (3.2.20)
Case 1 Case 2
For forgings 13, for which material standards specify

~
1 d d the strength values as depending on the testing
direction, the anisotropy factor is not to be applied:
(3.2.21)

~
2 2s s For aluminum alloys the anisotropy factor for the
strength values in the main direction of processing is
(3.2.22)
for the strength values transverse to the main direction
3
~ s[ 2s s
of processing the anisotropy factor from Tab. 3.2.4 is
to be applied.

~
4 2bs s
-- Table 3.2.4 Anisotropy factor K A .
b+s
Steel'
Rm up to 600 from 600 from 900 above

r:fE
5 b b inMpa to 900 to 1200 1200

KA 0,90 0,86 0,83 0,80

Alumtnum aIIoys:
Rm up to 200 from 200 from 400
3.2.3 Anisotropy factor inMpa to 400 to 600
The anisotropy factor allows for the fact that the 1,00 0,95 0,90
KA
strength values of milled steel and forgings are lower
transverse to the main direction of milling or forging
than in the main direction of processing. It is to be
supposed that the specified strength values are valid for
3.2.4 Compression strength factor and
the main direction of processing.
shear strength factor
In case of multiaxial stresses, and also with shear stress,
the anisotropy factor is 3.2.4.0 (;eneral

KA = 1. (3.2.17) The compression strength factor allows for the fact that
in general the material strength is higher in compression
than in tension.
Steel and cast iron material The shear strength factor allows for the fact that the
The anisotropy factor for cast iron material is material strength in shear is different from the tensile
strength.
KA = 1. (3.2.18)
For milled steel and forgings *12 the anisotropy factor
in the main direction of processing is 3.2.4.1 Compression strength factor

KA = 1. (3.2.19) For tensile stresses (axial or bending) the compression


strength factor is
For the strength values transverse to the main direction
of processing the anisotropy factor from Table 3.2.4 is fa = 1. (3.2.23)
to be applied. For compression stresses (axial or bending) the tensile
strength Rm and the yield strength Rp are to be replaced
by the compression strength Rc,m and the yield strength
in compression Rc,p:
Rc,m =fa ' Rm, (3.2.24)
Rc,F = fa . Rp ,
12 With material properties depending on the direction.
3.2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength
81
using nominal stresses

compression strength factor, Table 3.2.5, 3.2.5 Temperature factors


tensile strength and yield strength, see
Eq. (3.2.1) to (3.2.3). 3.2.5.0 General

The values Rc,m and Rc,p are not explicitly needed for The temperature factors allow for the fact that the
an assessment of the static strength, as only the material strength decreases with increasing temperature.
compression strength factor fa is needed. *13. Normal temperature, low temperature and higher
temperature are to be distinguished.

Table 3.2.5 Compression strength factor fa and shear


strength factor f, 3.2.5.1 Normal temperature
Normal temperatures are as follows:
Kinds of material fO" fO" f, - for fine grain structural steel from -40C to 60C,
for for ~l - for other kinds of steel from -40 DC to + lOODC,
tension compress. - for cast iron materials from -25 DC to + lOODC,
Case harden's steel 1 1 0,577 for age-hardening aluminum alloys
Stainless steel 1 1 0,577 from -25 DC to 50 DC,
Forging steel 1 1 0,577 - for non-age-hardening aluminum alloys
Other kinds of steel 1 1 0,577 from - -25C to lOODC.
GS 1 1 0,577
For normal temperature the temperature factors are
GGG 1 1,3 0,65
GT 1 1,5 0,75 KT,m = ... = 1. (3.2.26)
GG 1 2,5 0,85
Wrought aluminum 1 1 0,577
Cast aluminum 1 1,5 0,75 3.2.5.2 Low temperature
Temperatures below the values listed above are outside
~ 1 0,577 = 1 /.J3, according tov.Mises criterion,
also valid for welded components. the field of application of this guideline.

3.2.4.2 Shear strength factor 3.2.5.3 Elevated temperature

For shear stresses the tensile strength Rm and the yield In the field of elevated temperatures - up to 500C for
strength Rp are to be replaced by the shear strength R, m steel and cast iron materials and up to 200 C for
and the yield strength in shear Rs,p: ' aluminum materials - the influence of the temperature
on the mechanical properties is to be considered. In case
Rs,m = f, . Rm, (3.2.25) of elevated temperature the tensile strength R m is to be
Rs,p = f, . Rp, replaced by the high temperature strength Rrn,T or by
f, shear strength factor, Table 3.2.5 the creep strength Rrn,Tt . The yield strength Rp is to be
R m, Rp tensile strength and yield strength, replaced by the high temperature yield strength Rp,T or
Eq. (3.2.1) to (3.2.3). by the 1 % creep limit Rp,Tt *14.

The values Rs,m and Rs,p are not explicitly needed for For the short-term values Rm,T and Rp,T as well as for
an assessment of the strength, as only the shear strength the long-term values Rm,Tt and Rp,Tt the Eq. (3.2.27) to
factor f, is needed. (3.2.35) apply.

13 Tensile strength and yield strength incompression are supposed to be 14 The relevant temperature factors will be applied in combination
positive, Rc,rn, Rc,p > 0, therefore for compression fO" > 1. with the safety factors at the assessment stage.
3.2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength
82
using nominal stresses

Short-term values
For GG a yield strength value is not defined and
therefore the value Rp,T does not exist.
Short term values of the static strength are
Hightemperarure
Rm,T = KT,m . R m , (3.2.27) yield strength Rp T
Rp,T = KT,p . R p ,
I % creep limit Rp,Tt
KT,m, Kt,p. temperature factors,
Rp,Tt Rp I
Eq. (3.2.28) to (3.2.33), ~'RII1'jpt
R m, R p tensile strength and yield strength,
Creep Strength R;";Tt
Eq. (3.2.1) to (3.2.3). O,21--~+---+---+---+>o&..,..-..j Rrn.Tt I
The values Rm,T and Rp,T are not explicitly needed for ~'jmt
an assessment of the static strength, as only the
temperature factors KT,m and KT,p are needed. 0,11----1-----4---'4-4-'--\-1.

Steel and cast iron materials o


According to the temperature T the temperature factors
o 160 200 360 400 500
KT,m and KT,p apply as follows: 1.2.2 Tin C

for fine grain structural steel, T > 60 C *15: OA r---,....,.--,--------,--------...,


Rm,T High temperature
KT.m = KT,p = 1 - 1,2' 10.3 . T / DC, (3.2.28) Rm 'jm strengtli R,.,T
for other kinds of steel *16, T > 100C, Figure CreepStrength Rrn,Tt
0,3: I---t---t=""'-.;;;:c--/-'--
1.2.2: (3.2.29) RIlj;TI I
KT,m = KT,p = 1-1,7' 10,3. (T / C -100), Rm'jmt

for GS, T> 100D C : (3.2.30) 0,21---+---+---+--+\----,""1


-3 0
KT,m = KT,p = 1- 1,5 . 10 . (T / C - 100),
for GGG, GT and GG, T > 100D C, Figure 3.2.2:
K T.m = Kr,p = 1- aT,m . (10 -3. T / DC) 2. (3.2.31)

aT,m Constant

Eq. (3.2.28) to (3.2.31) are valid from the indicated o 100 200300 400 500
temperature T up to 500 DC. For a temperature above 3.2.2b Tin C
350 C they are valid only, if the relevant characteristic
stress does not act on long terms. Figure 3.2.2 Temperature dependent values of the
static strength of non-alloyed structural steel and of GG
plotted for comparison.
Table 3.2.6 Constant aT,m .
Safety factors after Chapter 3.5.
Kind of material GGG GT GG Rm,T/Rm= KT,m, Rp,T/Rp=KT,p,
2,4 2,0 1,6 Rm,Tt/ Rm = KTt,m, Rp,Tt / Rp = KTt,p'
aT,m
Top: Non-alloyed structural steel with Rp / Rm = Re / Rm = 0,65,
Rm,T, Rp,T aswell as Rm,T1> Rp,Tt fort = 105 h,
Jm= 2,0, jp =Jmt= 1,5 , Jpt= 1,0.
Bottom: 00,
Rm,T aswell as Rm,Tt fort = 105 h,
Jm= 3,0, jmt= 2,4.

15There isan insignificant discontinuity at T = 60C.


16 For stainless steel no values are known up to now.
3.2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength
83
using nominal stresses

Aluminum alloys Long-term values


According to the temperature T the temperature factors Long term values of the static strength are
KT,mand KT,p for aluminum alloys apply as follows:
R""Tt = KTt,m . R; , (3.2.34)
- for age-hardening aluminum alloys: T > 50 DC, ~,Tt = KTt,p . ~,
Figure 3.2.3 (3.2.32)
Kr,m = 1 - 4,5 . 10 -3. (T / DC - 50) ;:: 0,1, KTt,m, KTt,p temperature factors,
Figure 3.2.2 and 3.2.3, Eq. (3;2.35),
Kr,p = 1 - 4,5 . 10 -3. (T / DC - 50) ;:: 0,1,
Rm, R, tensile strength and yield strength;
- for non-age-hardening aluminum alloys: Eq. (3.2.1) to (3.2.3).
T> 100C, Figure 3.2.3 (3.2.33)
Kr,m = 1 - 4,5 . 10 -3. (T / C - 100) ~ 0,1, The values R""Tt and ~,Tt are not needed explicitly for
an assessment of the static strength, as only the
Kr,p = 1 - 4,5 . 10 -3 . (T / C - 100) ~ 0,1,
temperature factors KTt,m and KTt,p are needed.
Eq. (3.2.32) and (3.2.33) are valid from the indicated
temperature T up to 200C, and in general only, if the
Steel and cast iron material
relevant characteristic stress does not act on long terms.
For GG a yield strength value is not defined and
therefore the value Rp,Tt does not exist.

0,5 Depending on the temperature T and on the operation


High temperaturc
time t at that temperature the temperature factors KTt,m
strengthRm,T
and KTt,p apply, Figure 3.2.2 *17
Ri'D;'l'l
R. 'Jm = 10(aTt,m+ bTt,m . Pm+ cTt,m . Pm )
2
K Tt,m , (3.2.35)
CrecpStrellgth
. IR..Tt K = lO(aTt,p+b Tt,p Pp+cTt,p .pp2 )
Rm,Tt 1
np ,
}fn7'jlllt Pm = 10 -4. (T / C + 273)' (C m + 19(t/ hj),
Pp = 10 - 4. (T / C + 273) . (C m + 19(t / hj),
aTt,m, ..., Cp constants, Table 3.2.7,
t operation time in hours h at the
I
Higll temperature
temperature T.

fatigueslrength Eq. (3.2.35) applies to temperatures from approximately


0,1 .Gw,zd,t'--""'+-~----f+----+l,o-;__+\_~ 350C up to 500C, but only for stresses acting on long
6W;.d.T .00Wd
crw.>.d . R., .jo1 terms. In general they do not apply to temperatures
below about 350C *18.
o
o so 100 150 200 250 100
1.2.3 T/'C

Figure 3.2.3 Temperature dependent values of the static


strength of aluminum alloys plotted for comparison.
Static strength values:
Rm,T/Rm = KT,m = Rp,T/Rp = KT,p'
Rm,Tt/ Rm = KTt,m = Rp,Tt / Rp = KTt,p .
Rm,Tt,Rp,Tt for t = 105 h.
Fatigue limit for completely reversed stress (N = 106 cycles):
crW,zd / Rm = 0,30 ; crW,zd,T / crW,zd = KT,D .

Safety factors according to Chapter 3.5 and 4.5:

17 Larsen-Miller-parameter P andLarsen-Miller-constant C.

18 Because the values would be unrealistic for temperatures


T < 350C, where thevalues KT,m andKT,p are relevant instead.
3.2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength
84
using nominal stresses

Table 3.2.7 Constants aTt,m, ... , C p ~1 Aluminum alloys


For aluminum alloys and t = 105 hours KTt,m is given by
Steel Non- Fine grain Heat- Figure 1.2.4 *19.
alloyed structural treatable-
structural steel steel 1,0

~2
steel
~3 ~4 ~5
R"..TI {R".
0,8
\
Creep strength 0,6
\\
aTt.m - 0,994 -1,127 - 3,001
0,4
b Tlm 2,485 2,485 3,987
CTtm - 1,260 - 1,260 - 1,423 0,2
\ i
Cm 20
1 % Creep limit
20 24,27
o i ~
RT -100 200 300 400
Trc
aTt.n - 5,019 - 6,352 - 3,252
bTt.n 7,227 9,305 5,942 Figure 3.2.4 Temperature factor KTl,m ~ R.n.Tt/ R.n for
5
cTt.n - 2,636 - 3,456 - 2,728 aluminum alloys and t = 10 hours.
Co 20 20 17,71 The given curve is the same as in Figure 3.2.3, except that the factor
(1 / jm ) is different.

Cast iron GS GGG,GT GG


material ~6 ~7 ~8

Creep strength

aTtm -7,524 2,50 -1,46


bTtm 9,894 - 1,83 2,36
- 3,417 -0,90
CTtm
Cm 19,57
20 25
1 % Creep limit
aTtn - 10,582 0,12 -
b Tln 8,127 1,52 -
CTt.n - 1,607 - 1,28 -
Cn 35,76 18 -
<-I Approximate values, applicable from about 350 0 e to 500 o e.
~2 Not valid for stainless steel.
~3 Initially for 8t 38, Rm = 360 MPa, similar to sr37.
~4 Initially for H 52, Rm = 490 MPa, similar to 8tE 355; the absolute
values Rm,Tt are the same as for St 38.
~5 Initially for e 45 N (normalized) with Rm = 620 MPa. For C 35 N,
with Rm = 550 MPa the constants -3,001 and -3,252 are to be replaced
by -2,949 and -3,198. The absolute values Rm,Tt are the same as for
C45N.
~6 Initially for 08-C 25 with Rm = 440 MPa.
~7 Initially for 000-40 with Rm = 423 MPa.

~7 Initially for 00-25 with Rm = 250 MPa.

19 The temperature factor Kt,p is not defmed up to now. It may be


assumed, however, as it is essential for the assessment of the static
strength, that the term Rp,Tt / jpt is more or less equal to Rm,Tt / jmt , see
Figure 1.2.2 (required safety factorsjpt = 1,0 andjmt = 1,5).
A Larsen-Millerequation similar to Eq. (3.2.32) or (3.2.33) applicable to
derive the values of KTt,m and KTt, according to temperature T and
operationtime T has not been specifieffor aluminum alloys up to now.
85
3.3 Design parameters 3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses

3.3 Design parameters 1R33 EN.dog 3.3.1.2 Welded components

Contents Page For welded components the design factors are generally
to be determined separately for the toe and for the root
3.3.0 General 85 of the weld.
3.3.1 Design factors For the toe of the weld the calculation is to be carried
3.3.1.0 General out as for non-welded components.
3.3.1.1 Non-welded components
3.3.1.2 Welded components For the root of the weld of rod-shaped (ID) welded
components the design factors for normal stress (tension
3.3.2 Section factors or compression) and for shear stress are
3.3.3 Plastic notch factors 87
3.3.4 Weld factor CI.w KSK,a = 1/ (npl,a . fJ.w KNd , (3.3.4)
3.3.5 Constant KNL 88 KsK,~ = 1 / (npl,~ . fJ.w ) .

For the root of the weld of shell-shaped (2D) welded


components the design factors for normal stress (tension
or compression) in the directions x and y as well as for
3.3.0 General shear are
According to this chapter the design parameters are to KSK,ax = 1 / (npl,ax . CI.w ..KNL ), (3.3.5)
be determined.
KsK,cry = 1 / (npl,cry . CI.w' KNL ),
KSK,~ = 1 / (npl,~ . CI.w),

3.3.1 Design factors npl,a, ... section factor, Chapter 3.3.2


fJ.w weld factor, Chapter 3.3.4.
3.3.1.0 General KNL constant for GG, Chapter 3.3.5
Non-welded and welded components are to be Weld factors CI.w are given for tension, for compression,
distinguished. They can be both rod-shaped (lD), for shear and for torsion of the throat section.
shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped (3D).
For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components
may be welded at the surface, for example by surfacing
3.3.1.1 Non-welded components welds. Then the calculation is to be carried out as for
shell-shaped (2D) welded components, if the stresses at
The design factors of rod-shaped (lD) non-welded the surface ax, a y and 1: are of interest only.
components for normal stress (tension or compression)
and for shear stress are
KSK,a = 1/ (npl,a . KNd, (3.3.1) 3.3.2 Section factors
KSK;t = I / npl;t .
The section factors npl,a , ... allow for the influence of
The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) non-welded the stress gradient in connection with the shape of the
components for normal stress (tension or compression) cross section on the static strength of the component,
in the directions x and y as well as for shear are Figure 1.3.1. They serve to make best use of the load
KSK, ax = 1/ (npl,a . KNd, (3.3.2) carrying capacity by accepting some yielding as the
KsK,ay = I / (npl,a . KNL), outside fiber stress exceeds the yield strength.
KSK,~ = 1 / npl,~ . An essential condition is the existence of a stress
The design factors of block-shaped (3D) non-welded gradient of the stress a and/or 1: normal to the surface of
components for the principle stresses (tension or the component, Figure 3.3.1. A stress gradient parallel
compression) in the directions 1, 2 and 3 (normal to the to the surface is not considered for the section factor *1.
surface of the component) *1 are
KSK,al = 1 / (npl,a . KNL), (3.3.3)
KSK,a2 = I / (npl,a . KNL),
K SKa3 = 1/ KNL *',
npl,a ... section factor, Chapter 1.3.2,
KNL constant for GG, Chapter 3.3.4
1 For the stress components ax, a y , t, a, and a2the stress gradient of
interest is normal to the direction ofthestress, Figure 3.3.1. A stress
gradient of a3it is not considered and np l,53 = I , because the stress
gradient as defined above isparallel toa3.
86
3.3 Design parameters 3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses

For austenitic steel in the solution annealed condition


according to Table 5.1.8 the section factors for normal
stress (tension or compression) and for shear stress
are *4

npl,a = Kp,a , (3.3.8)


npl;t = K p,~ .
For all other kinds of material the section factors for
normal stress and for shear stress are *5 *6

npl,a = MIN (~Et:ertr /R p ; Kp,a), (3.3.9)


npl,~ = MIN (~Et:ertr /R p ; Kp,~),
~rlr
E Young's modulus, Table 3.3.1,
npl'''=R , limit value of total strain, Table 3.3.1,
yield strength, Chapter 3.2,
plastic notch factors.

Aluminum alloys
10 15 For cast aluminum alloys as well as for wrought
~
3.3.1 Rp/E aluminum alloy with small elongation, A '< 8 %, the
section factors are *3:

npl,a = .., = 1. (3.3.10)


Figure 3.3.1 Definition of the section factor npl,a of a
notched component, for instance. For ductile wrought aluminum alloys, A:2: 8 %, the
section factors are to be determined from Eq. (3.3.9).
Top: Detail of the component. Yield strength Rp , component
static strength for normal stress aSK section factor
npl,a = aSK / Rp , load F.
Continuous curve: Fictitious distribution of the elastically computed Table 3.3.1 Young's modulus E and limit values of
stress. Curve limited to Rp: Real stress distribution providing elastic total strain Eertr .
ideal-plastic material behavior.
Bottom: Stress-strain curve of the component (relative scales). Kinds of material Steel GS GGG GT AI
Plastic notch factor Kp,a , limit value of total strain Sertr , Young's' alloys
modulus E. 10-5. E / MPa 2,1 2,1 1,7 1,8 0,70
Eertr/ % ~1 5 5 2 ~2 2 2 ~3

Surface hardened components


~ 1 Sertr / % '" 5 means Sertr = 0,05
The section factors are not applicable if the component ~2 Valid for As < 12,5 %. For Aj z 12,5% thereis Sertr=4%.
has been surface or case hardened, see Table 2.3.5 *2:
~3 Valid for A < 12,5%. For A~ 12,5% thereis Sertr = 5 %.
npl,a = ... = 1. (3.3.6)

Steel and cast iron material


For GG as well as for types of GT or GGG with small
elongation, A 3 < 8 % or A5 < 8 %, the section factors
are *3:
npl,a = ... = 1. (3.3.7)
3 Because of the low plasticity of these materials.

4 Because of the high ductility of austenitic steel in the solution


2 A hard surface layer - for example as a result of case hardening annealed condition the plastic notch factors Kp,a and Kp;r are
and particularly at notches - may observe cracks when yielding relevant instead of the material dependent sectionfactors.
occurs because of the limited plasticity of the hardened surface layer.
5 MIN means that thesmaller valuefrom the rightsideofthe equation is
Possibly this rule is too far on the safe side, as npl = 1,1 is allowed valid.
for case hardened shafts according to the recent DIN 743 (launched in
2000). 6 Section factor based on Neuber's formula.
87
3.3 Design parameters 3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses

3.3.3 Plastic notch factors ..


Table 3 3 2 Plastic notch factors K-n.o and K . ~n~

Cross section Bending Torsion


The section factors according to Eq. (3.3.8) and (3.3.9)
Kp,b Kp,t
are limited by the plastic notch factors Kp,a and
Kp,~ that depend on the plastic limit load: rectangle ~ 1 1,5 -
circle 1,70 ~2 1,33 ~3
plastic limit load
K K = -=-------- (3.3.11) circular ring 1,27 ~4 p5
p,a, p,~ elastic limit load
I-section or box ~6
-
The elastic limit load for normal stress (and for shear
~1 or plate, ~21,70=16/(3'1t), ~3 1,33=4/3.
stress) is defined as the load for which the maximum
~4 thin-walled, 1,27 = 4/1t.
local stress exceeds the yield stress.
~5 thin-walled, otherwisethere is
The plastic limit load of a component may be obtained K = 133 1-(dlD)3
p.t r- 4 ' (3.3.14)
most reliable from an elastic-plastic finite element v

1-(dlD)
analysis. To reduce the computing effort for such an
d, D inner and outer diameters.
analysis a simplified elastic-ideal-plastic stress strain
1- (b 1 B) (h 1 H)2
curve may be used and the finite element mesh may be ~6 Kp,b = 1,5 . 3 (3.3.15)
less fine than for computing notch stresses. 1- (b 1 B) . (h 1 H)
b, B inner and outer width, h, H inner and outer hight.
Approximately the plastic limit load may be derived as
follows:
Definition and plotting of the cross section which
will determine the limit state,
Entering the yield stresses o = Rp and 't = f~' Rp 3.3.4 Weld factor Uw
into the plotted cross section (f~ from Table 3.2.5),
. Balancing the areas of the section under + Rp and The weld factor CJ..w accounts for the effect of a weld. It
Rp to obtain a similarity between these stresses and applies to the root of the weld of welded components
the external loading situation. only, Table 3.3.3 *9 .
In general realization of the described procedure is not
easy and the formulation of an appropriate algorithm is
difficult. Table 3.3.3 Weld factor CI..w ~1 .

Particular case Type of R m ::; Rm >


Joint Weld quality
stress 360 MPa 360 MPa
In case of a component for which nominal stresses may
full all Compression
be defined for the section of concern, and the ~2
penetration
corresponding stress concentration factors for tension or
weld verified 1,0 1,0
compression, for bending, for shear and for torsion are
or with Tension 10
known *7 *8, the plastic notch factors are as follows:
back weld not
Kp,a = Kt,zd, (3.3.13) verified
Kp,a = Kp,b . Kt,b , partial all Compression 0,95 0,80
Kp,~ = Kt,s, penetration or or 0,80
Kp,~ = Kp,t' Kt,t. fillet weld Tension

Kt,zel, stress concentration factor, Chapter 5.2, all all Shear


Kp,b, plastic notch factors, Table 3.3.2.
bun weld ~3 Tension 0,55 -
It has to be observed, however, that the so-derived 055
plastic notch factors only apply to the notched section
~I Accordingto DIN 18800 part 1, Table 21 and Eq. (75).
considered and not to the component as a whole.
Therefore other sections may have to be considered in ~2 For aluminium alloys (independent of Rm ) the values typed in
addition, see Chapter 3.0 and Figure 3.0.1. boldfaceshould be applied for the time being.
~3 Butt welds of sectional steel from St 37-2 and USt 37-2 with a
product thickness t > 16 mm,

7 Usually stress concentraction factors do nor exist in combinationwith


local stresses.
8 The stress concentration factors Kt.o and Kt., given in Chapter 5.12 for
a substitute structure are intended to be used in Chapter 4.3.1.1 only and 9 For the toe of a weld the calculation is to be carried out as for non-
should not be used in the present context. welded components.
88 3 Assessment of the static strength
3.3 Design parameters
using local stresses

3.3.5 Constant K NL
The Constant KNL allows for the non-linear elastic
stress strain characteristic of GG in tension and
compression or in bending.
For all kinds of material except for GG there is
K NL = 1. (3.3.16)
For GG the values
K NL = KNL,Zug (3.3.17)
apply to the tension side of the cross section (tension or
tension from bending).
The reciprocal values
KNL,Druck = 1/ KNL,Zug (3.3.18)
apply to the compression side of the cross section
(compression or compression in bending).
Values of the KNL,Zug and KNL,Druck from Table 3.3.4.

Table 3.3.4 Constant KNL -c- 1.

Type of GG GG GG GG GG GG
material -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35

KNL,Zug 1,15 1,15 1,10 1,10 1,05 1,05

KNL,Druck 0,87 0,87 0,91 0,91 0,95 0,95

~ 1 For unnotched and slightly notched components at tension or


compression there is KNL = 1.
89
3.4 Component strength 3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses

3.4 Component strength 1R34 EN.dog 3.4.2 Welded components


For welded components the strength values are
generally to be determined separately for the toe and for
Contents Page the root of the weld.
3.4.0 General 89 For the toe of the weld the calculation is to be carried
3.4.1 Non-welded components out as for non-welded components.
3.4.2 Welded components
For the root of the weld of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components the local values of the component static
3.4.0 General strength for normal stress (tension or compression) as
well as for shear stress are
According this chapter the local values of the
component static strength are to be determined. csx = fa . Rm I KSK,a , (3.4.4)
'tSK = f~' Rml KsK,~.
Non-welded and welded components are to be
distinguished. They can be both rod-shaped (10), shell- For the root of the weld of shell-shaped (2D) welded
shaped (2D), or block-shaped (3D). components the local values of the component static
strength for normal stresses (tension or compression) in
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
3.4.1 Non-welded components
crSK,x = fa . Rm I KSK,ax , (3.4.5)
The local values of the component static strength of rod-
crSK,y = fa . Rm I KsK,cry ,
shaped (lD) components for normal stress (tension or
TSK = f~' Rml KSK,~,
compression) and for shear stress are *1 *2
fa compression strength factor, Chapter 3.2.4,
O'sK=fa'Rm/KSK,a, (3.4.1) f~ shear strength factor, Chapter 3.2.4.
'tSK = f~ . Rm I KSK,~ . Rm tensile strength, Chapter 3.2.1,
The local values of the component static strength of KsK, a, ... design factor, Chapter 3.3.1.
shell-shaped (2D) components for normal stresses
(tension or compression) in the directions x and y as For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components
well as for shear stress are may be welded at the surface, for example by surfacing
welds. Then the calculation is to be carried out as for
O'SK,x = fa . Rm I KSK,ax , (3.4.2) shell-shaped (2D) welded components, if the stresses at
O'SK,y = fa . Rm I KsK,cry , the surface crx , cry and r are of interest only.
'tSK = f~' Rml KsK,~ .
compression strength factor, Chapter 3.2.4,
shear strength factor, Chapter 3.2.4,
tensile strength, Chapter 3.2.1,
design factor, Chapter 3.3.1.

The local values of the component static strength of


block-shaped (3D) components for the principal stresses
(tension or compression) in the directions 1, 2 and 3 are
O'l,SK = fa . Rm I KSK,a1 , (3.4.3)
0'2,SK = fa . Rm I KSK,a2 ,
0'3,SK = fa . Rm I K SK,a3 ,
fa compression strength factor, Chapter 3.2.4,
Rm tensile strength, Chapter 3.2.1,
KSK,al ... design factor, chapter 3.3.1.

1 The component static strength values are different for normal stress and
for shear stress, and moreover they are different due to different section
factors according to the type of stress.
2 Basically the tensile strength Rm is the reference value of static
strength, even if in the case of a low Rp / Rm ratio the yield strength is
to be used for the assessment of the static strength, a fact that is accounted
for in Chapter 1.5.5.
90
3.5 Safety factors 3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses

3.5 Safety factors 1R35 EN .docl


Table 3.5.1 Safety factors jm and jp for steel
(not for GS) and for ductile wrought aluminum alloys
Contents Page As> 12,5 %).
3.5.0 General 90 jm ->1 Consequences of failure
3.5.1 Steel jp ->2 severe moderate
3.5.2 jmt ->3
Cast iron materials ->S
3.5.2.0 General jpt ->4
3.5.2.1 Ductile cast iron materials
3.5.2.2 Non-ductile cast iron materials 91 high 2,0 1,75
3.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys 1,5 1,3
3.5.3.0 General Probability of 1,5 1,3
3.5.3.1 Ductile wrought aluminum alloys occurrence of 1,0 1,0
3.5.3.2 Non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys the characteristic
low 1,8 1,6
3.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys service stress ->6 1,35 1,2
3.5.5 Global safety factor 92 values
1,35 1,2
1,0 1,0
3.5.0 General ->1 referring tothe tensile strength Rm ortothe strength atelevated
temperature RmT,
According to this chapter the safety factors are to be ->2 referring tothe yield strength Rp ortothe hot yield strength Rp,T ,
determined *1. ->3 referring tothe creep strength Rm,Tt,
The safety factors are valid under the condition that the ->4 referring tothe creep limit Rp,Tt .
design loads are reliably determined on the safe side and ->S moderate consequences of failure of a less important component in
that the material properties correspond to an average the sense of "no catastrophic effects" being associated with a failure; for
example because of a load redistribution towards other members of a
probability of survival of Po = 97,5 % *2. statically undeterminate system. Reduction byapproximately IS %.
The safety factors may be reduced under favorable ->6 or only infrequent occurrences of the characteristic service stress
conditions, that is depending on the probability of values, for example due to anapplication ofproof loads or due to loads
during anassembling operation. Reduction byapproximately 10 %.
occurrence of the characteristic stress values in question
and depending on the consequences offailure.
The safety factors are valid both for non-welded and
welded components.
3.5.2 Cast iron materials
3.5.2.0 General
The safety factors given in the following are valid for
ductile and for non-ductile materials. In this respect any Ductile and non-ductile cast iron materials are to be
types of steel are ductile materials, as well as cast iron distinguished.
materials and wrought aluminum alloys with an
elongation As~ 12,5 %, while GT, GG and cast
aluminum alloys are always considered as non-ductile 3.5.2.1 Ductile cast iron materials
materials here. *3
Cast iron materials with an elongation
A5~12,5 % are considered as ductile, in particular all
types of GS and some types of GGG (not GT and not
3.5.1 Steel GG). Values of elongation see Table 5.1.12.
Safety factors applicable to the tensile strength and to Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials are given
the yield strength, to the creep strength and to the creep by Table 3.5.2. Compared to Table 3.5.1 they are
limit are given in Table 3.5.1. higher because of an additional partial safety factor jF
that accounts for inevitable but allowable defects in
castings. The factor is different for castings that have
1 The safety factors in Chapter 1.5 are the same, but with the been subject to non-destructive testing or have not *4 .
difference, that non-ductile cast iron materials and non-ductile
aluminum alloys are considered here as well.
2 Statistical confidence S = SO %. 4 In mechanical engineering. cast components areof standard quality
for which a further reduction of the partial safety factor to jr = 1,0
3 All types of GT, GG and cast aluminum alloys have elongations does not seem possible up to now.
As < 12,S % and are considered as non-ductile materials here. Wrought
aluminum alloys with elongations As < 12,S % are considered asnon- A safety factor jF = 1,0 may be applied to high quality cast
ductile materials, too. For non-ductile materials the assessment of the components in the aircraft industry however. Those high quality cast
static strength is to be carried outwith local stresses. components have to meet special demands and (cont'dpage 91)
91
3.5 Safety factors 3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses

Table 3.5.2 Safety factors jm and jp for ductile cast iron GG


materials (GS; GGG with A5~ 12,5 %) -}1 0,5
Aj
jm Consequences of failure
jp severe moderate
jmt
Jpt
o 1U 12,5 20
As ,A3 in %
castings not subject to non-destructive testing-}2 Figure 3.5.1 Value L\j to be added to the safety factors
high 2,8 2,45 jm and jp , defmed as a function of the elongation As or
2,1 1,8 A3 respectively.
Probability of 2,1 1,8
occurrence of 1,4 1,4
the characteristic low 2,55 2,2 3.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys
service stress 1,9 1,65
values 1,9 1,65 3.5.3.0 General
1,4 1,4
Ductile and non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys are to
castings subject to non-destructive testing -}3 be distinguished.
high 2,5 2,2
1,9 1,65
Probability of 1,9 1,65
3.5.3.1 Ductile wrought aluminum alloys
occurrence of 1,25 1,25 Wrought aluminum alloy with an elongation
the characteristic low 2,25 2,0 A ~ 12,5 % are considered as ductile materials. Values
service stress 1,7 1,5 of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
values 1,7 1,5
The safety factors for ductile wrought aluminum alloys
1,25 1,25
are the same as for steel, Table 3.5.1.
-}1 Explanatory notes for the safety factors see Table 3.5.1.
-}2 Compared to Table 3.5.1 an additional partial safety factor jF = 1,4
is introduced to account for inevitable but allowable defects in castings. 3.5.3.1 Non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys
-}3 Compared to Table 3.5.1 an additional partial safety factor jF = 1,25
is introduced, for which it is assumed that a higher quality of the castings Wrought aluminum alloy with an elongation
is obviously guaranteed when testing. A < 12,5 % are considered as non-ductile materials.
Values of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
3.5.2.2 Non-ductile cast iron materials For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys all safety
factors from Table 3.5.2 are to be increased by adding a
Cast iron materials with an elongation As < 12,5 % value L\j, Figure 3.5.1 and Eq. (3.5.2).
(A3 < 12,5 % for GT) are considered as non-ductile
materials, in particular some types of GGG as well as
all types of GT and GG. Values of elongation for GGG 3.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys
and GT see Table 5.1.12 or 5.1.13. The value for GG
is As = 0 *5. Cast aluminum alloys are always considered as non-
ductile materials. Values of elongation see Table 5.1.31
For non-ductile cast iron materials the safety factors to 5.1.38.
from Table 3.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value
L\j, Figure 3.5.1 *6: For cast aluminum alloys all safety factors from Table
3.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value L\j, Figure
L\j = 0,5 -~A5 /50%. (3.5.2) 3.5.1 and Eq. (3.5.2).
AS Elongation, to be replaced by A3 for GT.

6 For example the safety factor Jm for GG is at least


checks' on qualification of the production process, as well as on the
quality and extent of product testing in order to guarantee little jm = 2,0 + O,S = 2,S . (3.S.3)
scatter of their mechanical properties.
( jm = 2,0 from Table 3.5.2, moderate consequences, non-
5 For GG the values Jp and Jpt are not relevant since the yield strength destructively tested, low probability, ~j=O,S for AS = 0 from Eq.
and the creep limit of GO are not specified. (3.S.2) ).
92
3.5 Safety factors 3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses

3.5.5 Total safety factor


From the individual safety factors the total safety factor
is to be derived *7:
jges

jges = (3.5.4)

MAX(~ ~.Rm ~ ~.Rm]


KT,m ' KT,p R p ' KTt,m ' KTt,p n, ,
.lm ... safety factors, Table 3.5.1 and 3.5.2,
Kt,m ... temperature factors, Chapter 3.2.5 *8.

Simplifications
The following simplifications apply to Eq. (3.5.4):

In the case of normal temperature the third and


fourth term have no relevance *9, and moreover
there is KT,m = K T. p =1 ,

for Rp / Rms 0,75 the first term has no relevance,


for Rp / Rm > 0,75 the second term has no
relevance * 10,

for GG the second and fourth term have no


relevance *11.

7 MAX means that the maximum value of the four terms in the
parenthetical expression is valid.

8 Applicable to the tensile strength Rm or to the yield strength Rp to


allow for the tensile strength at elevated temperature ~ T ' the hot yield
strength ~,T' the creep strength Rm,Tt , or the creep limit Rp,Tt,
respectively'

9 The terms containing the factors KTt,m and KTt,p must not be applied
in the case of normal temperature, as they will produce misleading results.

10 If there is a ratio of the safety factorsjp I jm = 0,75.

11 Since a yield strength and a creep limit are not specified.


93
3.6 Assessment 3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

3.6 Assessment !R36 EN.dog


strength, O"SK , ..., divided by the total safety factor jges.
The degree of utilization is always a positive value.
Contents Page
3.6.0 General 93
Superposition
3.6.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
3.6.1.1 Individual types of stress For stress components of the same type of stress the
3.6.1.2 Combined types of stress 94 superposition is to be carried out according to Chapter
3.1.
3.6.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
3.6.2.1 Individual types of stress If different types of stress like normal stress and shear
3.6.2.2 Combined types of stress 95 stress act simultaneously and if the resulting state of
stress is multiaxial, see Figure 0.0.9 *5, the particular
3.6.2 Block-shaped (3D) components extreme maximum stresses and the extreme minimum
3.6.2.1 Individual types of stress stresses are to be overlaid as indicated in the following.
3.6.2.2 Combined types of stress 96

Kinds of component
3.6.0 General
Rod-shaped (lD), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
According to this chapter the assessment of the (3D) components are to be distinguished. They can be
component static strength using local stresses is to be both non-welded or welded
carried out.
In general the assessments for the individual types of
stress and for the combined stress are to be carried out 3.6.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
separately * I *2. 3.6.1.1 Individual types of stress
In general the assessments for the extreme maximum Rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components
and minimum stresses (normal stresses in tension and
compression and/or shear stress) are to be carried out The degrees of utilization of rod-shaped non-welded
separately. For steel or wrought aluminum alloys the components for the different types of stress like normal
highest absolute value of stress is relevant *3. stress or shear stress are

The calculation applies to both non-welded and welded Cimax,ex


components. For welded components assessments are aSK,O' = ~ 1, (3.6.1)
CiSK / jges
generally to be carried out separately for the toe and for
the root of the weld as indicated in the following. 'tmax,ex
aSK,~ = s 1,
'tSK / jges
Degree of utilization O"max,ex, , ... extreme maximum stresses according to
The assessments are to be carried out by determining the type of stress; the extreme minimum
degrees of utilization of the component static strength. stresses, O"min,ex, , ..., are to be considered
In the context of the present Chapter the degree of in the same way as the maximum stresses,
utilization is the quotient of the characteristic stress Chapter 3.1.1.1,
(extreme stress O"max,ex, , ...) divided by the allowable O"SK, ... related component static strength,
static stress at the reference point *4. The allowable Chapter 3.4.1,
static stress is the quotient of the component static
jges total safety factor, Chapter 3.5.5.
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In
general normal stresses in tension or compression are
I It is a general principle for an assessment of the static strength to to be considered separately. For shear the highest
suppose that all types of stress observe their maximum (or minimum) absolute value of shear stress is relevant.
values atthe same time.
2 This is in order toexamine the degrees ofutilization ofthe individual
types ofstress in general, and in particular if they may occur separately. 5 Only in the case ofstresses acting simultaneously the character ofEq.
(1.6.4) and (1.6.12) isthat ofa strength hypothesis. If Eq. (1.6.4) and
3 Different in the case ofcast iron materials or cast aluminium alloys with (1.6.12) are applied in other cases, they have the character ofan empirical
different static tension and compression strength values. interaction formula only. For example the extreme stresses from bending
and shear will -as arule - occur atdifferent points ofthe cross-section, so
4 The reference point isthe critical point ofthe cross section that observes that different reference points W are to be considered. As a rule bending
the highest degree ofutilization. will be more important. Moreover see Footnote 1.
94
3.6 Assessment 3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

Rod-shaped (ID) welded components For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) there is q = 0,5 , otherwise
For the toe of the weld of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components the calculation is to be carried out as for ./3-(l/f't) 7
rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components. q
./3-1
*' (3.6.7)

For the root of the weld of rod-shaped (lD) welded f, shear strength factor, Table 3.2.5.
components the degrees of utilization for normal stress
and/or shear stress follow from the equivalent nominal Rod-shaped (ID) welded components
stresses, Chapter 3.1.1.1:
For the toe of the weld of rod-shaped (lD) welded
. O"max,ex wv components the calculation is to be carried out as for
aSK, wv,e = / .'.$; 1, (3.6.2) rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components.
O"SK Jges
For the root of the. weld of rod-shaped (ID) welded
'tmax, ex,wv components the degree of utilization for combined types
aSK,wv,'t = ..$; 1,
'tSK / Jges of stress (or loadings) is *8

O"max,ex,wv , ... Extreme maximum equivalent structural (3.6.8)


stresses; the extreme minimum stresses,
Smin,ex,wv,zd .. , , are to be considered in aSK,wv,cr, ... degree of utilization , Eq. (3.6.2).
the same way as the maximum stresses,
Chapter 3.1.1.1, 3.6.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
O"SK, ... related component static strength 3.6.2.1 Individual types of stress
values, Chapter 3.4.2, Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components
total safety factor, Chapter 3.5.5. The degrees of utilization of shell-shaped (20) non-
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In welded components for the types of stress like normal
general normal stresses in tension or compression are to stress in the directions x and y as well as shear stress are
be considered separately. For shear the highest absolute
value of shear stress is relevant. O"max,ex,x
asK,crx = ..$; 1, (3.6.9)
O"SK,x / Jges

3.6.1.2 Combined types of stress O"max,ex,y


asK,cry = ..$; 1,
Rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components O"SK,y / Jges

For rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components the degree 't max, ex


I----I.$; 1,
of utilization for combined types of stress is *6 'tSK / jges
aSK,crv = q . aNH + (l - q) . llGH.$; 1, (3.6.4)
O"max,ex,x, ... Extreme maximum stresses according to
where type of stress, Chapter 3.1.1.1; the

aNH={lsl +~s2 +4.t


2)' extreme minimum stresses, O"min,ex,x , ...,
(3.6.5) are to be considered in the same way as
the maximum stresses, Chapter 3.1.1.2,

s = aSK,cr , (3.6.6)
t = aSK,cr , 7Table 1.6.1 Constant q(f t ) .

aSK,cr, .., degree of utilization, Eq. (3.6.1). Steel, GOO GT, GG


Wrought Cast
AI-alloys Al-alloys
r, 0,577 0,65 0,75 0,85
q 0,00 0,264 0,544 0,759
6 The applied strength hypothesis for combined types of stress is a
combination ofthe normal stress criterion (NH) and the v. Mises criterion Caution: For non-ductile wrought aluminium alloys (elongation
(GH). Depending on the ductility of the material the combination is A < 12,5 %) there is q = 0,5.
controlled by a parameter q as a function off, according to Eq. (1.6.7)
and Table 1.6.1. For steel isq = 0 so that only the v. Mises criterion isof 8 Eq. (3.6.8) does not agree with the structure ofEq. (3.1.2) on page 74.
effect. For GG isq = 0,759 so that both the normal stress hypothesis and It is an approximation which has to be regarded as provisional and
the v. Mises criterion are of partial influence. therefore itis tobe applied with caution.
95
3.6 Assessment 3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

crSK,x , ... related static component strength,


Chapter 3.4.1,
J
2 2
<lQH= sx+Sy-sx'Sy+t 2,

Sx = aSK,crx , (3.6.14)
Total safety factor, Chapter 3.5.5.
Sy = aSK,cry ,
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In
general normal stresses in tension or compression are to t = aSK,.,
be considered separately. For shear stress the highest
asK,crx, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (3.6.9).
absolute value is relevant.
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) there is q = 0,5 , otherwise
Shell-shaped (2D) welded components
./3 -(lIf.) 9

./3-1 * '
For the toe of the weld of shell-shaped (2D) welded q (3.6.15)
components the calculation is to be carried out as for
shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components. f. shear strength factor, Table 3.2.5.
For the root of the weld of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components the degrees of utilization for normal Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress always act
stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear unidirectionally at the reference point *9, the degrees of
stress follow from the equivalent local stresses, Chapter utilization aSK,crx and asK,cry are to be inserted into Eq.
3.1.1.2: (3.6.14) with equal (positive) signs (summation). If they
always act opposingly, however *10, the degrees of
aSK, - 0"
max,ex,wv,x ~ 1, utilization aSK,crx and aSK,cry are to be inserted into Eq.
wv.ox - / . (3.6.10) (3.6.14) with different signs.
O"SK,x Jges
In the general case - without knowing whether the
a -
SK,wv,cry -
0"
max,ex,wv,y
/ .
s 1
, stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly *11 - the
O"SK,y Jges degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (3.6.14)
both with equal or with different signs; then the least
'tmax,ex,wv favorable case is relevant.
aSK,wv;t = . ~ 1,
'tSK / J ges
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with
crmin,ex,x , crmin,ex,y and 'tmin,ex,s are to be included in this
O"max,ex,wv, ... extreme maximum stresses (equivalent
comparative evaluation.
local stresses); the extreme minimum
stresses, O"min,ex,wv, ... , are to be
considered in the same way as the
Shell-shaped (2D) welded components
maximum stresses, Chapter 3.1.1.1,
For the toe of the weld of shell-shaped (2D) welded
O"SK,x ... related static component strength values,
components the calculation is to be carried out as for
Chapter 3.4.2,
shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components.
total safety factor, Chapter 3.5.5.
For the root of the weld of shell-shaped (2D) welded
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In components the degree of utilization for combined types
general normal stresses in tension or compression are to of stress (or loadings) is "8
be considered separately. For shear stress the highest (3.6.16)
absolute value is relevant. 2 2 2
J
aSK, crwv = aSK,wv,crx +aSK,wv,cry +aSK,wv,. '

aSK,wv,crx, ... degrees of utilization, Eq. (3.6.10).


3.6.2.2 Combined types of stress
Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components
The degree of utilization of shell-shaped (2D) non-
welded components for combined stresses is *6
aSK,ov = q . aNH + (l - q). <lQH~ 1, (3.6.12) 9 For example tension in direction x and tension in direction y from a
single loading affecting the component.
where
10 For example tension indirection xand compression indirection yfrom
a single loading affecting the component.
11 For example, iftwo loadings vary with time ina different manner.
96
3.6 Assessment 3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses

3.6.3 Block-shaped (3D) components For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) there is q = 0,5 , otherwise
3.6.3.1 Individual types of stress
The degrees of utilization of block-shaped (3D) non- q
/3- (lIf't) *9 (3.6.23)
welded components in terms of the principal stresses in /3-1 '
the directions 1,2 and 3 are
f't Shear strength factor, Table 3.2.5.
(J
aSK,O'I I, max, ex <1 (3.6.17) Rules of sign: If the individual principal stresses always
(Jl,SK / jges - ,
act unidirectionally at the reference point *13, the

aSK,O'2 =1 (J2,max,~x 1~
(J2,SK / Jerf
1,
degrees of utilization aSK,O'I , aSK,cr2 and aSK,cr3 are to be
inserted into Eq. (3.6.22) with equal (positive) signs
(summation). If they always act opposingly, however
aSK,O'3 = I (J3,max,ex < ,
1 *14, the degrees of utilization aSK,crl , aSK,cr2 and aSK,cr3
/ . 1- are to be inserted into Eq. (3.6.22) with different signs.
(J3,SK Je-r
In the general case - without knowing whether the
O'I,max,ex,'" extreme maximum principal stresses; the stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly - the degrees
extreme minimum principal stresses, of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (3.6.22) both
O'I,min,ex , ..., are to be considered in the with equal or with different signs; then the least
same way as the extreme maximum favorable case is relevant.
principal stresses, Chapter 3.1.1.3,
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with
O'SK,1 , ... related static component strength,
O'l,min,ex , 0'2,min,ex and 0'3,min,ex are to be included in this
Chapter 3.4.1,
comparative evaluation.
total safety factor, Chapter 1.5.3.
All extreme principal stresses may be positive or
negative (or zero). Tension and compression are
generally to be considered separately.

3.6.3.2 Combined types of stress


The degree of utilization of block-shaped non-welded
components for the combined principal stresses is *8
aSK,crv = q . aNH + (l - q) . aoH~ 1, (3.6.20)
where *12

(3.6.21)

SI = aSK,O'I , (3.6.22)
s2 = aSK,O'2 ,
s3 = aSK,O'3 ,
aSK, 0'1, ... degrees of utilization, Eq. (3.6.17).

13 For example tension in direction 1 and tension indirection 2 from a


single loading affecting the component.
12 Max means that the maximum value of the three terms in the 14 For example tension in direction 1 and compression in direction 2
parenthetical expression is valid. from a single loading affecting the component.
97
4.1 Characteristic service stresses 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses

4 Assessment of the fatigue


strength using local stresses *1
C"IR:-:-4l:-=EN:-:-.--=-do-'q Figure 4.1.1

4.0 General Stress cycle


Example:
According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue stress cycle (normal stress),
strength using local stresses is to be carried out. stress ratio
a . -a .
Rai= m,1 a,l
, crm,i + 0' a.i
4.1 Parameters of the stress spectrum t

Contents Page
A special case is the constant amplitude spectrum,
4.1.0 General 97 consisting of one step i = j = 1 only. For normal stress
4.1.1 Characteristic service stresses there is O"a = O"a,i = 0"a,1, O"m = O"m,i = O"m,1 .
according to the kind of component
4.1.1.0 General Superposition
4.1.1.1 Rod-shaped (lD) components 98
4.1.1.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components Proportional or synchronous stresses
4.1.1.3 Block-shaped (3D) components 99 If several proportional or synchronous stress
4.1.2 Parameters of the service stress spectrum components act simultaneously at the reference point,
4.1.2.0 General Chapter 0.3.5, they are to be overlaid. For the same type
4.1.2.1 Mean stress spectrum of stress (for example unidirectional normal stresses
4.1.2.2 Stress ratio spectrum 0"a,1, 0"m,1 and O"a,2 , 0"m,2) the superposition is to be
carried out at this stage, so that in the following a single
4.1.3 Adjusting a stress spectrum to match the 100 stress component (O"a, O"m ...) exists for each type of stress
component constant amplitude S-N curve *3. For different types of stress (normal stress and shear
4.1.4 Determination of the parameters stress or normal stress in x- and y-direction) the
of a service stress spectrum superposition is to be carried out at the assessment
4.1.4.0 General stage, Chapter 4.6.
4.1.4.1 Standard stress spectrum
4.1.4.2 Class of utilization 102 Non-proportional stresses
4.1.4.3 Damage-equivalent stress amplitude
If several non-proportional stress components act
simultaneously at the reference point, Chapter 0.3.5,
4.1.0 General they are to be overlaid according to Chapter 5.10.

According to this chapter the parameters of the service


stress spectra are to be determined (spectra for
elastically determined local stresses). Spectra are 4.1.1 Characteristic service stresses
applicable for N > 104 cycles approximately. according to the kind of component
Relevant are the stress spectra of the individual stress 4.1.1.0 General
components. They are specified by a number of steps, Rod-shaped (lD), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
i = I to j , giving the amplitudes O"a,i, ... and the related (3D) components are to be distinguished. They may be
mean values O"m,i , ... of stress cycles, Figure 4.1.1, as both non-weldedor welded.
well as the related numbers of cycles ni according to the
required fatigue life *2. For welded components the local stresses may be
determined as either structural stresses or effective
notch stresses.
Local stresses may be applied even if nominal stresses
can not be computed because a nominal cross-section
can not be clearly defined.
1Chapters 4.1 and 2.1 are basically identical.
2 As a rule a stress a spectrum is to be determined for normal service
conditions, see Footnote 2 on page 73. The largest amplitude 0a,1 ofa
service stress spectrum with its related mean stress value am,1serves as 3 Stress components acting opposingly can cancel each other in part or
the characteristic stress value. completely.
98
4.1 Characteristic service stresses 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses

4.1.1.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components


Rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components 4.1.1.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
For rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components a local The calculation for shell-shaped (2D) components may
normal stress Cl"zd = cr and a shear stress 'ts = 't are to be also be applied to block-shaped (3D) components, if the
considered *4. The respective amplitudes and mean stresses Cl"x, Cl"y and 't at the surface are of interest only.
values are
Cl"a,i , 'ta,i , (4.1.1)
Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components
Cl"m,i ,'tm,i
For shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components the
(local) normal stresses in x- and y-direction, Cl"zdx = Cl"x
Rod-shaped (ID) welded components
and Cl"zdy = Cl"y, as well as a shear stress 'ts = 't are to be
For rod-shaped (lD) welded components the local considered. The respective amplitudes and related mean
stresses (structural stresses or effective notch stresses *5) values are
are in general to be determined for the toe and the root (4.1.4)
Cl"a,x,i , Cl"a,y,i , 'ta,i ,
of a weld separately *6.
Cl"m,x,i , Cl"m,y,i , 'tm,i .

Calculation with structural stresses


Shell-shaped (2D) welded components
Structural stresses are to be applied to the toe of a weld For shell-shaped (2D) welded components,
only. For the root of a weld the calculation is to be Figure 0.0.6 and 0.0.7, the local stresses (structural
carried out with effective notch stresses *7. stresses or effective notch stresses) are in general to
When performing a calculation of welded rod-shaped be determined for the toe and the root of a weld
(ID) components with structural stresses a normal stress separately *6.
(normal stress) rr and a shear stress 't are to be
considered. The respective amplitudes and mean values
are Calculation with structural stresses

Cl"a,i , 'ta,i , (4.1.2) Structural stresses are to be applied to the toe of a weld
Cl"m,i , 'tm,i . only. For the root of a weld the calculation is to be
carried out with effective notch stresses *7
When performing a calculation of welded shell-shaped
Calculation with effective notch stresses (2D) components with structural stresses, the normal
Effective notch stresses may be applied to the toe and to stresses in the directions x and y , Cl"x and Cl"y , as well as
the root of a weld *6. a shear stress 't are to be considered. The respective
amplitudes and mean values are
When performing a calculation of welded rod-shaped
(ID) components with effective notch stresses a normal Cl"a.x.i Cl"a.y.i 'ta,i, (4.1.5)
stress Cl"K and a shear stress 'tK are to be considered. The Cl"m,x,i, Cl"m,y,i, 'tm,i
respective amplitudes and mean values are
Cl"K,a,i , 'tK,a,i , (4.1.3) Calculation with effective notch stresses
Cl"K,m,i , 'tK,m,i .
When performing a calculation of welded shell-shaped
(2D) components with effective notch stresses, the
normal stress in the direction of the maximum effective
4 Rod-shaped (10) components may be subject to normal stresses notch stress, Cl"K , as well as the shear stress, 'tK , are to
resulting from tension-compression and from bending and to shear
stresses resulting from shear and torsion. The case that these stresses may
be considered. The respective amplitudes and mean
occur separate from each other, is not considered here, however, as both values are
tension-compression stresses and bending stresses as well as both shear
stresses and torsion stresses are supposed to be contained in cr or in 't, Cl"K,a,x,i , Cl"K,a,y,i , 'tK,a,i,. (4.1.6)
respectively. Cl"K,m,x,i, Cl"K,m,y,i, 'tK,m,i
5 Definition of structural stresses and of effective notch stresses see
Figure 0.0.6 and Figure 0.0.7, Chapter 5.4 and 5.5

6 For welded components separate assessments of the fatigue strength for


both the toe and the root of the weld are to be carried out. Both
assessments are of the same kind, but in general the respective stresses
and fatigue classes FAT are different.

7 An alternative is an assessment of the throat section using nominal


stresses.
99
4.1 Characteristic service stresses 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses

4.1.1.3 Block-shaped (3D) components O"m,i mean value in step i,


Block-shaped (3D) non-welded components N total number of cycles corresponding to the
required fatigue life
For block-shaped (3D) non-welded components the (required total number of cycles),
(local) principal stresses in the directions 1, 2 and 3, N = Lni (summed up for 1 to j),
O"I,zd = 0"1 , 0"2,zd = 0"2 and 0"3,zd = 0"3 , are to be n'I related number of cycles in step i,
considered. The respective amplitudes and related mean N, = Lni (summed up for 1 to i),
values are H total number of cycles of a given spectrum,
O"I,a,i , 0"2,a,i , 0"3,a,i, (4.1.7)
H = Hj = Lhi (summed up for 1 to j) *11,
O"I,m,i , 0"2,m,i, 0"3,m,i
hI related number of cycles in step i,
Caution: Independent of the particular values of the
Hi = Lhi (summed up for 1 to i),
principle stresses the directions 1 and 2 are defined here
step, i = 1 to j,
to be parallel to the free surface, the direction 3 to point
j total number of steps, step for the smallest
normally to the surface into the interior of the
amplitudes,
component.
Vzd damage potential.
The damage potential is defined by *12,
Block-shaped (3D) welded components
For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components J. h [ O"ai )kcr.
may be welded at the surface, for example by a surfacing Ye = ke L I. - ' - (4.1.10)
welds. Then the calculation can be carried out as for i=1 H 0" a,I
shell-shaped (2D) welded components, if the stresses
where k, is the exponent ofthe component S-N curve.
o"x, O"y and 't are of interest only.
O"a,i /O"a,I and hi / H describe the shape of stress
spectrum. The amplitudes O"a,i are always positive, the
4.1.2 Parameters of the stress spectrum mean values O"m.i may be positive, negative, or zero.
4.1.2.0 General As a rule a restriction to the following kinds of stress
A stress spectrum describes the stress cycles contained spectra is possible: Mean stress spectra and stress ratio
spectra (with the fluctuating stress spectra as a special
in the stress history of concern *8.
case), Figure 2.1.2 *13.
If the stress cycles show variable amplitudes a stress
spectrum is to be determined for every stress component
4.1.2.1 Mean stress spectrum
*9. The constant amplitude stress spectrum may be
regarded in the following as a special case *10, for A constant mean stress applies to all steps of a mean
which i = 1 and stress spectrum:
O"a = O"a,i = 0"a,1 . (4.1.8) O"m,i = O"m (4.1.11)
N= N = nj = nl
Parameters of stress spectrum are: 2.1.2.2 Stress ratio spectrum
0"a,1 characteristic (largest) stress amplitude equal to A constant stress ratio applies to all steps of a stress
the amplitude in step 1 of the stress spectrum, ratio spectrum:
O"a,i amplitude in step i,
O"a,i > 0, O"a,i+1/ O"a,i s 1, Res,i = Res , (4.1.12)

8 In the following all variables and equations are presented for the local
normal stress o only, but written with the appropriate indices they are
valid for all other types ofstress as well. 11 The values N -total number ofcycles required -and II -total num~
ofcycles ofa given spectrum - are different ingeneral. The terms ni IN
9 In this case anassessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength is and hi I H are equivalent.
tobe carried out.
12 The damage potential is a characteristic for the shape of a stress
lOin this case an assess~nt ofthe fatigue limit isto be carried out for spectrum. The values kcr = 5for normal stress and k't = 8for shear stress
type I SoN curves if N= N ;:: ND,cr.,.2r an assessment ofthe endurance are valid for non-welded components. The values kcr = 3 and ~ = 8 are
limit for type II SoN curves if N = N ;:: NDcr II , respectively, oran valid for welded components.
assessment for finite life based on the constant amplitude SoN curve The term hi IH may be replaced by ni IN .
(formally similar.20 an assessment ~ the variable amplitude fatigue
strength) if N = N < ND,cr or N= N ;:: ND,cr, II for Typ I orTyp II 13 A mean stress spectrum, for example, results from a static load with
SoN curves, respectively. ND,cr orND,cr, II isthe number ofcycles at dynamic loads superimposed, a fluctuating stress spectrum, for example,
the fatigue limit ofthe component constant amplitude SoN curve, Chapter results for a crane hook when lifting variable loads.
2.4.3.2.
100
4.1 Characteristic service stresses 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses

4.1.3 Adjusting a stress spectrum to match


the component constant amplitude S-Ncurve
This chapter mainly applies to stress spectra the steps of
which do not have the same stress ratio.
A mean stress spectrum, for example, has different
amplitudes Ga,i ' and constant mean stress values Gm,i =
Gm ' and consequently the individual steps have different
stress ratios Ra,i . On the other hand the component
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2, is
derived for a constant stress ratio Ra . To allow the
proper application of Miner's rule, Chapter 4.4.3.1, all
steps of a spectrum, however, must have or must be
converted to that stress ratio Ra,i = Ra, Chapter 5.6.1.

4.1.4 Determination of the parameters of a


stress spectrum
<Tmin '.. '.-H' = 106
4.1.4.0 General
<T max
If the stress spectrum of a component under
consideration is not known, or in case of high demands
on its accuracy, the parameters of the stress spectrum
are to be determined by calculation, by simulation, or by
20'a,l 1 "I"
20'a,1
measurement. The determination of the stress spectrum
from a stress history has to be realized according to the
rainflow cycle counting procedure or in the sense of this
procedure.
O'roin = 0 - 6
-H=10 From a measured and graphically presented continuous
stress spectrum a stepped stress spectrum may be
Figure 4.1.2 Stress spectra *14. obtained according to Chapter 5.6.2.
Top: Mean stress spectrum. Midle: Stress ratio spectrum. Bottom: In case of existing experiences - dependent on the
Fluctuating stress spectrum. Example: The presented stress spectra are. component and its application - the determination of the
standard type stress spectra, basically defined by a binomial frequency parameters of a stress spectrum may be simplified by
distribution, a coefficient p = 1/3 , a total number of cyclesH = 106 , and applying a standard stress spectrum, a class of
extrapolated to the required total number of cyclesN. utilization or a damage-equivalent stress amplitude.

where 4.1.4.1 Standard stress spectrum


Ra = (Gm,i - Ga,i) / (Gm,i + Ga,i) (4.1.13) Standard stress spectra are used to describe the shape of
typical stress spectra. Standard stress spectra having a
or
binomial or an exponential frequency distribution, and
Gm,i / Ga,i = (1 + Ra) / (l - Ra). (4.1.14) modified by the spectrum parameter p , are presented in
Figure 4.1.3. In addition, damage potentials v,
according to Eq. (4.1.10) and Figure 4.1.1 are given in
Special case: Fluctuating stress spectrum the graphical presentations. (These apply to an exponent
of the component constant amplitude S-N curve k, = 5
A constant stress ratio of zero applies to all steps of a
fluctuating stress spectrum: and a total number of cycles H = 106 ).

Ra,i =Ra = 0, (4.1.15)


Parameters of a so derived stress spectrum
or
Ga,l characteristic (largest) stress amplitude equal to
Gm,i / Ga,i = 1. (4.1.16) the amplitude in step 1 of the stress spectrum,
N required total number of cycles,
Vcr or Ga,i / Ga,l and hi , i = 1 to j, according to the
shape of the standard stress spectrum
14 To derive the steps of a spectrum see chapter 5.6.2. Sm,i mean values, i = 1 to j.
101
4.1 Characteristic service stresses 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses

Table 4.1.1 Damage potential v, and v- for standard


stress spectra having a binomial or exponential
frequency distribution, modified by the spectrum
parameter p, a total number of cycles H = 106 , for non-
welded and welded components, for normal stress and
shear stress (exponents of the constant amplitude S-N
curve k, and k, ).

non-welded welded
p binom. I expon. binom. Expon,
Vcr normal stress
ka= 5 k, =3
0,326 0,196 0,267 0,155
Step i Ga i / Ga I hI H-1
1/6 0,400 0,297 0,366 0,286
P
1 1
1
1/3
1
2/3
2 2
1/3
1/2
0,499
0,615
0,430
0,570
0,483
0,608
0,426
0,569
2 0,950 0,967 0,983 16 18 2/3 0,739 0,713 0,737 0,712
3 0,850 0,900 0,950 280 298 5/6 0,868 0,856 0,868 0,856
4 0,725 0,817 0,908 2720 3018 1 1 1 1 1
5 0,575 0,717 0,858 20000 23000 shear stress
Vt
6 0,425 0,617 0,808 92000 115000
k, =8 k, = 5
7 0,275 0,517 0,758 280000 395000
0,399 0,275 0,326 0,196
8 0,125 0,417 0,708 604982 1000000
1/6 0,452 0,330 0,400 0,297
1/3 0,527 0,438 0,499 0,430
1/2 0,627 0,573 0,615 0,570
1
1,0 2~3 1 2/3 0,743 0,713 0,739 0,713
4
aa,i 5/6 0,869 0,856 0,868 0,856
p
aa,l 8 1 1 1 1 1
2/3
0,5
1/3

Analytical relationship: For standard stress spectra


with spectrum parameters p >
(p = 1/6, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3,
5/6) there is

: a,i ) = p + (1- p) .[:a,i) (4.1.17)


[
a.l p a,l p=o

Step i Ga i/ Gal hi H1
P
1 1
1
1/3
1
2/3
2 2 Application: In case of existing experiences about the
2 0,875 0,917 0,958 10 12 shape of the stress spectrum a suitable standard stress
3 0,750 0,833 0,917 64 76 spectrum may be applied to assess the variable
4 0,625 0,750 0,875 340 416
amplitude fatigue strength in two ways:
5 0,500 0,667 0,833 2000 2400 - Application of the damage potential v.,; Eq. (4.1.10)
6 0,375 0,583 0,792 11000 13400 for an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
7 0,250 0,500 0,750 61600 75000 strength according to the elementary version of
8 0,125 0,417 0,708 924984 1000000 Miner's rule, Chapter 4.4.3.1.

Figure 4.1.3 Standard stress spectra - Application of the data on Ga,i / Ga,1 and hi of the
steps i = 1 to j from Figure 4.1.3 for assessing the
Top: Binomial distribution. Bottom: Exponential distribution (straight variable amplitude fatigue strength according to the
line distribution). Spectrum parameter p, total number of cycles H = Hj consistent version of Miner's rule, Chapter 4.4.3.1.
= ~ hi = 106, number of steps j = 8 , damage potential Vcr for an exponent
k cr = 5 of the component constant amplitude S-N curve.
The appropriate standard stress spectrum has to be
specified separate from this guideline.
102
4.1 Characteristic service stresses 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses

4.1.4.2 Class of utilization *15 question. In particular it is defined by the shape


of the stress
A class of utilization is an approximately damage-
equivalent combination of different shapes of stress cra. WL
spectra and of specific figures of the required total
numbers of cycles, Figure 4.1.4, see also Chapter 5.7.

cra,1
Cl'a,cJt ~~......,-,...----i ....--~~--

ND,Q' N Iii'
Figure 4.1.5 Damage-equivalent stress amplitude
Component constant amplitude S-N. curve WL, number of cycles at the
knee point ND cr, component variable amplitude fatigue life curve LL.
N Characteristic stress amplitude 0"a,1, required total number ofcycles.
The damage-equivalent stress amplitude O"a,eff is. assigned to ND,O" and
Figure 4.1.4 Spectra corresponding to the same class of hence itallows an assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength to
utilization be performed asan assessment ofthe fatigue limit.
Example: Welded component, stress spectra with binomial distribution,
normal stress. All three stress spectra are approximately damage- spectrum, the required total number of cycles and the
equivalent and correspond to the same class of utilization B5,
Table 5.7.4. characteristic (largest) stress amplitude, Figure 4.1.5.

Parameters of the so derived stress spectrum


Parameters of a so derived stress spectrum
O"a,eff damage-equivalent stress amplitude
0"a,1 characteristic (largest) stress amplitude equal to
the amplitude in step 1 of the stress spectrum, O"m related mean value.
B class of utilization (a combination of the
shape of the stress spectrum and the required
total number of cycles), Analytical relationship: Based on the elementary
O"m mean stress *16. version of Miner's rule the damage-equivalent stress
amplitude is obtained as d7
Analytical relationship: See Chapter 5.7.
1 j
0"a.eff "" k -
N _ . '" n' crak<!I
L. 1
(4.1.18)
D,cr i=1 '
Application: In case of existing experiences about the
shape of stress spectrum and the required total number (N / ND,cr )11ks . Vcr . 0"a,1 ,
of cycles a FEM-class of loading may be applied to the
assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength, exponent of the component constant
Chapter 2.4.3.1. amplitude S-N curve
ND,O" number of cycles at the knee point of the
The appropriate class of utilization has to be specified component constant amplitude S-N curve,
separate from this guideline. j, i, n, ... see (4.1.9),
VO" damage potential, Eq. (4. 1.10).

4.1.4.3 Damage-equivalent stress amplitude Application: In case of existing experiences about the
The damage-equivalent stress amplitude is a constant damaging effect of the stress spectrum a damage-
stress amplitude with an assigned number of cycles equivalent stress amplitude O"a,eff may be applied. It
equal to the number of cycles at the knee point of the allows an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
component constant amplitude S-N curve, ND CJ It is strength to be performed as an assessment of the fatigue
damage-equivalent to the stress spectrum in limit, Chapter 2.6.
The damage-equivalent stress amplitude has to be
specified separate of this guideline.

15 Following DIN 15018.


17 Eq. (4.1.18) is based on a critical damage sum DM = 1, Chapter
16 The determination ofan individual mean stresses crm,i is not possible. 4.4.3.1.
103
4.2 Material parameters 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
with local stresses

4.2 Material properties *1 1R42 EN.dog fw,cr fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
normal stress, Chapter 4.2.2,
Contents Page fW,"t fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
4.2.0 General 47 shear stress, Chapter 4.2.2,
R m tensile strength, Chapter 3.2.1.1.
4.2.1 Component values according to standards
4.2.1.0 General Caution: For non-welded wrought and cast aluminum
4.2.1.1 Non-welded components alloys the fatigue limit is different from the endurance
4.2.1.2 Welded components limit associated with N ~ No.e.n =ND,"t,n= lOS cycles.
4.2.2 Fatigue strength factors 48
for normal stress and for shear stress
4.2.1.2 Welded components
4.2.3 Temperature factor
4.2.3.0 General For the base material of welded components the material
4.2.3.1 Normal temperature fatigue strength for completely reversed stress are the
4.2.3.2 Low temperature same as for non-welded components.
4.2.3.3 Elevated temperature Steel and cast iron materials
For the toe and the root of the weld of professionally
4.2.0 General welded components from weldable structural steel *5
According to this chapter the material fatigue strength specific values of the fatigue strength apply independent
values (component values according to standards) are to of the kind of material. These are for completely
be determined, These are the material fatigue limit for reversed normal stress at N ~ ND,cr = 5' 106 cycles
completely reversed normal stress, aW,zd , and shear and for completely reversed shear stress at
stress, "Cw,s ' as well as further characteristics *2 N ~ ND,"t = 1 . lOS cycles *6, Chapter 5.5,
aW,zd = aw,w = 92 MPa, (4.2.3)
4.2.1 Component values according to "Cw,s = "Cw,w = 37 MPa.
standards
Caution: For other kinds of material (conditionally
4.2.1.0 General weldable steel, stainless steel, weldable cast iron
The determination of the material fatigue strength is material) these values are to be considered as
different for non-welded and for welded components. provisional and are to be applied with caution.
Aluminum alloys
4.2.1.1 Non-welded components For the toe and the root of the weld of professionally
For non-welded components the values according to welded components from aluminum alloys *5 specific
standards of the material fatigue strength for completely values of the fatigue strength apply in analogy to steel
independent of the kind of material. These are for
reversed normal stress and shear stress *3 and for a
completely reversed normal stress at N ~ ND,cr = 5 . 106
number of cycles N = 106 *4 are
cycles and for completely reversed shear stress at
aW,zd = fw,cr . Rm , (4.2.1) N ~ ND,"t = 1 . 108 cycles *6, Chapter 5.5,
rw., = fW,"t' aW,zd, (4.2.4)
aW,zd = aw,w = 33 MPa,
"Cw,s = "Cw,w = 13 MPa.

I Chapters 2.2 and 4.2 are identical. Caution: These values are provisional and are to be
applied with caution *7 .
2 An influence offrequency on the material fatigue strength values is not
considered up to now although it might be ofimportance for aluminum
alloys.
4 The values crW.zd and "tw.s correspond tothe fatigue limit which isequal
3 For the tensile strength according to standards, Rm , a probability of
survival Po = 97,5 % ispresumed. That probability should also apply to to the endurance limit of steel and cast iron material, but not of
aluminum alloys, however, Figure 4.4.5 and Chapter 5.1.0.
the values crW,zd and "tW,s computed from Rm . Moreover Eq. (1.2.1)
applies here too: 5 Weld imperfections occurring with normal production standards are
crw zd = Kd m. KA . crw zd N, (2.2.2) allowable.
"tw~ = Kd:n KA'"tW s'N',
" " 6 The values crw.w and "tw.w correspond tothe fatigue limit which is equal
Kd,m technological size factor as for the tensile strength, tothe endurance limit ofwelded steel and cast iron material aswell as of
Chapter 3.2.2. welded aluminum alloys, Figure 4.4.6 and Chapter 5.1.0.
KA anisotropy factor, Chapter 3.2.3,
crW,zd,N, ... semi-finished product fatigue strength value according to 7 Values derived from an average relation of0,36 ofthe FAT classes for
standards, Chapter 5.1. aluminum alloys and for structural steel, Chapter 5.4.
104
4.2 Material parameters 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
with local stresses

4.2.2 Fatigue strength factors for normal For normal temperature the temperature factor is
stress and for shear stress
KT,D'" 1. (4.2.5)
The fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
normal stress, fw,O" , is the quotient of the axial fatigue
strength value for completely reversed stress divided by 4.2.3.2 Low temperature
the tensile strength, Table 4.2.1.
Temperatures below the values listed above are outside
The fatigue strength factor for shear stress, fw,~ , the field of application of this guideline.
considers that the material fatigue strength is lower for
shear stress than for normal stress, Table 4.2.1.
4.2.3.3 Elevated temperature
Table 4.2.1 Fatigue strength factors for completely In the field of elevated temperatures - up to SOOC for
reversed normal stress, fw,O" , and shear stress, fw,~ ~1. steel and cast iron materials and up to 200C for
aluminum materials - the influence of the temperature
Kind of material fw,O" fw,~ on the fatigue strength is to be considered. For elevated
temperature the fatigue strength values for completely
Case hardening steel 0,40 ~2 0,577 ~2 ~3
reversed normal stress and shear stress are
Stainless steel 0,40 ~4 0,577
Forging steel 0,40 ~4 0,577 <JW,zd,T = KT,D . <JW,zd, (4.2.6)
Steel other than these 0,45 0,577 't:W,s,T = KT,D . 't:w,s ,
GS 0,34 0,577 KT,D temperature factor, Eq. (4.2.7) to (4.2.11),
GGG 0,34 0,65 <JW,zd material fatigue strength value for completely
GT 0,30 0,75 reversed normal stress, Chapter 4.2.1.1 and
GG 0,30 0,85 4.2.1.2.
Wrought aluminum alloys 0,30 ~5 0,577 't:W,s material fatigue strength value for completely
Cast aluminum alloys 0,30 ~5 0,75 reversed normal stress, Chapter 4.2. 1. 1 and
4.2.1.2.
~1 fw 0" and fw ~ are valid fora number of cycles N = 106
fw' ~ is equal 'to f~ , Table 3.2.5.
~2 Bla'nk-hardened. The influence of the carburization on the According to the temperature T the temperature factor
component fatigue strength is to be considered by the surface KT,D is
treatment factor, Kv, Chapter 4.3.4.
~3 0,577 = 1//3, according tothe v. Mises criterion. Also valid for for fme grain structural steel, T > 60 DC:
welded components. KT,D"'I-1O-3'T/oC, (4.2.7)
~4 Preliminary values.
~5 fW,O" does not correspond tothe endurance limit for N = co here! for other kinds of steel *7, T> 100C, Figure 4.2.1:
KT,D = 1-1,4' 10- 3. (T / C-100), (4.2.8)
for GS, T> 100C:
4.2.3 Temperature factor
KT,D = 1- 1,2 . 10 -3. (T / C- 100), (4.2.9)
4.2.3.0 General
- for GGG, GT and GG, T > 100C, Figure 4.2.1:
The temperature factor considers that the material KT,D'" 1- aT,D' (10 - 3. T / 0C)2, (4.2.10)
fatigue strength for completely reversed stress decreases
with increasing temperature. for aluminum alloys, T > 50C:
KT,D = 1- 1,2' 10 -3. (T / C - 50)2, (4.2.11)
Normal temperature, low temperature and elevated Figure 3.2.3 in the Chapter 3.2,
temperature are to be distinguished.
aT,D Constant, Table 4.2.2.
4.2.3.1 Normal temperature
Normal temperatures are as follows:
for fine grain structural steel from -40C to 60C,
- for other kinds of steel from -40C to + 100C, Table 4.2.2 Constant aT,D *8.
for cast iron materials from -25C to + 100C,
Kind of material GGG GT GG
- for age-hardening aluminum alloys
aT,D 1,6 1,3 1,0
from -25C to 50C,
- for non-age-hardening aluminum alloys
from -25C to 100e.

8 Forstainless steel novalues are known up to now.


105
4.2 Material parameters 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
with local stresses

Eq. (4.2.7) to (4.2.10) apply to steel and cast iron


Rm,T High temperature materials from the indicated temperature T up to 500C.
R m 'jm strength Rm,T Eq. (4.2.11) applies to aluminum alloys up to 200C.
I I
o4 I~-+--''r-~:-- Rp,T Rp I High temperature The values CYW,zd,T and 1:W,s,T are not explicitly needed
, Rp'R m ' jp yieldstreilgth Rp,T
for an assessment of the fatigue strength, as only the
temperature factor KT,D is used.
1 % creep limit Rp;Tt
0,3t----K:--+---",;:t-''':--tt--r---,.-J . Rp,Tt It p '1 For elevated temperature, and in particular when the
R p . Rm ' jpt mean stress Sm, i:- 0 , the fatigue strength in terms of
Creep Strength R,.,Tt the maximum stress may be higher than the static
0,2 m ........."'f-...,...,..,..,.,..,~=--+~-fu~-1 Rm,T~ 1 strength so that the assessment is governed by the static
R';;"""' jmt strength.

0;1

o
o 100 ZOO 300 400 500
2.2.1. Tin "C

Creep$trengthR,.;Tt
Rm,Tt I
Rm 'jmt

0,1 t====J=::='=b--L....,,=-1-..+1

o
o 100 200 300 400 500
Z,2.1b Till 'c

Figure 4.2.1 Temperature dependent values of the


static strength and of the fatigue strength plotted for
comparison.
Safety factorsj according to Chapter 3.5 or 4.5, respectively.

Rm,TI Rm = KT,m, Rp,T I Rp = KT,p,


Rm,Tt l Rm = KTt,m, Rp,Tt l Rp = KTt,p'
5
Rm,T, Rp,T as well as Rm, Tt, Rp,Tt for t = 10 h.
Fatigue strength value at elevated temperature :
crW,zd,T I crW,zd = KT,D
Top: Non-alloyed structural steel, as in the Figure 3.2.2,
Rp I Rm = n, I R m = 0,65 , crW,zd I Rm = 0,45,
Jm = 2,0, Jp = jmt = 1,5, Jpt = 1,0, in = 1,5 .
Bottom: GG, as in Figure 3.2.2,
crW,zd I Rm = 0,30, Jm = 3,0, Jrnt = in = 2,4 .
106
4.3 Design parameters 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses

KwK,crx = (4.3.2)
4.3 Design parameters 1R43 EN.dog
=_1_'(1+_1_.(_1_ _ 1)) 1
Content Page ncr,x Kf KR,cr K y .K s .KNL,E '
4.3.0 General 106

'(1+~.(_1
w
4.3.1 Design factors K : ,O"Y1= -1)1
4.3.1.0 General
ncr,y Kf KR,cr ) K y .K s .KNL,E
4.3.1.1 Non-welded components
4.3.1.2 Welded components 107 KwK,~ =

4.3.2
4.3.2.0
Kt-K f ratios
General
108
~ n1, {1+ ~f K~, -I)J Ky l Ks
-( >
4.3.2.1 Computation of Kj-K, ratios
4.3.2.2 Kj-K, ratio for superimposed notches 109
The design factors of block-shaped non-welded
4.3.3 Roughness factor components for the principle stresses in the directions 1,
4.3.4 Surface treatment and coating factor 110 2 and 3 (normal to the surface) are *2
4.3.5 Constant KNL,E III
4.3.6 Fatigue classes (FAT) 112 KWK,crl = (4.3.3)

~ n:,1 {1+ ~f -(K~,o -I)) >KYKS\N~E


4.3.7 Thickness factor

4.3.0 General K WK,cr2 =


1
According to this chapter the design parameters are to =_1 .(1+-2-.(_1 -1)]
be determined in terms of design factors. n cr,2 Kf K R,
KWK,cr3 =

4.3.1 Design factors


4.3.1.0 General
++ ~f -( K~o -I)) KYKS\N~E
>

Non-welded and welded components are to be ncr, .., Kt-K f ratio, Chapter 4.3.2,
distinguished. Kf constant, Table 4.3.1,
if no better estimate is available,
KR,cr, ... roughness factor, Chapter 4.3.3,
4.3.1.1 Non-welded components Ky surface treatment factor, Chapter 4.3.4,
Ks coating factor, Chapter 4.3.4,
Rod-shaped (lD), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped constant for GG, Chapter 4.3.5.
KNL,E
(3D) non-welded components are to be distinguished.
The design factors of rod-shaped (lD) non-welded
Table 4.3.1 Constant K, .
components for normal stress and for shear stress are 1
KWK,cr = (4.3.1) Kind of Steel GS GGG GT GG

~ n1 {I+ ~f K~,o -I)) >K y >KS\N~E


material wrought cast
Al-alloys Al-alloys
0
-( '
Kf 2,0 2,0 1,5 1,2 1,0
KWK,~ =

=_1
n,
'(1+~.(_1
x,
-1))' 1
KR,~
Ky.K s
A better estimate of K f may be obtained from stress
concentration factors Kt,cr and Kt,~ of a substitute
structure, Chapter 5.12, and the Kt-K f ratios, Chapter
4.3.2.1: Kf~Kt:cr=Kt,cr/ncr or Kf~Kf,~=Kt,~/n~.
The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) non-welded
components for normal stresses in the directions x and y
as well as for shear stress are

1 About the purpose ofthe constant Kf see Footnote 1 inChapter 2.3.

2 The Kt-Kf ratio in direction 3 normal to the surface, ",,3. , is not


contained in Eq. (4.3.3) since a stress gradient normal tothe surface isnot
considered.
107
4.3 Design parameters 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses

4,3.1.2 Welded components FAT fatigue class, Chapter 4.3.6,


ft thickness factor, Chapter 4.3.7,
For the base material of welded components the design
Kv surface treatment factor, Chapter 4.3.4 *5,
factors are to be computed as for non-welded
components. Kg coating factor, Chapter 4.3.4;
KNL,E constant for GG, Chapter 4.3.5.
The design factors for the toe and for the root of a weld
The fatigue classes FAT are in general different for
are in general to be determined separately, since the
normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for
local stresses and the fatigue classes (FAT) may be
different. shear stress.

Rod-shaped (lD), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components
(3D) welded components are to be distinguished. The may be welded at the surface, for example by surfacing
calculation can be carried out with structural stresses or welds. Then the design factors are to be calculated as for
with effective notch stresses. shell-shaped (2D) welded components.

Calculation with structural stresses Calculation with effective notch stresses

Steel and cast iron material Steel and cast iron material as well as aluminum
alloys
The design factors of rod-shaped (lD) welded
The design factors of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components made of steel or of cast iron materials *3 for
steel, of cast iron materials l'' , and
components made of ~
normal stress and for shear stress are,
of a1uminum alloys for normal stress and for shear
KWK,cr = 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL,E), (4.3.4) stress are *6,
KWK,~ = 145/ (FAT' ft' Ko ),
KWK,crK = 1/ (Kv Kg' KNL,E), (4.3.8)
The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) welded KWK,~K = 1/ !Ky' Kg).
components for normal stresses in the directions x and y
as well as for shear stress are For shell-shaped (2D) welded components, as a rule,
only the effective notch stress in direction of the
KWK,crx = 225 / (FAT' ft' Ky' KNL,E), (4.3.5) maximum effective notch stress and the corresponding
KwK,cry = 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL,E), shear stress are to be considered. The design factors are
KwK,~ = 145/ (FAT' ft' Ko ). as before

Aluminum alloys KWK,crK = 1 / (Ko . Kg . KNL,E ), (4.3.9)


KWK,~K = 1/ (Ky' Kg),
The design factors of rod-shaped (lD) welded
Kv surface treatment factor, Chapter 4.3.4 *5,
components from aluminum alloys *4 for normal stress
Ks coating factor, Chapter 4.3.4,
and for shear stress are,
KNL,E constant for GG, Chapter 4.3.5
KWK,cr = 81 / (FAT' ft' Ky' Kg), (4.3.6)
For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components
KwK,~ = 52 / (FAT' ft' Ky' Ks).
may be welded at the surface, for example by surfacing
welds. Then the design factors are to be calculated as for
The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) welded shell-shaped (2D) welded components.
components for normal stresses in the directions x and y
as well as for shear stress are
KWK,sx = 81 / (FAT' ft' Ky' Kg), (4.3.7)
KwK,sy = 81 / (FAT' ft' Ky' Kg),
KwK,~ = 52/ (FAT' fi' Ky' Kg),

3 To some part the FAT values where derived with reference to the IIW
recommendations and Eurocode 3 (Ref. /9/, /81). Moreover the design
factors are supposed tobe valid, however, not only for weldable structural
ste~1 but also for other kinds of steel (conditionally weldable steel, 5 As a rule Ky is not relevant for welded components, that is Ky = I.
stainless steel) and weldable cast iron materials).
6 On principle for steel: KWK,crK = 225 / (FAT ... ) where FAT = 225,
4 To some part the FAT values where derived with reference tothe IIW and K~K,~K = 145 / (FAT ... ) where FAT = 145; aluminum alloys
reco~endations (Ref. /91). Moreover the design factors are supposed to
accordingly, Weld quality conforming tonormal production standard.
be v.ahd, however, for all weldable aluminum alloys, except the
aluminum alloys 5000, 6000 and 7000. Numerical values see Footnote 7 In combination with effective notch stresses the thickness factor ft is not
on page 103. applied, since the thickness effect isaccounted for by the stress analysis.
108 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
4.3 Design parameters
using local stresses

4.3.2 Kt-Kr ratios 3


~m in MP;---:: 350
100
4.3.2.0 General GG~V
400
/2.~ 900
The Kj-K, ratios nO", ... allow for an influence on the
fatigue strength resulting from the design (contour and
2
//'~~it// 800
size) of a non-welded component. / V, ~ [GGG-: 400

., ',.I "/V
/ 1/0.65'
Condition for the application of a Kj-K; ratio is a stress v
/ / 1 10,70 800
gradient normal to the direction of stress as shown in 1,4 ~/1/ . 7'"" i -: 400
Figure 3.3.1 *7. V/ /V
/ 1 10,75 G S:/
800
IIV~
1/
/ ~/10,80 -: //'
Stah~ 1200
1,2 /

-:V
~
/ 1/0,85
4.3.2.1 Computation of Kt-Kr ratios
Kt-Kr ratios for normal stress
1,1
./J V /{;!~ ,,-/
The Kt-Kr ratio for normal stress, Ocr, Figure 4.3.1, is to j/I/;;/ I / / /
~/I//il /
/
be computed from the related stress gradient GO" after / 110,95
/v
Eq. (4.3.13) to (4.3.15).
1,04 II {III ill /
ForG 0" ;;;; 0,1 rnm" 1 there is (4.3.13) Iff; 1/ 1 //
n 0" = 1 +G 0" . mm Itl r
-(a o -0,5+ Rm )
bo MPa ,
1,02
1~ /II til ,

~(f;
2/ do = r

for 0,1 mm" 1 <00" ;;;; 1 mm" 1 there is 0,267-


1,01 \ I I !
n 0" = 1 +.~ G 0" . mm . 10 (
- ao+ R)m
bo . MPa (4.3.14)
.0,01 0,02 0,05 0,1 0,2 0,5 2 5 10
,

for 1 mrrr ! < GO";;;; 100 mm" 1 there is Figure 4.3.1 Kt-Kr ratios Ocr for normal stress.

n0" = 1 +~G 0" -rnm l O (


- ao+ R)
m
boMPa (4.3.15)
The diagram may be extended up to GO"; 100 mm -1.
r
, Indicated numerical values 1/0,65 to 1/0,95: Difference of the fatigue
limit for completely reversed stress in tension-compression and in
bending, valid for the material test specimen of the diameter do = 7,5 mm.
ao, bo constants, Table 4.3.2.
Not included in the figure 4.3.1:

Stainless steel. Threshold values forGO" = 1 mm -1 :


largest value. n-, = 1,27 for Rm = 400 MPa and
Table 4.3.2 Constants aa and bo . smallest value: "cr = 1,14 for Rm = 1070 MPa.

Kind Stain- Other GS GGG GT GG Wrought aluminum alloys: Threshold values forGO" = 1 mm -1 :
of less kinds largest value:"cr = 1,69 for Rm = 95 MPa and
mate- steel of smallest value:"cr = 1,18 for Rm = 590 MPa.
rial steel
Cast aluminum alloys: Threshold values for: GO" = 1 mm -1 :
aa 0,40 0,50 0,25 0,05 -0,05 -0,05 largest value: "cr = 2,02 for Rm = 130 MPa and
bo 2400 2700 2000 3200 3200 3200 smallest value: "cr = 1,88 for Rm = 330 MPa.

Kind of material Wrought Cast


Al-allovs Al-allovs For surface hardened components *8 (components with
thermal or with chemo-thermal surface treatment) the
aa 0,05 -0,05
KcK r ratios are lower than for non surface hardened
bo 850 3200 components *9 *10.

8 Does not apply to cold rolled or shot peened surfaces. See the summary
7 A stress gradient in direction of stress is supposed not to cause any of special features of the fatigue strength of surface hardened components,
effect. This restriction concerns block-shaped (3D) components only. Chapter 5.8
109
4.3 Design parameters 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses

Kt-K, ratios for shear stress The point below the surface is to be chosen such that the
maximum values of Ga and G, being calculated.
The Kj-K. ratio for shear stress, n, , is to be computed
from the related stress gradient G, according to Eq. If stress amplitudes below the surface (as in Figure 4.3.2
(4.3.13) to (4.3.15), after having replaced a by 't and provided by an FE analysis, e.g.) are not available, an
the tensile strength Rm by fw" . Rm , where fw" is the approximate computation of the related stress gradients
fatigue strength factor for shear stress, Table 4.2.1. for normal stress and for shear stress is as follows:
With the radius r at the reference point (influence of the
contour) and the dimension d (influence of a loading in
Related stress gradients
bending or torsion) there is *12
The related stress gradients normal to the direction of
G a = 2 / r + 2 / d, (4.3.17)
stress , G a and G, necessary to compute the KcK r
ratios, are to be determined from the stress amplitudes G, = 1/ r + 2 / d.
for normal stress, ()a , and for shear stress, 't a , at the
reference point and a point below the reference point, 4.3.2.2 Kt-K, ratio for superimposed notches
Figure 4.3.2 * 11,
For superimposed notches - for example a boring
located in a groove, the partial K-K; ratios of which are
G a=_l- . ",,"aa =_1 . (1- a2a), (4.3.16)
a la ",,"s ",,"s a la n 1 and n2 according to the related stress gradients G I
and G 2 - a most favorable Kj-K, ratio n is to be
G, =_1_ . ",,"'t a =_1 '(1- 't2a) , computed for a related stress gradient
'tla ",,"s ",,"s 'tla
G=Gl+ G 2 ' (4.3.24)
ala, 'tla stress amplitudes at the reference point,
If the distance of notches is 2 r or above
a2a, 't2a stress amplitudes in a distance ",,"s below, (where r is the larger one of both radii) *13 a
",,"s distance between the reference point and superposition is not to be considered. If a value of a
the neighboring point below the surface, radius is missing, a fictitious radius may be estimated
Figure 4.3.2.
fromEq. (4.3.17)(for example r:::o 2/G a ) .

4.3.3 Roughness factor


The roughness factors KRcr or KR" accounts for the
Figure 4.3.2 influence of the surface roughness on the fatigue
Stress amplitudes at the strength of the component.
reference point and below
the surface. The roughness factors valid for polished surface is
KR,cr = KR" = 1. (4.3.25)
For a rolling skin, a forging skin or the skin of castings
an average roughness value R, = 200 urn applies.
9 The Kt - Kf ratio for a crack originating inthe hardened surface layer is The roughness factors for normal stress, Figure 4.3.3,
lower because the tensile strength Rm ofthe hard surface layer is higher and for shear stress are *14 (4.3.26)
than the tensile strength Rm ofthe core material according tothe material
standard. KR,cr = 1- aR,a . 19 (Rz / urn) . Ig(2Rm / Rm,N,min ),
The Kt - Kf ratio for a crack origklating i!!,.the core material is lower KR" = 1- f w" . aR,cr . 19 (R, /um) . Ig(2Rm1Rm, N, miJ,
because the related stress gradient Oa (or 0, ) in the core material has
decreased from its maximum value atthe surface. aR,cr constant, Table 4.3.4,
10 The tensile strength of the surface layer may be estimated R, average roughness of the surface of the
approximately as Rm = (3,3 . HV) MPa , where HV is the Vickers component in um, according to DIN 4768,
hardness number. As this equation, however, was not specifically tensile strength, Chapter 3.2.1.1,
established for hardened surface layers, itistobe applied with caution. In Rm
particular the fatigue strength value aw zd ofthe hardened surface layer Rm,N,min constant, Table 4.3.4,
must not be derived from that estimate of the tensile strength fw" fatigue strength factor for shear stress,
(aW,zd* fW,a' Rm) Table 4.2.1.
11 For Eq. (4.3.16) the tangent at al. is approximately replaced by the
secant.
If no stress gradient exists, then na = n, = I . In general a stress
gradient normal to the direction ofstress and normal tothe surface does
exist for the stress components ax , ay , t , at and cr2 . A stress gradient in
direction ofstress isnot considered, that is"cr,3 = I.
4.3 Design parameters
110
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
1
r

Table 4.3.4 Constant aR,oo and minimum tensile


1,0 .... strength, Rm,N,min , of the kind of material considered.
;:::--::1- 1,6
~ ;:::: r-... ..,
l- Kind of Steel GS GGG GT GG
t--.. 3,2 = material
~ ~ r-, :----- I--...
~
e
==
aR,oo 0,22 0,20 0,16 0,12 0,06
~
"~

0,8
R ~ "-'~ 400 400 400 350 100
...>:1'\., f" r-
~
Rm,N,min
inMPa
~'"
~ r-., ~
0,7 <I'~~,
25
Kind of Wrought Cast
i' ~ material aluminum alloys aluminum alloys
0,6
J.Q.o aR,oo 0,22 0,20

0,5 20o Rm,N,min 133 133


inMPa

0,4
300 500 700 1000 2000
2.3.3a RminMPa
4.3.4 Surface treatment factor and
coating factor
KR,11
1,0 ~---r---'-

--l" The surface treatment factor, Kv , allows for the


influence of a treated surface layer on the fatigue
O9 l-...---+---+-~-..;;j0 ,8 83 strength of the component.
' 0
II Without a surface treatment there is
0,8 k y = 1. (4.3.28)
For components with surface treatment 8 the surface
0, 1l----l-----''Y-,~;:X;;rl---H treatment factor depends on whether a crack origin is to
be expected at the surface or in the core. Essential
factors of influence are the ratio of the fatigue limits of
400 600 800 IOOO the surface layer and of the core material, as well as the
Rut in .MPa fiir GS, ('..GG, GT ratio of the local stress values on the surface and in the
'. ! core just below the surface layer.
100 200 300 400
Rm in MPa fiir cc
Upper and lower limits of the surface treatment factors
Z.3.3b
for steel and cast iron materials are given in Table 4.3.5.
Figure 4.3.3 Roughness factor KR,oo . A definite value is to be determined by the user *15.

Top: Steel. The coating factor Ks allows for the influence of a


Bottom: Cast iron material with skin, surface coating on the fatigue strength of a component
steel with rolling skin for comparison 14 made of an aluminum alloy.
For steel and cast iron materials there is
For surface hardened components '8 and an expected Ks = 1. (4.3.29)
crack origin at the surface the roughness factor is less
favorable (smaller) than for components not surface For aluminum alloys without coating there is
hardened, because of the higher tensile strength Rm of Ks = 1. (4.3.30)
the hardened surface layer *10.
For aluminum alloys with coating there is

12 For shell-shaped (2D) componen~ -


Ks < 1. (4.3.31)
Goo,x , rx-
an.!Goo,y , ry.
For block-shaped (3D) components Goo,l, q and Goo,2 , r2 " Ks for example after Figure 4.3.4 (provisional values).
13 The value 2r is likely to be on the safe side.
14 In particular residual stresses as a result of manufacturing and ofa
surface treatment are determining the influence of the surface on the
component fatigue limit, rather than the surface roughness. According to
the current state of knowledge, however, improved regulations to allow 15 Provided that the procedures ofthe surface treatment can be applied to
for the surface effect are not yet developed, so the traditional equations components ofaluminum alloys, the Ko -values for cast iron. material
based on aroughness value have tobe accepted for the time being. may approximately be taken into account.
4.3 Design parameters
III
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses

Table 4.3.5 Upper and lower limits of the surface Ks 0.9


--...,J. 1""-__ I ~._-~.j .j -W-W
II I I I i I! i
treatment factor for steel and cast iron materials ?1?2. .. r I
0.8
0,7 I ffi-rTf1
--+-.llllif
.Lu.u
Surface unnotched notched ~
. ,l_LLU+
i I , I. II :
. __---.4_,__ L..LJ._l.~.
treatment components components 0,6
?3 0."
I : -r-_-.-
t i l.....llTr
"1---
!i
i I I i 111.1
Steel 0;1 I---Ti-t.-i-i.. ti~
I
Nitriding
Chemo-thermal treatments
1,10-1,15 1,30 - 2,00
0.2
o.t
!I
I !
'+1;
L.LLL~.!.J.
i. II ,I
rn rr
Depth of case 0,1...0,4 nun o
(1,15 - 1,25) (1,90 - 3,00) 1 10 100
Surface hardness Thickness of layer in /lID
700 to 1000 HV 10 2.3.

Case hardening 1,10 - 1,50 1,20 - 2,00


Depth of case 0,2 ... 0,8 nun (1,20 - 2,00) (1,50 - 2,50)
Surface hardness Figure 4.3.4 Influence of anodic coating on the fatigue
670 to 750 HV 10 limit (at 106 cycles) of a component from aluminum
Carbo-nitriding alloys as a function of the layer thickness (after Wilson).
Depth of case 0,2 ... 0,8 nun (1,80)
Surface hardness
Provisional values.
670 to 750 HV 10
Mechanical treatment
Cold rolling 1,10 - 1,25 1,30 - 1,80 4.3.5 Constant KNL,E
(1,20 - 1,40) (1,50 - 2,20)
Shot peening 1,10 - 1,20 1,10-1,50 The constant KNL,E accounts for the non-linear elastic
(1,10 - 1,30) (1,40 - 2,50) stress strain behavior of GG when loaded in tension-
compression or bending.
Thermal treatment
1,20 - 1,50 1,50 - 2,50 For all kinds of material except for GG there is
Inductive hardening
(1,30 - 1,60) (1,60 - 2,80) (4.3.32)
Flame-hardening KNL,E = 1.
Depth of case 0,9 ... 1,5 nun
Surface hardness KNL,E for GG after Table 4.3.6.
51 to 64 HRC
Cast iron materials
Nitriding 1,10 (1,15) 1,3 (1,9) 1.
Table 4.3.6 Constant KNL,E ?
Case hardening 1,1 (1,2) 1,2 (1,5)
Cold rolling 1,1 (1,2) 1,3 (1,5) Kind of
material
GG
-10
I GG
-15
GG
-20
GG
-25
I GG
-30
IGG
-35
Shot peening 1,1 (1,1) 1,1 (1,4)
Inductive hardening, 1,2 (1,3) 1,5 (1,6) KNL,E 1,075 1,05 1,025
Flame-hardening
? 1 For unnotched or slightly notched components in tension-compression
? 1 Concerning typical component values and further kinds of treatments,
see also FVAworksheet "Schwingfestigkeitssteigerung (increasing the KNL,E = 1.
fatigue strength)".
? 2 The given values typically apply to the component fatigue limit.
Values applying to the variable amplitude fatigue strength are in general
somewhat lower.
4.3.6 Fatigue class (FAT)
The values are valid for specimens of 30 to 40 nun diameter; values in Calculation with structural stresses
parenthesis for specimens of 8 to 15 nun diameter.
The fatigue classes (FAT) for structural stresses allow
? 3 For unnotched or slightly notched components .
for the influence of the toe of a weld on the fatigue
strength *16 (For the root of a weid a fatigue class FAT
for structural stresses is not applicable up to now; only
effective notch stresses are applicable).

16 Fatigue classes for structural stresses do not depend on the of design


of a component, because the influence of design on the fatigue strength is
allowed for when computing structural stresses, see Chapter 5.5 (This is
different from computing nominal stresses, Chapter 2.3.)
112
4.3 Design parameters 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses

A complete catalogue of the fatigue classes of structural Table 4.3.7 Exponent n for the thickness factor.
stresses according to the IIW-Recommendations is given
in Chapter 5.4.2 *17. Type of the welded joint n
cruciform joints, transverse T-joints, plates with
Calculation with effective notch stresses transverse attachments
Effective notch stresses are applicable for the toe and for - as welded 0,3
the root of a weld and do not require a fatigue classes to - toe ground 0,2
be considered as the fatigue strength values given by Eq. transverse butt welds,
(4.3.8) or (4.3.9) are those determined for effective - as welded 0,2
notch stresses (normal stress or shear stress, butt welds ground flush, base material, longitudi-
respectively) *18. nal welds or attachments, - as welded or ground 0,1

4.3.7 Thickness factor


When using structural stresses for the calculation of
transversely loaded welds the thickness factor ft
accounts for the influence of the sheet metal thickness
on the fatigue strength *19.
The thickness factor ft is of no effect, however,
- if the calculation uses effective notch stresses,
- if there is no weld,
- if there is no transversely loaded weld, or
- if the sheet metal thickness is t < 25 mm.
In these cases the thickness factor is
(4.3.33)
For a transversely loaded weld and a sheet metal
thickness t > 25 mrn the thickness factor is a function of
the sheet metal thickness t (in mrn):
it = (25 mm / t) n. (4.3.34)
n after Table 4.3.7.

17 All fatigue classes for structural stresses given in the IIW-


Recommendations are considered except those for the base material.
Considered are for steel FAT::; 140 for normal stress and FAT:::;; 100 for
shear stress, or for aluminum alloys FAT::; 50 for normal stress and
FAr::; 36 for shear stress.

The calculation for the base material of welded components is to be


carried out as for non-welded components.

18 The generally applicable fatigue strength values do not depend on the


design of a component nor on the shape of the weld, because all these
influences on the fatigue strength are considered when computing
effective notch stresses. Chapter 5.5 (This is different from computing
nominal stresses or structural stresses, see Chapter 5.5).

19 'Thethickness factor is supposed to be valid for steel, but also for


aluminum alloys
113
4.4 Component strength, 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
4.4.1 Fatigue limit for completely reversed stress using local stresses

4.4 Component strength 1R44 EN.dog aWK = aW,zd I KwK,cr , (4.4.1)


1:WK = 1:w,s I KWK;t ,
Content Page
aW,zd,1:W,s material or weld specific fatigue limit for
4.4.0 General 113 completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.2.1
4.4.1 Component fatigue limit for completely KWK,cr ... design factor, Chapter 4.3.1
reversed stress Eq. (4.4.1) is based on the fatigue limit for completely
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit 114 reversed stress, Eq. (4.2.1), (4.2.3) or (4.2.4), and on the
according to mean stress design factor, Eq. (4.3.1), (4.3.4), (4.3.6) or (4.3.8). It
4.4.2.0 General applies to non-welded components for calculations with
4.4.2.1 Mean stress factor 115 local stresses and to welded components both for
Calculation for type of overloading F2 calculations with structural stresses or with effective
Calculation for type of overloading FI 116 notch stresses *2.
Calculation for type of overloading F3 The component fatigue limits of shell-shaped (2D)
Calculation for type of overloading F4 117 components for completely reversed normal stresses in
4.4.2.2 Individual or equivalent mean stress the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
4.4.2.3 Residual stress factor 118
4.4.2.4 Mean stress sensitivity aWK,x = aW,zd I KWK,crx , (4.4.2)
awK,y = aW,zd I KWK,cry ,
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue 119
1:WK = 1:w,s I KwK,s ,
strength
4.4.3.0 General aW,zd, 'tw,s material or weld specific fatigue limit for
4.4.3.1 Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor 120 completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.2.1
Calculation for a constant amplitude spectrum KwK,crx,... design factor, Chapter 4.3.1
Calculation for a variable amplitude spectrum
Eq. (4.4.2) is based on the fatigue limit for completely
Elementary version of Miner's rule
reversed stress, Eq. (4.2.1), (4.2.3) or (4.2.4), and on the
based on the damage potential
design factor, Eq. (4.3.2), (4.3.5), (4.3.7) or (4.3.9). It
Calculation according to the consistent
applies to non-welded components for calculations with
version of Miner's rule 121
local stresses and to welded components both for
Calculation using a class of utilisation 123
calculations with structural stresses or with effective
4.4.3.2 Component constant amplitude S-N curve
notch stresses.
4.4.0 General The component fatigue limits of block-shaped (3D)
According to this chapter the component fatigue components for completely reversed principal stresses in
strength is to be calculated as follows: the directions 1, 2, and 3 are
- Step 1: component fatigue limit for completely
al,WK = aW,zd l KWK,crl , (4.4.3)
reversed stress in considering the design factor,
a2,WK = aW,zd l KWK,cr2,
Chapter 4.4.1,
a3,WK = aW,zd l KWK,cr3,
- Step 2: component fatigue limit in considering the
mean stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2, aW,zd,1:W,s material or weld specific fatigue limit for
- Step 3: component variable amplitude fatigue completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.2.1
strength in considering the variable amplitude K WK, I ... design factor, chapter 4.3.1
fatigue strength factor, Chapter4.4.3.
Eq. (4.4.3) is based on the fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Eq. (4.2.1), and on the design factor,
4.4.1 Component fatigue limit for Eq. (4.3.3). It applies to non-welded components.
completely reversed stress
For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components
According to this chapter the component fatigue limit may be welded at the surface, for example through
for completely reversed stress is to be calculated in surfacing welds. Then the calculation is to be carried
considering the design factor. out as for shell-shaped (2D) welded components.
Caution: See the comment in the second paragraph of
Chapter 4.4.2.

Rod-shaped (lD), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped 1 The component fatigue limits for completely reversed stress are
(3D) components are to be distinguished. different for normal stress and for shear stress, and moreover because of
different stress gradients or different weld characteristics depending on the
The component fatigue limits of rod-shaped (lD) type of stress.
components for completely reversed normal stress and
2 Structural stresses crWK, ... or effective notch stresses crWK,K . The
shear stress are *I index K is to be added where appropriate.
--r
I

4.4 Component strength


114
4 assessment of the fatigue strength
iI

4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress with nominal stresses

4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to Rod-shaped (ID) components


mean stress 1R442 EN.dog The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component
fatigue limit of rod-shaped (10) components for normal
4.4.2.0 General stress and for shear stress are

According to this chapter the amplitude of the 0'AK = KAK,cr . KE,cr . O'WK , (4.4.6)
component fatigue limit is to be determined according to 1:AK = KAK;t . KE,~ . 1:WK ,
a given mean stress and, where appropriate, in
considering a multiaxial state of stress. KAK,cr, .. , mean stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.1,
KE,cr, . residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
Comment: For non-welded components of austenitic O'WK, . component fatigue limit for completely
steel, or of wrought or cast aluminum alloys the reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1.
component fatigue limit is different from the component
endurance limit for N = 00 , Chapter 4.4.3.2. Eq. (4.4.6) applies' to non-welded and to welded
components.
Observing the specific input values the calculation
applies to non-welded components (with local stresses)
and to welded components (with structural stresses or Shell-shaped (2D) components
effective notch stresses) *1. The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component
An improved procedure for non-welded components of fatigue limit of shell-shaped (2D) components for
steel to compute the component fatigue limit in the case normal stress in the directions x and y as well as for
of synchronous multiaxial stresses is given in Chapter shear stress are
5.9. 0'AK,x = KAK.,x . KE,cr . O'WK,x , (4.4.7)
In combination with a stress spectrum the indicated 0'AK,y = KAK.,y . KE,cr . O'WK,y ,
stress ratio R, , ... commonly refers to step I of the 1:AK = KAK.,~ . KE,~ . 1:WK ,
stress spectrum (maximum amplitude), Ra,I, ... *2 *3. KAK.,x, ... mean stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.1,
The mean stress factor, Figure 4.4.1, allows for the KE,cr, '" residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
influence of the mean stress on the fatigue strength. O'WK,x' .. , component fatigue limit for completely
Without mean stress the mean stress factor is reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1.

KAK,cr = KAK;t = 1. (4.4.4) Eq. (4.4.7) applies to non-welded and to welded


components.
The residual stress factor accounts for the influence of
the residual stress on the fatigue strength. For non-
welded components the residual stress factor for normal Block-shaped (3D) components
stress and for shear stress is The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component
K E,cr = KE;r = 1. (4.4.5) fatigue limit of block-shaped (3D) components *4 for
principal stresses in the directions I, 2 and 3 are
Rod-shaped (10), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
(3D) components are to be distinguished. O'I,AK = KAK.,crl . KE,cr . O'I,WK , (4.4.7)
O'2,AK = KAK.,cr2 . KE,cr . 0'2, WK ,
O'3,AK = KAK.,cr3 . KE,cr . O'3,WK ,

KAK.,crl , ... mean stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.1,


KE,cr, . residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
O'I,WK, .. component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1.

1 Struktural stresses crWK' ... or effective notch stresses crWK.,K . In


the following the missing index K is to be added where appropriate.

2 This definition is necessary only for mean stress spectra, not for
stress ratio spectra or for fluctuating stress spectra, for which the
stress ratios of all steps are identical. 4 For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components may be
welded at the surface, for example by surfacing welds. Then the
3 For more details see Chapter 5.6. calculation may be carried out as for shell-shaped (2D) components.
115
4.4 Component strength 4 assessment of the fatigue strength
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress with nominal stresses

Figure 4.4.1 Amplitude of the component fatigue R :-=


strength as a function of mean stress or stress ratio " Q
@
(Haigh diagram), described in four fields of mean stress
(M~=O)
Example: Normal stress, types of overloading FI and F2.
Given: Component fatigue strength for completely reversed CD
stress crwK ' service stress amplitude cra ,
(M~=MQ/3) (M~=O)
stress ratio Ra ,
Derived: Amplitudes of the component fatigue limit oAK
for the types of overloading FI and F2.

Type of overloading
The mean stress factor, KAK,cr or KAK,~, depends on
the type of overloading, Fl to F4. It distinguishes the Shear stress: *5:
way how the stress may increase in the case of a possible
Field I: (not existing),
overload in service (not by crash). Therefore it is to be
Field II: - 1S; R~S; 0 (lower boundary changed),
determined in the sense of a safety of operation in
Field III: 0 < R~ < 0,5 (unchanged),
service, that is for normal stress as follows:
Field IV: R~~ 0,5 (unchanged).
- Type Fl:
the mean stress am remains the same,
- Type F2: 4.4.2.1 Mean stress factor
the stress ratio Rcr remains the same,
The mean stress factor for normal stress, KAK,cr , or
- Type F3:
shear stress, KAK,1: , depends on the mean stress and on
the minimum stress amin remains the same,
the mean stress sensitivity.
- Type F4:
the maximum stress a max remains the same.
For shear stress a is to be replaced by L. Intermediate Calculation for the type of overloading F2 *6
types of overloading are possible. Dependent on the type
In case of a possible overload in service the stress ratio
of overloading the amplitude of the component fatigue
limit is different, Figure 4.4.1.
Rcr remains the same.
Normal stress:
Fields of mean stress Field I: n, > 1:
In determining the mean stress factor, KAK,cr , ... , four KAK,cr= 1/ (1 - Ma), (4.4.9)
fields of mean stress are to be distinguished. These
depend on the stress ratio Rcr or on the mean stress am
respectively, see Chapter 4.4.2.2.
(4.4.10)

Normal stress:
Field I: Rcr > I, field of fluctuating compression stress,
where Rcr = + or - 00 is the zero compression stress.
Field II: -00 S; Rcr S; 0, where R, < -1 is the field of
alternating compression stress, R, = -1 is the 5 The fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for normal stress shows
increasing amplitudes for R < -1 (compression mean stress). For
completely reversed stress, R; > -1 is the field of negative mean stress the fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for shear
alternating tension stress. stress is the same as for positive mean stress and symmetrical to ~m = O.
Practically it is restricted to the fields of positive mean stress or a
Field III: 0 < Rcr < 0,5, field of fluctuating tension stress, stress ratio R~ 2:- 1 , as the mean stress in shear is always regarded to
where R, = 0 is the zero tension stress. be positive, ~m 2: 0 .
6 The type of overloading F2 is described first because it is of primary
Field IV: R, ~ 0,5, field of high fluctuating tension practical importance.
stress.
(4.4.11)

Using the term crm / cra instead of (1 + Rcr ) / (1 - Rcr ) avoids


numerical problems, when the stress ratio becomes Ra = - 00.
116
4.4 Component strength 4 assessment of the fatigue strength
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress with nominal stresses

Field III, Q< n, < 0,5: Field IV


I+M cr /3
K - I+M cr
AK,cr - M ' (4.4.12)
I+~. crm
3 ca (4.4.17)

Field IV, n, ~ 0,5:


am mean stress *8, Chapter 4.4.2.2,
K - 3+M cr KE,cr residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
AK,cr - ( \2 ' (4.4.13) aWK component fatigue limit for completely
3 1 + Mcrl
reversed stress, Chapter 4.4. I,
n, stress ratio *8, Chapter 4.4.2.2, M, mean stress sensitivity,
M; mean stress sensitivity, Chapter 4.4.2.4.
Chapter 4.4.2.4,
am mean stress *8, Chapter 4.4.2.2, Shear stress:
aa stress amplitude.
For KAK,'[ Field I is not existing and Field II is restricted

to positive mean stresses ~ tm = Om / (KE,' . 0WK) ~
1 / (1 + M'[) . For positive mean stresses the same
Shear stress:
equations are valid if Sm is replaced by t m and M, is
For KAK,'[ Field I is not existing and Field II is restricted replaced by M'[ .
to positive mean stresses R'[ ~ -I . For positive mean
stresses, or R'[ ~ -I , the same equations are valid if
M, is replaced by M'[ Calculation for the type of overloading F3
In case of a possible overload in service the minimum
stress amin remains the same.
Calculation for the type of overloading Fl
Normal stress:
In case of a possible overload in service the mean stress
am remains the same.
-2
Normal stress: For smin = crmin / (KE,a . crWK) < - - - there is *9
I-M cr
Field I
(4.4.18)
For sm= crm / (KE,a . crWK) < -1 / (l -M cr ) there is *9
(4.4.14)
Field II

Field II
for - 2 /(1 - Mcr)~ Smin ~ there is
1-M cr .Smin.,zd
for -I / (l - M cr ) ~ sm s 1 / (l + M cr ) there is (4.4.19)
I+M cr
(4.4.15)
Field III
Field III
for < Smin < - 2
3
.
3+M
cr there is
(I+M cr ) 2

1+ M cr /3 M cr
---s
I+M cr 3 mm
(4.4.16) KAK, cr = --~~----- (4.4.20)
I+M cr /3

Field IV

8Or equivalent mean stress, equivalent minimum stress, equivalent


maximum stress, Chapter 4.4.2.2.
9 In the following the abbreviation sm= crm I (KE.cr . 0"Wl() applies
accordingly tosmin , smax , tm , ... .
117
4.4 Component strength 4 assessment of the fatigue strength
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress with nominal stresses

K - 3+M cr Shear stress:


(4.4.21)
AKa - (1 + M cr)2 ' For shear stress the type of overloading F4
('tmax remaining constant) can practically not being
O"min minimum stress *8, Chapter 4.4.2.2, realized.
KE,a residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
O"WK component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1, 4.4.2.2 Individual or equivalent mean stress
M, mean stress sensitivity,
Chapter 4.4.2.4. In each case Ra , O"min , and O"max are determined by
mean stress and stress amplitude. The mean stress may
Shear stress: be taken either as the individual mean stress according
For KAK" Field I is not existing and Field II is restricted to type of stress or as an equivalent mean stress from the
to positive mean stresses, that is - 1 :::; tmin = individual mean stresses of all types of stress.
'tmin I (KE,t . 'tWK ) :::; O. For positive mean stresses,
'tm 2: 0 , the same equations are valid if Smin is Individual mean stress
replaced by tmin and Mcr is replaced by M, As a rule the individual mean stress O"m is used to
determine O"min , O"max and Ra . For normal stress the
respective equations are
Calculation for the type of overloading F4 O"min = O"m - O"a , (4.4.26)
In case of a possible overload in service the maximum O"max = O"m + O"a ,
stress O"max remains the same. Ra = O"min I O"max ,
O"a stress amplitude,
Normal stress: O"min minimum stress,
O"max maximum stress,
Ra stress ratio.
For Smax= CY max I (KE,a . CYWK) < 0 there is *9
For shear stress 0" is to be replaced by t .
KAK,a = 1 I (1 - M, ), (4.4.22)
Equivalent mean stress *10,
In the case "bending and torsion which is typical for
for 0:::; smax :::; 2 I (I + M a ) there is numerous applications in machine design, and in
I-M cr ,smax similar cases, where normal stresses are combined with
KAK. = ---.,;;---:,:;:::;.:. (4.4.23)
.o 1- M cr ' shear stresses, the variables O"min,v , O"max,v and Ra,v are
to be used. They are derived from an equivalent mean
stress O"m,v , to be computed as a function of the
Field III
respective individual mean stress values, Eq. (4.4.28).
2 4 . 3 +M cr For normal stress there is
for - - - < Smax <- there is
1+ M cr 3 (I + M cr ? O"min,v = O"m,v - O"a , (4.4.27)
O"max,v = O"m,v + O"a,
I+M cr 13 M cr
l+M --3-, smax Ra,v = O"min,v l O"max,v,
cr
KAK.,a = - - - - : ; : . . . - - - - - - (4.4.24) individual stress amplitude,
I-M cr 13 O"a
Ra,v equivalent stress ratio,
Field IV O"min,v equivalent minimum stress,
O"max,v equivalent maximum stress.
For shear stress 0" is to be replaced by r .

The equivalent mean stress, Eq. (4.4.27), for normal


(4.4.25)
stress is
O"m,v = q . O"m,v,NH + (1 - q) . O"m,v,GH, (4.4.28)
maximum stress *8, Chapter 4.4.2.2,
residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3, where
component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1, .J3 -(lIf-c)
q= (4.4.29)
mean stress sensitivity, .J3-1 '
Chapter 4.4,2.4.
118
4.4 Component strength 4 assessment of the fatigue strength
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress with nominal stresses

High residual stresses are to be assumed in case of


welding without residual stress reducing precautions.
Moderate residual stresses are to be assumed in case of
welding with residual stress reducing precautions, for
q Material dependent parameter after Table 4.6.1 example by observing a suitable weld sequence.
am , Tm Individual mean stresses, Low residual stresses are to be assumed in case of
Eq. (4.4.31) and (4.4.32). welding with subsequent stress-relief heat treatment, or
if residual stresses may evidentially be excluded.

For shear stress there is


Tm,v = f w,< . am,v, (4.4.30) 4.4.2.4 Mean stress sensitivity

fw,< shear strength factor, Table 4.2.1. The mean stress sensitivity M, or M. , in connection
with the mean stress factor, describes to what extent the
mean stress affects the amplitude of the component
Rod-shaped (ID) components fatigue strength, Figure 4.4.1.
For rod-shaped (ID) components the equivalent mean For non-welded components the mean stress sensitivity
stress after Eq. (4.4.28) is to be computed only if for normal stress and for shear stress, applicable in case
am~ O. of normal or elevated temperature, is
M, = aM . 10. 3 . Rm / MFa + bM, (4.4.34)
Shell-shaped (2D) components M. = fw,< Ma: '
For shell-shaped (2D) components the equivalent mean aM, bM constants, Table 4.4.2,
stress after Eq. (4.4.28) is to be computed only if fw ,< shear fatigue strength factor, Table 4.2.1.
am,y = 0 and am,x ~ 0 (or in reverse). It is
For components that have been surface hardened *11 the
am = am,x (or am = am,y), (4.4.32) mean stress sensitivity is greater because of the tensile
strength Rm of the hardened surface is higher than that
am,x, ... individual mean stresses, Chapter 4.1.1.2. of components not surface hardened.
For welded components the mean stress sensitivity for
normal stress and for shear stress, applicable in case of
4.4.2.3 Residual stress factor normal or elevated temperature, is dependent on the
The residual stress factor for non-welded components is intensity of the residual stress, but independent of the
tensile strength R; of the base material. Values are
KE,cr = KE;[ = 1. (4.4.33) . given in Table 4.4.1, see also Chapter 5.5.
For welded components of structural steel and of
aluminum alloys the residual stress factor is different for Table 4.4.2 Constants aM and bM .
high, moderate or low residual stresses. It is given for
normal stress and for shear stress in Table 4.4.1, see Steel 1>1
Kind of GS GGG GT GG
also Chapter 5.5.
material
aM 0,35 0,35 0,35 0,35 0
Table 4.4.1 Residual stress factor KE,cr, K E;[ and mean bM - 0,1 0,05 0,08 0,13 0,5
stress sensitivity Mcr , M. for welded components.
Residual Ma M
stress
KE,cr K E;[ 1>1 Kind of Wrought Cast
material aluminum alloys aluminum alloys
high 1,00 0 1,00 0
aM 1,0 1,0
moderate 1,26 0,15 1,15 0,09 bM - 0,04 0,2
low 1,54 0,30 1,30 0,17
1> 1 For Shear Stress there is M. = fw. M cr fw,. = 0,577, 1> 1 also stainless steel.
Table 4.2.1. "

10 The equivalent mean stress applies to rod-shaped and shell-shaped


components as indicated, but not to block-shaped components. 11 Not applicable to components being cold rolled or shot-peened.
119
4.4 Component fatigue strength 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength using local stresses

Except for GG, the following restrictions apply, Figure


4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue 4.4.3:
strength 1R443 EN.dog
crSK ~ 0,75 Rp . Kp,o , (4.4.42)
4.4.3.0 General 'tBK s 0,75 f.' Rp' Kp,. ,

According to this chapter the amplitude of the Rp yield strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1,
component variable amplitude fatigue strength is to be Kp,o , K p,. plastic notch factors, Table 1.3.2,
derived from the stress spectrum and the component f. shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2.
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KBKa , ... , 4 N, '!Ii. Component fatigue life curve
to be calculated depends on the stress spectrum, that is
N Component s-N curve
on the required total number of cycles *1 and on the
shape of the stress spectrum, as well as on the
component constant amplitude S-N curve, and in
addition it depends on the type of stress (normal stress
or shear stress). 2
It has to be distinguished, whether - in case of a
constant amplitude spectrum - an assessment of the
fatigue limit (or endurance limit) or of the fatigue
strength for finite life is intended, or whether - in case
of a variable amplitude spectrum - an assessment of the
variable amplitude fatigue strength is intended *2.
lOB
The calculation for a constant amplitude stress 2.2 N, '!Ii
spectrum is a special case of the more general case of
Figure 4.4.2 Component constant amplitude S-N curve,
calculation for a variable amplitude stress spectrum. In
component fatigue life curve derived by the consistent
any case the way of calculation is the same, but the
version of Miner's rule, and influence of the critical
variable amplitude fatigue strength factors are different.
damage sum DM .
Observing the specific input values the calculation
Highest amplitude in stress spectrum GSK, component fatigue limit GAJ(,
applies to both non-welded components (component number of cycles N after the component constant amplitude S-N curve,
constant amplitude S-N curve model I or model II) and number of cyclesN after the component fatigue life curve for DM < 1 or
to welded components (component constant amplitude N' for DM = 1. It isN = N + (N' - N) DM. This formula implies
S-N curve model I only). that a number of cycles N -7 N is obtaine~ for spectra of increasing
damage potential and a nu~er of cycles N = N for the constant
Rod-shaped (lD), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped amplitude stress spectrum as N' - N -7 O.
(3D) components are to be distinguished. In German the fatigue life curve is usually termed 'Gassner curve' and
the constant amplitude S-N curve is usually termed' Woehler curve'.

Rod-shaped (ID) components


The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude
fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum)
of rod-shaped (lD) components for normal stress and
for shear stress are, Figure 4.4.2,
crSK = KsK,o . c AK , (4.4.41)
'tSK = KsK,. 'tAK,
KSK,o , ... variable amplitude fatigue strength factor,
Chapter 4.4.3.1,
crAK,... component fatigue limit, Chapter 4.4.2.

Figure 4.4.3 Restriction of the amplitudes of


the variable amplitude fatigue strength, or of the
1 Required total number of cy~les and required component fatigue life
are corresponding denotations.
maximum value crrn,1 + crBK,1 and the minimum value
crrn,1 - crBK,1 respectively, in relation to the yield strength,
2 In a simplified manner the variable amplitude fatigue strength can be
derived on the basis of a damage-equivalent stress amplitude. Then the displayed in terms of the Haigh-diagram.
assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength turns out to be an
assessment of the fatigue limit.
120
4.4 Component fatigue strength 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength using local stresses

Shell-shaped (2D) components Calculation for a constant amplitude spectrum *4

The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude


fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum) Component constant amplitude S-N curve model I:
of shell-shaped (2D) components for normal stresses in horizontal for N > No,cr (steel and cast iron material)
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are,
Figure 4.4.2, Assessment ofthe fatigue strength for finite Life:
-)lIk -
O"BK,x = KBK,crx O"AK,x, (4.4.43) KBK,cr= (No,cr/N cr forN:<:;No,cr. (4.4.47)
O"BK,y = KBK,cry . 0"AK,y ,
'tBK = KBK,'t . 'tAK, Assessment ofthe fatigue limit = endurance Limit:

KBK,crx , ... variable amplitude fatigue strength factor, KBK,cr = I forN > No,cr. (4.4.48)
Chapter 4.4.3.1,
O"AK,x, ... component fatigue limit, Chapter 4,4-.2.
Component constant amplitude S-N curve model II:
Except for GG, the following restrictions apply, Figure sloping for N > Nn,cr (non-welded aluminum alloys)
4.4.3,
Assessment ofthe fatigue strength for finite Life:
O"BK,x :<:;0,75 Rp' Kp,crx, (4.4.44)
KBK,cr = (N D, I N) IIk cr for Nz; No,cr. (4.4.49)
O"BK,y :<:; 0,75 Rp . Kp,cry,
'tBK :<:; 0,75 f't' R p' Kp,'t, KBK,cr = (N D, I N)lIk o,cr for No,cr<N:<:; No.e.n ,
Rp yield strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1, (4.4.50)
Kp,crx, ... plastic notch factors, Chapter 3.3.2, Assessment ofthe fatigue Limit:
f't shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
KBK,cr = I forN > No,cr. (4.4.51)

Block-shaped (3D) components Assessment ofthe endurance Limit:

The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude KBK,cr = f n,e forN > NO,cr,ll. (4.4.52)
fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum)
of block-shaped (3D) components for the principal N number of cycles of the component constant
stresses in the directions I, 2 and 3 are, Figure 4.4.2, amplitudeS-N curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2,
N required number of cycles,
O"l,BK = KBK,crl . O"l,AK, (4.4.45)
No,cr number of cycles at knee point of the component
O"Z,BK = KBK,crZ . O"z,AK ,
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2,
0"3,BK = KBK,cr3 . 0"3,AK, ka slope of the component constant amplitude S-N
KBK,crl , ... variable amplitude fatigue strength factor, curve for N < No,cr, Chapter 4.4.3.2.
Chapter 4.4.3.1, No.e.n number of cycles at second knee point of the
O"l,AK, ... component fatigue limit, Chapter 4.4.2. component constant amplitude S-N curve,
Chapter 4.4.3.2,
Except for GG, the following restrictions apply, Figure
ko,cr slope of the component constant amplitude S-N
4.4.3:
curve for N > No,cr , Chapter 4.4.3.2,
O"l,BK s 0,75 Rp . Kp,crl , (4.4.46) f n.e factor by which the endurance limit is lower than
O"Z,BK s 0,75 Rp . Kp,crz, the fatigue limit, Chapter 4.4.3.2, Table 4.4.4.
0"3,BK :<:; 0,75 Rp ,
Rp yield strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1, Calculation for a variable amplitude spectrum
Kp,crl , Kp,crz plastic notch factors, Chapter 3.3.2 As a rule the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor
f't shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5. is to be computed by using the elementary version of
Miner's rule (not necessary for a constant amplitude
stress spectrum). Somewhat more favourable results,
4.4.3.1 Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor however, may be obtained by using the consistent
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factors version of Miner's rule. Moreover, the classes of
KBK,cr, ... , are to be derived as follows *3: utilization can be applied as a simplified method of
calculation; the so derived results approximately
correspond to those obtained by the elementary version
3 The following is written for axial stress, KBK,o , k,; ... , but applies to of Miner's rule. In an even more simplified manner the
other types of stress accordingly. For effective notch stresses the index K
is to be added.
variable amplitude fatigue strength can be derived on
the basis of a damage-equivalent stress amplitude.
4 For welded components model 1 of the component constant amplitude
S-N curve is of concern only, not model II.
121
4.4 Component fatigue strength 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength using local stresses

Calculation using the elementary version of Miner's


rule based on the damage potential
l1 a
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be
computed directly as follows *5. Both for model I and (lg)
1\r,11 1
for model II of the component constant amplitude S-N
curve the elementary version of Miner's rule yields,
Figure 4.4.4, (4.4.53-)

K BK,cr -[(
- (v zd1)ka

where the damage potential is *6 *7


I)-D M +f r~ J:.. N

Figure 4.4.4 Elementary version of Miner's rule, com-


ponent constant amplitude S-N curve model I, DM = 1.
_
Vcr -
k
a
J. hi [Ga,i )k
L=' - -
a
, (4.4.54) Characteristics ofthe stress spectrum according toChapter 4.1,
i=1 H Ga,l component constant amplitude S-N curve according toChapter 4.4.3.2.

slope of the component constant amplitude S-N


Table 4.4.3 Critical damage sum DM, recommended
curve for N < No,a , Chapter 4.4.3.2,
critical damage sum, Table 4.4.3, values.
number of cycles at knee point of the component non-welded welded
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2, components components
H total number of cycles of the given spectrum, Steel, GS, 0,3 0,5
H = H, = L: hi (summed up for i = 1 to j), Aluminum alloys
hI related number of cycles in step i, GGG,GT,GG 1,0 1,0
Hi = L: hi (summed up for i = 1 to i) *8,
j total number of steps in the spectrum,
number of the step in the spectrum,
Ga,i stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum, Calculation according to the consistent version of
Ga,1 stress amplitude in step i = 1 of the spectrum. Miner's rule *9 *10

If for a component constant amplitude S-N curve model Using the consistent version of Miner's rule the variable
I (horizontal for N > No,a ) a value KBl<,cr < 1 is amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be computed
obtained from Eq. (4.4.53), then the value to be used is iteratively for differing values of Ga,l , until a value N
equal to the required total number of cycles N is
(4.4.56) obtained. The respective value of Ga,1 is used to derive
If for a component constant amplitude S-N curve model the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor.
II (sloping for N > NO,a ) a value KBK,cr is obtained
from Eq. (4.4.53) that is smaller than the value obtained Component constant amplitude S-N curve model I:
from Eq. (4.4.50) or (4.4.52), then the higher value horizontal for N > ND,a (Steel and cast iron material)
from Eq. (4.4.50) or (4.4.52) is to be used. In case of a component constant amplitude S-N curve
model I ( horizontal for N > No,a or slope kD,o = (0) the
number of cycles N to be computed for a value Sa,1 is
5 Direct calculation without iteration. The results from the elementary (4.4.57)
version ofMiner's rule approach the results from the consistent version of a
Miner's rule on the safe side. N = {[ Akon -1] . DM + I}' [G AI< . NO,a,
G a.l
)k
6 When computing the d~ge potential (and also in the following
equations) the values ni and N according toth.:..;equired total number of where
cycles can be replaced by the values hi and H according to the total
number ofcycles inthe given standard type spectrum, see Chapter 4.1.
7 Instead ofAJcon after Eq. (4:4.57) and (4.4.63) ishere 9 The consistent version of Miner's rule allows for the fact, that the
component fatigue limit will decrease asthe damage sum increases.
A
ele = I / (va) ke . (4.4.55)
The decrease applies tocomponent constant amplitude S-N curves model
8 hi / H may also be replaced by n, / N , Ias well astomodel IIfor N D,s 2': 10 6 .
N Required total number ofcycles according tothe required fatigue life, 10 The consistent version ofMiner's rule was first developed byHaibach.
N = Eni(summed up for I toj), A simplified version allowing for the decrease ofthe fatigue limit became
ni number ofcycles instep i according tothe required fatigue life. known as the modified version orthe Haibach method ofMiner's rule.
122
4.4 Component fatigue strength 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength using local stresses

ka - I [
Component constant amplitude S-N curve model II:
aaI ZI J. Z2 ]
sloping for N > ND,a (non-welded aluminum alloys)
Akon = ( a~ ) . NI + v~m N2 ' (4.4.58)
*11

ZI = a AK k-I ( )k -I In case of a component constant amplitude S-N curve


( )a a.l
a _ a a,m
a a.I
a
(4.4.59) model II (sloping for N > No,a or slope kD,a < kD,a < (0)

Z2 = k-I ( )k -I
a a,v a a,v+!
the number of cycles N is first to be computed for a
single value aa,1 = a AK / (fn,a )1/3 as follows
( )
a a.l
a _

a a,1
a
(4.4.60)
N= {[ Akon - I ] , DM + I}' (aa AK ) k
a
N D:" / 3
Nl = m-J hi (aa,i
L -=-' -
)k a
, (4.4.61)
a.l ([n,,,)
i=1 H a a,1 with (4.4.65)
Akon after Eq. (4.4.58) to (4.4.62)
N2 = v hi (aa,i
L-=-' - )k a (4.4.62) and the explanations as before,
i=1 H aa,1 fn,a factor by which the endurance limit is lower
than the fatigue limit, Table 4.4.4.
For the summation of the term Z2, Eq. (4.4.60), it is to
be observed that aaj+! = O.
If a value N = N* > N is obtained then the calcu-
N number of cycles of the component constant lation of N, Eq. (4.4.65), is to be continued fqr
amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2, differing values aa,1 > a AK / ( fn,a )1/3 until a value N
N D, number of cycles at knee point of the component equal to the required total number of cycles N is
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2, obtained. From the respective value of aa,1 the variable
DM critical damage sum, Table 4.4.3, amplitude fatigue strength factor is obtained as
stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum,
stress amplitude in step 1 of the spectrum, KSK,a = aa,1 . (fn,a )1/3/ aAK (4.4.66)
component fatigue limit, If a value N = N *:s N is obtained then the variable
slope of the component constant amplitude S-N amplitude fatigue strength factor is
curve for N < No, a , Chapter 4.4.3.2,
j total number of steps in the spectrum, (4.4.67)
i number of the step in the spectrum,
m number i = m of the first step below a AK , If a value KSK,a < fn,a is obtained from Eq. (4.4.67)
H total number of cycles in the given spectrum, then the value to be applied is
H = Hj = L: hi (summed up for 1 to j),
KSK,a = fn,a . (4.4.68)
hI number of cycles in step i,
Hi = L: hi (summed up for I to i) '8.
The computation is to be repeated iteratively for Calculation using a class of utilization
differing values a a,I > a AK , until a value N equal to the The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KSK,a is
required total number of cycles N is obtained. From the
to be determined according to the appropriate class of
respective value of aa,1 the variable amplitude fatigue
utilization *12 , Chapter 5.7.
strength factor is obtained as

KSK,a = aa,1 / aAK (4.4.63)


Calculation using a damage-equivalent stress
amplitude
If a value KSK,a < I is obtained from Eq. (4.4.63), then
the value to be applied is When using a damage-equivalent stress amplitude the
variable amplitude fatigue strength factor for both
KSK,a = 1. (4.4.64)
constant amplitude S-N curves model I and model II is
KSK,a = 1. (4.4.69)

12Class ofutilization asa characteristic ofthestress spectrum. It isan


approximately damage equivalent combination oftherequired total
number ofcycles N with theshape ofa particular standard stress
spectrum thefrequency distribution ofwhich is ofbinomial orexponential
type modified bya spectrum parameter p. It provides a result that
corresponds toa calculation based ontheelementary version ofMiner's
II Simplified and approximate calculation. rule
123
4.4 Component fatigue strength 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength using local stresses

4.4.3.2 Component constant amplitude S-N curve


Component constant amplitude S-N curves for non-
welded components (without surface hardening) and for
welded components *13 are shown for normal stress and
for shear stress in Figure 4.4.5 and 4.4.6. The particular
number of cycles at the knee point No,cr , ... and the
values of slope kcr, ... are given in Table 4.4.4.
The component fatigue limit crAK , ... is the reference
fatigue strength value for calculation. It follows from
Chapter 4.4.2. For S-N curves Model I the fatigue limit
crAK and the endurance limit o AK,II for N = 00 are
identical, while for S-N curves Model II (valid for non-
welded components of austenitic steel or of aluminum
alloys) they are different by a factor fII,cr , Table 4.4.4
and Figure 4.4.5.
A lower boundary of the numbers of cycles is implicitly
defined by the maximum stress being limited according
to the static strength requirements, Chapter 1.
For surface hardened components "14 the slope of the
component constant amplitude S-N curves is more
shallow. Instead of the values of slope kcr = 5 and k, = 8
for not surface hardened components, Table 4.4.4, the
values that apply to surface hardened components are
kcr = 15 and k, = 25 , while the number of cycles at the
knee point No,cr and No,~ remain unchanged, see also
Chapter 5.8.
The component constant amplitude S-N curves for
welded components are valid for the toe section and for
the throat section.

13 With reference to IIW-Recommendations and Eurocode 3.

14 Not applicable to cold rolled or shot-peened components.


124
4.4 Component fatigue strength 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength using local stresses

Table 4.4.4 Number of cycles at the knee point, slope


of the component constant amplitude S-N curves, and
values of flI,cr and flI,<'

Normal stress Shear stress

Component IND,cr IND,cr,II Ik, IkD,cr flI,cr Component IND,< IND,<,II Ik, IkD,< IflI,<
Steel and cast iron materials (S-N curve model I ) Steel and cast iron materials (S-N curve model I )
non-welded 110
6
1- 15 1- 1,0 non-welded 11086 1- 18 1- 11,0
welded 15 . 10 1-
6
13 1- 1,0 welded 110 1- 15 1- 11,0
Aluminum alloys (S-N curve modell II Aluminum alloys (S-N curve model II )
non-welded 1106 1108 /5 /15 0,74 non-welded 1106 1108 18 125 10,83
welded 15 . 106 1- 13 1- 1,0 welded 110
8
1- 15 1- 11,0

1 (lg)

O"AC 1 - - - - - - - - - " "

O"AK f--------~l!ji,.~----- (JAK I---------+~------

O"AK,1I f-----'--------~:- ~~-='T':;~~

ND,D =10 6
aifa bild'W13
!Iifa bildll'JI N (lg) N (lg)

(Ig)

TAK f--------~""_=~-----
TAK I----------+--~~---
TAK,1I f----------l-~'~--.:~~~
Nc = 6 Nn,T
2 '10 =10 8
ND,T =10 6
etra bild,,14 N (lg)
Bifa bildwl7 N (lg)

Figure 4.4.5 Component constant amplitude S-N curve Figure 4.4.6 Component constant amplitude S-N curve
for non-welded components *14 for welded components *13
Top: Normal stress a. Top: Normal stress a.
Bottom: Shear stress t. Bottom: Shear stress t;

Steel and cast iron materials, except austenitic steel, (Model I): Steel, cast iron materials and aluminum alloys, welded (Model I):
horizontal for N > NO,a, kO,a = co
or for N > NO,~, k O,~ = co horizontal for N > NO a, kO a = co
or for N > NO' ~, k ~ = co D
Aluminum alloys and austenitic steel (Model II): NC is the reference number of cycles
sloping for N > NO a, kO a,
corresponding to the characteristic strength values a AC and ~ AC.
or for N > NO:~, kO:~'
aAK / aAC = (Nc / NO,a ) 11ko = 0,736 and
horizontal for N > NO,a,lI, kO,a,1I = co ~AK / ~AC = (Nc / NO,~) 11kr = 0,457.
or for N > N0, ~,II ' kO, ~,II = co.
125
4.5 Safety factors 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses

4.5 Safety factors *1 IR25 EN .docl 4.5.2 Cast iron materials


Contents Page 4.5.2.0 General
4.5.0 General 68 Ductile and non-ductile cast iron materials are to be
distinguished.
4.5.1 Steel

4.5.2 Cast iron materials


4.5.2.0 General 4.5.2.1 Ductile cast iron materials
4.5.2.1 Ductile cast iron materials Cast iron materials with an elongation A5 ~ 12,5 % are
4.5.2.2 Non-ductile cast iron materials 69 considered as ductile cast iron materials, in particular
4.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys all types of GS and some types of GGG. Values of
4.5.3.0 General elongation see Table 5.1.12.
4.5.3.1 Ductile wrought aluminum alloys Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials are given in
4.5.3.2 Non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys Table 4.5.2. Compared to Table 4.5.1 they are higher
4.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys because of an additional partial safety factor jp that
accounts for inevitable but allowable defects in castings
4.5.5 Total safety factor
*4. The factor is different for severe or moderate
consequences of failure and moreover for castings that
have been subject to non-destructive testing or have not.
4.5.0 General
According to this chapter the safety factors are to be
determined. Table 4.5.2 Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials
The safety factors are valid under the condition that the (GS; GGG) (A5~ 12,5 %).
design loads are reliably determined on the safe side and
that the material properties correspond to an average
probability of survival of Po = 97,5 % *2.
Jo
I Consequences of failure
Severe I
moderate? 1

castings not subject to non-destructive testing ?2


The safety factors apply both to non-welded and welded
components.
regular no I 2,1 I 1,8
inspection yes?3 I 1,9 I 1,7

castings subject to non-destructive testing ?4


4.5.1 Steel regular no I 1,9 I 1,65
The basic safety factor concerning the fatigue strength
inspection yes ?3 I 1,7 I 1,5
is ? 1 See footnote? I of Table4.5.1.
Jo = 1,5. (4.5.1) ?2 Compared to Table 4.5.1 an additional partial safety factor
jF = 1,4 is introduced to account for inevitable but allowable defects
This value may be reduced under favorable conditions,
in castings.
that is depending on the possibilities of inspection and
on the consequences of failure, Table 4.5.1. ?3 Regular inspection in the senseof damage monitoring. Reduction
by about10 %.
?4 Compared to Table 4.5.1 an additional partial safety factor
Table 4.5.1 Safety factors for steel *3 (not for GS) and jp= 1,25 is introduced, for which it is assumed that a higher quality
for ductile wrought aluminum alloys (A~ 12,5 %). ofthecastings isobviously guaranteed when testing.

jo Consequences of failure
severe moderate ?1
regular I no 1,5 1,3
2 Statistical confidence S = 50 % .
inspections I yes?2 1,35 1,2
3 Steel is always considered as a ductile material.
? 1 Moderate consequences of failure of a less important component
in the sense of "non catastrophic" effects of a failure; for example 4 In mechanical engineering cast components are of standard quality
because of a load redistribution towards other members of a statical for which a further reduction of the partial safety factor to jF = 1,0
indeterminate system. Reduction by about 15 %. does not seempossible up to now.
? 2 Regular inspection in the sense of damage monitoring. Reduction A safety factor jF = 1,0 may be applied to high quality cast
by about 10 %. components in the aircraft industry however. Those high quality cast
components, have to meet special demands on qualification and
checks of the production process, as well as on the extent of quality
and product testing in order to guarantee little scatter of their
1 Chapters 4.5 and2.5 are identical. mechanical properties.
4.5 Safety factors
126
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
1
I

4.5.2.2 Non-ductile cast iron materials 4.5.3.2 Non-ductile wrought aluminum alloy
Cast iron materials with an elongation As < 12,5 % Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation
(for GT A3 < 12,5 %) are considered as non-ductile A < 12,5 % are considered as non-ductile materials.
materials, in particular some types of GGG as well as Values of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
all types of GT and GG. Values of elongation for GGG
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys all safety
and GT see Table 5.1.12 or 5.1.13. The value for GG
factors from Table 4.5.1 are to be increased by adding a
is As = O.
value Aj , Eq. (4.5.2).
For non-ductile cast iron materials the safety factors
from Table 4.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value
~j, Figure 4.5.1 *s: 4.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys
~j = 0,5 -~ As /50%, (4.5.2) Cast aluminum alloys are always considered as non-
ductile materials. All safety factors from Table 4.5.2
AS Elongation, to be replaced by A3 for GT. are to be increased by adding a value 4i , Eq. (4.5.2).
Values of elongation see Table 5.1. 31 to 5. 1.38.

GG
0,5 ~.---GGG-,----r~1
4.5.5 Total safety factor
~j GT
Similar to an assessment of the component static
strength, Chapter 3.5.5, a "total safety factor" .lges is
to be derived:
o 10 12,5 20
As, A3 in % . _ In (4.5.4)
Jges-~ ,
T,O
Figure 4.5.1 Value ~j to be added to the safety safety factor, Table 4.5.1 or 4.5.2,
factor Jn , defined as a function of the elongation As or temperature factor, Chapter 4.2.3.
A3 , respectively.

4.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys


4.5.3.0 General
Ductile and non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys are to
be distinguished.

4.5.3.1 Ductile wrought aluminum alloys


Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation
A~ 12,5 % are considered as ductile materials. Values
of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
Safety factors for ductile wrought aluminum alloys are
the same as for steel according to Table 4.5.1.

S For example the safety factor for GG is at least

Jn = 1,5 + 0,5 = 2,0 (4.5.3)

(Jn = 1,5 from Table 4.5.2, j = 0,5 after Eq. (4.5.2) for AS = 0).
127
4.6 Assessment 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses

4.6 Assessment 1R46 EN.doq fatigue strength after Chapter 4.4.3, GBK , ... , divided
by the total safety factor jges. The degree of utilization is
Contents Page always a positive value *4.
4.6.0 General 127 An assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
4.6.1 Rod-shaped (lD) components 128 strength, an assessment of the constant amplitude
4.6.1.1 Individual types of stress fatigue strength for finite life, or an assessment of the
4.6.1.2 Combined types of stress fatigue limit or of the endurance limit are to be
distinguished. In each case the calculation is the same
4.6.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components when using the appropriate variable amplitude fatigue
4.6.2.1 Individual types of stress strength factors KBK,o , ... , Chapter 2.4.3, and when
4.6.2.2 Combined types of stress taking
4.6.3 Block-shaped (3D) components 129 G a,l = G a , ... , (4.6.1)
4.6.3.1 Individual types of stress
4.6.3.2 Combined types of stress in case of a constant amplitude spectrum, or
Ga , l = Ga,eff (4.6.2)

4.6.0 General in case of a damage-equivalent stress amplitude.

According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue Ga , ... , characteristic constant amplitude stress for
strength using local stresses is to be carried out. which the required number of cycles is N,
Ga"eff, ... , damage-equivalent stress amplitude.
In general the assessments for the individual types of
stress and for the combined types of stress are to be
carried out separately *1. Superposition
The procedure of assessment applies to both non-welded For proportional or synchronous stress components of
and welded components. same type of stress the superposition is to be carried out
For welded components the assessment is to be carried according to Chapter 4.1.
out with structural stresses or effective notch stresses *2. If different types of stress like normal stress and shear
Assessments are generally to be carried out separately stress act simultaneously and if the resulting stress is
for the toe and for the root of a weld. They are to be multiaxial, Chapter 0.3.5 and Figure 0.0.9, both the
carried out in the same way, but using the respective individual types of stress and the combined types of
local stresses and fatigue classes FAT as these are in stress are to be considered as described below *5.
general different for the toe and the root of a weld.

Kinds of component
Degree of utilization
Rod-shaped (10), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
The assessment is to be carried out by determining the (3D) components are to be distinguished. They can be
degree of utilization of the component fatigue strength. both non-welded or welded.
In the general context of the present Chapter the degree
of utilization is the quotient of the (local) characteristic
stress amplitude Ga,l> ... , divided by the allowable (local)
stress amplitude of the component fatigue strength at 4 As the degree of utilization is the quotient of two amplitude which
the reference point *3. The allowable stress amplitude is always are positive.
the quotient of the component variable amplitude 5 Proportional, synchronous and non-proportional multiaxial stresses are
to be distinguished. , Chapter 0.3.5.

Only under special conditions of proportional stresses the character of Eq.


(4.6.4), (4.6.9) and (4.6.14) is that of a strength hypothesis from a
material-mechanics point of view. For example the extreme stresses from
1 It is essential to examine the degree of utilization not only of the bending and shear will - as a rule - occur at different points of the cross-
combined types of stress but also of the individual types of stress in section, so that different reference points W are to be considered. As a rule
general, and in particular if these may occur separately. bending will be more important. More general the Eq. (4.6.4), (4.6.9) and
(4.6.14) have the character of an empirical interaction formula. They are
2 The additional index K marking effective notch stresses is to be added applicable for proportional stresses and approximately applicable for
to the stress symbols where appropriate. synchronous stresses; an improved procedure for non-welded components
is given in Chapter 5.9. For non-proportional stresses the Eq. (4.6.4),
3 The reference point is the critical point of the considered component (4.6.9) and (4.6.14) are not suitable; an approximate procedure
that observes the highest degree of utilization. applicable for non-proportional stresses is proposed in Chapter 5.10.
128
4.6 Assessment 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses

4.6.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components Table 4.6.1 Values of q as dependent on f w ,< ~1

4.6.1.1 Individual types of stress Steel, GGG GT, GG


wrought cast
The degrees of utilization of rod-shaped (ID)
Al alloys Al alloys
components for variable amplitude types of stress like
f w< 0,577 0,65 0,75 0,85
normal stress and shear stress are
q 0 0,264 0,544 0,759

~ I, (4.6.3) ~1 Exceptions: For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation


A < 12,5 %) q = 0,5 , for surface hardened or welded components
q = I.

4.6.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components


O"a,1 , ... characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress
4.6.2.1 Individual types of stress
amplitude in the spectrum) according to type of
stress, Chapter 4.1.1.1 and Eq. (4.6.1) or (4.6.2), The degrees of utilization of shell-shaped (2D)
O"SK, ... related amplitude of the component variable components for variable amplitude types of stress like
amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter 4.4.3, normal stress in the directions x and y as well as shear
jges total safety factor, Chapter 4.5.5. are

0'., x, I
aSK,crx = ~ 1, (4.6.8)
4.6.1.2 Combined types of stress 0' BK,x / j erf
The degree of utilization of rod-shaped (ID) O'.,y,]
aSK,cry = ~ 1,
components for combined types of stress is *6
0' BK,y / j erf
aSK,Sv = q' aNH + (l - q) . aoH s 1, (4.6.4)
where

aNH =1 {Isal + ~s; + 4 t; ). (4.6.5)


0"a,x,1,... characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress
amplitude in the spectrum) according to type of
aoH =Js; +t; , stress, Chapter 4.1.1.2 and Eq. (4.6.1) or
Sa= aSK,cr , (4.6.6) (4.6.2),
O"SK,x, ... related amplitude of the component
variable amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter
aSK,cr, ... degrees of utilization after Eq. (4.6.3). 4.4.3,
jges total safety factor, Chapter 4.5.5.
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) q = 0,5 is to be applied. For surface
hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to be 4.6.1.2 Combined types of stress
applied. Otherwise there is, Table 4.6.1,
The degree of utilization of shell-shaped (2D)
q
J3 -(l/fw"t) (4.6.7)
components for combined types of stresses is *6
J3 -1 aSK,crv = q . aNH + (l - q) . aoH~ 1, (4.6.9)
fw,'t shear fatigue strength factor, Table 4.2.1 or 4.6.1. where (4.6.10)

aNH =1{lsa,x +Sa,yl+~(Sa,x -Sa,y)2 +4.t;),


2 2 2
J
aoH = sa,x + sa,y - sa,x . sa,y + t a '

sa,x = aSK,crx , (4.6.11)


6 Eq. (4.6.4), (4.6.9) and (4.6.14) is a combination ofthe normal stress
criterion (NH) and the v. Mises criterion (GH). Depending on the sa,y= aSK,cry ,
ductility ofthematerial thecombination is controlled bya parameter q as
a function of fw,< according to Eq. (4.6.7), (4.6.12) or (4.6.17) and ta = aSK,"t ,
Table 4.6.1. For instance q = 0 forsteel sothat only thev. Mises criterion
is of effect, while q = 0,264 for GGG so that both the normal stress aSK,crx, ... degrees of utilization after Eq. (4.6.8) .
criterion and thev.Mises criterion areof partial influence.
129
4.6 Assessment 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses

For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation 4.6.3.2 Combined types of stresses
A < 12.5 %) q = 0,5 is to be applied. For surface
The degree of utilization of block-shaped (3D)
hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to' be
components for combined types of stresses is *6 *9
applied. Otherwise there is, Table 4.6.1,
aSK,sv = q . aNH + (1 - q) . aGH~ 1, (4.6.14)
J3-(l/fw,)
q
J3 -1
(4.6.12)
,I ,I
aNH = MAX (Isa,d Sa,21 Sa,31) , (4.6.15)

f w" shear fatigue strength factor, Table 4.2.1 or 4.6.1


aoH =
1/ 2
"2\(Sa,1 -Sa,2) +(Sa,2
2
-Sa,3) +(Sa,3 -Sa,l)
2) ,
Rules of signs: If the normal stresses ax and a y always
act proportional or synchronous in phase the degrees of Sa,I = aSK,al , (4.6.16)
utilization aSK,ax and aSK,cry are to be inserted in Eq.
Sa,2 = aSK,a2 ,
(4.6.11) with the same (positive) signs. If they act
always proportional or synchronous 1800 out of phase, Sa,3 = aSK,a3 ,
however, the degrees of utilization aSK,ax and aSK,cry are
aSK,al ... degrees of utilization after Eq. (4.6.13).
to be inserted in Eq. (4.6.11) with opposite signs *7 .
If the individual types of stress act non-proportional, For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
that is neither proportional nor synchronous, the Eq. A < 12,5 %) q = 0,5 is to be applied. For surface
(4.6.9) to (4.6.11) are not applicable and the procedure hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to be
proposed in Chapter 5.10 is to be applied instead. applied. Otherwise there is, Table 4.6.1,

J3-(l/fw,)
q (4.6.17)
4.6.3 Block-shaped (3D) components *8 J3 -1
4.6.3.1 Individual types of stress fw" shear fatigue strength factor, Tab. 4.2.1.
The degrees of utilization of block-shaped (3D)
components for the principle stresses in the directions 1, Rules of signs: If the principle stresses al , a2 and a3
2 and 3 are always act proportional or synchronous in phase the
degrees of utilization aSK,al , aSK,a2 and aSK,a3 are to
(J l,a,1 be inserted in Eq. (4.6.16) with the same (positive)
aSK,al = ~ 1, (4.6.13) signs. If they act always proportional or synchronous
(J I BK / j erf 1800 out of phase, however, the respective degrees of
(J 2,0,1 utilization aSK,aI , aSK,a2 and aSK,a3 are to be inserted
aSK,a2 = ~ 1, in Eq. (4.6.16) with opposite signs *12. If the individual
(J 2,BK / j erf principle stresses act non-proportional (that is in a non-
(J 3,0,1
constant direction), the Eq. (4.6.14) to (4.6.16) are not
aSK,a3 = ~ 1, applicable and the procedure proposed in Chapter 5.10
(J3 BK / jerf is to be applied instead.

al,a,l , ... characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress


amplitude in the spectrum) ofthe particular
principle stress, Chapter 4.1.1.3 and
Eq. (4.6.1) or (4.6.2),
al,SK, ... related amplitude of the component variable
amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter 4.4.3,
jges total safety factor, Chapter 4.5.5.

7 For example normal stresses iii thedirections x and ythatresult from


the same single external load affecting the component.
8 Sometimes block-shaped (3D) components may be welded at the
surface, for example by surfacing welds. Then assessment can becarried
out as for shell-shaped (2D) welded components, if the stresses ax, ay
and, areofinterest only. 9 MAX means themaximum ofthevalues inparenthesis to bevalid.
130
4.6 Assessment 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
131
5.1 Material tables 5 Appendices

fw,o- Fatigue strength factor for completely reversed


5 Appendices IRT51 EN. dog
normal stress, Table 2.2.1.
5.1 Material tables Material fatigue strength for completely reversed shear
stress
Contents Page
-Cw,s = fW,t' crW,zd, (2.2.1) (5.2)
5.1.0 General 131 fW,t Shear fatigue strength factor, Tab. 2.2.1.
5.1.1 Material tables for steel and 132
cast iron materials Material fatigue strength for completely reversed
5.1.2 Material tables for 132/ 142 bending stress
for aluminum alloys c W,b = ncr(do) . crW,zd, (5.3)
5.1.0 General no-(do) Kj-Kj ratio, Eq.(2.3.14) *5, with do = 7,5 mm.
Material fatigue strength for completely reversed
No responsibility can be taken for the mechanical
torsional stress
material properties indicated in the material tables
below, see page 3 "Terms of liability". The newest -CW,t = nldo)' -cw,s, (5.4)
versions of the standards are decisive. The data given nldo) Kt-Kfratio, Eq.(2.3.14) *5, with do = 7,5 mm.
are not to be used for selecting the material in design
since this would require additional material properties Material fatigue strength for zero-tension axial stress
to be considered that are not contained in the tables (amplitude)
below. crSch,zd = crW,zd / (1 + Mo- ), (5.5)
The tables *I contain mechanical properties according M, Mean stress sensitivity, Eq. (2.4.34) *6.

to standards Rm,N , ... . They apply in the case of steel to Comment: The values crw, zd , ... , Eq. (5.1)6to (5.5), apply
the smallest dimension of a semi-finished product *2, in to a number of cycles N = ND,s = ND,t = 10 .
the case of cast iron materials and cast aluminum alloys
for the test piece. In the case of wrought aluminum For steel and cast iron materials (constant amplitude
alloys the tables give component values Rm= Rm.N, ... , S-N curve modell, Figure 2.4.4 and Table 2.4.4)
of the semi-finished product indicated. Properties ac- crW,zd, ..., is the fatigue limit = endurance limit.
cording to standards, component values and component Example: Quenched and tempered steel,
properties according standards are to be distinguished, - fw,o- = 0,45 (Tab. 2.2.1),
as explained in the Chapters 1.2,2.2, 3.2 or 4.2. - fatigue limit crW,zd = fw,o- . Rm = 0,45 Rm .
Rm,N or Rm are the minimum value, the guaranteed For aluminum alloys (constant amplitude S-N curve
value or the lower boundary of the specified range of the model II, Figure 2.4.4 and Table 2.4.4) crW,zd, ..., is the
tensile strength. The minimum value or the guaranteed fatigue limit, while the endurance limit crW,II,zd, ..., is
value ofthe yield strength are Rp,N or R, *3 *4. achieved at a number of cycles N = ND, II,o- = ND,II;, = 108 .
The material fatigue strength values in the tables for It is lower than crW,zd or -cw,s by a factor fII, or fn,t :0-

completely reversed loading, crW,zd,N , or for zero- _ fILo- = (108/106 ) 1/15 = 0,74
tension loading, crSch zd N ' ..., are intended for (kD,o-= 15 for normal stress) and
information only, because they can be computed as _ fILt = (108/106 ) 1/25 = 0,83
described below and are not necessary for the
(kD,t = 25 for shear stress).
assessment therefore.
Example:
All following equations are supposed to be valid for a
material test specimen of the diameter do = 7,5 mm - fw,o- = 0,30 (Tab. 2.2.1),
independent of the real dimension of the semi-finished fILo- = 0,74,
product or of the raw casting (index N left out, e.g. - Endurance limit crW,II,zd = fILo- . fw,o- . Rm=
crW,zd instead of crW,zd,N , etc.) = 0,74 . 0,30 . Rm = 0,22 . Rm .
Material fatigue strength for completely reversed normal
stress
4 Rp stands both for the yield stress R, orthe 0.2 proofstress RpO,2 .
crW.zd = fw,o- . Rm , (2.2.1) (5.1)
5 Eq. (5.3) for bending (and Eq. (5.4) for torsion in analogy) results from
a combination ofthe following equations:
- Eq. (2.4. I) (crW,b in the meaning ofa component value SWK,b )
- Eq. (2.3.1) (KWK,b = K(b),
I Kinds of material (e.g. non-alloyed structural steel) and types of
material within the kind ofmaterial (e.g. St37-2) are distinguished. - Eq. (2.3. 10) (Kt,b = I ; ncr(r) = I ; K(b = 11 ncr(d) ),
- Eq. (2.3.14) (ncr(d) with d = do = 7,5 mrn for the material in question,
2 Ifdifferent dimensions ofa semi-finished product are given.
- Eq. (2.3.17) (Ocr (do) = 2/ do = 0,267 mrn -I ).
3 For the values Rm,N ' Rp,N, Rm ' Rp , an average probability of
survival PO = 97,5 % is supposed that should also apply to the further 6 Eq. (5.5) follows from Eq. (2.4.10) with Rzrl = 0 orSm,zd / Sa,zd = I,
values crW,zd,N ' "" crW,zd , "', derived therefrom. respectively.
132
5.1 Material tables 5 Appendices

5.1.1 Material tables for steel and cast iron 5.1.2 Material tables for aluminum alloys
materials Table 5.1.21 on page 142 gives a survey of the
The tables 5.1.1 to 5.1.14, from page 132 on, contain aluminum materials.
mechanical properties according to standards, Rm.N, ... , The tables 5.1.22 to 5.1.30, from page 143 on, contain
for the following kinds of material: for rolled steel (non- component properties according to standards, R.ll , ...,
alloyed structural steel, weldable fine grain structural for wrought aluminum alloys according to the type of
steel, quenched and tempered steel, case hardening material and its condition. They are valid for the
steel, nitriding steel and stainless steel), for forging steel indicated dimensions.
and for cast iron materials (cast steel, heat treatable steel
castings, nodular cast iron (GGG), malleable cast iron The tables 5.1.31 to 5.1.38, from page 172 on, contain
(GT) and cast iron with lamellar graphite (GG)). material properties according to standards, RrnN , ... , for
cast aluminum alloys according to the type of material
From these and according to Chapter 1.2.1 or 3.2.1 the and its condition, from which - and according to
component properties according to standards Rrn are to Chapter 1.2.1 or 3.2.1 - the component properties
be computed under observation of the technological size according to standards, Rm , ... , are to be computed
factor according to the diameter or width of the semi- under observation of the technological size factor
finished product or of the raw casting, respectively. according to the width of the raw casting.
The fatigue limit values O"W.zd.N. .., correspond to the The fatigue limit values O"W.zd , O"W.zd.N , ... , are different
endurance limit as well. from those of the endurance limit, however, see page
131.

Table 5.1.1 Mechanical properties in MPa for non-alloy structural steels, after DIN EN 10 025 (1994-03-00) c- 1.

Type of Type of material, Material s,.N <>2


Rm.N O"W,zd,N O"Sch,zd,N O"W,b,N 'tW.s.N 'tW.I,N
material after DIN 17 100 No.
S185 St 33 1.0035 310 185 140 138 155 80 90
S235JR St 37-2 1.0037 360 235 160 158 180 95 105
S235JRGI USt 37-2 1.0036
S235JRGlC UQSt 37-2 1.0121
S235JRG2 RSt 37-2 1.0038
S235JRG2C RQSt 37-2 1.0122
S235JO St 37-3 U 1.0114
S235JOC QSt 37-3 U 1.0115
S235J2G3 St 37-3 N 1.0116
S235J2G4 1.0117
S235J2G3C QSt 37-3N 1.0118
S275JR St 44-2 1.0044 430 275 195 185 215 110 125
S275JRC QSt 44-2 1.0128
S275JO St 44-3 U 1.0143
S275JOC QSt 44-3 U 1.0140
S275J2G3 St 44-3 N 1.0144
S275J2G4 1.0145
S275J2G3C QSt 44-3N 1.0141
S355JR 1.0045 510 355 230 215 255 130 150
S355JO St 52-3 U 1.0553
S355JOC QSt 52-3 U 1.0554
S355J2G3 St 52-3 N 1.0570
S355J2G4 1.0577
S355J2G3C QSt 52-3 N 1.0569
S355K2G3 1.0595
S355K2G4 1.0596
E295 St 50-2 1.0050 490 295 220 205 245 125 145
E335 St 60-2 1.0060 590 335 265 240 290 155 170
E360 St 70-2 1.0070 690 360 310 270 340 180 200
<> 1 Effective Diameter del(N = 40 mm. c- 2 Re.N / Rrn,N < 0,75 for all types ofmatenal hsted.
133
5.1 Material tables 5 Appendices

Table 5.1.2 Mechanical properties in MFa for weldable fine grain structural steels in the normalized condition, after
DIN 17102 (1983-10-00) ~1.

Type of material Material Rm,N Re,N ()W,zd,N ()Sch,zd,N ()W,b,N 1:W,s,N 1:W,t,N ad,rn ad,p
No. ~2 ~3 ~3

StE 255 1.0461 360 255 160 160 180 95 105 0,33 0,41
StE 285 1.0486 390 285 175 170 195 100 115 0,31 0,38
StE 315 1.0505 440 315 200 190 220 115 130 0,28 0,35
StE 355 1.0562 490 355 220 205 245 125 145 0,26 0,30
StE 380 1.8900 500 380 225 210 250 130 145 0,26 0,34
StE 420 1.8902 530 420 240 220 265 140 155 0,24 0,31
StE 460 1.8905 560 460 250 230 280 145 165 0,23 0,30
StE 500 1.8907 610 500 275 245 300 160 180 0,22 0,31

~ 1 Effective Diameter for the tensile strength deff,N = 70 mm, for the yield strength deff,N = 40 mm.
~ 2 Re,N / ~N < 0,75 up to and including StE 355, Re,N / ~N > 0,75 from StE 380 on.
~ 3 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.

Table 5.1.3 Mechanical properties in MFa for weldable fine grain structural steels in the normalized condition, after
DIN EN 10 113 (1993-04-00) -c- 1.

Type of material Material Rrn,N Re,N ()W,zd,N ()Sch,zd,N ()W,b,N 1:W,s,N 1:W,t,N ad,rn ad,p
No. ~2 ~3 ~3

S 275 N 1.0490 370 275 165 160 185 95 110 0,30 0,30
S 275 NL 1.0491
S 355 N 1.0545 470 355 210 200 235 120 140 0,25 0,28
S 355 NL 1.0546
S 420N 1.8902 520 420 235 215 260 135 150 0,23 0,30
S 420 NL 1.8912
S460N 1.8901 550 460 245 225 275 140 160 0,00 0,22
S 460 NL 1.8903
S275M 1.8818 360 275 160 158 180 95 105 0,30 0,30
S 275 ML 1.8819
S 355M 1.8823 450 355 205 190 225 115 130 0,25 0,28
S 355 ML 1.8834
S420M 1.8825 500 420 225 210 250 130 145 0,23 0,30
S 420 ML 1.8836
S460M 1.8827 530 460 240 220 265 140 155 0,00 0,22
S 460 ML 1.8838

~ I Effective Diameter for the tensile strength deff,N = 100 mm, for the yield strength deff,N = 30 mm.
~ 2 Re,N / ~N < 0,75 up to and including S 275 NL, Re,N / ~N > 0,75 from S 355 Non.
~ 3 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.
134
5.1 Material tables 5 Appendices

Table 5.1.4 Mechanical properties in MFa for quenched and tempered steels in the quenched and tempered
condition, after DIN EN 10 083-1 (1996-10-00) --1. Notes? 1 to --4 see next page.

Type of Type of Material


Rm,N R,N crW,zd,N crSch,zd,N crW,b,N LW,s,N LW,t,N ad,rn llci,p
material, material, No.
after DIN EN after ?2 --3 --3 ?3 ?3 ?3 ?4 ?4
10 027-1 DIN 17200
C22E Ck 22 1.1151
C22R Cm22 1.1149 500 340 225 210 250 130 145 0,19 0,43
C22 C 22 1.0402
C25E Ck 25 1.1158 550
C25R Cm25 1.1163 370 250 225 275 145 160 0,29 0,40
C25 C25 1.0406
C30E Ck 30 1.1178
C30R Cm30 1.1179 600 400 270 245 295 155 175 0,26 0,37
C30 C 30 1.0528
C35E Ck 35 1.1181
C35R Cm35 1.1180 630 430 285 255 310 165 185 0,20 0,39
C35 C 35 1.0501
C40E Ck40 1.1186
C40R Cm40 1.1189 650 460 295 260 320 170 190 0,12 0,36
C40 C40 1.0511
C45E Ck45 1.1191
C45R Cm45 1.1201 700 490 315 275 345 180 205 0,16 0,36
C45 C45 1.0503
C50E Ck 50 1.1206
C50R Cm50 1.1241 750 520 340 290 365 195 215 0,21 0,35
C50 C 50 1.0540
C55E Ck 55 1.1203
C55R Cm55 1.1209 800 550 360 305 390 210 230 0,19 0,35
C55 C 55 1.0535
C60E Ck60 1.1221
C60R Cm60 1.1223 850 580 385 320 415 220 245 0,18 0,34
C60 C60 1.0601
28Mn6 28Mn6 1.1170 800 590 360 305 390 210 230 0,30 0,38
38Cr2 38 Cr 2 1.7003 800 550 360 305 390 210 230 0,37 0,52
38CrS2 38 CrS 2 1.7023
46Cr2 46 Cr 2 1.7006 900 650 405 335 435 235 260 0,41 0,54
46CrS2 46 CrS 2 1.7025
34Cr4 34 Cr4 1.7033 900 700 405 335 435 235 260 0,33 0,49
34CrS4 34 CrS 4 1.7037
37Cr4 37 Cr4 1.7034 950 750 430 345 460 245 270 0,32 0,46
37CrS4 37 CrS 4 1.7038
41Cr4 41 Cr 4 1.7035 1000 800 450 360 480 260 285 0,30 0,44
41CrS4 41 CrS 4 1.7039
25CrMo4 25 CrMo4 1.7218 900 700 405 335 435 235 260 0,33 0,49
25CrMoS4 25 CrMoS 4 1.7213
34CrMo4 34 CrMo 4 1.7220 1000 800 450 360 480 260 285 0,30 0,44
34CrMoS4 34 CrMoS 4 1.7226
42CrMo4 42 CrMo 4 1.7225 1100 900 495 385 525 285 315 0,32 0,43
42CrMoS4 42 CrMoS 4 1.7227
50CrMo4 50 CrMo4 1.7228 1100 900 495 385 525 285 315 0,28 0,38
36CrNiMo4 36 CrNiMo 4 1.6511 1100 900 495 385 525 285 315 0,32 0,38
34CrNiM06 34 CrNoMo6 1.6582 1200 1000 540 410 570 310 340 0,33 0,39
30CrNiMo8 -- 1 30 CrNiMo 8 1.6580 1250 1050 565 420 595 325 355 0,36 0,42
36NiCrMo16?1 1.6773 1250 1050 565 420 595 325 355 0,28 0,32
51CrV4 50 CrY 4 1.8159 1100 900 495 385 525 285 315 0,28 0,33
135
5.1 Material tables 5 Appendices

Table 5.1.5 Mechanical properties in MPa for quenched and tempered steels in the normalized condition,
after DIN EN 10 083-1 (1996-10-00) -9-1.

Type of Type of Material Rn,N Re,N crW,zd,N CJSch,zd,N CJW,b,N 't W,s,N 'tW,I,N ~m ad,p
material, material, No. -9-2 -9-3 -9-3
after DIN EN after
10 027-1 DIN 17200

C22E Ck22 1.1151


C22R Cm22 1.1149 430 240 195 185 215 110 125 0,08 0,19
C22 C 22 1.0402
C25E Ck 25 1.1158
C25R Cm25 1.1163 470 260 210 200 235 120 140 0,10 0,18
C25 C 25 1.0406
C30E Ck 30 1.1178
C30R Cm30 1.1179 510 280 230 215 255 135 150 0,10 0,19
C30 C 30 1.0528
C35E Ck 35 1.1181
C35R Cm35 1.1180 550 300 250 225 275 145 160 0,10 0,19
C35 C 35 1.0501
C40E Ck40 1.1186
C40R Cm40 1.1189 580 320 260 235 285 150 170 0,09 0,19
C40 C40 1.0511
C45E Ck45 1.1191
C45R Cm45 1.1201 620 340 280 250 305 160 180 0,10 0,20
C45 C45 1.0503
CSOE Ck50 1.1206
C50R Cm50 1.1241 650 355 295 260 320 170 190 0,10 0,19
C50 C 50 1.0540
C55E Ck 55 1.1203
C55R Cm55 1.1209 680 370 305 270 335 175 195 0,09 0,20
C55 C 55 1.0535
C60E Ck60 1.1221
C60R Cm60 1.1223 710 380 320 280 350 185 205 0,09 0,19
C60 C60 1.0601
28Mn6 28Mn6 1.1170 630 345 285 250 310 165 185 0,07 0,17

-9- 1 Effective diameter deff,N = 16 rom.


-9- 2 Re,N / Rm,N < 0,75 for all types of material listed.
-9- 3 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.

Notes referring to Table 5.1.4:


-9- 1 Effective diameter deff,N;= 40 rom for 30 CrNiMo 8 and 36 NiCrMo 16, deff,N = 16 rom for all other types of material listed.
-9- 2 Re,N / Rm,N < 0,75 up to and including 46 Cr 2, 46 CrS 2; Re,N / Rm,N > 0,75 from 34 Cr 4, 34 CrS 4 on.
-9- 3 The fatigue strength values of the sulphur bearing steels 38 CrS 2 to 42CrMoS 4 are lower than the values listed for 28 Cr 2 to 42 CrMo 4.
-9- 4 M ore specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.
136
5.1 Material tables 5 Appendices

Table 5.1.6 Mechanical properties in MPa for case hardening steels in the blank hardened condition -:> 1,
after DIN EN 10 084 (1998-06-00) (selected types of material only) -:>2.
6
Type of material Material Rm,N Re,N O'W,zd,N O'Sch,zd,N O'W,b,N 1: W,s,N 1:W,t,N ad,rn -:>
-:>3 No. ad,p
-:> 4 -:> 5
ClOE 1.1121 500 310 200 185 220 115 130 0,56
C15E 1.1141 800 545 320 270 345 185 205 0,68
C16E 1.1148 800 545 320 270 345 185 205 0,68
17Cr3 1.7016 800 545 320 270 345 185 205 0,37
28Cr4 * 1.7030 900 620 360 295 385 210 230 0,33
16MnCr5 * 1.7131 1000 695 400 320 430 230 255 0,44
20MnCr5 * 1.7147 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,48
18CrMo4 * 1.7243 1100 775 440 340 470 255 280 0,52
18CrMoS4 * 1.7244 1100 775 440 340 470 255 280 0,52
22CrMoS3-5 * 1.7333 1100 775 440 340 470 255 280 0,28
20MoCr3 1.7320 900 620 360 295 385 210 230 0,33
20MoCr4 1.7321 900 620 360 295 385 210 230 0,33
16NiCr4 1.5714 1000 695 400 320 430 230 255 0,30
10NiCr5-4 * 1.5805 900 620 360 295 385 210 230 0,61
18NiCr5-4 * 1.5810 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
l7CrNi6-6 * 1.5918 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
l5NiCr13 * 1.5752 1000 695 400 320 430 230 255 0,30-
20NiCrMo2-2 * 1.6523 1100 775 440 340 470 255 280 0,52
l7NiCrMo6-4 * 1.6566 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
20NiCrMoS6-4 * 1.6571 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
18CrNiMo7~6 * 1.6587 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
14NiCrMo13-4 * 1.6657 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37

-:> 1 Values after DIN EN 10084 Appendix F ("tensile strength values after quenching and tempering at 200C") given for information only.
-c- 2 Effective diameter deff,N = 16 mm,
-c- 3 Only up to 40 mm diameter, types of material marked by * up to 100 mm diameter, however.
-:> 4 Re,N after DIN 17210 (Draft 1984-10-00), fitted.
-:> 5 Re,N / ~,N < 0,75 for all types of material listed.
-:> 6 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.

Table 5.1. 7 Mechanical properties in l\1Pa for nidriding steels in the quenched and tempered condition,
after DIN EN 10 085 (2001-07-00) -:>1.

Type of material Material Rm,N Re,N O'W,zd,N O'Sch,zd,N O'W,b,N 1: W,s,N 1:W,t,N ad,rn ad,p
No. -:>2 -:>3 -:>3

24CrMo13-6 1.8516 1000 800 450 360 480 260 285 0,22 0,26
31CrMo12 1.8515 1030 835 465 370 495 270 295 0,21 0,27
32CrAIMo7-1O 1.8505 1030 835 465 370 495 270 295 0,21 0,27
3lCrMoV5 1.8519 1100 900 495 385 525 285 315 0,31 0,36
33CrMoV12-9 1.8522 1150 950 520 395 550 300 330 0,30 0,35
34CrAINi7-1O 1.8550 900 680 405 335 435 235 260 0,17 0,17
41CrAlMo7-1O 1.8509 950 750 430 345 460 250 275 0,23 0,24
40CrMoV13-9 1.8523 950 750 430 345 460 250 275 0,23 0,24
34CrAIMo5-1O 1.8507-:>4 800 600 360 305 390 210 230 0,00 0,00

-:> 1 Effective diameter deff,N = 40 mm.


-:> 2 Re,N / ~N > 0,75 for all types of material listed.
-:> 3 More specific values for the individual types of materiaI compared to the average values for the kind of material given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.
-:> 4 Only up to 100 mm diameter.
137
5.1 Material tables 5 Appendices

Table 5.1.8 Mechanical properties in MFa for stainless steels, after DIN EN 10 088-2 (1995-08-00) (selected types of
material only) v I v 2

Type of material Type of material, Mate- Kind of


Rm,N R,N CJW,zd,N CJSch,zd,N CJW,b,N '"CW,.,N '"CW,t,N
after DIN / SEW rial product
No. v3

. tl ie annealed con diition,


F emtic stee 1s ill . stan dar d qualiHIes,
X2CrNi12 - 1.4003 P(25) 450 250 180 170 205 105 120
X6CrAl13 X6CrAI13 1.4002 P(25) 400 210 160 155 180 90 110
X6Crl7 X6Cr17 1.4016 P(25) 430 240 170 165 195 100 115
X6CrMo17-1 X6CrMo 17 1 1.4113 H(12) 450 260 180 170 205 105 120

Martensitic steeIs 'ill th e h eat treate d con d"


inon, stan dar d oualiti
qua ities.
X20Cr13 X20Cr 13 1.4021 P(75)
QT650 650 450 260 230 290 150 170
QT750 750 550 300 260 330 175 195
X4CrNiMo16-5-1 - 1.4418 P(75)
QT840 840 680 335 280 410 195 220
P ecipitation
.. . martensitic steeIs ill
h ar demng . tll e heat treate d condition, special qualities.
X5CrNiCuNb16-4 - 1.4542 P(50)
P1070 1070 1000 430 335 460 245 275
P950 950 800 380 310 410 220 245
P850 850 600 340 285 370 195 220

Austemtic steeIs 'ill t h ' anneaIed condiition,


e soiution , stan dar d qua
oualiti
ities.
X10CrNi18-8 X12CrNi 177 1.4310 C(6) 600 250 240 215 270 140 160
X2CrNiNI8-1O X2CrNi 18 10 1.4311 P(75) 550 270 220 200 245 125 145
X5CrNil8-10 X5CrNi 18 10 1.4301 P(75) 520 220 210 190 235 120 140
X6CrNiTi18-1O X6CrNi 18 10 1.4541 P(75) 500 200 200 185 225 115 135
X6CrNiMoTil7-12-2 X6CrNiMoTi 1722 1.4571 P(75) 520 220 210 190 235 120 140
X2CrNiMoN17-13-5 X2CrNiMoN17135 1.4439 P(75) 580 270 230 210 260 135 155

v I The fatigue strength values are provisional values.


v 2 An effective diameter deff,N is not required, as there is no technological size effect within the dimensions covered by the standard.
v 3 Kind of product: P(2S) hot rolled plates up to 25 mm thickness, H(12) hot rolled strip up to 12 mm thickness, C(6) cold r~l1ed strip up to
6 mm thickness, QT650 heat treated to a tensile strength of650 MPa, PI070 hot rolled plate with a tensile strength of 1070 MPa.
138
5.1 Material tables 5 Appendices

Table 5.1.9 Mechanical properties in MFa of steels for bigger forgings, after SEW 550 (1976-08-00) <, I <,2.

Type of material Material Rn,N R,N O"W,zd,N O"Sch,zd,N O"W,b,N 1: W,s,N 1:W,t,N ~,m ad,p
No. <,3 <03

Quenched and tempered condition.

Ck22 1.1151 410 225 165 155 185 95 105 0,00 0,16
Ck 35 1.1181 490 295 195 185 215 115 130 0,00 0,22
Ck45 1.1191 590 345 235 215 260 135 155 0,00 0,19
Ck 50 1.1206 630 365 250 280 275 145 165 0,00 0,25
Ck60 1.1221 690 390 275 240 300 160 180 0,00 0,27
20Mn5 1.1133 490 295 195 185 215 115 130 0,00 0,22
28Mn6 1.1170 590 390 235 215 260 135 155 0,26 0,31
20 MnMoNi 45 1.6311 580 420 230 210 255 135 150 0,18 0,23
22 NiMoCr 47 1.6755 560 400 225 205 245 130 145 0,00 0,00
24 CrMo 5 1.7258 640 410 255 230 280 150 165 0,24 0,26
34 CrMo4 1.7220 690 460 275 240 300 160 180 0,23 0,30
42 CrMo 4 1.7225 740 510 295 255 320 170 190 0,34 0,37
50 CrMo 4 1.7228 780 590 310 265 340 180 200 0,23 0,30
32 CrMo 12 1.7361 880 685 350 290 380 205 225 0,27 0,33
34 CrNiMo 6 1.6582 780 590 310 265 340 180 200 0,19 0,26
30 CrNiMo 8 1.6580 880 685 350 290 380 205 225 0,19 0,22
28 NiCrMoV 85<>' 1.6932 780 635 265 225 290 155 170 0,22 6,26
2
33 NiCrMo 145<0 1.6956 930 785 315 260 340 185 200 0,35 0,37

Normalized condition.

Ck22 1.1151 410 225 165 155 185 95 105 0,00 0,16
Ck 35 1.1181 490 275 195 180 215 115 130 0,00 0,19
Ck45 1.1191 590 325 235 215 260 135 155 0,00 0,16
Ck 50 1.1206 620 345 250 220 270 145 160 0,00 0,15
Ck60 1.1221 680 375 270 220 295 155 175 0,00 0,14

<> I The fatigue strength values are provisional values.


<> 2 Effective diameter deff,N = 500 nun for 28 NiCrMoV 8 5 und deff,N = 1000 nun for 33 NiCrMo 145, deff,N = 250 nun for
all other types of material listed.
<> 3 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values for the kind of material given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.
139
5.1 Material tables 5 Appendices

Table 5.1.10 Mechanical propertiesin:MFafor steelcastingsfor general applications,


after DIN 1681 (1985-06-00) ~ 1.
2
Type of material Material No. Rm,N Re,N
~
crW,zd,N crSch,zd,N crW,b,N L W,s,N . LW,t,N

GS-38