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The33StrategiesofWar Actions
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The33StrategiesofWar
The33StrategiesofWarbyRobertGreeneis 125px(/w/index.php?
a"guidetothesubtlesocialgameofeveryday title=Special:Upload&wpDestFile=33StratagiesWar.jpg)
lifeinformedbythe...militaryprinciplesinwar.".
Author RobertGreene(author)(/w/index.php?
Greene,Robert,"The33StrategiesofWar",
title=Robert_Greene_(author)&action=edit&redlink=1)
VikingAdult,2006Itiscomprisedofdiscussions
andexamplesonoffensiveanddefensive Country UnitedStates
strategies(/w/index.php?
title=Military_strategy&action=edit&redlink=1) Language English

fromawidevarietyofpeopleandconditions
Genre(s) Business(/w/index.php?
suchasNapoleonBonaparte,Lawrenceof
title=Business&action=edit&redlink=1),Management
Arabia,AlexandertheGreat,andtheTet (/w/index.php?
Offensive. title=Management&action=edit&redlink=1),Military
History(/w/index.php?
Thebookisdividedintofiveparts:SelfDirected title=Military_History&action=edit&redlink=1),
Warfare,Organizational(Team)Warfare, Psychology(/w/index.php?
DefensiveWarfare,OffensiveWarfareand title=Psychology&action=edit&redlink=1),self
Unconventional(Dirty)Warfare(/w/index.php? improvement(/w/index.php?title=Self
improvement&action=edit&redlink=1)

Publisher PenguinGroup(/w/index.php?
title=Penguin_Group&action=edit&redlink=1)(HC)
HighBridgeAudio(/w/index.php?
title=HighBridge_Audio&action=edit&redlink=1)(CD)

Released JanuaryandApril2006(/w/index.php?
title=2006&action=edit&redlink=1)

Media Print(Hardcover(/wiki/Hardcover))andCD
Type

Pages 496

ISBN ISBN0670034576
(/wiki/Special:BookSources/0670034576)(HC)978
1598870916(CD)

title=Unconventional_warfare&action=edit&redlink=1).Eachpartcontainsadifferingnumberofstrategies
(/w/index.php?title=List_of_military_strategies&action=edit&redlink=1),eachinachapter.Eachchapterhasa
similarlayout.Descriptionsofbattles,politicalandbusinesssituationsareaccompaniedbyGreene's
interpretation.Thereareoccasionalinstructionalsectionsfollowedbyexamples.Allchaptersendwitha
"Reversal"togiveabriefdiscussionofwherethestrategymaynotapply,acontraryviewordefense.Throughout
thebookMr.Greeneincludesquotesfromavarietyofsources.Theseareincorporatedinthemarginsand
betweensections.
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Contents
1SynopsesoftheStrategies

1.1Part1:SelfDirectedWarfare
1.2Part2:Organizational(Team)Warfare
1.3Part3:DefensiveWarfare
1.4Part4:OffensiveWarfare
1.5Part5:Unconventional(Dirty)War

2CompleteTableofContents

SynopsesoftheStrategies
Part1:SelfDirectedWarfare

Reversal

Identifyandfightyouropponents,butwhenyouhavewonactconciliatory.

1)DeclareWaronYourEnemies:ThePolarityStrategy.[1]Tofightyoumustknowandidentifyyouropponents.
Greeneidentifies:

TheInnerEnemy.HiredtofightthePersians(/w/index.php?title=Persian_Empire&action=edit&redlink=1)in
401bce(/w/index.php?title=401_BC&action=edit&redlink=1),Xenophon(/w/index.php?
title=Xenophon&action=edit&redlink=1)hadtoturnamercenary(/w/index.php?
title=Mercenary&action=edit&redlink=1)bandofGreeks(/w/index.php?
title=Ancient_Greece&action=edit&redlink=1)intoaunifiedgroupfightingforselfpreservation.Theyhadto
identifytheopponent,determinethereasonsfortheirfightandbattletheirownissues.
TheOuterEnemy.MargaretThatcher(/w/index.php?title=Margaret_Thatcher&action=edit&redlink=1),
definedherfightandheropponent.Shefoughtrelentlesslyforwhatshefeltwasrightnotbackingdownin
thefaceofoppositiondrivinghertaskstocompletion.
KeystoWarfare

Ifindoubt,testtoensureheisyour
Defineyouropponent.
opponent.

Havingopponentsimpliesyourimportance,maintain Useyouropponentstodistractattention
yourfocus. fromyou.

Reversal

Nocompletereversal,donotfightthelastwar,learnfromit.

2)DoNotFighttheLastWar:TheGuerrillaWaroftheMindStrategy.[1]Tacticsage,keeptacticsfreshand
alwaysdevelopnewones.
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TheLastWar.In1806(/w/index.php?title=1806&action=edit&redlink=1)Prince(/w/index.php?
title=Prince&action=edit&redlink=1)FriedrichLudwig(/w/index.php?
title=Friedrich_Ludwig&action=edit&redlink=1)ofHohenloheIngelfingen(/w/index.php?title=Hohenlohe
Ingelfingen&action=edit&redlink=1)foughtNapoleon(/w/index.php?
title=Napoleon_I_of_France&action=edit&redlink=1),buthisstrategieswerethoseofFredericktheGreat
(/w/index.php?title=Frederick_the_Great&action=edit&redlink=1)andwereoldandtired.Napoleon's
innovativestrategiesoutwittedhim.
ThePresentWar.In1605(/w/index.php?title=1605&action=edit&redlink=1)MiyamotoMusashi
(/w/index.php?title=Miyamoto_Musashi&action=edit&redlink=1),asamurai(/w/index.php?
title=Samurai&action=edit&redlink=1),hadseriesofdefiningduels.Hedevelopedapatternforhisfighting,
butwouldregularlychangehistacticstoconfoundandconfusehisopponents.Hiscontinualadaptationof
histacticsaffordedhisopponentsnocomfort.
KeystoWarfare

Droppreconceived Forgetthelast
Reexaminebeliefsandprinciples.
notions. war.

Keepinventingnew Adapttocurrent Reversecoursedoingtheoppositeofwhathas


plans. times. beendonebefore.

Reversal

Theonlyreversalistousethisagainstothers,intimidatethemandraisetheirparanoiatoallowthemtointimidate
themselves.

3)AmidsttheTurmoilofEvents,DoNotLoseYourPresenceofMind:TheCounterbalanceStrategy. [1]You
muststayfocused,defineyourgoalsandhavetheconfidencetoachievethosegoals.Withthisinplace,strive
towardthatgoalrelentlessly.

HyperAggressiveTactic.LordNelson(/w/index.php?
title=Horatio_Nelson,_1st_Viscount_Nelson&action=edit&redlink=1)inthe1801(/w/index.php?
title=1801&action=edit&redlink=1)battleatCopenhagen(/w/index.php?
title=Copenhagen&action=edit&redlink=1)disobeyedordersfromaselfconcernsuperior(SirHydeParker
(/w/index.php?title=Hyde_Parker&action=edit&redlink=1)).Hisconfidenceandleadershipdefeatedthe
Danish(/w/index.php?title=Denmark&action=edit&redlink=1)navy.
DetachedBuddhaTactic.Filmdirector(/w/index.php?title=Film_director&action=edit&redlink=1)Alfred
Hitchcock(/w/index.php?title=Alfred_Hitchcock&action=edit&redlink=1)alwayshadacomplete
understandingandplanforhismovies(/w/index.php?title=Film&action=edit&redlink=1).Heknewthelook
andfeelthathewantedtoachieve.Hismethodicalapproach,thoughconfusingtoothers,gavehimacalm
demeanorontheset(/w/index.php?title=Set_construction&action=edit&redlink=1).
KeystoWarfare

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Donotgetfrustratedbypeoplelessstrategicorfoolish,use Seekouttheconflict,donothide
themtoyouradvantage. fromit.

Maintainpresenceofmind,donotletyourselfbeintimidated Donotpanic,focusonwhatyou
byyourselforothers. areconfidentin.

Relyonlyonyourself,minimize
Developaquickreactionsense,makedecisions.
relianceonothers.

Reversal

Beawarethatwhenyouaretheaggressorandyouropponenthasnothingtolose,thisstrategywillworkforthem.

4)CreateaSenseofUrgencyandDesperation:TheDeathGroundStrategy.[1]Whentherearenoother
options,peoplefightharder.Ifthechoiceislifeordeaththeyhavenothingtolose.

NoReturnTactic.In1504(/w/index.php?title=1504&action=edit&redlink=1)HernnCorts(/w/index.php?
title=Hern%C3%A1n_Cort%C3%A9s&action=edit&redlink=1)usedthistacticasheremovedtheabilityof
his500mentoreturntoCuba(/w/index.php?title=Cuba&action=edit&redlink=1).Theyhadtofightthe
Aztecs(/w/index.php?title=Aztec&action=edit&redlink=1)eventhoughgrosslyoutnumbered.
DeathatYourHeals.FyodorDostoevsky(/w/index.php?title=Fyodor_Dostoevsky&action=edit&redlink=1)'s
nearexecutionfortifiedhisresolvetomakeeachworkasifitwerehislast.Theintimateexperiencewithhis
mortalityallowedhimtoriseabovelife'strivialities.
KeystoWarfare

Taketheoneandonlychanceapproach. Donotwaittobeready,actsooner.

Actasifitisyouagainsttheworld. Stayrestless,donotseekcomfort.

Part2:Organizational(Team)Warfare

Reversal

Itisnevergoodtogiveupauthority.
Lookatyouropponentsthatarealliedanddeterminewaystosplitthembasedontheweaknessesintheiralliance.

5)AvoidTheSnareofGroupthink(/w/index.php?title=Groupthink&action=edit&redlink=1):TheCommand
andControlStrategy.[1]Takecommandandcontrol(/w/index.php?
title=Command_and_control&action=edit&redlink=1).Donotbetooauthoritarian(/w/index.php?
title=Authoritarian&action=edit&redlink=1)andnottooweak

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TheBrokenChain.InearlyWorldWarI(/w/index.php?title=World_War_I&action=edit&redlink=1)(1915
(/w/index.php?title=1915&action=edit&redlink=1))theBritish(/w/index.php?
title=United_Kingdom_of_Great_Britain_and_Ireland&action=edit&redlink=1)attackedConstantinople
(/w/index.php?title=Constantinople&action=edit&redlink=1)attemptingtoopenaccesstotheBlackSea
(/w/index.php?title=Black_Sea&action=edit&redlink=1)tosupplyRussia(/w/index.php?
title=Russia&action=edit&redlink=1)andtofacilitateattackingtheGermans(/w/index.php?
title=German_Empire&action=edit&redlink=1)fromtheEast.ButGeneralIanHamilton(/w/index.php?
title=Ian_Standish_Monteith_Hamilton&action=edit&redlink=1)ledhiscommandbydelegatingdetailsto
subordinates.ThisresultedinlackofunderstandingofthetacticalobjectivesofsecuringTekkeTepe
(/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Scimitar_Hill&action=edit&redlink=1),hencelosingthebattle.
RemoteControl.ThroughouthiscareerGeneralGeorgeMarshall(/w/index.php?
title=George_Marshall&action=edit&redlink=1)establishedasetofprotgs(/w/index.php?
title=Mentoring&action=edit&redlink=1)carefullyteachingthemhisphilosophyofcommand.Thiscreated
theabilityforhimtoknowandtrusttheactionsofhissubordinates.Eventuallyallowinghimtoplace
generals,likeDwightEisenhower(/w/index.php?title=Dwight_Eisenhower&action=edit&redlink=1),in
positionsofextremeauthorityknowingthesituationwouldberunaccordingtohisbeliefsandstyle.
KeystoWarfare

Createachainof Lookforpeopletofillyourvoidsofknowledge,relyonthembutdonot
command. becomecaptivetothem.

Dividedleadershipis Ensureyougetrapidinformation Bewaryofthepolitically


dangerous. fromthetrenches. inclinedinyourmidst.

Reversal

Attimes,especiallywhenchangeoftacticsisrequired,theteammayneedtobetighten,broughttogethertobecomeone
again.

6)SegmentYourForces:TheControlledChaosStrategy.[1]Smallerunitsaremoreagile,mobileanddeft.

CalculatedDisorder.In1805(/w/index.php?title=1805&action=edit&redlink=1)Napoleon(/w/index.php?
title=Napoleon_I_of_France&action=edit&redlink=1)wasbeingattackedbytheAustrian(/w/index.php?
title=Austrian_Empire&action=edit&redlink=1)troopsunderKarlMack(/w/index.php?
title=Karl_Mack&action=edit&redlink=1).Theformerdividedhistroopsandsuppliedthemwithspecific
instructions.SurroundingtheAustriantroopswhosurrenderedattheBattleofUlm(/w/index.php?
title=Battle_of_Ulm&action=edit&redlink=1)withlittlefighting.
KeystoWarfare

Keepyourselfinapositionofforce(SunTzu(/w/index.php?title=Sun_Tzu&action=edit&redlink=1)'s
Shih)
Instillthephilosophyoffollowingcommands"inspirit"not"bytheletter"
Createenmityinthetroopssothatwhentheyareaparttheyfollowthesamephilosophy

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Reversal

Moralespreads,butsodoesdiscontent.Atthefirstsignofdiscontentquellit.In58bce(/w/index.php?
title=58_BC&action=edit&redlink=1)JuliusCaesar(/w/index.php?title=Julius_Caesar&action=edit&redlink=1)actually
arrestedhisrumormongers.

7)TransformYourWarintoaCrusade:MoraleStrategies.[1]Createanatmosphereoffightingforsomething
nobleacauseoraneed.Respectyourtroops.

TheArtofManManagement.Bealeader1)fightforacause,2)providefortheteam,3)leadbyexample,
4)focustheteam'senergy,avoididleness,5)feedtheemotionstofeedthecause.6)rewardandpunish
sparingly,butlettheteamknowtheyexist,7)buildteamhistoryanduseittobond,8)removethe
disaffected.
HistoricalExamples.
1.1630(/w/index.php?title=1630&action=edit&redlink=1):OliverCromwell(/w/index.php?
title=Oliver_Cromwell&action=edit&redlink=1),whohadlittleBritish(/w/index.php?
title=Kingdom_of_England&action=edit&redlink=1)militarybackground,joinedthemilitarytoleada
crusade(/w/index.php?title=Crusade&action=edit&redlink=1)ofthePuritans(/w/index.php?
title=Puritan&action=edit&redlink=1).Herecruitedlikemindedindividualsandcommandedaformidable
unit.
2.1931(/w/index.php?title=1931&action=edit&redlink=1):LyndonJohnson(/w/index.php?
title=Lyndon_Johnson&action=edit&redlink=1)kepthisteamsworkinghardbykeepingpraiseillusiveand
fosteringcompetitiontogetthatpraise.
3.281bce(/w/index.php?title=281_BC&action=edit&redlink=1):Buildingspiritfortheupcomingfight,
Hannibal(/w/index.php?title=Hannibal&action=edit&redlink=1)providedcompetitivewargamesforhis
troopstoshowthemthelengthsthatpeoplewouldgotojointheirarmy.
4.1950(/w/index.php?title=1950&action=edit&redlink=1):NorthAmericanfootball's(/w/index.php?
title=Football&action=edit&redlink=1)GreenBayPackers(/w/index.php?
title=Green_Bay_Packers&action=edit&redlink=1)hiredVinceLombardi(/w/index.php?
title=Vince_Lombardi&action=edit&redlink=1)whotreatedallplayersequallyandmadethemallearn
respectandpraise.Heusedthefearofpublicreprimandtokeepteammembersinline.
5.1796(/w/index.php?title=1796&action=edit&redlink=1):Napoleon(/w/index.php?
title=Napoleon_I_of_France&action=edit&redlink=1)energizedhistroopswiththe"SpiritoftheRepublic"
fortheirbattles,oftenvisitingtroopsorwoundedsotheywouldseehisenergyandbuildtheirmorale.
Part3:DefensiveWarfare

Reversal

Onecanwinanexpensivebattle,butitisusuallynotworththerisk.Trytospendyouropponent'sassets,drawtheminto
thebattle,baitthemtofighttheexpensivefight.

8)PickYourBattles:ThePerfectEconomyStrategy.[1]Fighteconomically,conservingallyourassets.Know
yourstrengthsandplaytothem.Warconsistsofweakeningtheothersidemilitarily,financiallyandmorally.

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SpiralEffect.In280bce(/w/index.php?title=280_BC&action=edit&redlink=1)PyrrhusofEpirus
(/w/index.php?title=Pyrrhus_of_Epirus&action=edit&redlink=1)actedasamercenary(/w/index.php?
title=Mercenary&action=edit&redlink=1)tothecityofTarentum(/w/index.php?
title=Taranto&action=edit&redlink=1)abouttogotowarwithRome(/w/index.php?
title=Ancient_Rome&action=edit&redlink=1).Hewasdrawnintoaseriesofbattlesbyhisegoandguidedby
inadequateintelligence.Hewonthebattles,buthisarmywasdecimated.Thefinalwar,thePyrrhicWar
(/w/index.php?title=Pyrrhic_War&action=edit&redlink=1),ruinedhimforeverandwasthegenesisoftheterm
"pyrrhicvictory(/w/index.php?title=Pyrrhic_victory&action=edit&redlink=1)".
StrengthsandWeaknesses.QueenElizabethI(/w/index.php?
title=Queen_Elizabeth_I&action=edit&redlink=1)ascendedtothethrownofEngland(/w/index.php?
title=Tudor_dynasty&action=edit&redlink=1)in1558(/w/index.php?title=1558&action=edit&redlink=1),at
thattimeasecondarymilitarypower.AgainstheradvisorsshewaitedanddidnotengagePhilipII
(/w/index.php?title=Philip_II_of_Spain&action=edit&redlink=1)ofSpain(/w/index.php?
title=Spain&action=edit&redlink=1).Insteadshelookedformoresubtlewaysofdamaginghim,sheenlisted
theroyalNavy(/w/index.php?title=Royal_Navy&action=edit&redlink=1)torunpirate(/w/index.php?
title=Francis_Drake&action=edit&redlink=1)raidsonhisshipsreturningfromtheNewWorld(/w/index.php?
title=New_World&action=edit&redlink=1)andusingotherlessconventionaltechniques(/w/index.php?
title=Charles_Howard,_1st_Earl_of_Nottingham&action=edit&redlink=1)todestroytheSpanishArmada
(/w/index.php?title=Spanish_Armada&action=edit&redlink=1).QueenElizabethIcarefullypickedherbattles
toconserveresourcesandslowlydecimateandsuperiorforce.
KeystoWarfare

Makedowithwhatyou Donotrelyontechnology Balanceyourendsto


have.Leverageyour andequipment,relyon yourmeans.Donotget
assets. yourknowledge. overextended.

Usedeceptionwhereyou Donotproceedonlyoutof
donothavetheeconomic pride.Stopbeforeitgets Knowyourlimits. .
meanstoexpand. worse.

Reversal

Therearetimeswhenoneneedstostrikefirst,buttrytodrawyouropponentintothefirststrike,onyourterms.Ifthisdoes
notworkreassessyouroptionsforanoffensiveapproach.

9)TurntheTables:TheCounterattackStrategy.[1]Movingfirstshowsyouropponentyourstrategy.Waitdraw
themtomakethefirstmove.Analyzetheirstrategyandcounterattackbasedontheweaknessestheyreveal.

DisguiseAggression.PriortotheBattleofAusterlitz(/w/index.php?
title=Battle_of_Austerlitz&action=edit&redlink=1)(1805(/w/index.php?title=1805&action=edit&redlink=1)),
Napoleon(/w/index.php?title=Napoleon_I_of_France&action=edit&redlink=1)playedscaredandpanicky.
CzarAlexanderI(/w/index.php?title=Alexander_I_of_Russia&action=edit&redlink=1)ofRussia

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(/w/index.php?title=Russian_Empire&action=edit&redlink=1),anxiousforrevenge,decidedtoleadtheallies
intobattle.Napoleondrewtheopposingforcesforwardtoexposetheirweakcenteranddefeatthem.
Jujitsu.Inthe1944(/w/index.php?title=1944&action=edit&redlink=1)Democratic(/w/index.php?
title=Democratic_Party_(United_States)&action=edit&redlink=1)Presidential(/w/index.php?
title=President_of_the_United_States&action=edit&redlink=1)race,theRepublican(/w/index.php?
title=Republican_Party_(United_States)&action=edit&redlink=1)Party,tryingtoelectThomasDewey
(/w/index.php?title=Thomas_Dewey&action=edit&redlink=1),madecontinualslanderousremarksabout
FranklinRoosevelt(/w/index.php?title=Franklin_D._Roosevelt&action=edit&redlink=1)(FDR).FDRwaited
anddidnotresponduntiltheymadecommentsonhisdog,Fala(/w/index.php?
title=Fala_(dog)&action=edit&redlink=1).FDRdeliveredasatirical(/w/index.php?
title=Satire&action=edit&redlink=1)speech(/w/index.php?title=Fala&action=edit&redlink=1)defendinghis
dog,humiliatingDewey.
KeystoWarfare

Historyshowsthatdefenders Turntheaggressor'sanger Removeyour


usuallywinthewar. againstthem. emotions.

Deceiveyour
Attempttodrawyouropponent Keepcalm,irritatingand
opponentinto
intobattlebytheiranger. frustratingyouropponent.
attacking.

Reversal

Riskisinherentinmakingyourselflookfoolishandthreatening.Withoutactionyouwillconditionpeopletoignoreyou.You
needtotakeactiononoccasion.

10)CreateaThreateningPresence:DeterrenceStrategies.[1]Makepeoplethinktheywilllose,bluffifneeded.
Peoplewantaneasyvictoryandwillnotattackiftheythinktheywilllose.

ReverseIntimidation.1)Makeboldmaneuversandbluffwisely,2)beathreat,makesuddenmoves,imply
aggression,3)moveirrationally,createunpredictability,actcrazy,4)Feedyouropponent'sparanoiaby
indicatingcapabilitiesthattheyareafraidof,5)maintainabadreputation,mean,nastyandnonnegotiable.
DeterrenceandReverseIntimidationinPractice
1.1862(/w/index.php?title=1862&action=edit&redlink=1)intheAmericanCivilWar(/w/index.php?
title=American_Civil_War&action=edit&redlink=1)StonewallJackson(/w/index.php?
title=Stonewall_Jackson&action=edit&redlink=1)actedstrongandplayedtoGeorgeMcClellan
(/w/index.php?title=George_B._McClellan&action=edit&redlink=1)'sweakpointsfocusingonhisanxiety
andtimidnature.
2.Inthe13thcentury(/w/index.php?title=13th_century&action=edit&redlink=1),RoberttheBruce
(/w/index.php?title=Robert_I_of_Scotland&action=edit&redlink=1)madegreatstrideswitharagtagarmy
againsttheBritish(/w/index.php?title=Kingdom_of_England&action=edit&redlink=1)armiesandKing
EdwardII(/w/index.php?title=Edward_II_of_England&action=edit&redlink=1).Hiseffortseventual
broughthimrecognition(fromKingEdwardIII(/w/index.php?
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title=Edward_III_of_England&action=edit&redlink=1)).MostofthegainsbyRoberttheBrucewere
throughboldraids,swiftincursionsandcombinationofoffensiveanddefensiveactions.
3.In1874(/w/index.php?title=1874&action=edit&redlink=1)LouisXIofFrance(/w/index.php?
title=Louis_XI_of_France&action=edit&redlink=1)usedDukeofMilan(/w/index.php?
title=Galeazzo_Maria_Sforza&action=edit&redlink=1)'sambassador(/w/index.php?
title=Ambassador&action=edit&redlink=1)toFrance(/w/index.php?
title=French_Third_Republic&action=edit&redlink=1),ChristopherBollate(/w/index.php?
title=Christopher_Bollate&action=edit&redlink=1),tocarryfabricatedrumorsaboutFrance'ssuspicionsof
theDuke(/w/index.php?title=Duke&action=edit&redlink=1)'sintentions,threateningattackandirrational
actions.Thishelpedmaintainapeacefulalliance.
4.JohnBoyd(/w/index.php?title=John_Boyd_(military_strategist)&action=edit&redlink=1)wasassignedto
workinThePentagon(/w/index.php?title=The_Pentagon&action=edit&redlink=1)todesignanew
(/w/index.php?title=F15_Eagle&action=edit&redlink=1)fighter(/w/index.php?title=F
16_Fighting_Falcon&action=edit&redlink=1)andfoundthepoliticsdifficult.Heusedastrategyofplaying
dumb,butheavilyresearchingissuespurposedbyothersandplottingtacticstokilltheinitiatives.

Reversal

Retreatisnotanend,unlessyourgoalismartyrdom.Yourplanmustincludeanattack.Fightingformartyrdomhasa
grandercauseyouwillneversee.

11)TradeSpaceforTime:TheNonenagementStrategy.[1]Retreatwillgaintheadvantageofthinningyour
opponent'sforcesandlengtheningtheirsupplyandcommunicationlinesallowingyourforcestoconcentrate.Not
fighting,whentheyknowyoucan,willaggravateyouropponentandincreasethechanceofthemmakingan
irrationalmove.

RetreattoAdvance.ChiangKaishek(/w/index.php?title=Chiang_Kaishek&action=edit&redlink=1)'s
nationalistparty(/w/index.php?title=Kuomintang&action=edit&redlink=1)forcedMaoTsetung
(/w/index.php?title=Mao_Zedong&action=edit&redlink=1)'scommunists(/w/index.php?
title=Communist_Party_of_China&action=edit&redlink=1)toretreatintheearlystagesoftheChineseCivil
War(/w/index.php?title=Chinese_Civil_War&action=edit&redlink=1).Thisactionhadtheeffectof
strengtheningsupportfortheCommunistsbyunitingandgalvanizingthepeasants(/w/index.php?
title=Autumn_Harvest_Uprising&action=edit&redlink=1).In1949(/w/index.php?
title=1949&action=edit&redlink=1)thecommunists(/w/index.php?
title=People%27s_Republic_of_China&action=edit&redlink=1)defeatedthenationalists.
KeystoWarfare

Retreattosolidifytroopsandsupport. Frustratetheopponentbyrefusingtofight.

Drawoutsupplyandcommunicationlinesof Createconditionforincreasederroronthe
opponent. opponent'sside.

Part4:OffensiveWarfare
12)LoseTheBattlesButWinTheWar:GrandStrategy.[1]Haveabiggerplan.
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Reversal

Havingagrandstrategycanresultinsuccessthatcreates1)toomanyoptionsandresultingindecision,and2)a
"drunkenness"onsuccessandrecklessbehavior.

GreatCampaign.AlexandertheGreat(/w/index.php?title=Alexander_the_Great&action=edit&redlink=1)
developedanewstrategyoflookingfarforward,differentiatinghimfromotherleaders.Hefirstgainedthe
groundheneeded(territoriallyandemotionally)butdidnotincreasehisholdingstoapointthattheycould
notbegoverned.Hedidnotfightbattleshecouldnotwin,forinstancedevisingplanstocapturethemajor
Mediterranean(/w/index.php?title=History_of_the_Mediterranean_region&action=edit&redlink=1)ports
effectivelynullifyingthePersian(/w/index.php?title=Persian_Empire&action=edit&redlink=1)navy.
TotalWarfare.In1968(/w/index.php?title=1968&action=edit&redlink=1)duringtheVietNam(/w/index.php?
title=Viet_Nam&action=edit&redlink=1)war(/w/index.php?title=Vietnam_War&action=edit&redlink=1)Vo
NguyenGiap(/w/index.php?title=Vo_Nguyen_Giap&action=edit&redlink=1)executedacountrywide
offensive(/w/index.php?title=Tet_Offensive&action=edit&redlink=1)ontheTet(/w/index.php?
title=Tet&action=edit&redlink=1)holiday.Althoughhavingtoretreatfromtheirgains,theoffensivewas
designedconfusetheUS(/w/index.php?
title=Military_Assistance_Command,_Vietnam&action=edit&redlink=1)andSouthVietnamese
(/w/index.php?title=Army_of_the_Republic_of_Vietnam&action=edit&redlink=1)armiesandtoplaytothe
USmedia(/w/index.php?title=News_media_(United_States)&action=edit&redlink=1).Itwasquite
successful.

KeystoWarfare

Lookpastwhatappearstobethethreatandfindthe
Lookbeyondtheopponent'shorizon.
sourceandattackit.

Makeyouractionshardtofollow,donotexposeyour Havepurposeandgoal,lookingfar
strategy. intothefuture.

Reversal

Youmustbeformlessanddifficulttoread,spreadfalseinformationtoleadother'sastray.

13)KnowYourEnemy:TheIntelligenceStrategy.[1]Knowyouropponent'smovesanddonotletyourmotives
beknown.Understandtheirwayofthinking.

TheMirroredEnemy.In1838(/w/index.php?title=1838&action=edit&redlink=1)theBritish(/w/index.php?
title=European_influence_in_Afghanistan&action=edit&redlink=1)invasion(/w/index.php?title=First_Anglo
Afghan_War&action=edit&redlink=1)ofAfghanistan(/w/index.php?
title=History_of_Afghanistan&action=edit&redlink=1)(ledbyLordAuckland(/w/index.php?
title=George_Eden,_1st_Earl_of_Auckland&action=edit&redlink=1))wastoreinstatewesternfriendlyShuja
ShahDurrani(/w/index.php?title=Shuja_Shah_Durrani&action=edit&redlink=1),deposing(/w/index.php?
title=Deposition_(politics)&action=edit&redlink=1)thecurrentleaderDostMohammadKhan(/w/index.php?
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title=Dost_Mohammad_Khan&action=edit&redlink=1).ButAucklanddidnotunderstandtheAfghanpeople
ortheirculture,makingnumerousmistakes.TheresultwashisdeathandthereturnofDostMohammadto
power.
CloseEmbrace.Between1806(/w/index.php?title=1806&action=edit&redlink=1)and1813(/w/index.php?
title=1813&action=edit&redlink=1)PrinceMetternich(/w/index.php?
title=Klemens_Wenzel_von_Metternich&action=edit&redlink=1)metwithNapoleon(/w/index.php?
title=Napoleon_I_of_France&action=edit&redlink=1)inhopesofunderstandinghimandfindingpointsof
weaknessthathecouldexploit.EventuallyheassistedinorchestratingNapoleon'smarriagetoMarie
Louise(/w/index.php?title=Marie_Louise,_Duchess_of_Parma&action=edit&redlink=1).Metternichusedthis
andotherknowledgetotheadvantageofAustria(/w/index.php?
title=Austrian_Empire&action=edit&redlink=1)allowingthemtobuildanarmyandjoinagreateralliance
(/w/index.php?title=Concert_of_Europe&action=edit&redlink=1)inEurope(/w/index.php?
title=Europe&action=edit&redlink=1)eventuallyleadingtothedefeatofNapoleonatWaterloo
(/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Waterloo&action=edit&redlink=1).
KeystoWarfare

Gatherknowledgeofyour Learntoreadpeople,learn Hideyour


opponent. them. observations.

Striveforqualityofinformation, Beawareofinternalspiesand Submergeyourselfin


notquantity. disarmthem. theirmind.

Reversal

Slowerraticstartthatisnonpredictive,speedisimperative.

14)OverwhelmResistanceWithSpeedandSuddenness:TheBlitzkrieg(/w/index.php?
title=Blitzkrieg&action=edit&redlink=1)Strategy.[1]Slowmethodicalstartwithawellplannedattack,movefast
andsure.

Slowslowquickquick.In1218(/w/index.php?title=1218&action=edit&redlink=1)GenghisKhan
(/w/index.php?title=Genghis_Khan&action=edit&redlink=1)attackedanddefeatedthemorepowerful
MuhammadIIofKhwarezm(/w/index.php?title=Muhammad_II_of_Khwarezm&action=edit&redlink=1)
startingwithaseriesofsmalldeliberateattacksthatlookedlikelosses.Hethenmademoreseriousand
speedyattacks(/w/index.php?title=Genghis_Khan&action=edit&redlink=1)todefeatMuhammadII.
KeystoWarfare

Smallunitsprovide Musthavesuperior Quickordersthroughlightchainsof


mobility. coordination. command.

15)ControltheDynamic:ForcingStrategies.[1]Beincontrol.Beassertive.Controlyouropponent'smind.
Movethemintoyourterritory.

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Reversal

Thereisnoreversal,youmusthavecontrol,althoughyoumaynotwanttoshowit.

TheArtOfUltimateControl.Makethefirstmove,fightonyourterritorywhereyouarecomfortable,lookfor
youropponent'sweaknessanddrawthemintoit,deceiveyouropponenttomakethemthinktheyarein
control.
HistoricalExamples
1.In1942(/w/index.php?title=1942&action=edit&redlink=1)duringWorldWarII(/w/index.php?
title=World_War_II&action=edit&redlink=1),Rommel(/w/index.php?
title=Erwin_Rommel&action=edit&redlink=1)usedsmallerunitsontheNorthAfrica(/w/index.php?
title=North_Africa&action=edit&redlink=1)desertstostriketheBritish(/w/index.php?
title=North_African_campaign&action=edit&redlink=1).Hekepttheunitsmovingcontinuously,likeships
atsea,reducingtheabilitytoattackthem.Oftenherodewiththefrontlineofattackinordertoshorten
theinformationchain.
2.WhileworkingontheParamountPictures(/w/index.php?
title=Paramount_Pictures&action=edit&redlink=1)filmNightAfterNight(/w/index.php?
title=Night_After_Night&action=edit&redlink=1),in1932(/w/index.php?title=1932&action=edit&redlink=1),
MaeWest(/w/index.php?title=Mae_West&action=edit&redlink=1)slowlymademovestochangethe
dynamicofpowerintohercourt.Eventuallyshetookoversignificantportionsofthefilmswriting.
3.DuringtheAmericanCivilWar(/w/index.php?title=American_Civil_War&action=edit&redlink=1),General
Sherman(/w/index.php?title=William_Tecumseh_Sherman&action=edit&redlink=1)facedoffwithGeneral
Johnston(/w/index.php?title=Albert_Sidney_Johnston&action=edit&redlink=1)inbattlesoverRichmond,
Virginia(/w/index.php?title=Richmond,_Virginia&action=edit&redlink=1).HeplayedtoJohnston's
paranoia(/w/index.php?title=Paranoia&action=edit&redlink=1)andhisoveralldefensivenature.He
continuedthetacticsagainstGeneralHood(/w/index.php?title=John_Bell_Hood&action=edit&redlink=1)
inAtlanta,Georgia(/w/index.php?title=Atlanta,_Georgia&action=edit&redlink=1)andtookthecityina
surprisemove.
4.Theslave(/w/index.php?title=History_of_slavery_in_the_United_States&action=edit&redlink=1)
FrederickDouglass(/w/index.php?title=Frederick_Douglass&action=edit&redlink=1),originallyownedby
ThomasAuld(/w/index.php?title=Captain_Thomas_Auld&action=edit&redlink=1),wassenttobe
"broken"byEdwardCovey(/w/index.php?title=Edward_Covey&action=edit&redlink=1).Aftermany
battles,DouglassbecameopenlydefianttoCovey,fearingdeathandhavingnothingtoloseCovey
foughtCoveyandachievedvictorysimplybycreatingasituationwhereCoveywouldlosehisreputation
asaslave(/w/index.php?title=Slavery&action=edit&redlink=1)breaker.
5.Psychiatrist(/w/index.php?title=Psychiatrist&action=edit&redlink=1)MiltonH.Erickson(/w/index.php?
title=Milton_H._Erickson&action=edit&redlink=1)used,hypnotherapy(/w/index.php?
title=Hypnotherapy&action=edit&redlink=1)amongothertechniques,tohelphispatients.Occasionally
hispatientswouldnotcooperatewithhistherapy.Hewouldgaincontrolthroughvariousmeans
(/w/index.php?title=Psychotherapy&action=edit&redlink=1)includinghypnosis(/w/index.php?
title=Hypnosis&action=edit&redlink=1),deceptionandreversal.

16)HitThemWhereitHurts:TheCenterofGravityStrategy.[1]Attackthecentralpoint,beitthecommand
center,supplylines,beliefsystem.Captureanddestroyit.

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Reversal

Noreversal,everyoneregardlessofstructurehasacenterofgravity.

PillarsofCollapse.In209BC(/w/index.php?title=209_BC&action=edit&redlink=1)PubliusScipio
(/w/index.php?title=Publius_Cornelius_Scipio&action=edit&redlink=1)attackedandcapturedNewCarthage
(/w/index.php?title=Cartagena,_Murcia&action=edit&redlink=1),Hannibal(/w/index.php?
title=Hannibal&action=edit&redlink=1)'smainsupplypointandtheCarthagian(/w/index.php?
title=Carthage&action=edit&redlink=1)capitalinSpain(/w/index.php?
title=Prehistoric_Spain&action=edit&redlink=1).ThiscrippledHannibal'ssupplyroutes.Scipiocontinuedon
toCarthagein204BC(/w/index.php?title=204_BC&action=edit&redlink=1),capturingitin203BC
(/w/index.php?title=203_BC&action=edit&redlink=1)recallingHannibalfromItaly(/w/index.php?
title=History_of_Italy_during_Roman_times&action=edit&redlink=1)andremovinghisthreat.
KeystoWarfare

Findthecenterpointofyouropponentandattackitbeitcommunication,media,supplylines.

Reversal

Dividingyourteamcangenerateadeftandmobileforce.

17)DefeatTheminDetail:TheDivideandConquerStrategy.[1]Lookatthepartsanddeterminehowtocontrol
theindividualparts,createdissensionandleverageit.

CentralPosition.In490BC(/w/index.php?title=490_BC&action=edit&redlink=1)thePersians
(/w/index.php?title=Persian_Empire&action=edit&redlink=1)plannedanattackonancientAthens
(/w/index.php?title=History_of_Athens&action=edit&redlink=1)theylanded24milesnorthonAthens
(/w/index.php?title=Athens&action=edit&redlink=1)ontheplainsofMarathon(/w/index.php?
title=Marathon,_Greece&action=edit&redlink=1).TheGreeks(/w/index.php?
title=Greece&action=edit&redlink=1)travelednorthblockingthepassbetweenthetwoareas.ThePersians
splittheirtroopsatnightandattemptedanattackAthensdirectlybysea.TheGreeksattackedthetroopsin
whatisknownasBattleofMarathon(/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Marathon&action=edit&redlink=1)and
thenranbacktoAthenstopreventthePersiansfromdisembarking(hencetherunningevent(/w/index.php?
title=Marathon&action=edit&redlink=1)).
AttackingtheJoints.LeadinguptotheAmericanRevolution(/w/index.php?
title=American_Revolution&action=edit&redlink=1),SamuelAdams(/w/index.php?
title=Samuel_Adams&action=edit&redlink=1)wascontinuallyfightingforthefreerepresentationforthe
colonies(/w/index.php?title=Thirteen_Colonies&action=edit&redlink=1).Forthemostparthestruggled,until
theenactmentoftheStampAct(/w/index.php?title=Stamp_Act&action=edit&redlink=1)bytheBritish
(/w/index.php?title=Kingdom_of_Great_Britain&action=edit&redlink=1).In1765(/w/index.php?
title=1765&action=edit&redlink=1)Adamswasabletorallythecolonistsaroundthepointof"Notaxation
withoutrepresentation(/w/index.php?title=No_taxation_without_representation&action=edit&redlink=1)".
ThenwiththeTeaAct(/w/index.php?title=Tea_Act&action=edit&redlink=1),in1773(/w/index.php?

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title=1773&action=edit&redlink=1),Adamsralliedpeopletorevolt,dumpingtea(/w/index.php?
title=Boston_Tea_Party&action=edit&redlink=1)intotheBoston(/w/index.php?
title=Boston&action=edit&redlink=1)Harbor.
KeystoWarfare

Romansdividedthepowerbaseoftheircapturedareassothat Dividegroupsandtheyare
nooneareahadthepowertoattack. easiertoconquer.

Historicallypeoplehavebandedtogethertodefendthemselves, Surpriseandsplinterthegroup
denythemthiscomfort. attackingthepieces.

Reversal

Occupyingtheopponent'spositioncanreverseonyoubymakingyoulooktoomuchlikethem,losingdifferentiatingfactors.

18)ExposeandAttackYourEnemy'sSoftFlank:TheTurningStrategy. [1]Baitforafrontalattack,getyour
opponenttoextendhisranksandinthedistractionhaveyourforcesattackhisexposedflankorrear.

TurningtheFlank.In1796(/w/index.php?title=1796&action=edit&redlink=1)BaronJosephAlvinczy
(/w/index.php?title=Joseph_Alvinczy&action=edit&redlink=1)attemptingtodispeltheFrench(/w/index.php?
title=France&action=edit&redlink=1)fromVerona(/w/index.php?title=Verona&action=edit&redlink=1)was
drawnforwardbyNapoleon(/w/index.php?title=Napoleon_I_of_France&action=edit&redlink=1)intheBattle
ofArcola(/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Arcola&action=edit&redlink=1),exposinghisflankandallowing
Napoleontosurroundanddefeathim.
OccupyingtheFlank.JuliusCaesar(/w/index.php?title=Julius_Caesar&action=edit&redlink=1)perfectedthe
artofindirectfighting.Althoughthereweremanytimeswhenheenlistedthedirectmethod,therearemany
caseswherehefoughtindirectly.NotablywerethepowerstruggleswithPompey(/w/index.php?
title=Pompey&action=edit&redlink=1).MuchofhisworkwasdonebyshowingPompey'smenhiskindness
andhonesttreatmentofhistroops.Thisworkedtogetmanyofhisopponent'stroopstosurrender.
KeystoWarfare
Indirectionisthekeytomoderndaybusinessbattles(VictorEmmanuelIIofItaly(/w/index.php?
title=Victor_Emmanuel_II_of_Italy&action=edit&redlink=1)usedtheCountessdeCastiglione(/w/index.php?
title=Countess_de_Castiglione&action=edit&redlink=1))toinfluenceNapoleonIII(/w/index.php?
title=Napoleon_III_of_France&action=edit&redlink=1)(note:thebooksaysNapoleonII,butthisisinerror)
toplacehimastheKingofItaly(/w/index.php?title=Italy&action=edit&redlink=1))
Usecharmandflatterytolureyouopponenttodropguard
Showyouropponent'sbadtraits(HernnCorts(/w/index.php?
title=Hern%C3%A1n_Cort%C3%A9s&action=edit&redlink=1)'appointmentofatreasurertocollect
Velzquez(/w/index.php?title=Diego_Vel%C3%A1zquez_de_Cu%C3%A9llar&action=edit&redlink=1)'s
taxes)

19)EnvelopTheEnemy:TheAnnihilationStrategy. [1]Maintainconstantpressureonyouropponenttodefeat
theirwillpower.

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Reversal

Noreversal.Without100%successyouareleftopentoreprisal.

HornsoftheBeast.In1778(/w/index.php?title=1778&action=edit&redlink=1)theBritish(/w/index.php?
title=Kingdom_of_Great_Britain&action=edit&redlink=1)inNatal(/w/index.php?
title=Natalia_Republic&action=edit&redlink=1)wantedtoabsorbtheZulu(/w/index.php?
title=Zulu&action=edit&redlink=1)territories.IntheBattleofIsandlwana(/w/index.php?
title=Battle_of_Isandlwana&action=edit&redlink=1)theZuluusedtheirknowledgeofthelandtosurround,
surpriseandrouttheBritish.
KeystoWarfare

Thepsychologyofenclosureisstrong.JohnD.Rockefeller(/w/index.php?
title=John_D._Rockefeller&action=edit&redlink=1)usedthistacticcontinuallyto"surround"potential
competitionbybuyinglandandinfrastructuretheyneededtocompetewithhim.

Usewhatyouhavein Createthefeelingofbeingsurroundedbycreatingattacksfrom
abundance. nowhere.

Reversal

Thereisnoadvantageofadirectattack.Maneuvering,though,cangiveyoutoomanyoptionsandcanparalyzeyour
advance.

20)ManeuverThemIntoWeakness:TheRipeningFortheSickleStrategy.[1]Continuecalculatedmovesin
yourposition.Thiswillenableyoutocontrolthesituationandbewilderandexhaustyouropponent.

ManeuverWarfare.

Createflexibleplanswithmanyoptions.
Makeplansthatkeepyouropponentincheckandalwaysonanewdefensive.
Makeplansthatgiveyouroomtomaneuver.
Makeplanswithslightirrationalitytopuzzleyouropponent.

Examples
1.In1800(/w/index.php?title=1800&action=edit&redlink=1)Napoleon(/w/index.php?
title=Napoleon_I_of_France&action=edit&redlink=1)hadtodefeat(/w/index.php?
title=Napoleon_I_of_France&action=edit&redlink=1)theAustrian(/w/index.php?
title=Austrian_monarchy&action=edit&redlink=1)armiesinItaly(/w/index.php?
title=History_of_Italy_during_foreign_domination_and_the_unification&action=edit&redlink=1).Hemade
hisplansandnearlyeverythingwentwrong.ButNapoleonhadmadeenoughalternateplansandhekept
maneuveringtothenewsituationsathandandhedefeatedthematMarengo(/w/index.php?
title=Battle_of_Marengo_(1800)&action=edit&redlink=1)whereisoriginalplanshadpredictedhewould.

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2.Inthe1936(/w/index.php?title=1936&action=edit&redlink=1)USPresidentialcampaign(/w/index.php?
title=Presidential_campaign&action=edit&redlink=1)theRepublican(/w/index.php?
title=Republican_Party_(United_States)&action=edit&redlink=1)PartynominatedAlfLandon
(/w/index.php?title=Alf_Landon&action=edit&redlink=1)torunagainstincumbent(/w/index.php?
title=Incumbent&action=edit&redlink=1)FranklinD.Roosevelt(/w/index.php?
title=Franklin_D._Roosevelt&action=edit&redlink=1)(D(/w/index.php?
title=Democratic_Party_(United_States)&action=edit&redlink=1)).LandontriedtodefeatRooseveltby
supportingtheNewDeal(/w/index.php?title=New_Deal&action=edit&redlink=1)butcriticizingthecreator
(FDR(/w/index.php?title=FDR&action=edit&redlink=1)).RooseveltwaiteduntilLandondidnothave
enoughtimetomovefromthisstanceandattacked.
3.InWorldWarI(/w/index.php?title=World_War_I&action=edit&redlink=1)theBritish(/w/index.php?
title=United_Kingdom_of_Great_Britain_and_Ireland&action=edit&redlink=1)triedtocaptureAqaba
(/w/index.php?title=Aqaba&action=edit&redlink=1)fromtheTurks(/w/index.php?
title=Ottoman_Empire&action=edit&redlink=1).T.E.Lawrence(/w/index.php?
title=T._E._Lawrence&action=edit&redlink=1),fluentinArabic(/w/index.php?
title=Arabic&action=edit&redlink=1)andfamiliarwiththetribesoftheSyrianDesert(/w/index.php?
title=Syrian_Desert&action=edit&redlink=1),usedasmallarmytomovequicklythroughthedesertand
antagonizetheTurks.HisfastmaneuveringdeniedtheTurksatargetandhewasabletocuttheirsupply
linesresultinginthesurrenderofAqaba.
4.In1937(/w/index.php?title=1937&action=edit&redlink=1)HarryCohn(/w/index.php?
title=Harry_Cohn&action=edit&redlink=1)ofColumbiaPictures(/w/index.php?
title=Columbia_Pictures&action=edit&redlink=1)hiredLeoMcCarey(/w/index.php?
title=Leo_McCarey&action=edit&redlink=1)todirectTheAwfulTruth(/w/index.php?
title=The_Awful_Truth&action=edit&redlink=1)ThescriptwaspoorandMcCareyhadtofigureouthowto
improvethescript.Heroutinelymadechangesatthelastminuteandwouldwaittoshootuntilhefeltit
wasright.Thisploygavethemoviespontaneityanddroveittosuccess.
5.TsukaharaBokuden(/w/index.php?title=Tsukahara_Bokuden&action=edit&redlink=1),amastersamurai
(/w/index.php?title=Samurai&action=edit&redlink=1),waschallengedbyayoungunnamedswordsman
(/w/index.php?title=Swordsmanship&action=edit&redlink=1).BokudenpracticedMutekatsuryu
(/w/index.php?title=Mutekatsuryu&action=edit&redlink=1)andmovedthechallengetoanisland.Ashis
challengersteppedfromtheboat(/w/index.php?title=Watercraft_rowing&action=edit&redlink=1),
Bokudenpushedtheboatawayfromtheshore,stranding(andoutmaneuvering)theyoungswordsman.

Reversal

Movingtoofarorbeingtooaggressivecameembitteryouropponentandotherscreatinganimosityandprolonged
resentmentleadingtoretribution.

21)NegotiateWhileAdvancing:TheDiplomaticWarStrategy. [1]Whennegotiatingasettlementyoushould
notletuponthepressuretoadvance.Thisprovidesyoumoretonegotiatewithanddoesnotgiveyouropponent
timetoregroup.

WarbyOtherMeans.PhilipII(/w/index.php?title=Philip_II_of_Macedon&action=edit&redlink=1)of
Macedonia(/w/index.php?title=Macedon&action=edit&redlink=1)cametopowerin359BC(/w/index.php?
title=359_BC&action=edit&redlink=1).Thecitystate(/w/index.php?title=Citystate&action=edit&redlink=1)of
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Athens(/w/index.php?title=History_of_Athens&action=edit&redlink=1)didnotsupporthisascent.Inthe
negotiationsbetweentheAtheniansandPhilipIIhecontinuedtomakepromisesofpeacebutcontinuedto
growhisempire.EventuallyheformedtheLeagueofCorinth(/w/index.php?
title=League_of_Corinth&action=edit&redlink=1)(Note:ThebookreferstothisasHellenicLeague
(/w/index.php?title=Delian_League&action=edit&redlink=1)whichappeared100yearsearlier)toallymany
Greek(/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Greece&action=edit&redlink=1)citystatestoattackthePersians
(/w/index.php?title=Persian_Empire&action=edit&redlink=1).
JadeforTile.AttheonsetoftheGreekWarofIndependence(/w/index.php?
title=Greek_War_of_Independence&action=edit&redlink=1)(1821(/w/index.php?
title=1821&action=edit&redlink=1))theRussia's(/w/index.php?
title=Russian_Empire&action=edit&redlink=1)GreekbornforeignministerCapod'Istria(/w/index.php?
title=John_Capodistria&action=edit&redlink=1)feltitimperativethatRussiasupportGreece.Thiswouldgive
RussiaaccesstowarmwaterportsintheMediterranean(/w/index.php?
title=Mediterranean_Sea&action=edit&redlink=1).WaryofthedesireofAustria(/w/index.php?
title=Austrian_Empire&action=edit&redlink=1)'sPrinceMetternich(/w/index.php?
title=Klemens_Wenzel_von_Metternich&action=edit&redlink=1)tokeepRussiafromtheseports,he
cautionedhisemissarytonotletMetternichnegotiate.ThisfailedandMetternichplayedtotheweaknesses
ofCzar(/w/index.php?title=Tsar&action=edit&redlink=1)AlexanderI(/w/index.php?
title=Alexander_I_of_Russia&action=edit&redlink=1)andhethwartedattemptsofRussiaassisting
(/w/index.php?title=Alexander_I_of_Russia&action=edit&redlink=1)Greece.
KeystoWarfare

Negotiationgivesyouropponenttime
Beamiable,butfocusonthegoalofadvancement.
toregroup.

Maintainpressureandadvancetogiveyouropponent
Askforlittle,yougetonlyalittle.
reasontoconclude.

Reversal

Noreversal,youmustendanengagementpositively.

22)KnowHowToEndThings:TheExitStrategy.[1]Knowwhenyouarebeatandcutyourloses.Knowhowto
winwithflairandbringapositiveconclusiontotheencounterreducingyouropponentsinthefuture.

NoExit.TheSovietUnion(/w/index.php?title=Soviet_Union&action=edit&redlink=1)'sinvasionof
Afghanistan(/w/index.php?title=Afghanistan&action=edit&redlink=1),andtheresultingwar(/w/index.php?
title=Soviet_war_in_Afghanistan&action=edit&redlink=1),causedanowinsituationfortheSovietUnion
primarilyduetothelackofunderstandingoftheAfghan(/w/index.php?
title=Demographics_of_Afghanistan&action=edit&redlink=1)people.Significantexpense(monetarily,
politicallyandintrooploss)causedGorbachev(/w/index.php?
title=Mikhail_Gorbachev&action=edit&redlink=1)towithdrawSoviettroops,completedin1989

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(/w/index.php?title=1989&action=edit&redlink=1).(Note:ApotentialerrorinthebookwhereGreenerefers
toAfghanistan's"portsontheIndianOcean",Icanfindnoreferencetoalliancesthatwouldbringthat.)
EndingasBeginning.LyndonJohnson(/w/index.php?title=Lyndon_B._Johnson&action=edit&redlink=1)
foughtatoughelectionfortheTexas(/w/index.php?title=Texas&action=edit&redlink=1)10thCongressional
(/w/index.php?title=Texas%27s_10th_congressional_district&action=edit&redlink=1)seatin1937
(/w/index.php?title=1937&action=edit&redlink=1).Hehadfewfriendsintheparty(/w/index.php?
title=Democratic_Party_(United_States)&action=edit&redlink=1)andsoundlydefeatedthewellseasoned
politicalveterans.Immediatelyaftertheelectionheamiablyapproachedhisopponentsthankingthemtothe
hardfightandsuccessfullywooingthemintohisalliance.
KeystoWarfare

Closureneeds
Dreamersnevercomplete, Humiliationofthedefeated
satisfactionforall
theirendisalwayspoor. onlycreatesanimosity.
involved.

Conclusioninexhaustionisnotfavorablesincethereisnotenergylefttocreatealliances.

Concluderealizingtheendismoreimportantthanthesuccessofthefight.

Part5:Unconventional(Dirty)War

Reversal

Uncovereddeceptionisahugeadvantagetoyouropponent.
Maintainacoverstoryincaseyouarediscovered.
Don'trelyonlyondeceptionitistoolnotaplan.

23)WeaveaSeamlessBlendofFactandFiction:MisperceptionStrategies.[1]Deceptionisanancientart
andinvaluablewhenthrowingpeopleoffyourtrack.Misinformationanddecoyscanconsumeyouropponent.

TheFalseMirror.DuringpreparationfortheinvasionatNormandy(/w/index.php?
title=Battle_of_Normandy&action=edit&redlink=1)inWorldWarII(/w/index.php?
title=World_War_II&action=edit&redlink=1),theallies(/w/index.php?
title=Allies_of_World_War_II&action=edit&redlink=1)developedasignificantnumberofdeceptiveplans
(/w/index.php?title=Operation_Fortitude&action=edit&redlink=1).TheseincludedafakearmyinEngland
(FUSAG(/w/index.php?title=Operation_Quicksilver_(WWII)&action=edit&redlink=1))andalookalikeof
GeneralMontgomery(/w/index.php?
title=Bernard_Law_Montgomery,_1st_Viscount_Montgomery_of_Alamein&action=edit&redlink=1)inthe
Mediterranean(/w/index.php?title=Mediterranean&action=edit&redlink=1)theater(/w/index.php?
title=Theater_(warfare)&action=edit&redlink=1).Awealthofmisinformation,paralyzedHitler's
(/w/index.php?title=Adolf_Hitler&action=edit&redlink=1)decisionmakingcapabilitieswhentheactual
invasionstarted,slowedhisreaction.

KeystoWarfare

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Makeaweakfrontlookstrongandattack
Makeastrongfrontlookweak.
fromanotherdirection.

Maintainapatternwiththeintentof
Feedyouropponentwithmisinformation.
changingitforsurprise.

Useimaginativeandcompletecamouflage
Makethereallookfalseandthefalse
(/w/index.php?
lookrealtocreatecompleteambiguity.
title=Camouflage&action=edit&redlink=1).

Reversal

Thereisnoadvantagetoattackingbytheexpectedmeansandmethods.

24)TakeTheLineofLeastExpectation:TheOrdinaryExtraordinaryStrategy.[1]Dotheunexpected.If
alwayscalmberadical,ifalwaysradicaldosomethingordinary.

UnconventionalWarfare

Usetacticsthatyouropponentdoesnotknow.
Mixordinarytacticswiththeunusual.
Actcrazybutcalculated.
Continuetothinkofnewthings.

HistoricalExamples
1.In219BC(/w/index.php?title=219_BC&action=edit&redlink=1)Rome(/w/index.php?
title=Roman_Republic&action=edit&redlink=1)decidetotaketheoffensivewithHannibal(/w/index.php?
title=Hannibal&action=edit&redlink=1).TheychosetofacehimattheTrebia(/w/index.php?
title=Battle_of_the_Trebia&action=edit&redlink=1)river.Hannibalexhibitederraticbehaviordrewthe
Romanarmy(/w/index.php?title=Military_history_of_ancient_Rome&action=edit&redlink=1)acrossthe
riverandthenshockedthemwithhisuseofelephants(/w/index.php?
title=War_elephant&action=edit&redlink=1).TheRomansmademanyotherattemptstodrawHannibal
intoafightbutHannibaldidtheoppositeofwhattheyexpectedgivinghimagreatadvantage.
2.CassiusClay(/w/index.php?title=Cassius_Clay&action=edit&redlink=1)challengedthenHeavyweight
(/w/index.php?title=Heavyweight&action=edit&redlink=1)championSonnyListon(/w/index.php?
title=Sonny_Liston&action=edit&redlink=1)totheboxing(/w/index.php?
title=Boxing&action=edit&redlink=1)in1962(/w/index.php?title=1962&action=edit&redlink=1).title
(/w/index.php?title=Ali_versus_Liston&action=edit&redlink=1).Clay'sunorthodoxbehaviorandfighting
techniqueandhisnonconformist(/w/index.php?title=Nonconformism&action=edit&redlink=1)behavior
gavehimagreatadvantageinthefightsincehisopponentdidnotknowwhattoexpect.
3.In1862(/w/index.php?title=1862&action=edit&redlink=1)UlyssesS.Grant(/w/index.php?
title=Ulysses_S._Grant&action=edit&redlink=1),AmericanCivilWar(/w/index.php?
title=American_Civil_War&action=edit&redlink=1)Generalledabattle(/w/index.php?

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title=Battle_of_Vicksburg&action=edit&redlink=1)tocaptureVicksburg,Mississippi(/w/index.php?
title=Vicksburg,_Mississippi&action=edit&redlink=1).HemovedtroopsacrosstheMississippiRiver
(/w/index.php?title=Mississippi_River&action=edit&redlink=1)andsentthemtowardJackson
(/w/index.php?title=Jackson,_Mississippi&action=edit&redlink=1)tocutthesupplylinestoVicksburg.
ThismovewasnotexpectedsinceitwouldmeanthatGrant'sforceswouldnothavetheircommunication
linesopen.ItsurprisedConfederate(/w/index.php?
title=Confederate_States_of_America&action=edit&redlink=1)GeneralJohnC.Pemberton
(/w/index.php?title=John_C._Pemberton&action=edit&redlink=1)whowasunabletopredicttheimpactof
themaneuver.
4.TheOjibwa(/w/index.php?title=Ojibwa&action=edit&redlink=1)tribehadanelitebandofwarriorscalled
theWendigokan(/w/index.php?title=Wendigo&action=edit&redlink=1).Thisbandwouldactcrazyduring
battles,yellingtheexactoppositeoftheirintent.Thiscausedconfusionintheiropponentsandterrified
themnottoengageinbattle.
5.FortheNewYork(/w/index.php?title=New_York_City&action=edit&redlink=1)SocietyofIndependent
Artists(/w/index.php?title=Society_of_Independent_Artists&action=edit&redlink=1)'firstexhibition,
MarcelDuchamp(/w/index.php?title=Marcel_Duchamp&action=edit&redlink=1)chosearadicalnew
formatanyonecouldexhibitaworkofart.Duchampunderthepseudonym(/w/index.php?
title=Pseudonym&action=edit&redlink=1)"R.Mutt"submittedaurinal(/w/index.php?
title=Urinal&action=edit&redlink=1)layingonitsbackcalledtheFountain(/w/index.php?
title=Fountain_(Duchamp)&action=edit&redlink=1).Therewasoutrageintheorganization,butopeneda
newviewandchallengedthedefinitionofart.

Reversal

Playingthehighgroundcanmakeyoulookrighteousandcondescending.Thiscanalienateanddisgustyoursupporters.

25)OccupytheMoralHighGround:TheRighteousStrategy.[1]Justifyyourcauseasthecorrectandmoral
way.Showyouropponent'sselfservingside.Showyourselfastheunderdog.

TheMoralOffensive.Pope(/w/index.php?title=Pope&action=edit&redlink=1)LeoX(/w/index.php?
title=Leo_X&action=edit&redlink=1)wantedtocompleteconstructionofSt.Peter'sBasilica(/w/index.php?
title=St._Peter%27s_Basilica&action=edit&redlink=1).Toraisethefundsforthechurch(/w/index.php?
title=Roman_Catholic_Church&action=edit&redlink=1),hestartedthepracticeofsellingindulgences
(/w/index.php?title=Indulgence&action=edit&redlink=1).AGerman(/w/index.php?
title=Germans&action=edit&redlink=1)theologian(/w/index.php?title=Theology&action=edit&redlink=1)and
Priest(/w/index.php?title=Priest&action=edit&redlink=1)namedMartinLuther(/w/index.php?
title=Martin_Luther&action=edit&redlink=1)challengedthepracticesinthe95Theses(/w/index.php?
title=95_Theses&action=edit&redlink=1)sayingthatonlyGod(/w/index.php?
title=God&action=edit&redlink=1)couldforgiveone'ssins(/w/index.php?title=Sin&action=edit&redlink=1).
HearguedhisstandbasedsolelyontheBible(/w/index.php?title=Bible&action=edit&redlink=1)
systematicallyrefutingeachofthePope'sretorts.ThiseffortbyMartinLutherwasthegenesisofthe
Lutheran(/w/index.php?title=Lutheran&action=edit&redlink=1)andProtestant(/w/index.php?
title=Protestant&action=edit&redlink=1)traditions.
KeystoWarfare

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Represent
yourself
Revealthehypocrisy(/w/index.php? Justifyyouractionsbasedon
as"good",
title=Hypocrisy&action=edit&redlink=1) morality(/w/index.php?
your
ofyouropponent. title=Morality&action=edit&redlink=1).
opponent
as"bad".

Warsof
self
Animmoralactwillruinyour Makeyouropponentstarttheactual interest
reputation. "fight". areshort
and
defined.

Warsonmoralgroundsarelongandprotracted,attemptingtoannihilate(/w/index.php?

title=Annihilation&action=edit&redlink=1)therootsoftheimmoral.

Reversal

Youcannotuseconventionalmeanswithaguerrilla(/w/index.php?title=Guerrilla&action=edit&redlink=1)youmustdeny
themtargets.Ifyoudoattack,attackstrongandquickatanycentralpointtheyhave.

26)DenyThemTargets:TheStrategyoftheVoid.[1]Removeanytargetsyouhaveforyouropponents.Donot
createafrontormakeyourfrontsobroadthatattackingitattackstheirbase.Notargetswillfrustrateyour
opponentsincreasingthechancetheywillmakeamistake.

TheLureoftheVoid.Napoleon(/w/index.php?title=Napoleon_I_of_France&action=edit&redlink=1)'s1812
(/w/index.php?title=1812&action=edit&redlink=1)invasion(/w/index.php?
title=Napoleon%27s_invasion_of_Russia&action=edit&redlink=1)ofRussia(/w/index.php?
title=Russian_empire&action=edit&redlink=1)metwitharetreatingRussianarmyputtinguplittleresistance
andbuyingtime.Cossacks(/w/index.php?title=Cossacks&action=edit&redlink=1)snipedhim,retreating
Russiantroopsleftbehindburnedouttownsandfieldsandnofood.TheinitialFrench(/w/index.php?
title=French_First_Republic&action=edit&redlink=1)forceof450,000troopswasreducedto100,000bythe
timetheyreachedMoscow(/w/index.php?title=Moscow&action=edit&redlink=1).Theretreatleadtofurther
decimation.

KeystoWarfare

Largearmiesare
Guerrilla(/w/index.php?title=Guerrilla&action=edit&redlink=1)bands
susceptibletoguerrilla
areeasiertohideandmaneuver.
attack.

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Guerrillawarfareisstronglypsychological(/w/index.php?
Exhausttheopponent.
title=Psychological_operations&action=edit&redlink=1).

Lureyouropponenttoattacktouseguerrillatacticseffectively.

Reversal

Bewaryofpeoplethatcometoyourassistance.Otherwillusethisagainstyou,ensurethattheydonotuseyounegatively.
Looktoturnthatalliancetoyourpositive.

27)SeemtoWorkfortheInterestsofOthersWhileFurtheringYourOwn:TheAllianceStrategy. [1]Form
temporaryalliestomeetyourcurrentneeds,dowhatisnecessarytohidethetemporarynatureofyourbusiness.
Underminethealliancesofyouropponentstoweakenthem.

ThePerfectAlly.1467(/w/index.php?title=1467&action=edit&redlink=1)CharlesI,DukeofBurgundy
(/w/index.php?title=Charles_I,_Duke_of_Burgundy&action=edit&redlink=1)expandedhisempirebyforming
analliancewithEdwardIV(/w/index.php?title=Edward_IV_of_England&action=edit&redlink=1)ofEngland
(/w/index.php?title=Kingdom_of_England&action=edit&redlink=1)toattackLouisXI(/w/index.php?
title=Louis_XI_of_France&action=edit&redlink=1)ofFrance(/w/index.php?
title=France/History&action=edit&redlink=1).ButKingLouisXIfoundoutabouttheinvasionandformedan
alliancewithEdwardIVremovingthethreatfromtheDuke.
FalseAlliances.MurrayBowen(/w/index.php?title=Murray_Bowen&action=edit&redlink=1),apsychiatrist
(/w/index.php?title=Psychiatry&action=edit&redlink=1),usedhisclinicalknowledgetoresolveapersonal
familysituation.Hewroteaseriesofletterstofamilymembersinordertoshowconcernfortheperson,but
exposingaseriesongossipyrelationsthatwereinthefamily.Inthisprocessheactuallycreatedadegree
ofautonomyforhimselfwhichgavehimthepowertocontrolthesituationandfacilitatehissiblingsin
creatingahealthyfamilyrelationship.
KeystoWarfare

Helpsomeoneelseyou
Findthosetoadvance Weneedalliesinoursturgglesfor
needhelpfromtocreate
yourcurrentinterests. resource,skillorprotection.
debt.

Damageother's Playtheautonomous Whenfightingalliescreatemistrust


alliances. center,brokeringresolution. betweenthemdividingtheirranks.

Reversal

Thisapproachcanraisesuspicionsandbepoliticallycostlyadirectapproachwillminimizethatcost.Usethissparingly.

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28)GiveYourRivalsEnoughRopeToHangThemselves:TheOneUpmanshipStrategy.[1]Giveyour
opponentsthespacetomakemistakes,providethemwithassignmentstheycannotcompleteanddamagetheir
reputation.Hideyourinvolvementandmaintainyourinnocent.

TheArtofOneUpmanship.Lookfortheinternalrival,findtheirweakspotandneedleittomakethem
anxious.Employotherstoworktheanxietyandmakeitbigger.Gettherivaltooverreactandstepbackand
letthemdotherest.Whentheyareneartheendoftheirdestructionofferhelp,nottorubinthedefeat,but
helpshowyourinnocence.
HistoricalExamples
1.JohnMcClernand(/w/index.php?title=John_Alexander_McClernand&action=edit&redlink=1)volunteered
asaBrigadierGeneral(/w/index.php?title=Brigadier_General&action=edit&redlink=1)intheAmerican
CivilWar(/w/index.php?title=American_Civil_War&action=edit&redlink=1).Hewantedfameand
ascensiontothepresidency.HetriedusinghisinfluencewithPresident(/w/index.php?
title=President_of_the_United_States&action=edit&redlink=1)AbrahamLincoln(/w/index.php?
title=Abraham_Lincoln&action=edit&redlink=1)totrytotakeoverthesiegeofVicksburg,Mississippi
(/w/index.php?title=Vicksburg,_Mississippi&action=edit&redlink=1).GeneralGrant(/w/index.php?
title=Ulysses_S._Grant&action=edit&redlink=1),whosedepartmentVicksburg(/w/index.php?
title=Battle_of_Vicksburg&action=edit&redlink=1)fellunder,caughtwindoftheplansanddivertedtroops
headtoMcClernandforhisownuse.ThisandotheractionsinfuriatedMcClernand,whommade
numerousmovesthatalienatedhimfromhisallies.
2.AcadmieFranaise(/w/index.php?title=Acad%C3%A9mie_Fran%C3%A7aise&action=edit&redlink=1)
wasfoundedin1635(/w/index.php?title=1635&action=edit&redlink=1)tomaintainthepurityofthe
Frenchlanguage(/w/index.php?title=French_language&action=edit&redlink=1).In1694(/w/index.php?
title=1694&action=edit&redlink=1)KingLouisIV(/w/index.php?
title=King_Louis_IV&action=edit&redlink=1)appointedtheBishopofNoyons(/w/index.php?
title=Bishop_of_BeauvaisNoyonsSenlis&action=edit&redlink=1)tothecounsel.Althoughqualified,he
wasarrogantandoffensive.OninaugurationdaytheabbdeCaumartin(/w/index.php?
title=Abb%C3%A9_de_Caumartin&action=edit&redlink=1)gaveasubtlymockingspeechthatwasseen
assuchbyallbuttheBishop(/w/index.php?title=Bishop&action=edit&redlink=1).Hiseventualhumiliation
ledtotheBishopleavingtheAcadmie.
3.TsukaharaBokuden(/w/index.php?title=Tsukahara_Bokuden&action=edit&redlink=1),renownedsamurai
(/w/index.php?title=Samurai&action=edit&redlink=1),waschallengedbyanambidextrous(/w/index.php?
title=Crossdominance&action=edit&redlink=1)youngsamurai.Bokudenacceptedthechallenge,but
focusedchallenger'sattentiononthe"unfair"useofhisleftarm.Inthefight,Bokudenattackedhisright.
Later,in1605(/w/index.php?title=1605&action=edit&redlink=1),theswordsman(/w/index.php?
title=Swordsmanship&action=edit&redlink=1)Genzaemon(/w/index.php?
title=Genzaemon&action=edit&redlink=1)waschallengedbyMiyamotoMusashi(/w/index.php?
title=Miyamoto_Musashi&action=edit&redlink=1).Musashishoweduplateandinnonstandardattire,this
angeredGenzaemonpositioninghimtomakemanyerrantmoves.
4.BobDole(/w/index.php?title=Bob_Dole&action=edit&redlink=1)ofKansas(/w/index.php?
title=Kansas&action=edit&redlink=1)challengedGeorgeH.W.Bush(/w/index.php?
title=George_H._W._Bush&action=edit&redlink=1)forthe1988(/w/index.php?
title=1988&action=edit&redlink=1)Republican's(/w/index.php?
title=Republican_Party_(United_States)&action=edit&redlink=1)nominationforPresident(/w/index.php?
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title=Presidential_campaign&action=edit&redlink=1).LeeAtwater(/w/index.php?
title=Lee_Atwater&action=edit&redlink=1),Bush'sstrategist,knowingofDole'stemper,spreadrumors
abouthiswife's,ElizabethDole(/w/index.php?title=Elizabeth_Dole&action=edit&redlink=1),qualifications
asSecretaryofTransportation(/w/index.php?title=Secretary_of_Transportation&action=edit&redlink=1).
Dolesangercamethroughinthemediaseverelydamaginghim.
5.JoanCrawford(/w/index.php?title=Joan_Crawford&action=edit&redlink=1)hadacontinualrivalrywith
NormaShearer(/w/index.php?title=Norma_Shearer&action=edit&redlink=1)andBetteDavis
(/w/index.php?title=Bette_Davis&action=edit&redlink=1).Shecontrivedtwomethodsforsteelingtheir
thunder.WithShearersheworkedtoannoyheronsetandgothertoexposehernastydemeanor.While
withDavis,shestolethespotlightwhileacceptingAnneBancroft(/w/index.php?
title=Anne_Bancroft&action=edit&redlink=1)'sOscar(/w/index.php?
title=Academy_Awards&action=edit&redlink=1)forTheMiracleWorker(/wiki/The_Miracle_Worker).

Reversal

Whenbeingattackedbythismethod,stopitdecisively.

29)TakeSmallBites:TheFaitAccompliStrategy. [1]Makeadvancesbysmallpieces,oftengoingunnoticedby
yourrivals.Bythetimetheynoticeyourgrowth,itmaybetoolate.

PiecemealConquest.Uponthefall(/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_France&action=edit&redlink=1)ofFrance
(/w/index.php?title=France&action=edit&redlink=1)totheGermans(/w/index.php?
title=Nazi_Germany&action=edit&redlink=1)inWorldWarII(/w/index.php?
title=World_War_II&action=edit&redlink=1),CharlesdeGaulle(/w/index.php?
title=Charles_de_Gaulle&action=edit&redlink=1)receivedpermissionfromWinstonChurchill(/w/index.php?
title=Winston_Churchill&action=edit&redlink=1)tobroadcasttotheFightingFrench(/w/index.php?
title=Free_French_Forces&action=edit&redlink=1)overtheBBC(/w/index.php?
title=BBC&action=edit&redlink=1).Thebroadcastwasmetwithgreatpublicsupport.Hecontinuedto
expandthissmallfootholdbyleadingforcesinCentralAfrica,buildingtheFrenchResistance
(/w/index.php?title=French_Resistance&action=edit&redlink=1)withJeanMoulin(/w/index.php?
title=Jean_Moulin&action=edit&redlink=1).WhenFDR's(/w/index.php?
title=Franklin_D._Roosevelt&action=edit&redlink=1)plottedtoreplacehimwithHenriGiraud(/w/index.php?
title=Henri_Giraud&action=edit&redlink=1),deGaullefoughtbitterlywithGiraudandwasabletofillhisstaff
withdeGaulleloyalists.
KeystoWarfare

Peopledislikeconfrontationsogivinglittle Takecontrol,youropponentwillhavetofightto
piecesiseasy. getitback.

Lookforopportunitiesinarival'stroubled
Bepatient,timeisyourally.
times.

30)PenetrateTheirMinds:CommunicationStrategies.[1]Fightwithwordsthatwilloccupyyouropponent,
makethemthinkandtrytointerpretyourmeaning.Useactionsotherthanwords,whenneeded,tomakealasting
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Reversal

Watchotherpeople'scommunicationforgeneralitiesthathidetheirintentsorclichesthatdistractpeoplesfocus.

impression.

VisceralCommunication.InfilmingThe39Steps(/w/index.php?
title=The_39_Steps_(1935_film)&action=edit&redlink=1)in1935(/w/index.php?
title=1935&action=edit&redlink=1),AlfredHitchcock(/w/index.php?
title=Alfred_Hitchcock&action=edit&redlink=1)handcuffedtheleadsMadeleineCarroll(/w/index.php?
title=Madeleine_Carroll&action=edit&redlink=1)andRobertDonat(/w/index.php?
title=Robert_Donat&action=edit&redlink=1)andthenfeintedlosingthekeyandleftthemhandcuffed
(/w/index.php?title=Handcuffs&action=edit&redlink=1)formanyhours.Theploywastomakethem
understandthescripttheywereabouttoplay.Hitchcockfurtheredhisindirectcommunicationbyactions
contrarytothesituationworkinghisactor'sminds.
TheMastermind.NiccolMachiavelli(/w/index.php?
title=Niccol%C3%B2_Machiavelli&action=edit&redlink=1)workedinFlorence(/w/index.php?
title=Florence&action=edit&redlink=1)'sSecondChancery(/w/index.php?
title=Ambassador&action=edit&redlink=1).AsFlorencewentinandoutofMedicicontrolbetween1494
(/w/index.php?title=1494&action=edit&redlink=1)and1512(/w/index.php?title=1512&action=edit&redlink=1)
Machiavelliwasdisplacedfromhisjob.InordertostayintouchwiththeFlorentinegovernmenthewrote
ThePrince(/w/index.php?title=The_Prince&action=edit&redlink=1),onprincelyrule,andengagedhisfriend
FrancescoVettori(/w/index.php?title=Francesco_Vettori&action=edit&redlink=1)toshowittotheMedici's.
HelaterwroteDiscoursesonLivy(/w/index.php?title=Discourses_on_Livy&action=edit&redlink=1).These
unpublishedworkswereasteppingstoneforMachiavellitoreturntofavor.Afterhisdeaththemanuscripts
werepublishedinmultiplelanguages.Eventuallyhisworkspermeatedthemindsofmanycultureshavinga
greatercommunicationpowerthanMachiavellicouldhaveeverimagined.
KeystoWarfare

Usetheprofoundtostaywithother Communicatewithaction, Silencecansaymore


peopleovertime. notonlywords. thanwords.

Shockwillbringshortlived Communicationmustfocus
communication. onchange.

Reversal

Lookforthesaboteurwithin,butdonotbeparanoid.Treatyourtroopsfairlyandtheywillpolicethemselves.

31)DestroyFromWithin:TheInnerFrontStrategy.[1]Infiltrateyouropponent'scamp.Oncethere,youdonot
needtoattackorshowyourintentions.Slowlytakeoverfromwithin.

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TheInvisibleEnemy.AdolfHitler(/w/index.php?title=Adolf_Hitler&action=edit&redlink=1)assignedWilhelm
Canaris(/w/index.php?title=Wilhelm_Canaris&action=edit&redlink=1)tosetuptheAbwehr(/w/index.php?
title=Abwehr&action=edit&redlink=1)(Germany's(/w/index.php?title=Nazi_Germany&action=edit&redlink=1)
intelligencegroupfortheGeneralStaff(/w/index.php?title=German_General_Staff&action=edit&redlink=1))
inlate1933(/w/index.php?title=1933&action=edit&redlink=1).Hitlerwasimpressedandtrustedhimfor
advice.Duringhistenureheadvisedagainsttheinvasion(/w/index.php?
title=Operation_Sealion&action=edit&redlink=1)oftheUnitedKingdom(/w/index.php?
title=United_Kingdom&action=edit&redlink=1),advisedagainstallyingwithFranciscoFranco(/w/index.php?
title=Francisco_Franco&action=edit&redlink=1)ofSpain(/w/index.php?
title=Spain_in_World_War_II&action=edit&redlink=1)tousetheisland(/w/index.php?
title=Rock_of_Gibraltar&action=edit&redlink=1)ofGibraltar(/w/index.php?
title=Gibraltar&action=edit&redlink=1)toweakentheBritish(/w/index.php?
title=United_Kingdom&action=edit&redlink=1)andassuredHitlerthatItaly(/w/index.php?
title=Italy&action=edit&redlink=1)'sPietroBadoglio(/w/index.php?
title=Pietro_Badoglio&action=edit&redlink=1)wasnotabouttosurrenderin1943(/w/index.php?
title=1943&action=edit&redlink=1).OnlyafterthelatterdidtheGermanicSS(/w/index.php?title=Germanic
SS&action=edit&redlink=1)determinehewasworkingtosubvertHitler.
FriendlyTakeover.1929(/w/index.php?title=1929&action=edit&redlink=1)AndrBreton(/w/index.php?
title=Andr%C3%A9_Breton&action=edit&redlink=1),creatoroftheSurrealistManifesto(/w/index.php?
title=Surrealist_Manifesto&action=edit&redlink=1),wantedtobreathemorelifeintothesurrealistic
(/w/index.php?title=Surrealism&action=edit&redlink=1)movement.HefeltSalvadorDal(/w/index.php?
title=Salvador_Dal%C3%AD&action=edit&redlink=1)couldprovidethatboost.Itdid.ButDali'saffinityto
HitlerandLenin(/w/index.php?title=Vladimir_Lenin&action=edit&redlink=1)broughtthegrouptoaboil.Dali
leftforNewYork(/w/index.php?title=New_York_City&action=edit&redlink=1)wherehemadeasuccessful
careerandbecamesynonymouswithsurrealism.
KeystoWarfare

Donotattackthewallsofthefort,attackfrom Exploitthedisaffectedwithyouropponentand
within. usethem.

Underminethemoraleofyouropponent's Befriendyouropponentandworkfromwithintheir
troops. mind.

Bepatientandtakesmallsteps. Keepyourgroupofconspiratorssmall.

Reversal

Intimidationisthereversalofthepassiveaggressivebehavior(/w/index.php?title=Passive
aggressive_behavior&action=edit&redlink=1).Threatenbutdonotact.

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32)DominateWhileSeemingtoSubmit:ThePassiveAggressiveStrategy. Usenonaggressiontofight [1]

youropponent.Theiraggressiveactswillbenefityouandgarnersupportfromothers.Sincethereisthe
presentationofboth"good"and"bad"traits,peoplenormallyseeonlythepositiveapproach.

TheGuiltWeapon.Toprotest(/w/index.php?title=Protest&action=edit&redlink=1)theSalt(/w/index.php?
title=Sea_salt&action=edit&redlink=1)Tax(/w/index.php?title=Tax&action=edit&redlink=1)imposedbythe
BritishRaj(/w/index.php?title=British_India&action=edit&redlink=1),MahatmaGandhi(/w/index.php?
title=Mahatma_Gandhi&action=edit&redlink=1)stagea200milemarch(/w/index.php?
title=Salt_Satyagraha&action=edit&redlink=1)oftotheocean(/w/index.php?
title=Arabian_Sea&action=edit&redlink=1).TheGovernorGeneralofIndia(/w/index.php?title=Governor
General_of_India&action=edit&redlink=1),LordEdwardIrwin(/w/index.php?
title=E._F._L._Wood,_1st_Earl_of_Halifax&action=edit&redlink=1),wasrelievedattheseeminginsignificant
actionGandhiproposed.LordEdwardIrwindidnothingtostopthemarch.Butthemarchattracted
thousands.Irwinhadlimitedhisoptionssincehehadnotactedearlytostopthemarchandnowitwouldbe
abigissue.Gandhihadchosenhisprotestwiselybenign(/w/index.php?
title=Benign&action=edit&redlink=1)totheBritishandpoignanttotheIndians(/w/index.php?
title=India&action=edit&redlink=1).
PassivePower.Czar(/w/index.php?title=Tsar&action=edit&redlink=1)AlexanderI(/w/index.php?
title=Alexander_I_of_Russia&action=edit&redlink=1)wantedtoreformthemonarchies(/w/index.php?
title=Monarchy&action=edit&redlink=1)ofEurope(/w/index.php?
title=History_of_Europe&action=edit&redlink=1).Heusedthe1820revoltsinSpainandNaples
(/w/index.php?title=Congress_of_Troppau&action=edit&redlink=1)tosolicitameetingofthemonarchsto
addresstheissues.Austrian(/w/index.php?title=Austria&action=edit&redlink=1)Prince(/w/index.php?
title=Prince&action=edit&redlink=1)Metternich(/w/index.php?
title=Klemens_Wenzel_von_Metternich&action=edit&redlink=1)usedthistosubtlymovetheCzartoa
positionofsupportingthe"oldguardrule"overanyformofliberalization.

KeystoWarfare

Usingpassiveaggressivebehaviorthe Succumbtoothers,while Donotbetoo


"positive"standsout. covertlyfighting. eagerforpower.

Trainyourselftoseepassiveaggressive Stoppassiveaggressive

andreacttoit. behaviorquickly.

Reversal

Directandsymmetrical(/w/index.php?title=Asymmetric_warfare&action=edit&redlink=1)warfare,upfrontandhonest

33)SowUncertaintyandPanicThroughActsofTerror:TheChainReactionStrategy. [1]Thegoalischaos
andcreatingthelackoftrustinfamiliarsurroundings.Whatwasoncesafeisnowuncertain.

TheAnatomyofPanic.In1092(/w/index.php?title=1092&action=edit&redlink=1)deathofNizamalMulk
(/w/index.php?title=Nizam_alMulk&action=edit&redlink=1)wasatfirstfelttobeareprisalfortheattemptsto
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suppressthegrowthofthesectNizari(/w/index.php?title=Nizari&action=edit&redlink=1)Ismaili
(/w/index.php?title=Ismaili&action=edit&redlink=1).TheNizari,agroupcloakedinsecrecy,haddevelopeda
newmethodofrevoltwhereAssassins(/w/index.php?title=Assassination&action=edit&redlink=1)(derived
fromArabic(/w/index.php?title=Arabic&action=edit&redlink=1)Hashshashin(/w/index.php?
title=Hashshashin&action=edit&redlink=1))wouldemergefromaseeminglycalmcrowdandkilltheirtarget
withadagger.Thisnewformofwarfareappearedtobeabletomanifestitselfinanomnipresentform
againstitsopponents.

KeystoWarfare

Respondingdispassionatelywill Thwarttheattacksatthepoint Createunstable


defeatthecause. oftheattack. ground.

Takethemoralhighground,exploit Randomizethefrequencyof Mosteffectivein


beingthevictim. attack. smallbands.

Fightingbackinadisproportionatemannerfuelstheircause.

CompleteTableofContents
Preface

PartI:SelfDirectedWarfare

1DeclareWaronYourEnemies:ThePolarityStrategy
2DoNotFighttheLastWar:TheGuerrillaWaroftheMindStrategy
3AmidsttheTurmoilofEvents,DoNotLoseYourPresenceofMind:TheCounterbalanceStrategy
4CreateaSenseofUrgencyandDesperation:TheDeathGroundStrategy

PartII:Organizational(Team)Warfare

5AvoidTheSnareofGroupthink:ThecommandandControlStrategy
6SegmentYourForces:TheControlledChaosStrategy
7TransformYourWarintoaCrusade:MoraleStrategies

PartIII:DefensiveWarfare

8PickYourBattles:ThePerfectEconomyStrategy
9TurntheTables:TheCounterattackStrategy
10CreateaThreateningPresence:DeterrenceStrategies
11TradeSpaceforTime:TheNonenagementStrategy

PartIV:OffensiveWarfare

12LoseTheBattlesButWinTheWar:GrandStrategy
13KnowYourEnemy:TheIntelligenceStrategy
14OverwhelmResistanceWithSpeedandSuddenness:TheBlitzkriegStrategy
15ControltheDynamic:ForcingStrategies
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16HitThemWhereitHurts:TheCenterofGravityStrategy
17DefeatTheminDetail:TheDivideandConquerStrategy
18ExposeandAttackYourEnemy'sSoftFlank:TheTurningStrategy
19EnvelopTheEnemy:TheAnnihilationStrategy
20ManeuverThemIntoWeakness:TheRipeningFortheSickleStrategy
21NegotiateWhileAdvancing:TheDiplomaticWarStrategy
22KnowHowToEndThings:TheExitStrategy

PartV:Unconventional(Dirty)War

23WeaveaSeamlessBlendofFactandFiction:MisperceptionStrategies
24TakeTheLineofLeastExpectation:TheOrdinaryExtraordinaryStrategy
25OccupytheMoralHighGround:TheRighteousStrategy
26DenyThemTargets:TheStrategyoftheVoid
27SeemtoWorkfortheInterestsofOthersWhileFurtheringYourOwn:TheAllianceStrategy
28GiveYourRivalsEnoughRopeToHangThemselves:TheOneUpmanshipStrategy
29TakeSmallBites:TheFaitAccompliStrategy
30PenetrateTheirMinds:CommunicationStrategies
31DestroyFromWithin:TheInnerFrontStrategy
32DominateWhileSeemingtoSubmit:ThePassiveAggressiveStrategy
33SowUncertaintyandPanicThroughActsofTerror:TheChainReactionStrategy

Citeerror:Invalid <ref> tagnotextwasprovidedforrefsnamed greene

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