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Dr.

Maha Ismail

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Carbohydrates
Carbohydratesare the most abundant
compounds found in nature.
The name carbohydrates indicates
that these compounds are
composed of carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen.

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Carbohydrates
Definition:

Are polyhydroxyl
alcohols having
potentially active
aldehyde or ketone
group attached to them.

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Function of Carbohydrates
1. The main source of energy in the diet.
2. Storage form of energy.
3. Cell membrane component that mediate
some form of intracellular
communications.
4. Serve as structural component of many
organisms including:
The cell wall of bacteria.
The fibrous cellulose of plants.
The exoskeleton of some insects 4
Classification of Carbohydrates

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Classification of Carbohydrates

Monosaccharide
Are sugars which can not be degraded
further into simpler sugars.

Monosaccharides are classified according


to the number of carbon atoms they contain.

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Monosaccharide

Monosaccharides are further classified


according to the nature of the functional
group.
Thus there are Aldoses for aldehyde
containing monosaccharides, and Ketoses
for those having a ketone group.
These two classifications may be used
together for example Aldohexose and
ketohexose.
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Monosaccharide Aldehyde Ketone

( Trioses (3 C Glyceraldehydes Dihydroxyacetone

(Tetroses (4C Erythrose Erythrulose

(Pentose (5 C Ribose Ribulose

Hexoses (6 C( Glucose Fructose


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Physical properties of Monosaccharide

1. Soluble in water.
2. Aldose and ketose isomer

3. Contain asymmetric carbon atom. i.e.


attached to 4 different groups e.g.
Carbon no.2 in glucose.

4. Optically active compounds.

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Aldose and Ketose isomers. 2

Arecompounds having the same


molecular formula but differ in the
functional group.

Fructosehas a keto group in position 2


whereas glucose has an aldehyde
group in position 1.

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.Optically active compounds
Monosaccharides have the power of
rotating plane of polarized light through
a certain angle, but must contain at least
one asymmetric carbon atom.

Opticallyactive substances are


classified into types according to the
direction in which they rotate the
polarized light.

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When equal amounts of dextro and
levo isomers are present in a solution
the resulting mixture has no optical
activity and the compounds are known
as Racemic Compounds

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Isomers posses the same general
.physical and chemical properties

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L and D configuration or Enantiomers

Enantiomer is a special type of isomer


found in pairs that they are mirror image
of each other.
Any compound containing asymmetric
carbon atom can be present in the space
in 2 different forms which are mirror
image and are called stereo isomers.

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L and D configuration
When the OH group of the carbon atom
adjacent to the last carbon is on the right
side it is called D- sugar, if on the left side
it is called L- sugar.
Nearly all naturally occurring sugars are D-
sugars.

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Carbohydrates

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Epimers
Isomers differ in configuration of the OH
and H around one specific carbon atom, 2,
3, and 4 of glucose.

Glucose and Galactose are epimers in


carbon 4.
Glucose and Mannose are epimers in
carbon 2.
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Epimers

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Cyclization of monosaccharides
Less than 1 % of each of the sugars with
five or more carbons are found in the open
chain form.
They are predominantly form a ring at
carbon 1 of an aldose and carbon 2 of a
ketose.
This carbon is called the Anomeric carbon,

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Cyclization of monosaccharides
The anomeric carbon of aldose or ketose
will react with the alcohol group on the
same sugar to form hemiactal or hemiketal.
If the resulting ring has six members

(5 carbons and 1 oxygen( it is a pyranose


ring.
If it is five membered ( 4 carbons and
oxygen( it is called furanose ring ( ex.
Fructose( 31
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Thehemiacetal ring is called a Fischer
projection.

The
cyclic form of the sugar is called
Haworth projection.

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- Anomers

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- Anomers
Two molecules of D- glucose can differ from
each other, one is the other is .
The two sugars are glucose but they are
anomers of each others.

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Disaccharides
These are glycosides formed by the
condensation of 2 sugars, they
include:
1. Lactose.
2. Maltose.
3. Sucrose.

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Starch

Starch is the most important food source of


carbohydrates.
It is found in cereals, potatoes, grains, tubers &
vegetable.
Starch is formed of an glycosidic chain.
It yield only glucose on hydrolysis, as it is a
homoploymer of glucose (Glucosan, or Glucan(.

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splay % 20 -15 >

(,30 -24 (
glucose
% 80-85 .residues
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It is called animal starch.

glucose, 10-12

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Inulin
Is a starch found in tubers.
Is a homoplymer of fructose ( Fructosan(.
This starch is unlike potato starch, is readily
soluble in water & has been used to determine the
glomerular filteration rate.
Chitin:
Is an important structural polysaccharide of
invertebrates.
It is found in the skeleton of insects.

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(Glycoproteins (mucoproteins
They are found in tissues, fluids and
cell membrane.
They are proteins containing
carbohydrates in different amounts.

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Isomers
The number of possible isomers of a
compound depends on the number of
asymmetric carbon atoms (n( and is
equal to 2 n.
Glucose with 4 asymmetric carbon
atoms, so it has 16 isomer

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