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Consumer Behavior, 11e (Solomon)

Chapter 3 Cultural Influences on Consumer Decision-Making

1) Culture is best described as society's ________.


A) attitude
B) consciousness
C) personality
D) history
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

2) Which functional area of culture is most closely related to the idea of a common worldview?
A) ecology
B) social structure
C) ideology
D) socio-psychology
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

3) ________ usually dictate what is right or wrong, acceptable or unacceptable.


A) Myths
B) Theories
C) Norms
D) Rituals
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-2

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4) Crescive norms are ________.
A) strict "must do" rules of behavior in a society
B) followed only by the females of a culture
C) associated with monetary rewards and punishments
D) subtle rules discovered as we interact with others
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-2

5) We explicitly decide on ________ norms, such as the rule that a green traffic light means "go"
and a red one means "stop."
A) crescive
B) enacted
C) reciprocal
D) ritualized
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-2
AACSB: Application of knowledge

6) A ________ is a custom with a strong moral overtone.


A) more
B) superstition
C) convention
D) monomyth
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-2

7) Interest in the occult is most likely to increase in a society when ________.


A) economic conditions begin to improve
B) there has been a major triumph, such as winning a war
C) people feel overwhelmed or powerless
D) people become less religious
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-4
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

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8) A story containing symbolic elements that express the shared emotions and ideals of a culture
is called a ________.
A) norm
B) ritual
C) myth
D) more
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-5

9) Myths serve four interrelated functions in a culture. All of the following are among those
functions EXCEPT the ________ function.
A) cosmological
B) sociological
C) psychological
D) anthropological
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-5

10) ________ postulated that myths involve binary opposition, in which two opposing ends of
some dimension are represented (such as good versus evil).
A) Levi-Strauss
B) Freud
C) Hofstede
D) Bettelheim
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-5

11) A set of multiple symbolic behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence and tend to be repeated is
called a ________.
A) myth
B) more
C) ritual
D) convention
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6

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12) Brands that we closely link to our rituals are called ________ brands; once they become
imbedded in our rituals we are unlikely to replace them.
A) fighter
B) fortress
C) transcultural
D) sacralized
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6

13) Grooming rituals express two kinds of binary opposition: private/public and ________.
A) work/leisure
B) self/others
C) pride/modesty
D) innocence/experience
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6

14) Researchers primarily see the gift-giving ritual as one of ________ exchange.
A) transactional
B) stylistic
C) psychological
D) economic
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6

15) Which of the following is NOT one of the three distinct stages of gift-giving rituals?
A) convention
B) gestation
C) presentation
D) reformulation
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6

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16) As a relationship grows and progresses, gift giving tends to become more ________.
A) exchange oriented
B) reciprocal
C) altruistic
D) reformulated
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6

17) A special ritual marking a person's change in social status is called a ________.
A) convention
B) sacralization
C) cycle
D) rite of passage
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6

18) ________ consumption occurs with objects and events that are considered to be ordinary and
everyday.
A) Profane
B) Sacred
C) Objectified
D) Ritualized
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-7

19) Through the process of ________, objects associated with sacred events or people become
sacred in their own right.
A) congregation
B) reciprocity
C) desacralization
D) contamination
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-7
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

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20) The systematic acquisition of a particular object or set of objects is called ________.
A) prioritizing
B) hoarding
C) collecting
D) ritualizing
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-7

21) When a sacred item or symbol is removed from its special place or is duplicated in mass
quantities, then it becomes profane as a result of ________.
A) sacralization
B) desacralization
C) defamation
D) objectification
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-7
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

22) It is quite common for mainstream culture to modify symbols identified with "cutting edge"
subcultures and present these to a larger audience. Such cultural products undergo a process of
________, by which their original meanings are transformed by outsiders.
A) innovation
B) transformation
C) diffusion
D) cooptation
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-3
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

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23) All of the following are subsystems in a culture production system EXCEPT ________.
A) creative subsystem
B) managerial subsystem
C) marketing subsystem
D) communications subsystem
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-3
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

24) Products are winnowed out as they make their way down the path from conception to
consumption, a process called ________.
A) diffusion
B) cooptation
C) cultural selection
D) cultural mapping
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-3

25) Which of the following statements is most likely true about styles?
A) A style typically starts in a large group of people as a safe but unique statement.
B) Styles are often a reflection of more fundamental societal trends.
C) Influential people play only a minor role in deciding which styles will succeed.
D) Styles most often result from a deliberate statement from ordinary consumers that has been
met by a rather spontaneous response from designers.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-3

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26) In the cultural production process, the people who control the flow of information between
producers and customers are called ________.
A) lead users
B) cultural gatekeepers
C) cultural transformers
D) innovators
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-3
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

27) Which of the following is an object that is admired strictly for its beauty or because it
inspires an emotional reaction?
A) an art product
B) a reality-engineered product
C) a craft product
D) a trial product
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-3

28) ________ occurs as marketers appropriate elements of popular culture and convert them for
use as promotional vehicles.
A) Reality engineering
B) Crescive norming
C) Desacralization
D) Product placement
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-4
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

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29) Promoters attempt to have their products shown prominently in full-length films. This type
of promotion is referred to as ________.
A) desacralization
B) objectification
C) product placement
D) advertainment
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-4

30) Which functional area is consistently a part of a cultural system?


A) ecology
B) anthropology
C) psychology
D) technology
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

31) The aspect of a cultural system which describes the mental characteristics of a people and the
way they relate to their environment and social groups is known as ________.
A) ecology
B) social structure
C) ideology
D) anthropology
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

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32) The Japanese greatly value products that make efficient use of space because of the cramped
conditions in urban areas in Japan. This is an example of ________ in Japan's cultural system.
A) social structure
B) ecology
C) ideology
D) dogma
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Application of knowledge

33) What do we call the learning process when we learn the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by
our own culture?
A) acculturation
B) enculturation
C) immersion
D) modeling
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-2

34) Gen Akoi greatly values his micro-refrigerator. The refrigerator is so small it will fit almost
anywhere. Gen believes that the efficient use of space is one of the characteristics any good
product should have. With respect to the functional areas of a cultural system, Gen is focusing on
________ as a variable in selecting his products.
A) ideology
B) ecology
C) social structure
D) socio-psychology
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Analytical thinking

10
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35) J. P. Stevens always looks perfect in his business suit. The colors are always right for the
season and prevailing style. His tie has the proper knot, he does not wear a tie-tac, his
handkerchief is the proper "two-fingers" above the pocket, and his socks and shoes do not
distract from his overall look. Which of the following does J. P. seem to be adhering to with his
"correctness"?
A) enacted behaviors
B) customs
C) mores
D) conventions
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Analytical thinking

36) The story goes that George Washington (as a small child) cut down his father's cherry tree
with a hatchet. When asked who might have committed this act (even though young Washington
was afraid of punishment for the act), George replied, "I cannot tell a lie; I cut down the cherry
tree." This story has taken on mythical proportions in the United States. Which of the following
functions does this myth best match?
A) metaphysical
B) cosmological
C) psychological
D) anthropological
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-5
AACSB: Application of knowledge

37) Pavel was an inventor. He read that there were several million people who could not sleep at
night until they looked under the bed. He invented a light that could be put under a bed and went
on automatically when someone looked there. Pavel's product is designed to help people perform
a ________.
A) ritual
B) symbolic exchange
C) convention
D) rite of passage
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-6
AACSB: Analytical thinking

11
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38) Ralf and his brother had a business in a Midwest college town taking SUVs and modifying
them into tailgating machines. These "awesome party wagons" were equipped with the owner's
desired team logo on the front, side, and back; gas grills; and large beverage coolers. Their
business boomed, especially when the university had a winning season. Ralf and his brother were
creating and selling what could be best described as ________.
A) myth carriers
B) ritual artifacts
C) symbolic exchange objects
D) attitudinal reciprocity products
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-6
AACSB: Analytical thinking

39) Sharon is upset with her secretary. Though everyone in the office agreed not to give
Christmas presents this year, Sharon's secretary gave her an expensive bottle of perfume. Which
of the following best identifies the source of Sharon's feelings?
A) objectification
B) self-serving guilt
C) the reciprocity norm
D) role transference
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-6
AACSB: Analytical thinking

40) Carl Thorne has just passed the final test to become a member of a college fraternity. This
rite of passage has moved Carl from being an individual to being a member of a bonded group.
When Carl receives his fraternity pin in a final ceremony and joins his new brothers, he will have
passed through the final stage of a rite of passage. According to the text, what is this stage
called?
A) separation
B) aggregation
C) liminality
D) finality
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-6
AACSB: Analytical thinking

12
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41) Thomas and his family recently toured the Gettysburg battlefield on their vacation. The area
was rich in history. While walking, Thomas remembered all the accounts of the battle that he had
read in school. He finally understood why this place had such a special meaning in American
history and to Americans in general. This tour is best classified as an example of ________
consumption.
A) profane
B) objectified
C) sacred
D) crescive
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-7
AACSB: Analytical thinking

42) Country singers Marty Stewart and Travis Tritt and their record label decided to change the
culture of the Country and Western music scene. With their now famous "No Hats" tour, the
singers abandoned conventional country and western fashion (they threw away their hats, let
their hair grow long, and wore t-shirts) and tried to appeal to larger and younger audiences with a
grinding, sexy message. The process that these singers went through is best described as a
________.
A) cultural funnel
B) culture production system (CPS)
C) culture distribution system (CDS)
D) culture gatekeeping process (CGP)
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-3
AACSB: Analytical thinking

43) The Macah, a Native American tribe from the Northwest, built functional seagoing canoes
that are considered works of art by modern shipbuilders. By definition, these boats would be
considered ________.
A) high art products
B) style and cultural icons
C) low art products
D) craft products
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-3
AACSB: Analytical thinking

13
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44) Raymond Chandler wrote classic American detective stories. By always using certain roles
for his characters and props that were appropriate to the genre, Chandler's novels followed a(n)
________.
A) cultural formula
B) enacted norm
C) fashion cycle
D) innovation process
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-3
AACSB: Analytical thinking

45) Kyle liked to think he could program anything digital. He created a new video game, and a
major industry firm wanted to buy it from him. He was bothered by their insistence that he
modify the game by including a popular product's logo on the clothing of his main character. In
this example, Kyle is concerned about the practice of ________.
A) cultural jamming
B) advergaming
C) pretailing
D) plinking
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-4
AACSB: Analytical thinking

46) What term refers to desired end states that can apply to many different cultures?
A) instrumental values
B) more
C) terminal values
D) norms
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-2

14
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47) The ________ assumes that people link very specific product attributes to terminal values.
A) knowledge structure theory
B) means-end chain model
C) diffusion of innovation
D) cultural production system model
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-2

48) Which of the following best supports the argument that tourism is a sacred experience?
A) Tourism rarely involves the binary opposition of work and leisure.
B) Tourism involves seeking authentic experiences that differ from daily, mundane activities.
C) Tourism involves the four most important dimensions of culture.
D) Tourism provides opportunities for individuals to better understand their culture's crescive
norms through interaction with other cultures.
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Critical Thinking
Objective: 3-7
AACSB: Reflective thinking

49) In a culture production system, the communications subsystem ________.


A) generates new symbols and products
B) selects and manages the distribution of new symbols and products
C) gives meaning to new products and provides a symbolic set of attributes
D) organizes the sharing of symbols
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-3
AACSB: Written and oral communication

50) Once a culture is established it doesn't change. An apparent change in a culture is simply the
emergence of a new culture.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

15
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51) A metaphysical myth fulfills the cultural function of explaining how the components of the
universe relate to each other.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-5

52) In many cultures, stories feature talking animals that act as mediating figures.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-5
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

53) Most holidays commemorate a cultural myth.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

54) Passing a driving test to receive a driver's license is an example of a rite of passage.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6
AACSB: Analytical thinking

55) Profane consumption involves consumer objects and events that are ordinary.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-7

56) Casting directors, textbook authors, and retail buyers are all examples of formal gatekeepers
in the culture production process.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-3
AACSB: Analytical thinking

16
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57) A style typically begins as a risky or unique statement by a relatively small group of people.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-3

58) Romance novels often follow a cultural formula.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-4

59) Hofstede's Dimensions of National Culture organizes cross-cultural values based on power
distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation, and
indulgence.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-9
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

60) The indulgence versus restraint dimension of Hofstede's Dimensions of National Culture
deals with the extent to which a society allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural
human drives related to enjoying life.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-9

61) The extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions accept and
expect that power is distributed unequally is referred to as power distance.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-9

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62) Values associated with a long-term orientation are respect for social obligations and the need
to save face.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-9
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

63) Where you choose to sit in an almost empty movie theater is most likely determined by your
culture's mores.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-2
AACSB: Application of knowledge

64) Every year, the students at a prestigious engineering school remove a car from the parking lot
and place it on the highest point of the roof of the main engineering building. The students have
been doing this for decades, but not once has anyone ever confided to an outsider how it was
done. This is a classic example of a ritual.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-6
AACSB: Analytical thinking

65) Anna's best friend Aubrey was getting married. Anna spent a lot of time thinking of the
perfect gift. She was so excited about the gift that she gave it to Aubrey before the wedding.
Aubrey cried and told Anna that she would never in her life have a better friend. Reformulation
is the proper term for the new bond between Anna and Aubrey.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-6
AACSB: Analytical thinking

18
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66) A professor was given a warning after he made a bad joke about Princess Diana shortly after
her death. Students were likely upset because they saw Princess Di as a profane character worthy
of special attention and respect.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-7
AACSB: Analytical thinking

67) Products appearing in retail stores are examples of the use of product placement.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-4
AACSB: Application of knowledge

68) Creolization occurs when foreign influences integrate with local meanings.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-9

69) The worldwide popularity of McDonald's suggests that there is a global consumer culture
that unites people around the world by their common devotion to brands.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Critical Thinking
Objective: 3-8
AACSB: Reflective thinking

70) The transition of Turkish tea to a mass-market product illustrates the process of sacralization.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Critical Thinking
Objective: 3-7
AACSB: Reflective thinking

19
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71) People occupy sacred time and space when they travel on vacation.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Critical Thinking
Objective: 3-7
AACSB: Reflective thinking

72) In the modern holiday rituals of Christmas, the figures of Christ and Santa can be seen as
binary opposites; one promotes selflessness while the other promotes materialism.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-7
AACSB: Reflective thinking

73) Shira wants to prove that even the most mundane of objects can be sacralized through the
process of objectification. She should use examples of hoarding to support her argument.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-7
AACSB: Analytical thinking

74) A cultural system consists of three functional areas. What are they? Give a brief explanation
of each.
Answer: Culture's functional areas include:
a. Ecologythe way in which a system is adapted to its habitat. This area is shaped by the
technology used to obtain and distribute resources.
b. Social structurethe way in which orderly social life is maintained. This includes the
domestic and political groups that are dominant within the culture.
c. Ideologythe mental characteristics of a people and the way in which they relate to their
environment and social groups. This revolves around the notion that members of a society
possess a common worldview. They share certain ideas about principles of order and fairness.
They also share an ethos, or a set of moral and aesthetic principles.
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

20
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75) Explain the meaning of objectification and how it occurs. Provide an example.
Answer: Objectification occurs when we attribute sacred qualities to mundane items. This
occurs through the process of contamination. Students may provide a mix of examples. For
instance, Archie Bunker's chair from the television show All in the Family is a sacred item.
Diff: 3
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-7
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

76) Describe the difference between an enacted norm and a crescive norm. Indicate forms that
the crescive norm may take.
Answer: An enacted norm is explicitly decided on, such as the rule that a green traffic light
means "go" and a red one means "stop." The rules are not subtle; they are specific.
A crescive norm is embedded in a culture and is discovered only through interaction with other
members of that culture. These norms can be subtle. Crescive norms include the following:
a. A custom is a norm that controls basic behaviors, such as the division of labor in a household
or the practice of particular ceremonies.
b. A more is a custom with a strong moral overtone. A more often involves a taboo or forbidden
behavior, such as incest or cannibalism. Violation of a more often meets with strong sanctions
from other members of a society.
c. A convention is a norm regarding the conduct of everyday life. These rules deal with the
subtleties of consumer behavior, including the "correct" way to furnish one's house, wear one's
clothes, host a dinner party, and so on.
Diff: 3
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-2
AACSB: Application of knowledge

77) Explain the idea of an antifestival and describe an example of an antifestival.


Answer: An antifestival is an event that distorts the symbols associated with other holidays. For
example, Mardi Gras is a three-day festival held just before Lent. Lent is a religious and pious
time, a period of self-sacrifice and meditation leading up to Easter. During Mardi Gras, people
adorn themselves in clothing that they would not normally wear and engage in behavior that they
normally would avoid.
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-6
AACSB: Application of knowledge

21
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
78) Define rites of passage and indicate the various stages of role transition that can occur. Give
at least two examples of rites of passage.
Answer: Rites of passage are special times in an individual's life marked by a change in social
status. Both primitive and modern societies set aside times when such changes occur. Some of
these changes may occur as a natural part of life cycles (e.g., puberty or death), while others are
more individual in nature (e.g., a birthday or graduation).
Rites of passage consist of three phases or stages of role transition:
Separation stage, which occurs when the individual is detached from his or her original group
or status, e.g., the college freshman leaves home.
Liminality stage, in which the person is literally in between statuses, e.g., the new arrival on
campus tries to figure out what is happening during orientation week.
Aggregation stage, which takes place when the person reenters society after the rite of
passage is complete, e.g., the student returns home for winter vacation as a college "veteran."
Examples of rites of passage include: a divorce, getting a raise, a birthday, a marriage, a military
recruit going to boot camp, an internship completed and a medical practice begun, a novitiate
becoming a nun, retirement from a job, and so on. The final rite of passage is death.
Diff: 3
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-6
AACSB: Application of knowledge

79) Compare and contrast sacred and profane consumption.


Answer: Sacred consumption involves objects and events that are "set apart" from normal
activities and are treated with some degree of respect or awe. They may or may not be associated
with religion, but most religious items and events tend to be regarded as sacred. On the other
hand, profane consumption involves consumer objects and events that are ordinary and
everyday; they do not share the "specialness" of sacred ones. (Profane does not mean vulgar or
obscene in this context.)
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-7
AACSB: Application of knowledge

22
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
80) Identify what the term cooptation means. Give an illustration of the concept and demonstrate
how it applies to the movement of meaning as shown in the text.
Answer: Cooptation occurs when cultural products undergo a transformation. Original meanings
are transformed by outsiders.
According to the text, instruments of movement (such as advertising and fashion systems)
connect to cultural values and symbols; these cultural values and symbols change consumer
goods over time. As the consumer performs consumer rituals, individual consumers are affected.
As an example of the change, the text explains how the influence of hip-hop has gone beyond its
urban, African-American roots to the American mainstream.
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-3
AACSB: Application of knowledge

81) Explain the three distinct stages of gift-giving rituals.


Answer: The three stages include gestation, presentation, and reformulation. Gestation is the
preparation stage in which the giver procures an item. The presentation stage is the process of the
actual exchange. Reformulation refers to the shift in the bond between giver and receiver due to
the experience.
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-6
AACSB: Application of knowledge

82) How can a myth be true and false at the same time?
Answer: A myth is a story containing symbolic elements that represent the shared emotions and
ideals of a culture. A myth is true in that the story contains some metaphysical, cosmological,
sociological, or psychological aspect that expresses a truth to a particular culture. However, the
actual occurrences in the story do not have to be historically, or even logically, true.
Diff: 3
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Critical Thinking
Objective: 3-5
AACSB: Reflective thinking

23
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
83) Some people have been offended when marketers refer to an event such as the Super Bowl as
a sacred event. They believe that business people are being disrespectful. Explain how the
concept of sacred in consumer behavior is both the same and different from the concept of sacred
in a traditional religious context.
Answer: In marketing, an event, place, or person becomes sacred because it is "set apart" from
normal activities and begins to be treated with some degree of respect or awe. There are
numerous reasons why this may happen, religion being only one of many. There is nothing in the
definition that refers to specific or historical religious events, places, or persons.
The term as utilized, however, does have similarities with religious feelings. A "sacred" object in
religion is treated as very special. It is handled with care and given special packaging
considerations. This is also true of sacred objects in marketing. Religious people would be
offended if a sacred object was treated casually, or if someone made light of it. The same is
generally true with a sacred object in marketing. The manner in which society reacts to Elvis
Presley or to Princess Diana is quite similar to how a saint would be treated by a religious
person.
The two concepts are different in that a sacred object need not have religious connections of any
kind. Even those who react to an event like the Super Bowl as a sacred occasion may be offended
if the suggestion is made that the event has religious overtones for the person.
Diff: 3
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Critical Thinking
Objective: 3-7
AACSB: Reflective thinking

84) Use cultural ideas about food and eating as examples to explain the differences between the
three types of crescive norms discussed in the book.
Answer: A crescive norm is one that is embedded so deeply inside a culture that it is discovered
through interaction with other members of that culture rather than through memory or study.
A custom is a crescive norm that controls basic behavior. For example, custom would dictate at
what times and how much people eat.
A more is a custom with a strong moral overtone. Mores would dictate what kind of food is
acceptable to eat. For example, dog meat is taboo in the United States, but not necessarily in
other countries.
A convention is a crescive norm that regulates how we conduct our everyday lives. Conventions
would dictate what utensils we use to eat a meal or what to wear at dinnertime.
Student answers will vary but may draw upon examples used in the text.
Diff: 3
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-2
AACSB: Reflective thinking

24
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
85) A female writer looks at a common myth of the Western culture and writes a novel applying
that myth to fictional modern characters. Using the concept of a culture production system
(CPS), explain how this writer will market her ideas to her readers.
Answer: The writer produces the novel. She is part of the creative subsystem. She takes her idea
from a myth or a story containing the symbolic elements that represent the shared emotions and
ideals she shares with her customers.
Her novel must be accepted for publication by a managerial subsystem, which makes her ideas
tangible in the form of a book, and then mass-produces and distributes her novel.
After her novel is published, it must be promoted. The promotion gives meaning to the story and
provides it with a set of attributes that are communicated to consumers. This is a communication
subsystem.
The novel may still remain unnoticed by the general public until the gatekeepers either allow it
through to the consumers or begin to promote the book. If the book is given notice by Oprah
Winfrey, media people give positive reviews, or if friends, spouses, and associates begin to talk
about the novel, then it is much more likely that the symbol pool used by the writer will be
communicated to the final consumer.
Culture modifies this entire procedure. The creation most likely came from the symbols of the
culture. What is accepted and promoted is driven by cultural values and images. Whether the
ideas are acceptable to gatekeepers is largely a matter of culture.
Diff: 3
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-3
AACSB: Reflective thinking

86) Use the example of a political campaign to discuss the relationship between various cultural
formulas and reality engineering.
Answer: The idea behind the cultural formula is that a culture will tell stories in which certain
roles and props are utilized in a consistent manner. Certain images and symbols are recycled by
being used repeatedly, or by being applied to new situations. Communication and meaning is
facilitated because everyone is on "the same page" and understands the meanings and context in
which the story unfolds.
Reality engineering occurs when marketers appropriate elements of popular culture and use them
as promotional vehicles.
During a political campaign, the candidate will try to tie him- or herself into as many positive
cultural formulas as possible. The candidate, for example, may take off his coat and roll up his
sleeves (symbolic of the working man) to demonstrate that the candidate is willing to work for
the common person. The flag will be shown as a backdrop. At the same time, the candidate will
attempt to manipulate the voters' concept of reality by tying himself or herself to positive cultural
images and symbols, while attempting to connect his or her opponent to negative images.
Student answers will vary, but should reflect an understanding of the two terms.
Diff: 3
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-4
AACSB: Reflective thinking

25
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
87) Choose a myth and explain the myth in terms of the four interrelated functions myths play in
a culture.
Answer: Answers will vary but each myth explained should include explanations with the four
functions: metaphysical, cosmological, sociological, and psychological.
Diff: 3
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-5
AACSB: Reflective thinking

26
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.