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BIOMETHANATION

BIOGAS PRODUCTION
& USES
[RURAL & INDUSTRIAL
WASTE WATER
TREATMENT DIGESTERS]
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Reference book:
Biogas Technology
By B T Nijaguna
Publisher: New Age
International
Contents:
Introduction Materials for Biomethanation and
Products of Methanation
Kinetics and Physico -Chemical Factors Affecting
Biogasification
Bio-reactors
Design, Selection, Construction and operation of
Biogas Plants
Purification, Scrubbing, Compression and Storage of
Biogas
Utilisation Systems of Biogas
Ethanol. 2
Biogas Basics
What is biogas?
Biogas originates from bacteria by
bio-degradation of organic material
under anaerobic (without oxygen)
conditions.
The generation of biogas is an
important part of the biogeochemical
carbon cycle.
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Biogas Basics
Methanogens (methane producing
bacteria) are the last link in a chain of
micro-organisms that degrade organic
material and return the decomposition
products to the environment,
producing biogas.
Methane in atmosphere, from biogenic
sources: 90 %
Methane in atmosphere, from petro
sources: 10%
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Biogas and the Global Carbon Cycle
Through microbial activity, 590-
880 million tons of methane are
released into atmosphere
worldwide per annum.
In the northern hemisphere, the
present tropospheric methane
concentration amounts to about
1.65 ppm.

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Lab experiment to show biogas
evolution

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WHY RURAL BIOGAS PLANTS?

ENERGY RECOVERY:
FOR COOKING, LIGHTING, PUMPING,
OR POWER- - WITH BURNER, MANTLE
LAMP, ENGINE-PUMP AND GENERATOR
HYGIENIC DISPOSAL OF ANIMAL
WASTE AS MANURE
SUBSTITUTES FOR FUELWOOD &
KEROSENE

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Rural Applications of biogas
plant

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Compositon of Biogas

Composition: 60 to 70 per cent


Methane, 30 to 40 per cent Carbon
Dioxide, traces of Hydrogen
Sulfide, Ammonia and Water Vapor

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Properties of Biogas
It is about 20% lighter than air
(density is about 1.2 gm/liter).
Ignition temperature is between 650
and 750 C.
Calorific value is 18.7 to 26 MJ/ m3
(500 to 700 Btu/ ft3.)
Calorific value without CO2: is
between 33.5 to35.3 MJ/ m3
Explosion limit: 5 to 14 % in air.
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Biogas Purification
Removal of CO2: Scrubbing with
limewater or ethanol amine solution.
Removal of H2S: Adsorption on a bed
of iron sponge and wood shavings.
Pressure & Temperature needed to
liquefy: Biogas needs 500 psi, at
minus 83 C & LPG Needs 160 psi,
at ambient temperature.

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Properties of Biogas continued

Air to Methane ratio for


complete combustion is 10 to 1
by volume.
One cubic meter of biogas is
equivalent to 1.613 liter
kerosene or 2.309 kg of LPG or
0.213 kw electricity.
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Substrate and Material
Balance of Biogas Production

Homogenous and liquid substrates


can be considered for simple biogas
plants.
The maximum of gas-production
from a given amount of raw material
depends on the type of substrate.

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FEED FOR BIOGAS : WET
BIODEGRADABLE WASTE
DOMESTIC ANIMAL WASTES:
Excreta of cow, pig, chicken etc

MANURE, SLUDGE: Canteen and


food processing waste, sewage

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE: After


separation of non-degradable
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WET BIODEGRADABLE WASTES:

WASTE STARCH & SUGAR


SOLUTIONS:
Fruit processing, brewery, press_mud-
from sugar factory etc

OTHER HIGH B O D EFFLUENTS:


Leather industry waste.
Pulp factory waste liquor
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WET FERMENTATION:

FEED SUBSTRATE TOTAL SOLID


CONCENTRATION, ( TSC) = 8 TO 9
% FOR COW DUNG,
RATIO OF DUNG TO WATER = 1:1
BIOGAS PRODUCED IS: IN SUMMER
AT 47 C, 0.06 M3 / KG DUNG ADDED/ DAY
IN WINTER AT 8 C, 0.03 M3 / KG DUNG
ADDED /DAY

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DRY FERMENTATION OR
SOLID STATE FERMENTATION :

FEED SUBSTRATE TOTAL SOLID


CONCENTRATION, ( TSC) OF 20
TO 30 %, A MIX OF COW DUNG
AND A WIDE VARIETY OF AGRO-
RESIDUES.

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DRY FERMENTATION OR SOLID
STATE FERMENTATION :

FOR CATTLE DUNG AND MANY


AGRO-RESIDUES AT INITIAL
CONCENTRATIONS OF Total Solid
Content BETWEEN 16 TO 25 %
BIOGAS PRODUCTION HAS BEEN
DEMONSTRATED SATISFACTORILY
IN SMALL BATCH TYPE AND PLUG
FLOW TYPE DIGESTERS.

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Biology of Methanogenesis
This knowledge is necessary for
planning, building and operating
biogas plants.
Microbial Decomposition Occurs in
Three Stages:
1. Hydrolysis of Biopolymers like
carbohydrates and proteins To
Monomers

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Microbial Decomposition.

2. Convert sugars, amino acids, fatty

acids to H2, CO2, NH3, Acetic, Propionic


And Butyric Acids

3. Convert [H2, CO2, Acetic Acid] To


CH4 And Co2 Mixture

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Biochemistry of Anaerobic
Digestion
Methanogenic bacteria take up
acetic acid, methanol,H2, CO2 to
produce methane
O2,nitrites,nitrates etc. inhibit activity
Acid formation and bicarbonate
formation by two set of bacteria is
balanced, the pH and
biomethanation are stabilized.

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Operating parameters affecting gas
production:
Temperature: Optimum =35 C
pH range: 6.8 to 7.8
Favorable C/N ratio is 30:1
Proportion of solids to water: 10 % for
optimum operation
Retention time: ratio of [volume of slurry
in digester] to [volume fed into/
removed from it per day]=30 days for
Temp. of 25-35 C
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KINETICS OF DIGESTION
Refer: [1] Chen and Hashimoto,
Biotechnology Bio-engineering
Symposium 8, (1978) p 269-282
and
[2] Biotechnology Bioengineering
(1982) 24: 9-23

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KINETICS OF DIGESTION continued

For a given loading rate, [So/HRT], daily


volume of methane per volume of
digester depends on biodegradability of
influent(Bo) and kinetic parameters k &
m

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KINETICS OF DIGESTION continued

Volumetric methane rate in cubic meter gas


per cubic meter of digester volume/day
V = (Bo So / HRT)[1- K / (HRT*m-1+K)]
Bo = Ultimate methane yield in cubic meters
methane/kg VS (Varies from 0.2 to 0.5)
So = Influent volatile solids concentration in
kg VS/m3

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KINETICS OF DIGESTION, CONTINUED

(Loading rate range = 0.7 to 25 kg


VS/m3 d)
HRT = Hydraulic retention time in days
K = Dimensionless kinetic parameter,
for cattle dung, K= 0.8+ 0.0016e0.06
So
m = Maximum specific growth rate
of the microorganism in day-1

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RURAL BIOGAS PLANTS
MODELS
SUBSIDIZED
BY
Min.New. & Ren.Energy.Sources

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TYPES OF RURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

FIXED DOME: JANATHA,DINABANDHU,


UTKAL/KONARK

FLOATING DRUM: K.V.I.C

COMBINED FEATURES: PRAGATI

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FIXED DOME: JANATHA
DIGESTER WELL BELOW GROUND LEVEL
FIXED DOME GAS HOLDER BUILT WITH
BRICK & CEMENT
BIOGAS FORMED RISES PUSHES SLURRY
DOWN
DISPLACED SLURRY LEVEL PROVIDES
PRESSURE-UPTO THE POINT OF ITS
DISCHARGE/ USE

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K.V.I.C floating drum
plant

ON ONE SIDE INLET FOR SLURRY


OTHER SIDE OUTLET FOR SPENT SLURRY
GAS COLLECTS IN INVERTED DRUM GAS
HOLDER OVER SLURRY
GAS HOLDER MOVES UP & DOWN
DEPENDING ON ACCUMULATION OF GAS
/DISCHARGE OF GAS, GUIDED BY CENTRAL
GUIDE PIPE
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K.V.I.C floating drum
plant continued

K V I C Mumbai
MEDIUM FAMILY SIZE BIOGAS PLANT
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HAVING GAS DELIVERY OF 3 M /DAY
REQUIRES 12 HEAD OF CATTLE AND
CAN SERVE A FAMILY OF 12 PERSONS

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Floating drum (rural)

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K.V.I.C floating drum plant

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Dinabandhu model

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Dinabandhu model

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Pragati rural biogas plant

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Pragati rural biogas
plant

COMBINES FEATURES OF KVIC &


DEENABANDU,DEVELOPED IN
MAHARASHSTRA
LOWER PART: SEMI-SPHERICAL IN SHAPE
WITH A CONICAL BOTTOM
UPPER PART: FLOATING GAS HOLDER
POPULARIZED IN MAHARASHTRA,
UNDARP, PUNE
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UTKAL /
KONARK DIGESTER

SPHERICAL IN SHAPE WITH GAS STORAGE


CAPACITY OF 50%
CONSTRUCTION COST IS REDUCED AS IT
MINIMIZES SURFACE AREA
BRICK MASONRY OR FERROCEMENT
TECHNOLOGY
A PERFORATED BAFFLE WALL AT THE INLET
PREVENTS SHORT CIRCUITING PATH OF
SLURRY (OPTIONAL)
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UTKAL / KONARK DIGESTER

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FERROCEMENT, FRP DIGESTER:

CAST SECTIONS, MADE FROM A


REINFORCED (MORTAR+WIRE MESH)-
COATED WITH WATER PROOFING TAR
S E R I, ROORKEE
FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC MADE BY
CONTACT MOULDING PROCESS

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FLEXIBLE PORTABLE NEOPRENE RUBBER
MODEL

FOR HILLY AREAS, MINIMIZES TRANSPORT


COST OF MATERIALS
BALLOON TYPE, INSTALLED ABOVE GL,
MADE OF NEOPRENE RUBBER

FOR FLOOD PRONE AREAS, UNDERGROUND


MODELS NOT SUITABLE
SWASTHIK COMPANY OF PUNE DESIGN

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HIGH RATE BIOGAS PLANTS

TYPES, OPERATION, LIMITATIONS


AND APPLICATIONS

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USE OF HIGH RATE BIOGAS
PLANTS FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTE
WATER TREATMENT
Brings down high BOD content to make
it suitable for aerobic biological
treatment
Faster disposal of waste water with
partial recovery of energy as fuel
[biogas]
Suitable for food processing waste
water of high BOD content
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TYPES OF HIGH RATE BIOGAS PLANTS

ANAEROBIC CONTACT
ANAEROBIC FILTER:UPFLOW,
DOWNFLOW
UPFLOW ANAEROBIC SLUDGE BLANKET
ANAEROBIC FLUIDISED/ EXPANDED BED
ANAEROBIC ROTATING CONTACTOR

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Anaerobic contact digester
Includes a settling
tank that allows
bacteria rich sludge
recycle to the stirred
tank digester while
allowing supernatant
clear water as
effluent

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Anaerobic filter, Upflow reactor

Bacteria also exist in


suspended form
Waste water passed
through a packed
bed of inert medium
on which attached
microbial film
develops.
Can give clogging
problem
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Anaerobic filter, Downflow reactor

Waste water passed


through a packed
bed of inert medium
on which attached
microbial film
develops.
Under downflow,
film attachment
alone is retention
mechanism.

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Upflow Anaerobic
Sludge Blanket
Digester

Without use of packed bed, granulated


sludge containing bacteria that is
formed due to settling of suspended
solids attains good solids retention.
Upflow velocity is controlled in UASB
reactor.
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Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket
Digestor

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Fluidized/
expanded bed reactor

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Potential Applications of Biogas and
Appliances needed:

1. Cooking fuel Stove / Burner.

2. Lighting Fuel Mantle lamp.

3. To run a pump for Dual fuel stationary


drawing water I. C. Engine + PUMP
4. To run a generator Dual fuel stationary
for electricity. I. C. Engine

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Biogas burner & lamp
Both biogas burner and mantle lamp
have some structural similarity: each
have
inlet gas nozzle,
air inlet, &
a mixing chamber.
Burner has fire - stove plate
Lamp has mantle that glows to emit
light
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Features of Biogas Stove
Operate at pressure:75-90 mm [3-3.5 inch]
water column; Air/Gas ratio is 10:1; Nozzle
adjustment necessary.
Temperature: About 800 C
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For cooking, 0.28 to 0.42 m of biogas
per person per day is consumed.
Design different from those of LPG/Natural
Gas stoves.

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Features of biogas lamp:
Brightness depends on gas pressure, air to
gas ratio, extent of mixing etc. Proper
nozzle adjustment is necessary to achieve
required light intensity.

Lamps designed for 100 candle-power,


3
consume 0.11 to 0.15 m biogas per
hour.

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Biogas for electricity Generation
One kwh can be generated from
0.7m3 of biogas to light 15
bulbs[60watts] for one hour.
For lighting, power route is better
than direct burning
Economical for large sized plants,
requires high initial capital
investment.

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Biogas as I.C. engine Fuel

Traces of H2S, NH3, water vapor to be


removed by absorption/adsorption.
With modified fuel injection system, in
stationary diesel or petrol engine biogas
can be used.
In Diesel engine, dual fuel mode is
needed.
After initial start up with petrol, engine can
run on biogas

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Anaerobic digestion process
contributes to:

Energy generation and reduction of


greenhouse gas emissions.
Replaces the use of fossil fuels, utilizes
methane generated from the waste.
Because of the potential of energy generation
from industrial wastewater, in India, this
technology is now [2008] fully established and
exploited.
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Anaerobic digestion results in both energy generation and
reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. It would not only
replace the use of fossil fuels in various applications but
would also utilize methane generated from the waste. In
spite of the fact that there is significant potential of energy
generation from industrial wastewater in India, the
technology is yet to be fully established. Various reactor
types are suitable for treatment of wastewater; they deal
with the problems associated with the implementation of
anaerobic digestion in selected industrial sectors.

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State-of-the-art of anaerobic digestion
technology for industrial wastewater
treatment
K. V. Rajeshwari , , M. Balakrishnan,
A. Kansal, Kusum Lata and V. V. N.
Kishore
Tata Energy Research Institute, Darbari
Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodi Road,
New Delhi 110 003, India
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Bioresource Technology
Volume 87, Issue 2, April 2003, Pages 147-153
Review paper: Biomethanation under
psychrophilic conditions: a review
D. R. Kashyapa, K. S. Dadhichb and S. K.
Sharma , a
a Energy Research Centre, Panjab University,

Chandigarh 160014, India


b Department of Microbiology, Panjab

University, Chandigarh 160014, India

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