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# 1 Introduction to Electromagnetics

## Electromagnetic fields are caused by electric charges at rest and in motion.

Positive and negative electric charges are sources of the electric fields and
moving electric charges yielding a current is the source of magnetic fields.
Time-varying electric and magnetic fields are coupled in an electromagnetic

Figure 1 Positive and negative electric charges are sources of an electric field

## Electromagnetic fields are divided into four different quantities:

the magnetic flux density B with the unit T (Tesla or volt-second per
square meter)

the magnetic field intensity H with the unit A/m (Ampere per meter)

the electric field intensity E with the unit V/m (Volt per meter)

the electric flux density D with the unit C/m2 (Coulomb per square
meter)

A time-varying E and D will give rise to B and H, and vice versa where the
relation depends on the properties of the medium. Far enough from the
source the magnetic field, H, will be perpendicular to the electric field, E, and
both are normal to the direction of propagation, as shown in the following
figure:
Figure 2 A time-varying electric field, E, will give rise to a perpendicular magnetic field, H, and vice versa.
Far enough from the source it will become a uniform plane wave and the ratio between E and H will be the
intrinsic impedance of the medium.

Far enough from the source, the wave-front, which will become almost
spherical, can be seen as an almost plane front if the sphere is large enough.
Then we have a uniform plane wave where the ratio between the electric
field and the magnetic field, called the wave impedance:

Equation 1

## is a constant named the intrinsic impedance of the medium, . The

electromagnetic theory is also based on three universal constants:

light 3.108 m/s)

## These constants are related by [8]:

Equation 2
The permittivity is a proportionality constant between the electric flux
density D and the electric field intensity E, in free space as:

Equation 3

## and the permeability is the proportionality constant between the magnetic

flux density B and the magnetic field intensity H, in free space as:

Equation 4

## From these constants, the intrinsic impedance of free space can be

calculated as [8]:

[ ]

1 Introduction to Electromagnetics

## Electromagnetic fields are caused by electric charges at rest and in motion.

Positive and negative electric charges are sources of the electric fields and
moving electric charges yielding a current is the source of magnetic fields.
Time-varying electric and magnetic fields are coupled in an electromagnetic
Figure 1 Positive and negative electric charges are sources of an electric field

## Electromagnetic fields are divided into four different quantities:

the magnetic flux density B with the unit T (Tesla or volt-second per
square meter)

the magnetic field intensity H with the unit A/m (Ampere per meter)

the electric field intensity E with the unit V/m (Volt per meter)

the electric flux density D with the unit C/m2 (Coulomb per square
meter)

A time-varying E and D will give rise to B and H, and vice versa where the
relation depends on the properties of the medium. Far enough from the
source the magnetic field, H, will be perpendicular to the electric field, E, and
both are normal to the direction of propagation, as shown in the following
figure:
Figure 2 A time-varying electric field, E, will give rise to a perpendicular magnetic field, H, and vice versa.
Far enough from the source it will become a uniform plane wave and the ratio between E and H will be the
intrinsic impedance of the medium.

Far enough from the source, the wave-front, which will become almost
spherical, can be seen as an almost plane front if the sphere is large enough.
Then we have a uniform plane wave where the ratio between the electric
field and the magnetic field, called the wave impedance:

Equation 1

## is a constant named the intrinsic impedance of the medium, . The

electromagnetic theory is also based on three universal constants:

light 3.108 m/s)

## These constants are related by [8]:

Equation 2
The permittivity is a proportionality constant between the electric flux
density D and the electric field intensity E, in free space as:

Equation 3

## and the permeability is the proportionality constant between the magnetic

flux density B and the magnetic field intensity H, in free space as:

Equation 4

## From these constants, the intrinsic impedance of free space can be

calculated as [8]:

[ ]