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Feature Article

Journey to Assessment Excellence:

Using the Assessors Maturity Curve Model as a Guide

David Cornell, CAE

The statements made or opinions expressed by authors in Fair & Equitable do not necessarily represent a policy position of the International Association of Assessing Officers.

he assessment profession is rapidly experiencing Compare this soccer team to an assessment office. Does the
monumental challenges:changing technology, more office have a cohesive mission, vision, plan, and culture? Is
work with fewer staff, a continuous need to find there a strategic plan for accomplishing the goals of the of-
greater efficiencies, increased expectations from all stake- fices mission and vision? Has the plan been effectively com-
holders, and the risk of losing institutional knowledge due to municated and do employees believe in the plan? This article
retirement. In working with assessors at all levels (town, city, describes a path to guide assessment offices and individual
county, and state), I appreciate how daunting these challenges assessors on their journey to greater excellence using the
are. However, I propose a roadmap for assessment offices and Assessors Maturity Curve Model (AMCM).
the profession to assist in navigating this challenging Journey The AMCM concept has been widely applied to numerous
to assessment excellence. industries as a model for improving everything from infor-
mation technology (IT) development, to product delivery,
Does the office have a cohesive mission, vision, plan, and to organizational leadership, but until now it has not been
developed for assessment offices. I have had the privilege
culture? Is there a strategic plan for accomplishing the of working in city assessment offices, in a county assess-
goals of the offices mission and vision? ment office, in a state assessment oversight agency, and as
an assessment consultant. I have worked with more than
100 assessment offices in some capacity. My experiences in
Imagine you are a soccer coach leading your team into the working with a wide range of offices were instrumental in
World Cup. Its the biggest game of your life. Youve prepared developing the AMCM.
for this mission for years; it has been a difficult journey re-
quiring blood, sweat, and tears, but you and your team are Foundational Concepts
ready for this moment. Through training, every players The foundation of the AMCM is creating a culture of trust.
strengths have been maximized and their weaknesses min- Without a culture of trust, an assessment office can never
imized. A deep trust between players and coaches is readily be truly successful. Trust is paramount in any organization
visible. Every player understands his role. You have a vision (Lencioni 2012) but exceedingly essential in an assessment
of how the game will play out. The game plan is finely tuned; office. Members of a World Cup winning soccer team would
everyone on the team knows the plan and understands how almost certainly attest that genuine trust is an indispensable
their contribution fits into the plan; and everyone believes ingredient to success.
in and is committed to executing the plan.

Fair & Equitable January 20173

Feature Article

An office lacking trust is at a great People Training and Professional

disadvantage and will never reach its Great assessment offices realize the Development
maximum potential. This is why many importance of attracting and retaining Does the office have the knowledge
strategic plans, even those that are great people. Attracting great people and technical ability to meet todays
well designed, often fail. At the end of starts with the basics, such as market challenges? Great offices understand
the day, the best systems and planning rate compensation, safe and comfort- the need for continuous training and
cannot overcome an organization with able offices, and so on, but goes much professional development because
a significant trust deficit. After a culture deeper, such as tapping into peoples the world is changing so quickly. The
of trust has been established, there are inherent desire to make a positive dif- largest expense in assessment offices
four elements that are required for a ference. Attracting the right people and is employee compensation. In fact, it is
successful assessment office: leadership, ensuring they are in the best position not uncommon for personnel costs to
people, training and professional devel- to maximize their gifts and talents is exceed 90 percent of the total budget.
opment, and systems and processes. a fundamental building block on the High-performing offices understand
journey to excellence. their greatest assets are their people.
Leadership Through training and development,
Everything rises and falls on lead- the value of this asset (i.e., the people)
After a culture of trust has been
ership. grows and produces a tremendous re-
John Maxwell (2007) established, there are four elements turn on investment.
Leadership matters. Take a moment to Unfortunately, when budgets are tight,
think about a great leader and then con-
that are required for a successful
training and professional development
sider the qualities this leader possesses. assessment office: leadership, people, budgets are often the first to be reduced.
Undoubtedly, a few of the qualities that Great assessment offices understand
come to mind are the following: training and professional development, that cutting this line item is shortsight-
Strong character and honesty and systems and processes. ed and, over the long run, is extremely
costly due to inefficiencies, mistakes,
Integrity, which promotes a culture incorrect and/or inconsistent assessed
of trust This concept is highlighted in Collins values, abatements and appeals, and the
Courage to do the right thing when book, Good to Great, in which he stress- publics lack of confidence in the office.
politically unpopular es the need for organizations to get the The true worth of an assessment office
Ability to motivate employees to right people on the bus (attracting the is the intangible value of the offices
buy into the mission right people), to ensure that everyone employees (see sidebar on Knowledge
is in the correct seat (assigned work is Transfer on page 9). Invest, cultivate,
Ability to motivate decision makers aligned with assessors gifts and talents), protect, and grow this asset.
to fund the mission and to get the wrong people off the bus
Empathic listening, which builds (e.g., a corrupt individual has no place Systems and Processes
trust and encourages cooperation in an assessment office) (Collins 2001). Assessment offices collect, analyze, and
Selflessness, which builds a cohe- Who are the right people? distribute huge amounts of data. As-
sive team Assessment officials from across the sessment is a data-driven analytical pro-
High emotional intelligence, which country indicate their most successful cess but also includes customer service
fosters leadership success (Gole- people for all positions possess the char- and public relations demands. Com-
man, Boyatzis, and McKee 2002). acteristics of integrity, team orientation, puter-assisted mass appraisal (CAMA)
passion, teachability, dependability, systems serve as the primary workhorse
These leadership qualities are universal
empathy, and high social intelligence. for storing, analyzing, and valuing prop-
and essential to an effective assessor.
Other characteristics are more job spe- erties. These systems should be up-to-
Unlike IQ, which is relatively fixed,
cific; for example, successful customer date, and all staff should be trained in
emotional intelligence can be increased.
service agents should naturally enjoy how to use the software.
Self-awareness and empathy are im-
portant components in promoting a speaking with customers, while data Occasionally, a revaluation blows up.
culture of trust. Everyone can increase analysts should intrinsically enjoy ex- In the vast majority of these cases, the
these qualities in their own lives and amining data. blowup was due to a lack of under-
become better leaders (Dweck 2006). standing of the operation of the CAMA

4Fair & Equitable January 2017

system. Processes are the steps an office The four stages of the AMCM, as shown Assessed values are set but lack consis-
repeatedly takes to accomplish a task. in figure 1, are tency; bills are sent in accordance with
For example, property data are collect- 1. Lack of purpose state laws, but appeals and mistakes are
ed through property inspections. The pervasive; and exemptions and credits
details on what data to collect and how 2 Potential for excellence are processed but often lack proper
to collect the data should be described 3. Habits of excellence documentation. There are often glaring
in an up-to-date comprehensive data 4. Innovative anticipation. trust and leadership deficits present in
collection manual. A good CAMA sys- these offices. In addition, the mission,
These four stages and what they look
tem and processes set the foundation vision, and expected culture of the office
like in an assessment office and in the
for the operational excellence discussed are typically unclear. Large structural
individuals in that office are described
later in this article. issues remain unaddressed for years.
in the following paragraphs.
As a result, assessment offices in stage
The AMCM Journey Stage 1. Lack of Purpose 1 encounter a host of assessment-based
Like any good journey, the first step is The first rule of holes: When youre execution issues. A clear path marking
knowing the location. The AMCM, like in one, stop digging. the journey to excellence is nonexistent.
a good global positioning system (GPS), Molly Ivins, columnist The following are the organizational
identifies the stage that best matches traits of assessment offices in stage 1:
the offices current level of performance. The Assessment Office
The office lacks a true sense of
Then the AMCM guides the office to Dysfunctional working groups, ineffi- purpose.
an understanding of what is necessary ciencies, ever-changing working priori-
to move beyond the current location ties, and ad hoc working procedures are Communication is poor, with the
toward the desired destination. readily present in assessment offices in grapevine serving as the primary
stage 1. Minimal services are delivered. source of office communication.

Figure 1. The Assessors Maturity Curve Model

Fair & Equitable January 20175

Feature Article

There are inconsistencies among as if everyone in the assessment office Nevertheless, employees performing at
appraisers in what data are collect- is on a journeybut an uncomfortable stage 1 working in a stage 1 assessment
ed and analyzed, and how proper- journey to nowhere. Offices seeking to office must proactively rechart their
ties are assessed. leave stage 1 should immediately begin journey. As stage 1 employees begin
The activities that are performed to implement the characteristics of the to move along the maturity curve, they
are only those legally mandated. higher stages. This journey will not create the possibility of their colleagues
occur overnight, but it is important to choosing the same path. Also, manag-
Guidelines, manuals, and proce- move in the right direction. ers of assessment offices need to ask
dures are usually outdated and themselves whether they are cultivat-
primarily focused on staying out The Individual ing the conditions (e.g., trust and clear
of legal trouble. If youre not sure where you are definitions of expectations, goals, and
Systems are minimal and/or out- going, youre liable to end up some- culture) that move employees along
dated. place else. the AMCM.
Robert F. Mager
Employees are given little, or no,
work-based goals and expectations. Each individual assessor (everyone Stage 2. Potential for Excellence
in an assessment office, not only the Leadership is lifting a persons vision
Employees are not well trained. leadership) is on a journey. This article to high sights, the raising of a persons
Work is performed because, We also describes a road map for those in- performance to a higher standard
have always done it this way, with dividuals who want to join the journey Peter F.Drucker (2012)
little, or no, aspirations on how to toward assessment excellence.
improve processes or to even un- The Assessment Office
Much like assessment offices in stage1,
derstand why they are performed. The beginning process for assessment
individuals in stage 1 lack true direction
The outcomes of these deficits typically offices looking to move from stage 1
and purpose. The following are the
include the following: to stage 2 is a recognition and desire
common characteristics exhibited by
to change direction. The intended new
Low trust and low morale stage 1 employees:
destination is labeled the future state.
Difficulty retaining talent, especial- Lack of professional initiative Stage 2 begins with building a foun-
ly highly motivated, goal-seeking A professional development focus dation of genuine trust. Writes Covey
employee only on what is necessary to main- (1989), Trust is the highest form of
Inconsistent assessed values tain credentials human motivation. It brings out the very
some taxpayers are overpaying and best in people. Trust takes time, espe-
Stagnation in current role and no
others are underpaying cially if an office has been operating in a
motivation or clear plan for ad-
low-trust, stage 1 environment. Trust is
High number of appeals vancement
not often binary, meaning ether there is
Disengaged workforce Disinterest in professional collab- trust in someone or there is not. Rather,
oration trust is a continuum that is strengthened
High absenteeism
Problems viewed as someone elses by the truthful, honest, and respectful
Very unstable working conditions manner in which people are treated.
in which priorities often shift and Unfortunately, trust can be destroyed
crisis mode is the norm. Punching the clock without any
by one event. The culture of trust starts
Assessment offices in stage 1 tend to aspiration or positive sentiment.
at the top but quickly spreads through
have a stagnant work environment in Unsurprisingly, stage 1 assessment the organization. Managers seek to gain
which efficiency, as well as creative out- offices tend to be well-stocked with their employees trust, and then man-
put on the part of employees, is lacking. stage 1 employees. Although very few agers gain greater trust in their teams.
At best, minimal performance can be individuals are truly content residing in
stage 1, many have resigned themselves Once the paramount issue of trust has
expected, and at worst, stage 1 func-
to it because the organization has en- become a top priority and the building
tioning is characterized by sporadic,
trenched itself in stage 1. Organization- of trust has started, the assessment of-
dysfunctional, and haphazard processes
al research has shown that the norms fice can begin to envision a future state.
resulting in low morale, disproportion-
and culture of an organization have The future state should be a shared
ate assessed values, and ever-changing
a major impact on employee perfor- understanding that represents the col-
priorities. This can naturally lead to a
mance, initiative, and job satisfaction. lective aspirations of everyone in the
sense of employees feeling whipsawed,
assessment office, from top to bottom.

6Fair & Equitable January 2017

The vision of the offices future state is important characteristics include the not intentional decisions, they are hab-
established, and operational strategies following: its (Duhigg 2012). Stage 3 offices utilize
are developed. Seeking opportunities for profes- the power of habit by proactively instill-
The following are the characteristics of sional growth, such as taking IAAO ing habits of excellence and working to
an office in stage 2: courses, workshops, webinars undo unproductive or negative habits.

The office seeks to find its true Going beyond what is minimally In addition, these offices are typically
sense of purpose. required led by transformational leaders who
promote a culture in which self-interest
Communication, while not perfect, Creating personal career goals, is exchanged for the mission and vision
is open, honest, and transparent. such as an IAAO designation of the organization, which drives a for-
Organizational processes seek to Increasing engagement with their ward-looking mindset (Schermerhorn,
improve consistency and efficien- role and collaboration with col- Hunt, and Osburn 1998). The team is
cy. leagues promoted over individual players. Peter
Data collection and assessed valu- Increasing level of work output as F. Drucker, one of the worlds most nota-
ations are consistent. well as overall quality. ble experts on management, once said,

Measurement tests (coefficient of In most journeys, the first steps are of- The leaders who work most effective-
dispersion, price-related differen- ten the most difficult, but without them ly, it seems to me, never say I. And
tial, and overall ratios) of assessed the journey cannot begin. In stage 2, thats not because they have trained
valuations consistently outperform the assessment office begins to move themselves not to say I. They dont
the statutory minimum guidelines. beyond dysfunction, venturing toward think I. They think we; they think
a future state that can move the office team. (Drucker and Drucker 2004)
Manuals are up-to-date.
out of subpar or mediocre performance. As a result of this deeply engrained
Systems are updated but incom- The stage 2 assessment office has not trust, habits of excellence, and a sense
plete. yet arrived at its future state but is of purpose, the creative energies of em-
Employees are given work-based heading in the right direction. Systems, ployees are maximized to create inno-
goals and expectations. while not perfect, are functional, seeds vation and produce optimal efficiency.
of trust are growing, and those working
Adequate training is provided for The following are the characteristics of
in the assessment office have a clearer
employees a stage 3 assessment office:
picture of the purpose of their work and
Employees are beginning to ask how it serves the mission of the office. A culture of excellence exists in
the why questions (e.g., Why is this This creates momentum, which can which excellence habits are the
procedure necessary?). foster professional growth, and deep- norm.
The outcomes of stage 2 are as follows: er levels of change. Employees have There is a clear understanding of
Increased public trust due to more demonstrated buy-in, but leadership is the mission and vision.
accurate and consistent values critical in creating the kind of wholesale
A clear strategic plan has been
buy-in that is required in the transition
Improved employee morale developed.
to stage 3.
Improved operational and admin- Employees are trained through
istrative systems Stage 3. Habits of Excellence formal programs.
Increased employee understanding We are what we repeatedly do. Employees are encouraged to seek
of performance expectations Excellence, then, is not an act, but stretch goals, such as completing
a habit. an IAAO designation.
Increased teamwork across divi-
Aristotle Everyone understands how their
sions or work groups
The Assessment Office role fits in with the mission and
Increased focus on how each em-
Assessment offices in stage 3 are char- vision of the assessment office.
ployees work connects to a larger
purpose. acterized by a deep sense of respect, Management has clearly shared
trust, and shared sense of purpose, and expectations with employees, and
The Individual they demonstrate organizational habits employees have complete clarity
One key characteristic of individuals of excellence. Importantly, they under- on what those expectations entail.
in stage 2 is proactive initiative. Other stand that the majority of actions are

Fair & Equitable January 20177

Feature Article

Knowledge transfer is pursued pro- destination, on the most efficient route business models obsolete, sometimes
actively, thus reducing institutional possible, with employees intrinsically very rapidly (consider Ubers impact
risk when key employees exit the enjoying their journey. on taxi companies, or how Amazon is
organization. changing shopping). The assessment
The Individual industry is not immune to drastic
The transfer of culture, mission,
The reason most people never reach changes in technology. In assessment
and vision is supported by inten-
their goals is that they dont define offices in stage 4, these changes are not
tional mentorship of new employ-
them, or ever seriously consider perceived as a threat, but rather as an
ees guiding them on their individ-
them as believable or achievable. opportunitythey are the innovative
ual journey along the AMCM.
Winners can tell you where they are anticipators making the changes. While
The outcomes of stage 3 are as follows: going, what they plan to do along stage 4 assessment offices possess all the
High levels of trust exist. the way, and who will be sharing the executional excellence of stage 3 offices,
adventure with them. they devote time, energy, and resources
People are committed to change.
Denis Waitley focusing on new innovations. As Wayne
Communication is optimally effi-
The key characteristic of individuals Gretzky once said,
cient and systematic.
who have entered stage 3 is an all-out A good hockey player plays where
Work processes are optimized. pursuit of excellence. Other important the puck is. A great hockey player
High collaboration and coordina- characteristics include the following: plays where the puck is going to be.
tion exist among all divisions and Producing high volumes of work at The following are the characteristics of
other stakeholders (e.g., business a level of quality that is consistently stage 4 assessment offices:
groups, police, fire, and other mu- excellent.
nicipal agencies). All the characteristics of stage 3
Taking the lead in promoting a
Assessed values are accurate and collaborative environment within Continuous learning (attending
consistent. their department as well as across classes and conferences, reading,
departments. and following thought leaders)
Appeals are reduced, and litigation
is successful. Understanding and seeking to Development of a culture of truly
honor the high level of public trust innovative thinking
Greater consistency with property
data and analysis leads to greater afforded to those working within Continuous pursuit of improve-
valuation reliability. their assessment office. ment
Job satisfaction improves; turn- Demonstrating excellence by ob- Systems that ensure knowledge
over is lower, and absenteeism is taining rigorous designations, such transfer occurs seamlessly (see
reduced. as an IAAO designations. sidebar)
There is a greater level of respect Embracing and cultivating a high Continual updating of all key per-
with other stakeholders (e.g., level of trust among their col- formance indicators (often through
taxpayers, business groups, and leagues. real-time dashboards), immediate
municipalities). Being totally committed to the identification of deviations from
Assessment offices in stage 3 create attainment of their professional the well-defined plans, and an un-
a win-win culture in which the office goals. derstanding of the reasons for the
is more productive and employees shortfall.
are motivated, empowered, and solu- Stage 4. Innovative Anticipation The outcomes of stage 4 are as follows:
tion-centric and collectively work To raise new questions, new possibili- Employees are highly engaged in
toward a common purpose. Not only ties, to regard old problems from a new their work and find it personally
are stage 3 assessment offices more angle, requires creative imagination meaningful.
work-efficient, but also employees and marks real advance in science.
Revaluation and IT projects are on
experience the residual benefit of per- Albert Einstein
time and on budget.
sonally identifying with the work they
The Assessment Office Institutional risk is reduced because
perform. Essentially, the best way to
envision a stage 3 assessment office is The world is changing at an unbeliev- of the proactive knowledge transfer.
to picture a car heading to the correct able rate. Technology is making many Stage 4 assessment offices create a cul-

8Fair & Equitable January 2017

ture in which innovation is woven into rejected. Accordingly, assessment offices thinking outside the box is simply an ex-
the fabric of the office. They produce cre- seeking to create cultures in which true pectation. Great companies assign their
ative thinking because the offices culture innovation freely flows should praise em- best people to the biggest opportunities,
provides an environment in which new ployees for presenting new ideas, (even if not the biggest problems (Collins 2001).
ideas are expected and encouraged. Al- the ideas seem outlandish). This kind of In todays fast-changing world, stage 4
most all meaningful new ideas arise only creative freedom sends a strong message offices embrace this concept.
after many other seed ideas have been to everyone in the assessment office that

Knowledge Transfer
What would happen if the top five most valuable employees in the assessment office won the lottery and instant
retirement suddenly became very appealing? Is the knowledge they possess gone forever? How would this affect the
offices ability to successfully function and maintain continuity of operations?
A proactive system for knowledge transfer is critically important, especially in light of a workforce that is rapidly
approaching retirement age; some have referred to this as the impending silver tsunami. The current demographics
of the assessment field make this an even larger concern.
A hallmark of assessment offices in stages 3 and 4 of the Assessors Maturity Curve Model is the recognition that ro-
bust knowledge transfer processes must be ingrained into the fabric of the office. Such processes greatly mitigate the
institutional risk of losing this critical intangible asset. In addition, effective knowledge transfer significantly reduces
onboarding time, so that new employees are integrated seamlessly into their new roles and work responsibilities.
The must haves of knowledge transfer are as follows:
A systematic, proactive process of knowledge transfer (e.g., best practices, work procedures, and so on)
Knowledge transfer goals that are specific and measurable
Digitization of this knowledge base so it can be readily accessed
Ongoing cross-training
Flexible work arrangements to limit attrition among retirement-age employees (e.g., job-sharing, sabbaticals,
and the like).

Fair & Equitable January 20179

Feature Article

The Individual is a progression. Among the most im- Drucker, P., and P.F. Drucker. 2004.
The key characteristic of individuals portant resources are patience and com- Managing the Non-profit Organization:
who have transitioned into stage 4 is mitment. Perhaps the most essential Practices and Principles. Milton Park,
transformational leadership. These first step is to develop a culture of trust. Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis.
individuals realize that true leadership Strengthening relational capital through Duhigg, C. 2012. The Power of Habit:
is about influencing others toward ex- building genuine trust expedites the Why We Do What We Do in Life and
cellence and not about a title. Other journey toward excellence significant- Business. New York: Random House.
essential qualities of stage 4 include the ly. With these steps taken, the founda-
following: tion to increase leadership capacity, to Dweck, C. 2006. Mindset: The New
strengthen systems and processes for Psychology of Success. New York: Ran-
Embracing the concept of servant dom House.
greater efficiency, and to move toward
leadership (Greenleaf and Spears
innovation through training and per- Goleman, D., R. Boyatzis, and A. McK-
sonal development can take root. Like ee.2002. Primal Leadership: Unleash-
Having the ability and desire to the coach leading his team to the World ing the Power of Emotional Intelligence.
create other leaders of excellence Cup, the journey to excellence for an Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business
Actively serving as a mentor assessment office requires tremendous Press.
sacrifice, but the benefits far outweigh
Modeling habits of excellence for Greenleaf, R.K., and L.C. Spears.1998.
the sacrifice. Map the journey. Visualize
others to follow The Power of Servant-Leadership: Es-
it. Enjoy the journey to excellence.
Always focusing on the true es- says. Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler
sentials (mission, overarching Publishers.
purpose) Lencioni, P. 2012. The Advantage: Why
Brown, J. 2000. PS I Love You. New York:
Being in demand by colleagues, Organizational Health Trumps Every-
Harper Collins.
stakeholders, and professionals in thing Else in Business. Hoboken, NJ:
the industry. Collins, J.C.2001. Good to Great: Why John Wiley & Sons.
Some Companies Make the Leap...
Maxwell, J.C.2007. The 21 Irrefutable
Conclusion and Others Dont. New York: Random
Laws of Leadership: Follow Them and
Twenty years from now you will be House.
People Will Follow You. Nashville, TN:
more disappointed by the things you Covey, S.R. 1989. The 7 Habits of High- Thomas Nelson Inc.
didnt do than by the ones you did. ly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in
Schermerhorn, J.R., J.G. Hunt, and R.N.
So throw off the bowlines, sail away Personal Change. New York: Fireside.
Osborn.1998. Basic Organizational Be-
from the safe harbor, catch the trade Drucker, P. 2012. Leadership Is Not a havior. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Magnetic PersonalityThat Can Just
Discover. as Well Be a Glib Tongue. Journal of
H. Jackson Brown Property Management77 (5): 78.
(Note: often mistakenly
attributed to Mark Twain)
If the assessment office is operating David Cornell, CAE, MAI, currently serves as the Pres-
at stage 1, the journey to stage 4 may ident of Cornell Consultants. He previously served as the
seem somewhat daunting. But since we Assistant Director for the New Hampshire Department of
are all on a journey, it is imperative to Revenue Municipal and Property Division. From 2005 to
redirect it immediately in the direction 2010 he served as the Chairman of the Board of Assessors
of excellence. The goal for assessment for Manchester, New Hampshire. He received his Bachelor
offices in stages 13 is to progress to of Science degree in business administration from Liberty
the next stage. The journey along the University and Master of Business Administration degree from Plymouth State
AMCM for an assessment office will University. He is a Certified General Appraiser. In addition to being a Senior
likely not be accomplished quickly but National Instructor for IAAO, he is a Microsoft Certified Trainer and a Cer-
will resemble a journey with a number tified Excel Expert and has created several Excel classes. Mr. Cornell serves
of milestones that mark the path. on the Board of Directors for the New Hampshire-Vermont Chapter of the
Creating the change necessary to travel Appraisal Institute and currently serves as the chapter president.
through each stage of the maturity curve

10Fair & Equitable January 2017