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83 TH0105-7-PWR

.@IEEE Power Engineering Society



Los Angeles, California July 20, 1983
Inc., printed in the U'S'A' For copying' reprint or
copyright o lgg3 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 10017'
Table of Contents


rtEffect of prime-Mover Response and Governing characteristics on system Dynamic 2

performance", C. Concordia, F. P. de Mel1o, L. K. Kirchmayer, R' P' Schulz' Proceed-

ings of American Power Conference 1956, Vo1. 28t PP 1074-85'

rrMW Fossil Fueled Steam Unitsn, IEEE WG on Power Plant ResPonse to Load
Response of 15

Changes, IEEE Trans. PAS Vol; 92, No. 2, March,/ApriI 1973' pp' 455-453'

Maneuvering Capabilityr, D. G. Carrollr R. G. Serenka, H' R' ProPst, Proceedings


of American Power Conference, vol- 4L, L979t 9P. 73-78'

,,Response of pressurized water Reactors to Network Power Generation Demands", 30

N. p. MueIler, IEEE Trans. PAS Vo1. 101 No. 10, oct. 1982, Pp. 3943-3950'

',Survey of Cyclic Load Capabilities of Eossil-Steam Generating Units",

F. Eenton, IEEE 38

Trans. PAs vol. l0t No. 5, June 1982, pp. 1410-I418'

Plant Transient Performance Tests at the Holyrood Station in New Foundlandrr'

,,Polrer 48

T. R. Vatcher, E. v. Larsen, Proceedings of Amerj.can Power conference, vo1. 4L, L979t


,.Boiler Response to Partial Load Rejection Resulting from System Upsetsr" 52

o. w. Durrant, Trans. PAs VoI. 101 No. 8, Aug' L982, pp' 2630-2639'

,,Automatic Generation Control", J. It. Undrill and F. P. de Mello, extract from IEEE 63

tutorial Course 77 TUDo 010-9-PWR.

.,System Reguirementsfor Dynamic Performance and Response of Generating Unitsr" 74

R. D. Dunlop, D. N. Ewart, IEEE Trans. PAS VoI. 94 No.3, l4ay,/June 1975, pp 838-849'

irA survey Experience with Power Plant Response During Partial Load Rejec-
of utility 86

tion and system Disturbancs*1 p. Kundur, pAs vol. r00 No. 51 Hay 1981, E,P. 247L-2475'

"Power Response Requirements for Generating Unitrr' D' N' Ewart'

an Electric Utility 9l

M. H. Dawes, R. P. sChUlZ, A. S. Browerr Proceedi.ngs of American Power
vol. 40, 1978, pp. 1139-1150.

The IEEE group on Posrer Plant response

is concerned with fost6ri'ng the
on the response characteristics
development and dissemination of technical information
normal and emergencY conditions'
previously published technical material
discussion of various aspects of the subject.
has been collected and bound
is referenced in a bibliography and some of this material
for distribution.
system can vary widely depending
The importance of Plant resPonse t,o a particular
on the nature of the particular system, the composition of its generating sources'
grid to
load variability, capacity of tie lines and size of the overall synchronous
which it is interconnected. Past surveys for the USA
by the same !,orking grouP have
Nevertheless systems a!e
indicated no particular problems in meeting typical demands'
due to delays or can-
always in evolution and at times conditions change unexpectedry
in fuel economics, bot-
cellations in commissioning of new plants, drastic changes
tlenecks in transmission, etc'
types of.unj'ts requires knowl-
derstanding of the load change capabilities of various
answer the question of ade-
thermal stress effeets and aging of plant comPonents' To
duty imposed by contrn-
by the loads being served, their normal variability and the
This is not an easy question
cause for increased operating and/ot maintenance costs?
s iderat ion.

the particular response
characteristics related to matching generation and loads'
(fossil and nu-
characteristics of major types of prime mover/energy suPPry systems
in automatic genera-
clear thelmar, combustion turbines and hydro) typical practices
of response from
tion control. Of Particular interest $rilI be solicited discussions
generating Plants during emergencies'
from the floor'
An important objective of the symposium is to foster discussion
of the !'orking gEoup in
which should be a valuable input to guide future activities
the direction of Perceived industly needs'

c. coNcoRDlA nomena of Eansient stability in networks,

Conrulting Engineer justi$ing the assumption of constant prime-
mover mechanical power which is often
F. P. deMELLO made in the course of studying these phe-
Scnior Applicotion Engineer
nomena. However, as a next step in reli-
System Plonning ond Control
ability, it is becoming conrmon practice
L. K. KIRCHMAYER nowadays, with large interconnected sys-
Monoger, System Plonning ond Control 1sms, to study the behavior of intercon-
necting tielines on the assumption that a
generator has already become unstable and
R. P. SCHULZ has been lost. Such studie must extend over
Applicotion Engineer longer time periods and include the effects
Systcm Plonning ond Control
of prime-mover governor control.,
Electric Utility Engineering Operotion As a further step beyond these types of
Generol Electric Compony
disturbances, which involve only momen-
Schenectody, New York
tary sarcre unbalances bctween elcctrical
load and mechanical power anong one or
more sources, there are the admittedly
INTRODUCIION more rare and much more difficult to
Prime-mover Fesponse and governing analyze cascs of upscts which rcsult in large
characteristics are of fundamental i-pot- sustained unbalances bctween generation
iance to porver system load and frequency and load. In these cases the performance
oontrol. These rcsponse characteristics also of the power systetn, the changcs in load
play a major role during emcrgencies if flow distribution acros transmission ties,
ponions of powcr systeEs arc teft with and sometimes the ability of the power
Iarge unbalancts bctween generadon ard system to ride through thc upset, are largely
load. depcndent on the nespon3c and governing
The adequacy of geaeatfu.rn-.tramis- characteristics of various prime-mover sys-
sion system dcdgn traditionally has becn tems. Close examination of this problem is
tcsted by its ability to withstand the first indicatd, particularly in cases where prime-
few scconds of generator power angle oscil- morrer responses may be significantly dis-
lations following faulr or switching oper-
girnilar in different portions of intercon-
ations in the electrical network. For this nected systems.
typc of mornentary disturbance, barring Performance of the system is affected
the use of fast valve action for energy con- by the manner in which the spinning
trol,r the normal response of prime-mover neserve is allocated, and we see digital
aechanical powers has usually been too dispatching computeB as an important
slow to materially affect the critical phe- means of providing reserve surveillance and

Reprinted from Volume XXVlll. Proceedinos ol the
Americon Power Confeience, 1966-
Efat oJ Prime-Mour Response and Gouaning Charactcristics

l- -I
--*l sYsrEM

119 lDlSPArcH I
- MA.H I
MAclrt--'-_:-l f-- I I L_
ou-r:l wlrH i
lEcotloutc I r----l
|-__f --

Fig. l-schcmatic of powcr ayrtcu aad controls'

corrective strateBy for best overall dis- The resulting unbalance bctween prime-
tribution of reserve.s mover power and generator electrical power
It is the purPose of this paper to describe will cause accelerations or decelerations of
the pertineat phenomena and discuss the the various machine rotors which, with the
implications of prime-mover response in passing of time, develop into changes in
the light of normal and emergency load speeds and machine rotor angles.
change duty. Restoring forces, namely, changes in
machine electrical powers' dwelop in re-
BASIC CONCEPTS spons to angular changes between gen-
The mechanism of maintaining equilib- erator rotors, and oscillations in angle and
rium between prime-mover Powr anP electrical powers are set up zuch that the
electrical load demands can be described average electrical power oo each unit equals
briefly with reference to the schematic of its mechanical power less an anount Pro'
Fig. 1. portional to the unit's average acceleration.
Load changes originate in the network These oscillations have periods of from less
either due to normal switching or changing than a second to a few seconds, depending
of loads or, in the case of upsets, due to on the stiflness of electrical tie between
abrupt loss of major generation, trans- machines relative to the inertia of t}lese
mission equipment, or of major load-carry- machines. It is characteristic of machines
ing ties. These changes in electrical con- which are closely tied electrically to act like
nected load reflect themselves instantane- an equivalent large machine ; and the oscil-
ously as changes in electrical Power among lations of significance become those be-
dre various generating units, with an initial tween groups of machines or bctween major
distribution governed by the network load power systems across limited capacity ties,
florv laws applied to existing machine rotor with typical periods of up to ten seconds.
angles.o The final change in speed of all units
will be arrested when balance is again re- to control signals calling for changes in out-
stored between total mechanical power and put. These response characteristics are in-
electrical load demanded by the network. fluenced by the dynamics of turbines and
For the case of constant prime-mover associated energy sources, such as boilers,
(blocked governors), this balance is ob- hydraulic systems, as well as by associated
tained by virtue of the change in connected control devices, i.e., governors, boiler-tur-
load with frequency. Typically, this load bine controls, etc. A brief review of these
damping characteristic amounts to between characteristics for some common types of
7 and 2 percent change in connected load prime-mover systems follows:
for a 1 percent change in frequency. For
this limiting situation, where prime-mover Conventionol Steom Single Reheot qnd
power is assumed unchanging, the frequency Double Reheot
transient phenomena are described entirely Generation is changed on conventional
by the machine inert:as, system load damp- steam turbine units by moving the governor-
ing characteristics and electrical tie strengths controlled valves. In norrnal s,,stem oper-
betrveen machines, and the frequency de- ation tl-te motion of these valves is directed
viation will be established within ten seconds by:
or so, although oscillations between ma- 1. Flyball action or other speed-sensor
chines will persist for several additional action in response to changes in unit
seconds. and, therefore, system frequency.
For the more realistic . case of active 2. Changes in speed changer motor
governors, the frequency deviation produces position (governor synchronizing mo-
changes in prime-mover f,ower, and the tor).
final frequency change is primarily a func- Control valve position responds verv
tion of the equivalent governor regulation, fast (in less than a second) to flyball action
which is usually considerably more effective or to changes in speed changer motor
than the load characreristic in limiting the position. s

extent of the frequency dip. It should be Assuming constant boiler pressure. tur-
noted, however, that changes in prime- bine mechanical power, in turn, responds
mover power occur with varying delays, to valve position changes as follows: About
depending on the response characteristics 30 percent of the final change, which is due
of the prime-mover system. to the turbine upstream of the reheater,
Final control action on &e prime movers comes about within a fraction of a second,
is through the supplementary load fre- and the remaining 70 percent will follow
guency control action, which returns fre- with a time constant of about 5 to 8 seconds,
quency and tieline power interchange to due to the charging time of the reheater
schedule within a minute or more. This volume.6
control action is also aflected by the dy- Figure 2 shows a response of turbine
namic response characteristics of prime- mechanical power following a step change
mover systenrs, which will be reviewed in turbine valve for this ideal case of con-
briefly before leading on to a discussion on stant boiler pressure. Since the steam source
their eflect on system dynamic performance. is not infinite, boiler pressure does suffer
deviations which affect the response of
steam flow and mechanical power. Figure 2
OF PRIME MOVERS also shows a typical response trace for a
By prime-mover response, we mean the drum-type unit, including the effects of
time response of prime mover shaft power boiler pressure deviations and subsequent
Efcct o! Primc-Mooa Rcsponsc and Goocrning Clwactaistics



oj ro 20 30 40 50 234



Fig. 2-Stcp cbangc in rpeed changer porition.

pressure restoration by combustion con- Energy is transiendy drawn from or Put

trols. The fast pressure control performance into boiler storage, since the inputs to the
thown corresponds to about the best that boiler are relatively slow in relation to the
can be obtained in coal-fired units with no speed with which a turbine valve can move.
dead time in fuel systems. It is more repre-
sentative of oil-and gas-fired units, as many
Once-Through Units
coal-fired units have considerably slower The basic diflerence between the re-
pressure conlrds. The slow Pressure con- sponse of once-through units and that of
trol performancc is typical d certain coal- conventional drum-type units lies in the
fired units with significant lags in the fuel me&od of coordinating the control of the
system.T boiler-turbine unit, The somewhat lower
The effect of double reheat is to add a sto*d energy in the once-through boiler
second lag of from 5 to I seconds to the and requirement of closer coupling between
portion of mechanical power developed in firing rate and feedwater flow has led to
the turbine downstream of the second greater caution in control of these units,
reheater, with the evolution of varying degrees of
In most conventional steam units, coordination between the turbine load de-
changes in generation are initiated by mand and the inputs to the boiler.s'e
turbine control valves, and the boiler con- The evolution of more sophisticated
trols respond with necesary immediate boiler controls r,r'ilI probably permit ob-
control action upon sensing changes in taining response characteristics from once-
steam flow and deviations in pressure. through units comparable to, if not htter
F rl
h r.r
d5 rJ
E crz F

lr.l to O 91
, aL) ltt or
o Iur o Eo-< N EUJ
z (iBo zoI

\'.= 4;.', 26
ld --

\ =z
* 6d
lrj Z='o s'E
= E.e

.{) Elt
lrj J E
- 0a
lrJ !

EZJ aE o
z =oS
Fo2 Ea
o= H gJ E
z< 6zr
= I
EJ d
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at I(,
o !o
u- t
o r,
() I

r=; e,
rnLOt4 ITJ
ururl IO
tqto cro
o- o- Ho
Efcct oJ Prine-Mooer Rcspowc and Goacrning Charactcristics

than, those of conventional units' However, Hydroulic Turbine Units

to date, the coordination between turbine Hydraulic turbine power plants have an
and boiler has involved use of the turbine inherent characteristic (inertia of the water
valve in varying degrees as a boiler Pressure column) which causes them to have shaft
regulator. Turbine valve motion is in- power rtsPonses that are considerably slower
hibited in deference to boiler pressure than those in a steam turbine.
deviations, thereby affecting in varying Because a change in the position of the
degrees the response of turbine power'ro gate at the foot of the penstock produces
A common tYPe of coordinated once- an initial short-term turbine power change
through boiler-rurbine controls is shown which is opposite in sense to that sought,
functionally in Iig' 3A. To achieve the hydraulic turbine Sovernors are designed to
coordination between boiler variables and have relatively large transient droops, with
turbine demand, it is necessary to make the long resetting times, in order to obtain
speed changer motor respond to intelli- stable frequency regulation under isolated
gence other than, and in addition to, load operating conditions. Consequently, the
corruol signals. This is done by integrating response of a moderate head hydraulic
the load frequency control pulses to develop turbine plant to speed changes or to changes
a signal indicative of demand for Mw which in speed-changer setting is relatively slow'
.un b. altered by other inputs' This signal as shown in Fig. 4.
is modifred by a frequency deviation bias
matching the unit's governor droop char- Response Limitqtions
acteristic to develop the desired Mw' With- In large interconnected systems, the
out this bias the Mw feedback loop would normal instantaneous changes in connectcd
undo whatever motion of turbine valves load are a very small Percentage of the total
might have occurred from governor action' capacity; hence, frequency changes are
Comparison with the unit's acnral output small, and the flyball action (governor
devel,ops the Mw error, which is sent with action) is normally an imperceptible ripple.
the desired Mw signal to the boiler con- Generation is usually changed manually or
trols, Turbine speed changer position is through supplementary control, and' nor-
dirccted to reduce a combination of Mw mally, the rate of change, whether done
error and Pressure error to zero, while manually or by automatic supplementary
the boiler controls likewise are dtected to control, does not exceed 3 to 5 percent of
reduce the preszure error biased by t}le Mw machine capacity per minute, and on the
sense of the cros-coupled
crror to zero' The large new steam units is often limited to
Mw error and pressure error biases is in less than 2 percent Per
the dircction such that a positive Mw error During system uPsets, such as system
(Mw lower than demand) would cause the separation or loss of generation where por-
turbine valve to open and the boiler con- tions of s)'stems may be left isolated with
trols to call for more feedwater, fuel, and large unbalances of generation and load,
air, whcreas a positive Pressure error (pres governor action may be called upon to oake
sure lower than set point) would call for
large changes within a few seconds' Now,
closing of the turbine valve while simul-
even though the turbine valve may be
taneously increasing the feedwater'
capable of responding 100 percent within
Figuic 38 shows responsc chaiacteristics
this period of time, there are other factors
for varying degrees of coupling between
Mw and pressure error, including the casc which do not allow such unrestricted mo-
where the looPs are not couPlcd' tion, and thcse pertain to boiler and turbine

50 60 70 80 90



zo 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90


Fig. *-Berponre ofirolatcd hydro gcacratioa to ctange ofload.

safety. On the way up, that is, valve opning Other factors that sometimes limit the
action, the valve motion may be limited by magnitude of generation change that can
the turbine load limit, which can be set be taken in this almost instantaneous
to ride a certain value above operating fashion involve combustion controls which
point to prevent turbine loading above the may not stand the large upset, due to pos-
capacity sf mills,, pumps or other agxiliaries sible large transient mismatches in fueI and
on line. In the event ofvery large changes, air and attexdant danger of explosions, or
if not limited by the load limit, unit load- in the feedwater controls which may not
ing may be arrested by the turbine initial be able to hold drum level within safe
pressure regu.lator which can be set to pre-
vent boiler pressure from dropping below These factors, therefore, make it gen-
about 90 percent of rated value. This is crally impractical to take instantaneous load
done to prevent carryover of water from changes greater than 20 percent on large
the boiler. conventional steam units, and there are
Efut oJ Prin*Moocr Rcspasc and Goocrning Cldact'ristirt


468rO1214 o 24681o12 t4

E Tu ' .5 sEcoNDs'
4 r . .25 TRAN -



Dig. 5-Frequency drop oa loer of 10 percent gencration in irolatcd ryrt.E.

some units that cannot stand instantaneous produced by governor regulation' these
changes over 10 percent. changeswouldrequirespecialcontrolaction'
In the case of once-through units using
the coordinated control philosophy, it is
uzual to limit the maximum rate at which
load demand can change' and this can be
done upstream of the point where the fre- The significance of prime-mover re-
quency bias signal is injected, or down- sponse on power system dynamic per-
point. In the first case' the formance is illustrated by examining tran-
stream of this
unit response to governor action following sient performance following abrupt load
frequency upscts would be faster than for changes in certain limiting situations.
rate limit is on the Mw of these situations is the case of an equiva-
the case where the
demand signal downstream of the point Ient single unit zupplying an isolated load'
where the frequency bias is injected. This case approximates conditions where
Hydro units usually have no intentional thi bulk of power generation in an isolated
response limitations, as the plant equipment area is of the same type. Another case of
system with
is often protected by tlle inherent limits of interest concerns the isolated
speed changer maxioum rate and governor prime-movers of dissimilar characteristics.
transient droop. Additional cases explore effects of prime-
It should be noted that large changes on mover characteristics in a system tied to a
a given unit imply that reserve has been very large interconnected Pool.
ooncentrated in a few units. These large
Single Equivolent Unit in lsolqted Areo
changes in power, il brought about bY
goverDor action, would require too large The case of a single equivalent unit in
a frequency deviation. Alternately, if not an isolatd area is often studied to deter'
o 0/o
uH^ 2
f-= o
oo Fig. 6-Two pcrccrt
o 2a
MINUTES rDcrcalc rn ootrnectcd
2 load. Bchcat rtcaru gca-
cratiou with coordiae-
tcd controtr.

6H r

U=5 t"h
=H8 o

qwE 'J 'o
93P - rz 16.770 -_ REGULATION OFF

mine the responsiveness of power generation of steady-state regulation and is amplified

in limiting frequency excursions following by rags in the response of the prime-mover
a large upset, which results in the area under system.
study to be separated from the multistate The frequency transient initially follows grid. the response determined by system inertia,
Figure 5 shows the frequency deviations as can be seen by noting that all curves
for the case of a load increase in an isolated near time zero approach asymptotically the
povver system with different types of gen- curve of deviation that would occur with
eration and varying amounts of effective blocked governors.
regulation. OnIy governor action is being The eflective regulation is inversely pro-
considered. as the slower resetting of fre- portional to the number of units in govern-
quency deviation to normal through sp- ing range. The results show the advantages
plementary contrd is of seondary signiE- of distributing regulation through manv
cancein terms of afecting peak deviations. units by keeping tieir governors active.ra
The peak deviation in frequency can Figure 6 shows the perforrriance that
be greater than the final value. This is would result for the case of an isolated
short'n on Fig. 5, depicting frequency tran- system composed of steam generation with
sients following a loss of generation for a coordinated boiler-turbine controls such as
typical reheat steam system and a typical those advocated for once-through boilersra
hydro system. Figure 5 shows that the ratio (Fig. 3A), witi response characteristics as
of peak deviation relative to the final de- in Fig. 38, middle curve.
viation of frequency is related to the value The effects of introducing rate limiting

Efcct oJ Pinc'Mooa Rcspottsc and Goocrning Choactri*ics

of the Mw demand signal downstream of '"ol

-.ho*r, bias
the point where the frequency signal + 60
on Fig. 6. " Tz1 4c 8'
is inuoduced is clearly
Dissimilor Units in lsoloted Areo
The effects of having generation with
dissimilar rcsponse characteristics are illus'
trated on Fig. 7, which shows the case of
an isolated system hing supplied in part
(50 pcrcent) by conventional reheat steam,
and the remainder by units with response
characteristics shown on Fig. 38. middle
This casc illustrates the fact that the
transient load-flow conditions in networks
following large uPselq can be very sensitive
to tle response characteristics of generation 20 40 60
in the various parts of the system. Entire TIUE, SECONDS

interconnected systems can be reviewed as

a huge single area, and the results of Fig. 7
have significance for this case, too. It is
conceivable that, due to dissimilar rePonse
characteristics, a large load upset might CONVENTIONAL
resrrlt in overloading of ties in locations
otherwise considered rcmote from the lo- UNITS WITH
cation of the uPset. CONTROL AS FIG 38

Fig, 7-Load chaage on irclatcd arca.

Lood Chqnses in Areo Interconnected
With Lqrge Pool
Although the oramples cited are per'
tinent for t}le case of a large upset relative connecting ties, and then being corrected
to the total interconnected system capacity, by supplementary control. Figure 8 shows
a more corrtmon occurrence is that of an the range of response to be orpected as a
upsct which is s'mall relative to total inter- function of the type of prime-mover sys-
connected system caPacity, although not tem. In the case of the reheat steam gen-
necessarily small relative to the utility in eration with coordinated boiler turbine
which it occurs. [n these cases t]re frequency tonEols, the adjustments are as in Fig' 38,
deviation is small with the bulk of the load using strong cross coupling with the Pres-
change being supplied by the large inter- zure control loop.
connected capacity. Restoration of balance
within the utility must rely on relatively CONCLUSIONS
slow supplementary control action (cor- The effect of prime-mover resPonse on
rection of load change within a minute system dynamic performance has been
or more). illustrated in the light of several typical
Figure 8 puts into perspective the phe- situations that can arise in Power system
nomena for tbis case, showing the load operation. Recognition of these eflects will
change being initially supplied by the inter- become of increasing ianportance when

60.o2 60.o2
@.oo GO.OO

59.98 59.98


:f\,, .0240?..024
rN powER
\:,- :fK
,*"o:'lt; H:ttr. .*ou ,-oro. orrl'*'u'nu"'


.;"1 t-t.l
/- ,/- ,.--==

wrrH coNVEN,'.ML to"tJrootin,
a6iiii-rungrrur .o*rRols
rN powER GENERATED rN .MALLER u"rrrx'ii'6iii


Fig. 8-Ef,cct of load iacrcase in arca tied to auch Iarger intercoancction.

planning traasmission capability between of stres conditions, to grve on-line calcu-

systemsor Parts of systems. lated indications of immediate response
Closer attention to the response capa- capability.
bilities of various units and to the spreading
of the governing duties as uniformly as REFERENCES
possible among many units will be sig"oifi- 1. DeMelIo, F. P., Ewart, D. N. and Temo-
cant in reducing the severity of shok, M., "Turbioe Euergy Connols Aid
system in Power System Pcrfor-rirance," Paper
upsets. In particular, boiler-turbine con- presented at 1966 American Power C6n-
trols should be desigaed so as not to un- ference,,Chicago, April 26-28, 1966. (See
Authors' Index, this Volume).
necessarily restrict the response of units 2 Concordia, C,, "Dyaamic Concepts of
beyond the inherent Iimits imposed by Interconnected Syste-rru," Paper presented
thermal stresses and safety of plant equip- at the 18th Annual South#estein IEEE
ConGrence, Dallas, Tex., April 2O-22,
The role of digital dispatching systems 3. Fiedler, H. J. and Kirchmayer, L. K.,
will be orpanded to recogaize the phe- "Developments in the Contr6l of Inter-
nomena of response capability in the sched- 9onp9ct9d !15tems," Paper presented at
9th National Power Instrirmentation Svm-
uling of generation. At the power plants, posium, Detroit, Mich., May 16-18, 1966.
we foresee extending the functions of plant 4. Concordia, C., "Efrect of Prime Mover
automation computers to monitor the status Speed Contol Characteristics ou Electric
Power System Performance," IEEE Con-
of plant equipment including evaluation famre Pa?cr 3lCP65-778, preseated at

Efur oJ Prine-Moaa Rcsponse and Gooadng Chaacttrislics

Natiooal Power Conference, Albany, N' 31CP6G59, Presented at 1966 Winter

Y.. September 79-23, 1965. Power Mcdtiig, New York' JanuarY
5. Eeeenbrser, M. A.' "Power Response of 31- February 4,1966.
I"iJd.rn -Reheat Turbine Generators to 11. "Power Plant Response, IEEF C-ommit-
Load Dispatching Signals," ASME Papcr tee Reoort." IEEE Transaclions Papn
65-WA/PWB-5. ittp e il z t, presented at National Power
Coofercnce, eibany, N' Y., Septembcr 19-
6. Concordia, C., "Eflect of Steam-Turbine 23, 1965.
Reheat on Speed-Governor Performancer"
ASME Pab; 5&A-36; absracted in Mcch' 12. O'Brien. I. T., "Dynamic Tcsting of
Eng., 81,'95 (1959) FebruarY. Power Plints," Proc. National Powcr In'
stnuwntation Slmposium, 6' 105-12 (1963)'
7. Steohens. W. M.' dc Mello, F. P' and
Ew?rt. D. N.. "simulation as a Design Comordia. C., "Performance of Inter-
- connectcd-
Tool for Plaut -IacL McDonough Boilcr Svstems Following Disturb-
Controls." Proc, National Pantet lastnnatu' aDces," IEEt Wtnm, 2, 68-72, 77-80
tion Slmjnsiun, 7, 3546 (1964). (1965) June.
8. Arsersinser. I. I., Laubli, F., Vocgli, E' F' 14. Grant. I. E., Shuss, J. A., Hottenstine,
.oJ s."it.-E' D., "Development of an R. H. and Daniels, J. H., "Automation
Advanced' Control System fo Super- of BuIl Run IJnit No.-l," Paper presented
critical Pressure Units," IEEE ConJ' Papcr at llth Annual Southwestern ISA Con-
@63-1409. presented at National Pon'er i"r.o"e, Chattanooga, Tenu., April 27-
Conference,' Cincinnati, Ohio, September 29, 1965.
22-26,1963. 15. Summer. I. C', de Mello, F. P., Ahner'
9. Durrant. O. W. and Loeser, J' K'' D. I. ani-Dver, C. E.' "Aoalysis and De-
"Boiler-?urbine Control System for Ap' sisi of Coirrols for a Once-Through
olication to Universal Pressure Boilers"' i$il"., Through Dlgt"l Simulation,"
iefP Corf. Pabn CP 6}1110 Presented PaDer'Dresented at Ninth National Pow-
at Natiorial Pbwer Conference, Cincin- .,'Irt&r-aot tion SymPosium, Detroit,
nati, Ohio, SePtdnber 22-26' 1963. Mich., May 16-18' 1966.
10. Mosan. W. S. and Grimes, A. S., "Load- 16. Kirchmaver. L. K., "Economic Connol
Freo-uencv Control of Supercritical Units of Intercbnnected Systems," New Yok:
on tire e.E.p. System," IEEE Co4f . Papcr Wiley, 1959.

IEEE l{orklng GrouP Oa *
Pover Pla,nt Response To Loadt Changes

-gas for other klndts

tioaal papers of unlte (i'e' hydrot
;;;il;, turttnes La conbined cycle unlts) and
unlt papers oo sucb
i"i-"aafti."al fossil-fuelett steanwi'th
Ihe IEEE Working Group on Po$er PJ-eJrt Response i.pi"" as variations Ln response various fuels '
of three
been-in exlstence r:ncter the Joint sponsorshtp the and test results'
Porer opirating experiences
ii# S$".*ittees. Ehese subco@ittees are
pf"rrt Corrtto].s Protectl-on ancl Autonatlon Subcomittee
;i th" Pover Generation Comittee, the Slsten Coatrols of RESPONSE DUIIES II{POS@ BY fEE SYSIEII{
iuueomitt.e anct Systens Operations- Subcomittee
;;-sj'*;r= tngineeiing coonittee' -rhe purpose ofplant
A key crlterlon of performa'nce . of a
t{.ir.iire Group is to =toay tr't subJect of pover unlt is its ability to cha'nge output in-response to
in the contert of their
t.Iporr"" characteristiis
llw-- neetls. Thesl neects nlx\be classifle't lnto four
role in neeting normal load changes' "y"i",
maJor eategories as folloss:\'/
Ihe last sigrrifica'nt achievement of the Working 1. Ablllty to foJ-Lor nornal cla1lypover load changee'
Group was the preparation of the IEEE transaetioas 2. Abi[ty to supply replacement folloriag
paper in 1955 entitletl "Pover Plant Response"'(1) re- the loss "r e-.i.;'"ti;'n rrithin tbe systeu
sent to the
;;iliG on the resuJ-ts of + questionnaire
past the Working line thernal back-up)'
i{ithin the veer
iliiffi irra*ttv.
Gror.p s.t out as a task the Preparation of
a paper 3. Abillty to participlte ln frequency regulation
Units' L. Speclal neecls.
aeal.ine rrith MW response of Fossil- Fueled Stea^u
A Eeasure of thls abil-ity is the response.rate'
Megavatt response (i.e. ttre ability of generating often expressed in l'IUniD (roelarratts Per minute)' or
units io change Megavatt output in response to cha'nges
i" p"""."t of rateal capability per.ninute' I{hen meet-
irr-potu" "y"I", Megawatt requirements) is an iuport- i;g-;;; more rapitl =v=i"' needs;. i't':.tie-line ther-
ant'aspect tt po*er system piann-r1e a'ntt operation' 'A ,"I t""top and frequency regulation, it is recopizecl
.i"ay lf trr. possible anci probable Megavatt response -apability to respoatt quick-
requirements oi " po,er ty"it' antl of the-capabilities
irrrt tt. iro:.t ,ry have ihe
re- 1y over a llnitetl rmge'
of'tfr. available units to singly ancl collective\r
.p"ia-t. ihese changing system requirements A plot of response rate in percent MUoin versus
..i-rrnaerst.r,cting of 1) systen response requirements
various' the trr:iber of ninutes for vhleh this rate can be sus-
i) tir. normal response eapabi'1iti'es of,-the i"i.""a, plottect on 1og-1og scales, provldes a valuable
tinas of units ""ra tf,uit associateti ar'xiliaries' and'
varJr or J.lruit ,."r," "f characterizing rurit res?onse capability over
f) ,*it operating conditions vhi'ch may
a broad sPectrum.
lhe normal unit response capabillties '
Figure 1 illustrates these' ftie results of
The factors vhich affect response eapabillties of test or limitation lrouJ.d appe{r as a point
units naY include: "rry "iigf"
on tiris-pfot. Ihe cornposite characterlstic of a boil-
er or turbine often "",, bt expressecl as a continuous
1. Inherent turbine ancl turbine eontrol charac- curve on these axes.
2. Inherent boiler and boiler control character-
3. Characteristics of maJor plertt auxi].iary sys- tooo
teos '
l+, Operating a.nil maintenance practices'
ihis paper is one of geveral envisionetl by the
Working O-roup on Power Plant Response to clarify the
varioui faelts of Megavatt response ancl' hopefir11y' loo
-of a uniform basis for future work on this aspect
porr"t system pl-anriing and operation' trJ
Some aspects of Megavatt Response are dliscussed
Stean Units' ft is hoped z
they pertain to Fossil-Fuelecl
that this paPer nay serve as an 'inspiration for aclcli- \ro
* Paper vas prepared
-F.i. by the folloving llorking Group =
*"ilb"t" I (crra:'rman) and' D'N' Etart *
'1eMe1-1o Usry, L'H' fink' L'V'
assisted by W.S. B1oor, R'O' u
Leonard and W.H. Croft. F
..n"li,li! I"."..$3i3"J1:"",ffi"33i.0.113"J|Ji:ff.'"'.'JJ
Figure r.
- Pover svsten Response Requirements
'- - ' Representation
28, t972; made available for
eppy{* ! systems, vol' PAS-92, pp' 455-463' March/Apnl 1973'
Reprinted from IEEE Tronsactions on Power
Shovn on Flgr:re 1 are a set of straight fines systeu frequency reaponse characteristic. (8)
rrhich serve as guitles to iaterpreting the rrrit clate.
fhe horizontal characteristi.c lines are id.entifledl as
rete linits. Any unit linitatlon rhich carr be ex_ Speclal-, Iteeds
pressed as a lirdt in rate of response rouJ.d appear as
e. horizootal on these scaLes. For exauple, if tfre Times faster than 3 secontls fa11 into the area of
MI{ demancl on a rmit is prevented from ehaaging fester phase angJ-e reaifustuent and transient stability. A1_
tha.n 108 per minute, this linitetion vould eppear as a tbougb noraa1 speed. control action in turbines is too
borizontal ]-ine along the 1O% per nlnute axis. ernal.1 to affect the phenomena of electrical systen
transient stabillty, moilerrr tuybine speed control sys_
ghe parr]]ef J'ines slsnting clovnrrarcl fron teus haye tbe capabili.ty of fast valve shut-off (frac_
J-eft to
right are exer:rsion llnits. It ls apparent that a unit tloas of a secontt) prolriateti for.the control of turbine
vtrich ca^n change load at 101 per ninute for 10 uinutes overspeed under loacl reJection.(9,10) If other plant
rou].cl nove through 1001 of the capability of the writ; eondlitions ca.n be met, this capability can be used to
thus the intersection of lOf, per uinute and 10 alnutes atlvantage to prowid.e a sharp temporary ciecrease in
ls e point oR the 1001 excursion line, es ia I00l per turbine pover upon detection of an abrupt loss in
olnute for minute. Similerly, aOfr per minute for electrical pover output sugh-as^gecurs dr:ring faults
one ainute fal-1s on the 101 excursion ]-ine. Ttrus, any on the transnission systee. (1],12)
r.lnit ]initations rhieh caJr be cheracterized as an ex_
eursion linit rrou-Id appear as a rith a _l+5o sJ-ope A variation of this idea is to aeconplish a^n al_
on these a:res. An exauple roight be arrestructed. rEnge nost instantaneous retluction of rrith recovery
of operation depending upon the il&ber of coal ni1is to a reduceal J.evel couparecl to initial- loading.
operating or the nr:mber of burtrers in service.
This type of action and other run-back actions
fhe vertical lines may be thought of as that uight cccur due to loss of nalfirnction in sone
the various system needs in the time spectne. fhese plants auxiliaries ere not rrithi.n the seope of this
are much nore erbitrary than the horizontal and s1a^nt_ paper vhieh deals primarily vith the response capabiJ-_
ed lines, but tbey do serve to pro.ride adtiitional in_ ity of units to meet load ehanges, the criti-ca1 direc-
terpretation into wli-t characteristic curres vihieh tion being al-most alrays in the direction.
ri11 be plotted on these scales,
t{o atteropt is macle in this paper to quantif} the
Unit Comitnent system neecls for response, but rather si.nply to id.en_
tif)r the categories. Hoflever, i.n each category, nini-
lnum systen need.s to exist anii units shich d.o not neet
_ Generation changes requirea for times greater then these minim:m needs uust have their response deficien-
50 minutes in the future have been arbitrarily desig- cy macle up by other uni.ts which carry their own share
nated a.s beyond the scope of sinple regulation or 1o;d as we11. Systen designers must recognize the possi-
follorring ancl have been categorized as being in the bili.ty that the non-perforraing units nay at some time
d.omain of unit co@iteent. ft is assumetl that ad.d.i_ become isolated fron the renaincler of the systen.
tional rurits can be brought on the 1ine, or other mea_
sures taJ<en, to meet system response needs more than To sumarize, the set of axes on Figure 1 offers a
one hour in the future. mears of characterizing response characteristics of
partieular units over a broad spectrum. In general,
NoraaL Daily Load Fo1lovinc characteristic curves can be tlrarrn against these axes
rhich intlicate !i!1-J1n. response capability under
Times betveen five minutes and sixty ninutes fal1 given conrlitions .-Thus, response neecls rrhich approach
in the spectrum of normal ttaily loaci foJ_1-oiring vhere these )-ini.ting curyes ri11 require the rmit to operate
the basic need for response is to meet the daiSy J.oad in a nonlinear mode, vhile response neetis re11 belov
cycle rrith proper econonic allocation between r:nits. tlie liniting curves can be met nith li.near response
I{orna1 maximum rates of change.of loads selclom exceed fron the rmit. The ].i.nitati.ons vhich ciel.-ineate finear
z%/nin. of system peak load.(1) Other factors such as ancl nonlinear response rri11 be subsequently discussed.
availabJ.e reserve a.rld economie allocation may require
lndividual units to responcl at rates vp fo jtr/llIrn:

Tie Line Thernal Backup The means of che.nging turbine shaft pover in eon-
ventional stea.n-u4its in fossil-fired plants are shovn
Response v-ithin between about 1, second.s and 5 nin_ in Figure 2.19,7O) The turbine speed control.nechar-
utes can be important for tie-line the:mal Uactup.(2,3) ism controls the effeetive valve area at the high
Ihis is the time span over rhieh autmatic or manual pressure turbine adrnission in response to error sig-
generation contro1 can be of criti-eaI iuporta.nce to nal-s betveen the speed./1oad reference arrd the load
maintain tie lines rrithin their theroal- ]-lnits. Often 1evel corresponcling to the incremental gain (.t/Rl)
the nonnal boiler and turbine lags and goverDor dead._ uultipliecl by speed derriation. Ttie actual stea.ra f16v
ba.nd.s are sueh that it tel<es about 15 to 20 secontis to
start to change generation significantl_y by means of to the turline is prinarily a fi:nction of the effee-
automatic generation control in response to a maJor tive valve area a.ncl the turbine throttl-e pressure. fn
noraal system operation, the notion of the valves is
system upset. alirected. by:

Noma1. Frequency Regulati.on 1. Prinary speed control or governing aetion in

response to frequency cieviations.
The region of nortral. priraary frequeney regulaliqp 2. Supplemen{ary governor control (or ehanges in
is betveen three secontls and tventy seconcls . \4rr'6'7) speed/Ioad reference) done nenually or by
ft takes about three seconds for a goveraror to Iresns of automatic generation eontrol.
arrest a frequency clrop caused by a sudcien application
of load to a system, and by 20 seeorcls the frequency
is restored to the steady-state as indicateti ty tirl

Af= (r).
rrhere (1/R + o) is the Bysten frequency response (reg-
I ulation) charaeteristic. Itre steady-state contribu-
lHnorrrr tion of geaeration cha,rige of err inalirridual prime laover
PiBSURE rroultl be;
LOAD + aL(2/8, )
= (2)
|;tr vhere R, is that prime-moverrs regulation expressecl in
+P-l the sa.ud units as that of the composite system.
L --;r!--- coNrRoL PROCESS Dq>resslon (2) strors that under normal conditions'
- tuaattg
the uagnitude of change tiue to prirnary speed control
l-s relateil to the loatl disturbance ancl to the ratio of
I IISHED PORTIOiI APPLIES the unltts regulatlng characteristlc to the intercon-
necteil system frequency-response (regulation) eharac-
Fig::re 2 - Fwreti.ona-1. Block Diagran of Eurbine
Controls Barring naJor system upsets, the largest 1ike1y
eysten loait/generation unbalance tha'c come about
in a step fashion voultl be that due to the loss of the
largest unit. In the North American Interconneetion
hinary Speed Control Action vith 25O,OOO MW of corneeted capability, such an event
(J.oss of a 1200 MII r:nit) vould eause a change of gen-
figures 3A a.ntl 38 are he].pful to the rmtlerstantling erati-on on intliviclual unlts of approxinately;
of the prima:ry speed control- function.

25oooo (fr + r)
PRESSURE ^^ --1^.
if alJ. units rere in a linear regulating range ' assum-
ing jf, regulation antt a loatl-frequency characteristic
l^. of 1. If only a thircl of the units 'were to have ac-
tive priuary speed controls, the ehange in generation
I on a given unlt in regulating ra.nge rould be;
12oo (+)

aL = _ | ar _oar = t'z)ap
i' ar =,Ttr ,r..ooc=;
It ls reasonable to expeet this normal prinary speed
control- aetion to be very sroa11 although essential for
Figure 3A - Effect of Increasecl toad On tr"requency frequency stability of the porer system.
During maJor systen upsets r such as system separa-
tion, where portions of systens nay be left isolated
DETAILED lN rrith large unbalances of generation and load' this
oo.-f6,0*u prinary speecl control aetion rnay be ccllsQ upsn to
make large eba.nges rrithin ebout 5 to 20 seconds. Uncler
sueh contiitions, the rate of opening of the turbine
vaives may be limitetl by the available hyciraulie force
in turbine mechanism. A typical Ya1ue of this rate Ii-
mit on opening control valves EiSht be in the wicinity
of f:ofi ler seconcl (5ool per ninute). fhe anount of
opening action of tr:rbine valves may be inhibited by
FREOI.,ENgV the loatt linit setting, action of the initial pressure
DEVIATIol{ regulator' or other actlon relating to the bojler-
turbine control system. Sonetines, the load linit may
be set at a given pereentage of unit capacity above
tbe existlng load leve1 to offer a tlegree of protec-
Figure 38 - kiaary Speecl Control or Governing tion to the boiler a.nit turbine. Curve t'B" in Figure l+
Function illustrates thls limitation' assuming the load finit
is Eet 1Ol above the exLsting generation level-.
f,ere the porrer systen ls representeil by one com-
posite Lnertla M of the iaterconnectetl porer aystem' Area Supp1ementatT Control
aatl the cotrpoeite loadl frequency (aaupfng) charactgpl
lstic (eha,nge in load vith change in-tlequency) O.tttt Ttre other means of cbanging generation is through
lhe cmpoelte prime-oover incremental regulation 1s the speedt load reference (speetl charger notor) ilone
BhovD as B. Sbea{y-state analysls of Buch a Bysten nanual3-y o! by autonatic gg*Rration eontrol' also
aborrs that, in the linear ?ange, the frequency dewla- called supplenentar.y control. (o I
tlon as a fr:rrctlon of the loatl cha,nge antl these pare-
meters is; In ua.ny units, the loedl reference a.nd, hence, tur-
to move through fu11 travel
bine val-ves
' ean be ugde


Inherent f\rrbine a.nrl Burbine Control

0n some units rith eleetrohydraulic control sys-
terns the non-linear effects of va]-rre 1lft-flow charae-
teristlcs a:rdl boil-er pressure effects are largely com-
pensateal by neans of turbine st&ge pressure feetibaek
t! (f:.gure 2), use of vhich proviales a nearly Iineq1 5q1
F letionship betrreen control eror and f'1su,. t9raui
z= "1sam
= Atklittonal features in the control system are the
load l-init shlcb ls atfustable by the operator and
= vhich Eets an upper linit to the valve opening' and
s the inl.tlal pressure regulator rhich superposes a
tlj c]-osing action proportlonal to pressure devlation be-
kE 1orr a set va1ue, usually 9ofr of rateal pressure. The
tine ]-ags associateti rith response of shaft pover to
lrj changes in effective valve areas are i.nclieateci i,n the
zoU' transfer firnetion of the turbine (fi.gure 5). fhese
ah lags are riue to the highly predictable charging tines
E of the volu[es in the hig]r-pressure turbine bovl and
in the reheater anal associatetl stea.n leads.
oJ I l0 too tooo
Assuning boiler pressure constartr turbine mechan-
lca1 power responcls to changes in valve positlon as A - 6Oofr/Uin, Max.Rate of Valve Motlon fol-l-ows: About 30fi of the final change is contributed
Cuu've B - l1'l &cr:rsion-RepresentLng Load tiuit by the hlgh-pressure turbine upstrean of the reheater
Curwe C - l-33//Mi-r,, Max.Rate of Supplenentary Control- a:ral is established al-nost instantaneously rhile the
Dovn remaining ?08 fottovs rrith the more gradual ehange in
Curwe D - tl'l/Min, Ma:r.Bate of Supplementar;r Control- reheater pressule {ue to the charging tine of the re-
Up heateryo1prs.(4'5)
Fieure ! - LilLitins Conditions Figure 5 shovs a response trace of turbine mechan-
ical pover to chaJrge in vaLve positlon for this case
in lr5 seconcls (t33'l/ain) by roa^nual- means. In sotne of constant boiler pressure.
moclerr eleetrohyclraulic turbine control systems, the YALVE
loacl reference action is rate linitecl lo AO%/n7n for HP
generation increases and up to 1337/nin for generation TURBINE
d.ecreases. Ihese rates are itlentifiedl on Figure l+ as STEAI'
curves C anct D respeetively. Although the capability SUPPLY
of chenging generation rapidly by nanual mee.ns exj.sts, cor{sTAr{T
it be noteai that rhen untier nanual control, it PRESSURE I REHEATER
is wrlikely that the unit roul-d be subJected to
changes in excess of vhat conditions in the boiler TO
vou-l-d pera-it since the operator neking the change COilDENSER
voulcl be cognizant of the conclitions in the pI-a.nt. ArU (l+CTRS)
fn the automati,c generation eontrol moile, the sup- A{- =( t+Es)(t+TRs)
plementary governor controls are usual.J.y aaJusteai to
have maximr:m rates of change J-ess than t9fi/nin. APM = CHANGE lN TURBTNE MECHANTCAL pOwER
SupplenentarXrgovernor control ettenpts to match c = FRACT|ON OF pOvER hr Hp SEclloatr (o.zs To O.35)
area geDeration to arpa_]eads usualJ-y consitiering pro- Tg = B0wL T|ME CONSTANT ( 03 TO O.5 SEC )
duction ."onoaisg. (4115) As prerriously mentionedl,
normal maxj.mum rate of change of Loaals clo not inpose Tp = REHEATER T|ME CONSTANT ( 5 TO I SEc )
ctuties on indirridual units in excess of 5%/min. Hov-
ever, during contingencies such as the loss of a block
of generation, generation in a given erea may have to
be shifLe$ a! maxinuo rates to relieve loacling on tie
Iines.(orl r5l Ihe inportant consid.eration is not only T]_
the rate of chsrge but the dluration andl therefore the |
tota-1 nagnitutie of the cha.nge. Under these situetions avl
response linitations are not on\r deter:rineal by pro-
cess J-ags but prinarily by permissible dleviations anrl
rate of cha.nge of proeess para&eters such as tempera-
tules, pressures, 1eve1s aJrd correqponcling etresses.
lbe pest loatiing history of the unit is afso a factor
Jr Ts TR
sLnce themal stresseq , gre a function of teuperatr,rre
variations oi1i1 1ir.. (14) Figure 5 - Bespoase of $lrbine Shaft pover
Inherent Boll-er anti Boiler Control Characteristies
Since the stean supply volume is not infinite,
boiler pressure cioes suffer deviations lrhleh affect
the respoase of steao flow ancl aechanlcal- poyer.

Figure 5 contains a.rr gpproTinate model of & drum- +lo
type boiler and controls.\l-)rJ'o'J fn genera.I, the
forn of a roodelrelating overa11 pressure, fI-ov 8n'1 i8
enerry input effects ea.n a]-so app\y to once-through +6
rmits. +4
Figure T shows response traees of steae flolr fol- +?
loving step cha^nges in turbine valve f1ov area, assum- o
ing no change in enerry input to the boifer' In this
caie, the change in steam fJ-ov wiJ-l be trersient as -2
enerry i.s dravn frora boiler storage' One can then
visualize the contribution to cha.nge in stes& flov as -6
being fron the two e&uses: -8 CHANGE IN
-t o
1. Due to change in valve fl.ow area' PRES SU RE

2. Due to boi-1er pressure deviations' %

Ihe effect of controls applied to the energf supply t8
system (toiler control-s) is to restore pressure irithin CHAI'GE IN STEAM
response capabilities of the fuel supply systeu' f6 FLOW

Figure B shows typieal pressure dev-iation perfor- tz
,*"" of fast responding fuel systems
(oi1 a.nd eas) and the slover responcling systems such o
I 23 5
as *,hose in uany coal-fired plants. -a
its control methocls for -4 PRES SU RE
The prine-moYer system and
changing generation as described previously, is repre- -6 CHANGE IN
sentative of Dany drum-type stea.E units and s few -8
once-through units. operatilq- in .\he tr:rbine leading -t(
(boi]-er fol]-owing) ne6s. (1[ '-Lo:o/ In this mode'
changes in generation are initiated by turbine control Figr.rre J - AO% Cha.nge In Tirrbine Valve - ilith No
valves ana ine boiler eontrols respond vith appropri- Change In Input To Boiler
ate action upon sensing changes in stea'm flow and
-storea ftt" turbine has access to the boilerrs
enerry and generation changes rrithin reasonabl-e
magnitudes oceur v-ith a characteristic ?esponse as
prlv-iously described. From a system governing poi'nt
.f v.i.* thi-s rapid response characteristic is benefi-
eia1, inprovin! ttre quality of frequency control' 50"/o LOAo POINT
Evidently-, the rapi.d response ca.n be at the expense of
deviations i.n boiler variables, especially if the mag- %
nitude of the change is 1arge. +lO
Another uod.e of control is the boiler leading +5
(turbine fo]-]-owing) node where turbine control val-ves
are made to regulate boiler pressure ancl changes in o
generation are initiated by changing inputs to the T-MINS-+
boiler. The fast action of turbine control valvesthatcan
accomplish almost perfect pressure control so -l
boiler pressure cal be maintalned essentially constant'

too% L0a0 PoINT



( r lT5slil{rRst

DRUT +^-
PFESSURE .--+( )+

I \/t

8 - 107 Change In turbine Valve BoiLer

Figure 5 - Dlmamics of furbine Pover Including Controls Active
Boiler Pressr:re Effects

Under this mode of control, no use is uade of the establlshed by integratlng autonatlc generation con-
stored. ener$r in the boLler. Ihe power output to the tro3- sigaal.s. Thls signal 1s conblneal rrlth other ia-
turbine wi11, therefore, eJ_ose\r folJ-orr changes in puts to foru the r.:nit eleslreci generatlon useai to tlrlve
boiler steam generation as caused by cha.ngee 1n input the turblne val-ves in a closed loop to natch actual
to the boiler. Figure 9 shows the basic responae generatloo to the desirecl generatioa, arlA to provicle
characteristlcs of the turbine and boller feed. forvaril Elgnals to the boiler inputs. ftre nod.i-
leadlng notles. fn the foraer, a cha.nge in pover gen- flcetlons to the loatl dena.nit slgnal are:
eration is accoupllshed dlrectly by aetion on the tur_
bine valves. fn the latter, I cie&and for eha.nge in 1. Frequency bias to eetch the wrlts steady-state
poser generation acts on the bol)-er lnputs ndl the speeal treguLatlon (governor droop).
turblne valves respontl as the change 1n enerry leve1 2. kessure error aetlng to control valveg for
ls developeil ln the boiler. The porrer response lE pressure fegulation.
thereby clelayecl by the lags in the fuel system a.nd.
boiler storege. The reJ.atlve strength of the pressure error intro-
iiueeil ln such a scheme cleterrnines the response of the
unit as shosn on Figr:re 10B. A variatlon of coordin-
a.ted controls vhere the turbine valve ls prinarlly the
presaure regulator aJlai boiler inputs are actuated.
CHAITIGE IN TUREINE basically from loatl demancl, is to introduce a tran-
vaLvE PostTtoil slent offset in pressr:re set polnt frora loati demanti
and thereby speeil up the response by forcing action.
coaL A more recent evolution is the concept of non-
- - FIRED interactLon rith pressure effects by controJ.J.lng valve
flow area to natch clenand rather tha.n controlling Mlf
to natch clema^nd, aJrd to introduce aetion in response
-7--' to pressure eror on1y in the event thgt pressure er-
ror exceetls certain tolerances. (17'20) l{ith such a
schene the unit exhibits response characteristi.cs of
the leadlng mode for linited. changes.
The nod.e of operation rith slicling pressure, a1-
though not very colmon, can have a marked. effect on
./ ,zlaanee n the response of units.
-/ltlt taaottLE pRESsuRE
T- ttNS +
From the point of vier of the basic con-
trol elenents of Figure 2 and their use in supplemen-
tary control, these d.ifferent control method.s can be
classifiecl as:
CHA'{GE IN FUEL INPUT 1. Systeos which beheve in a tr:rbine man-
ner for sma11 changes, rrith soroe liraiting ac-
tion due to pressure error for larger changes.
_ 645- OtL Systens introduce ad.cii.tional. l-ags to thi
FIREO basic turbine response for sna1I or large
- - coAL
FIRO cha.riges.
fn <iefining response characteristics, it rriJ.I be rec-
oglized that in addition to the basic process {menig
J.ags, there are response limitations imposed by oper-
ating praetice or imposed autonatical\r by rate lindt-
ot2t4 ing the demand signal.
Figure ! Although al-l the above describeti factors conpJ-i-
cate the d.efini.tion of response eapabilities of boiler
turbine units, the charaeterization of response infor-
A conpronise betveen the d.esire for fast genera- mation nay be attenpted. from the point of vier of the
tion response and the cieslre for boiler safety and two basic mea.ns of generator outputi na.meJ.y,
J-i.mitation of de:riations of bolJ-er pressures anti tenp- (1) tfrroueh prinary speed. control action, arra (e)
eratures leci to the ad.option of control modes comon\r through supplearentary control action. In each case,
kaown as coorciinated, lntegrated. or direct enerry ba1- identification of response characteristics i-n the 1in-
ance, offering an atiJustg!1e_b1gn4-of-the two preri- ear rallge ancl in the non-1inear, or liniting ra.nge is
ously described. schemes. (6 'l-7 'IE,19 '20 ) 1'hi.s neeal for desirable.
close coorclinatlon of the boiler and turbine has been
more presslng in the case of once-through boilers
where there are more strict requLrenents for bala.nced Prinarlr Speed. Control Actj.on
conditions betlreen feeclwater flor aad flring rate sJld
vhere there is closer coupJ_ing between feeci prmp a.nd. fhe response capabllities for primary speeil control
turbine valve then in the case of d.rum-type unlts. action or governlng ca.n best be obtainecl ftom test in-
formation w-ith step changes in load. reference or some
The general philosophy of coord.inated or integrat-
equivalent oea.ns of obtaining a near step ehalg of
eclboifer turbine controls is d.escribed fl_mctional-ly tr.rrbine valves of approximately ,% in less tha.n 1 sec.
ln Fi.gure 10A. A signal incli.cative of load demeral 1s fhe turbine shaft power response i.s predlctable given
the boiler pressure deviation such step cha,nges


tEDlUu )> aerween
-+ ETC.


TO BOILER !!l9ls
o ,lra t* rttturEs


oNcE TlnU ur0lTs
Figure 10

In the case of integrated or eoorAinated' boiter-tr:rbine

anct high- that arry action through
and given the storage vol:rnes in reheater is to de- control systena it 1s presumed
p*"""E""" t"":-. Si-nc! the intent of the test the turbine
primary is sustained through
[rri"; the throttle pressure respons: the methocl of
' ;;;t;i;;; ir"=i"L ";t:;-;;;;"1
oi-tr'' load tlema'rrd rrequencv
'ith subJected
;;;;;";t"s the st^ep change (whether.via the loacl action
error. sntl that 9yq"'ti;"i"8 is not i-"
i.i"r"n"u oi trr. roaa iinit) is not eritical ae ]-ong
il;;;;8'(6) ii ti'ii the"?tease' the re-
;;-;;;- resulting change in valve position oceurs in ilil. on be reeogBized snd
A record of the chFnge can sulting effect '"lpo"""-"f'oultt
;oJ second. or less.
best be obtained fron measurement of the ehange in reported.
first stage Pressure.
Supplementary Control Aetion
In addition to the time response of this is ttr4pica1ly a puls-
<teviation irhich can be characterized as in Flgure 11' Suppleneotary eontrol aetion into a
the other parameter of ltoportance is--!he maximum mag- r"s ;;:-;;;i"ii'i'i"i'- ir sustained:--1:"u1op=
permit rithout ramp of the toad ot'"'ia ot
fo"a reference' Refering
nitucle of the change that the unit( rl-i11 ttErlEii tr" tJ"i"i"t-iay-"g"i" be characterizeil
a* g"ro1r" " or," "q,.,"r,t oc :irrlenc:s :I:t A3i8tl to Fisure 12,
i= -
;; ira;." in the fol:-oring table:
in drur Ieve1, temperaaure, u2' euu'/' is linitecl to
io*utir"" thii rnaxirm:m excursioi ln load BesPonse
First Stage Pressure
1-irdt setting. fhese limitations plotted should be identified
or Excursion linits a'nd on the ecales Initial
of Figr:re \. zZdi"'io" : ui"""' Maxim,n Basp Bate

"l'ii"i}"r AL
Referring to Figure 11, the govertling response
in the fo1-
AL ,T ,ALt ,T1 ,T2 'T3 'T 'AL1'T, 'T2 'T3
atlrities "r", l. characterized by figu'res
Iowing table, a sma1l excursion (51) end tne
Al"- For the sa'he of illustration 5}fi
ii;;;";-;;"rtsion "ot""i"g
figures are entered for a coal fired
i!pt.".ia"ai"" load
rrnit of moalerate =ir. (:OO-:OO Uw) at the 75% As Lntllcatetl ln Flgure 12'' from a practical mea-
leveI ar:rement point of vlev, the rmit response characteris-
Pressure Deviation Pressure Deviation tics nay-be derlved from a reeord of steam fl-ov or
Characteristics Characterlstics-Max ' flrst stage Preasure.
for ApProxiroate
' Permissibl-e Load
Inltial Load
Several- itens rtrich should be considered are:
ar A?1 AP2 Tr Te .AL API AP2 tr 'z 1. For the maxinr:m 'rsnp rate which it is possible
to irrplement by automatle supplenentary eon-
f of Rated Secs. I of Bate4 trols-, the duretion of the raslp T and' hence'
the exeursion AL rhich is penaissible'
7r% 5fl t% 3fi ,o 180
2. Under these responae tiuty
conclitions, the ef_
fective tine Iag, T, betreen It is hopecl that this paper rriJ.l_ be followed by
the foad reference y*.I' and starti"iii"ti.i
of the tur_
of several others rith theoretical_ a.nd test data that will
bine response. clefine w'ithin the franework herein established, the
sponse capabilities of prine movers of al-l types,
2 Tine lag, Tr, betreen
tine the turSine outputeessation of 'Iil'"**."
f"i"rr"fl."l a^nd
by AL.
4. Overshoot AL, if aqr. STEP CHANGE II{
Tine for the peaJ< o:f the overshoot'
applicable. Tr' if

fn adctition to these characteristics,

e:chibit non_linear rate liniting .ii;;;, nhich may
it voutci be
valuable to have the response eharaeterlstics
moclerate ramp, aay for a
ot Z%/-ain fo"-: Ji"i.".
The response eapabilities of
a."l: vould represent valuaple units so deter"nined
present\r aata vhich are not
reedily awaitable.(25) ft"-i"rrrr." io rhich
the tests are conducted. is very""r.
supplementarxr control tests, trrl".lfro"ra For the PRESSURE

be conclucted from the arspuici,-oiii"]"fftrrolrt preferably


1ar rarning so that the real .;;;;;;";-".nditionsparticu_

constraints are obseryed. anci

For inste,nce, as the supplementarXr

_ controls are
Pdu !9 ra&p a given unit,-n"""."Lf'-(ii.""
be allored to ,.:":_": iir" p:-*t lperators shou.ld
etc.). ff the unit is tripped ori, coiiior,*i1t" oh,
this fact
shou_t-d be noteil along rrith
liniting factors. "lr_urrt" ;;-;;. reasons and

Some exceLl-ent Figure II Suggested Measurements For Characteriza_

have_been reported. in tire ut;ra;;;unit
response tests tion of Response In prinary Speed Control
to iLlustrate the interpretatlon oi-"J"itt=. r" useci
"ii ""rr Refer_
ence 19 eontai.ns resu-Its of tests
oil end gas-fired onee_through on J"ru""L coa1,
Figure 13 a.ncl 1l+ are reproduetions r.rni.ts.
from that paper
a.nd shor the resDonse oi a
550 MW g""_ii""a
: 5? ry loatl chanle at 50 Mi+ p"r .ii*i. and uait for
a 155 Mt+
].oad change at 1o MW per ninut!. fg"il-tfr"t
ent overshoot on MH response occu*ecl for no appar_
either test.
Since the boiler variables within 1i.mits,
it is possible to p].ot theseremainedi""!--""""ft"
scales of Figure 1.- One point on the It! sracE pREsstrRE
plotted at
TPrg = 9.til per
lhis is point 1 on Figure
Tirur.1.i'o"e e:7il =-i.: minutes. OR STEATT FLOW

"u"."a nlint,
on Figr:re 1. occurs st 1-o/55o i:g/'#" point 2
minute for
l5r/to = t5.5 minutes. If both=or tireiJ points
sent liniting, or near\ liniting -"o"aiiiorr" repre_
unit, a straight line conneeting on the
these points, as
:h"y".9*h:9 on Figure 1, ,ro"ra i.piuJlit
teristic liniting curve for th" p;df;;ar r-rnit. a chara.c_
t. obtain aata ii"re rarrp rt Figure 12 - Suggested. Measurements for Characteriza_
;;;]"a :: };ii:* tion of Besponse In Supplementary Control


lEEn Uorking Group on porer

plant Response has
. T."
contributed this the subJeet of- po.Fer plant
DaDer on
Response confined io fossil fired
stean units rrith the
folJ.oring obJeetives:
1. f1l-ustrate and cliseuss the na^rqr espects of re_
sponse, including
]ypicaf dutles imposed by
the system and capabilities of ,_it".
Suggest connon nethods of charaeterizing
sponse uhich mey serve a re_
systen planners useful purpJse to
and operators.
3. E:courege the submission of fie1d test 5, Mti Load Change At ,O Mi.I per Min.
vhich nay be classifiedl encl data
550 UW Supercritical Unit_Gas Fired
eormon reference ""rp"".a-rritirin "

II. F.P. cleMel1o, D.N. E'wart, M' Temoshok' entiPover
r 11
\rn^^ fugenberger, "turbine frrergr Control Aid In
ir -*"-**^ svsten Perfornance," Proceedings of American Power
-..+ clnference , 1965, vol. 28, pp. lr:8-l+15'
150 --__.---_.-_ 12. P.G. Brown, F.P. tteMel1o, E'H' Iufest, and R'J'
EI Mi-11s, "Effects of Excitation, turbine Energr Con-
Ei trol antl transmission on fransient Stability"r fEEE
E , PAS,'pp. t2\7-1252, Julv/August 1970'
5i -..,.-______ 13. N. Cohn, "Control of Generation and Poser flow On
lntereonneeteci S5rstens," John Wi-Iey & Sons, 1p55'
N 3 \ t 6 1 I 9 ro 11P 131!]5 151? ]8 19
1l+. D.P. Tino end G.W. Sarney, "The operation of Large
l]IHIruTLS -Cyclic
Stea:n turbines to Linit Thermal Craeking'"
Figure 1)+ - 155 Mi'l Loaai Cha,nge At 10 MW Per Min' AS!,18 Publ-ication 5?-wa/rm-l+ .
550 Mw Supercritical Unit-Gas Fired
15. C.C' Young, "Equiprnent snd Sys.tem--Modeling for
Large scete Stability-Studies," PICA Conference
Paper, Session Y, P?. L53' ]1977'
15. F. Laubli and F.g. Fenton, "The Flexibility of the
Supercritical Boiler as a Partner in Pover Systen
Rff'BBTCES oesign and operation, Part I .and 1r"r-@E-Trans:-'
pp' 1?11 and 1719, July/Aueust 1971'
Poa'er Plant Response, IEtsE Working Group on PASt
- 1?. D.J. Ahner, F.P. deMe11o, C'E' Dyer, arrd V'C'
Plant Response to Load Charrges, ]EEE Trans" Sumer, ttAnalysis and Design of Controls for a
uarch 195?, pp. 38\. Once-Thru Boifer Ihrough Oigit"f Simulation"'
ISA Proceedings, 9th National Power fnstn::nenta-
2. J.B. Tice, rlrlust Define Requirements to Get fuoper
A967' 20, tion, 1955, PP' 11'
RAqrwe-" Electrical- Worl-d, November

t'Logic-Adaptive Process-for Control and 18. T.H. Jenl<ins, Jr', and B' Littman, "Response Capa-
3. M. Couvreirr, ISEE bility in the Conirol of Large Generating Units
Security in Interconn-ected Power S5rstems IEEE Conference Paper ?1 CP ?3 PI'IR, Janual-y 1!?1'"'
T";.,"PAS, vo1. 87, pp. 19?9, Decenber 1968' "
"Economic Control of Interconnected 19. F.H. Fenton, J.V. Pigford, "Rapid Response a'nd
' L.K. Kirchmayer,vo1.
11, John wilev & sons' t959' Maneuverabil-ity are Obtainable from Supercritical
;;;;" sy"teui," P1arts," ISA lnstnrmentation i'n the Pover Industry'
Reheat on vol. 13, 1970'
-- C. Concordj-a, "Effeet of Steam-turbine
5" As''E Paper 5B-A-35'
ip".JGovernor Pe"foma'n"t,"
20. O.w' Durrant, H.D. Vo11mer, "Need for a Stratery
5. C. Coneordia, F.P. deMeILo, L'K' Kirehmayer' and forBoller-Turbine-GeneratoiOperationandControl'r'
-'n.p,-i"ir"fz' IEEE Conference Paper 71 CP 2\lr-PlIR, January 1971'
"Rffeet of Prime-Mover Response and
Governing Charaeteristics 0n System Dyn1ii:^,:"'-
fornance," Amerj'ceIr Power Conference' ApriL l9oo' 2l-. E.H. MaeDonalil and J.T' O'Brien, "Unit Besponse
f""ti"g," IEEE Conference Paper 31 CP 65-772'
ttPerformance of lnterconnected sys-
J. c. Concordia, IEEE Speetn:m' Vol' 1' 22- A. Eopfenstein, "Response of Stean and l$clro
tems Follou-ing Disturbmces,"
pp. 58, To, 7?-80, June 195r' Generaiing Planis to Glneration control Tests
AIEE Transactions, 1950' "'
B. "IEEE Sta.ndard Definitions of Terms for Automatic
"Perfoluance of Spinning Reserves
Generation Control on Bleetric Power Systems"'@ - D.G. Blodgett,
systen Frequency Transients," TEEE confer-
t"*.,=., PAS, pp. 1358-f35\' Jul-y/Aueust 1970' Dr:ring
ence PaPer 63-225.
!'lntroduction to the Basic E'Le-
9. M.A. Eggenberger,
-6f Conirol- Systens for Large Steam E\rbine 2\. K.H. Workuan a,nd H'D' Vo11mer, Jr' ' "Frequetrcy
g.rr.t"to"=," G.E. Tlchnical Manual' GE[-3095A' Besponse Tests Or: WH Sa':nrnis Plant No' 5 Unit"'
fEE-E Trans., PAS, pp. 173L, July/August 1971'
10. M. Birnvaun, ELG. Noyes, "Electro-I$draulicofControl
Large 25. M.A. Eggenberger, "Pover Response of Mod'ern Feheat
for fmproved Availability and Operation Confer- Tr.rrbine Generators to Load Dispatchlng Signals
ii"". rurtines," As'lE-IE'Ex, Nationa1 Pover tsransaetions, 1950. "'
ence, Albany, Neu- York' Septeuber 19-23' 1965' ASrIE

_- - -'

D. G. CARROLL ass.igneda low generation cost per megawatt, they are

Acting Manager, Control Systems Design primarily used as baseJoad units today. Maneuvlring
requirements would be somewhat different from com_
Manager, Nuclear Operations Engineering
bus{on turbines, for, erample, which have a higher gen-
cration cost and are primarily uscd for peaking duty.
and However, it is poesible to ctimate these requiriments
and we believe large nuclear units should have the fol-
lowing capabilities.
Application Engineer
BWR Systems Engineering Department Load-Following Requirements
General Electric Company Ioad following requiranents can be divided into three
San Jose, California subcategories, as follows.
Daily lmd following entails a reduction of unit power
output during the evening and night hours and power
INTRODUCTION increases during the morning hours to accommodate the
The utility system operator has a continuing chaltenge: cbangrng customer losd imposd on the utility. Figure I
matching his generation to a load which constantly varies shows that there is some scasonal variation in magnitude
with time. As the nunber of nuclear units increases on of the variation, but the same general trend exists all
utility systems, it will become necessary for these units year. We believe nuclear units will be required to perform
also to contribute to this function. The purpose of this some daily load following, particularly for thoee utilities
paper is to detail how the Bttr/R can assist in meeting this with substantiat nmounts of nuclear on line or planned
challenge. for the near future.
This paper is structured as follows: the work we have The projected percentage of nuclear generation on
done in defining the expected maneuvering requirements many utility systems, when compared with the expectd
of utility systems for large units; a brief review of BWR minimum system loads, provides one indication of the
operating principles; the ability of the BWR to meet these nuclear unit load-following capability that will be nec-
needs; a brief summary of our experience to date; and,
6sary. Limitations on other operating units, particularly
finally, a brief discussion of scveral expected design im-
cycling restrictions on large fossil units, incr"ase the need
provements which will cnhancc cxisting maneuvering
for a load-following capability on new nuclear units.
Most daily load following by large steam units is now
ASSESSMENT OF MANEUVERING REQUIREMENTS accomplished by units responding at less than I prcnl
Reccntly, the B\ilR divisions in San Josc have worked
pcr minute, which we bclieve is currently an adequate
with the Electric Utility Systems Engineering Depart- rate 8nd may continue to be for sometime. Howevir, it
ment in Schcnectady in trying to quanrify utitiry-ne- may be appropriate to plan for capability of 2 to 3 per-
neuvering rcquirements for large nuclear units. Ai part cent per minute for operational flexibility and for diffi-
of our activities, the pertinent literature was revided, cult-to-quantify future contingencies.
and an asscssment of current operating capabilities of Being able to maneuver between at least 70 to 100
utility _generation (fossil-fired as well as nuclear), was percnt rated power on nuclear units is necessary to meet
made. In iddition to this scarch of written information, system needs. However, for operational flexibility and for
a series of mectings was held with planning, dispatching, diffrcult-to-quantiry situations, a very. desirable minimum
and operations personnel from a lotal of l0 representa- load is about 50 percent of rated power.
tive. domesJic utility operating companies an'd power Automated Generotion Control (AGC) accomplishes
pools distributcd geographically across the Unitcd'states utility system control functions including area tieJine
to obtain their perspective on current and future ma- regulations, mainteaance of grid frequency, and eco-
neuvering rcquirements. The rcsult of this work is a nomic,/environmental dispatching.
pi:jy: ofshat a genirating strtion Eust do to support Today, oost utilities tend to have only a few units
reliable, effficieat utility system operation. under active AGC. Currently, this duty is relegated to
We believc suclcar uaits mrsi coatributc
to mccting rubcritical fossil units and hydro units, where applicable.
this need for maneuvcring. Bccausc these units erl (Somc pools have !n agroemert that merrbcr utilities

Reprinted from Proceedings of the

American Power Conference, Volume 41,
L979, pp 73-78

24 would require a considerable operating data base to es'
tablish accPtability.
WEEK DAY Requirements-SummarY
It is evident to us that utility personnel are becoming
increasingly aware of thc important role that adequate
response characteristics will have on system reliability
ani operation. We beteve the aforementioned resPonse
rates represent a reasonable capability now and in the
immediate future to meet utility needs in this area' With
this in mind, let us review briefly what a B'$/R is and
how the BITiVR can meet expected maneuvering require-


z What ls a BWR?
Steam to drive a turbine-generator must be provided
by the steam source. A BWR is a nuclear-powered steam
.our"". The primary characteristic distinguishing it from
other nuclear steam sourcs is that the water circulating
througb the reactor core, serving as a coolant, is allowed
to boii in the core, creating steam in the "primary" loop'
ln a modern desigrr BWR, this steam is then dried and
piped directly to the steam turbine to produce electricity'
ilus the whole nuclear boiler process takes place within
a single pressl.rre vessel (Fig. 2).

Control of the Process

The rate of generation of steam in the nuclear boiler is
primarily controlled by two Parameters: control rods and
Fie. l-A utility's net load verics rith tinc of dey rad tine of yeer' iecirculating core flow rate. Power generation increases
as control rods are withdrawn znd/or reactor core flow
is increased.
shall have a minimum of 1 to 3 percent peak capacity Power changes made using core flow are distributed
available for nominal area control regulation') In the quite uniformly over the core. This method is the first
future, as large nuclear units make uP a Sreater Per- .noi". for accomplishing power changes' However, it is
centage of total generation capability, they will be r+ effective over a limited range of Power (up to
quitJ to participate in AGC. Retkement of older' small of rated power incremental change). For larger changes
fossil units will reinforce this need' in power, control rods are used to supplement the flow
Currently, AGC action is successfully accomplished by cnntrol range.
fossil units constrained to about I percent per minute' Automated power control, e.g., response to utility
although many are capablc of 3 to 5 pcrcent per minute' Automatic Generation Control signals, is accomplished
We believe at lst 2 Prcert per minute will be required T,ith the BWR by making use of the recirculation flow
in the future. Three percent per minute fsr area control control feature. This provides an excePtionally simple
regulation over a 5 to l0 Prcnt range of unit output control interface. Commands for power change are gen'
p-U^Uty represents an upper bound to the utilities' erated in the main steam turbine speed4oad controls by
needs. : inputs from the turbine speed governor and by a load
Local Governor Response provides fast, automatic' and demand reference set either locally by the station oper-
local unit response to grid frequency variations' ator or remotely by the utility's automatic generation
Future speed control specifications should conform to control system (Fig. 3). Tbe power change command is
current industry standards, which have provided reliable seen by the BWR as a demand to change core recircu-
system opcration in the past. Any alteratim or weaken- lation flow ratc. The core flow change effects a change in
ing of requirements would be cause for concern because steaming rate, which tends to change reactor pressure'
the effect would be unknown, diffrcult to evaluate, and The pressure regulator, functioning to hold pressure

BWR Maneuvering C;apbility to Follow Utility System Lud Demands

Fig. 2-BWR electdcal

gcncndng strtion.


constant, will then change the position of the turbine The most cotnmon means of varying the power of the
control valves, admitting more or less steam to the tur- BWR is by varying the recirculation flow through the
bine, thus completing the power change requested. This reactor core. This method is typicatly used for random or
mode of control is referred to as "turbine follow" oper- weekly load swings of 40 percent or less.
ation. Changes in power generation can be made auto-
matically over a power increment of up to 25 percent of Daily Load Following
rated power by the method just described. Larger Daily load following maneuvers on the order of 50
changes in power may be accomplished by supplementing percnt of rated power require a combination of recir-
the automatic range with manual control rod motion. culation flow changes and control rod position adjust-
.,C,' in
Design Capabilities
Benls. A typical maneuver of this type for plant
Table I is further illustrated in Fig. 4. The step changes
BWR maneuvering in response to daily load fluctua- in power were in response to the load dispatcher's request
tion will be accomplished solely with flow control or and do not necessarily represent the maximum unit ca-
combination with control rod motion when circum- pability. In fact, this unit had prepared for much faster
stances warrant. Power change rates of up to CI percent transition times, i.e., from minimum power to rated
per minute are possible using core flow control, but for power in less than one hour.
normal operation rates of up to 15 perccnt per minute are
recommended. Change rates of up to 2 percent per Automated Generation Control
minute are possible with control rod motion. We bclieve Of particular intcrest to the industry is the operating
these capabilities are more than adequarc to meet system cxperience of "Unit B rn Table.Iwhich [ss imtatled the
requirements. Deccsary cquipment to link the unit to the utility's
Automatic Generation Control slstcm. The unit has been
REVIEW OF OPERATING EXPERIENCE opcrating successfully in Ois mode since December 1978.
The logical question is "How does the performance of While the maneuvering rate and range crrrently bcing
currently operating units in responding to system needs utilized are less than the maximum capability of thi
compare with their design capabilities?" Operating ex- control system,r the fact of operation linked to a remote
perience suggests that satisfactory response is possible. dispatch computer is extremely significant in demon-
Most operating BWRs have demonstrated some degree of strating the basic dcsign capability of the BWR.
power maneuverability in response to a variety of system
Operation Within Current Fuel Constraints
and/or environmental needs. These maneuvers have in-
volved load swings of 5 to 50 percent of rated power at In order to minimize the risk of fuel rod cladding
repetition rates ranglng from daily to a ftw times a year. perforations, both therrral-hydraulic limits and fuel
preconditioning techniques are followed by the currentty
Table illustrates some typical load maneuven in re-
sponse to system demands that occurred in BIVRs in .Thc rrte of response rs wcll rs the high and low limit
1978. con-
rniots rre rct by thc opcntor on thc cintrot coorole.

i- *.-l

L-_ --J




of thc BSrR'
Fis, 3-Porcr 3cncntloa control-interhcrr

a few hours, and the second technique

is used for power
operating BWRs. Thc unit pcrformance described in hours or more'
I was in concrt *itn inesc Suidg[nes' with thc i";t*.o wiich qan bc madc over a few the
;;;;"; int"tJ in the industry on this subject' wc bclievc n'ii"in" illustrations n Table rexcept case "B'r in
(AGC)' had power in-
il;';;ii;;i"i-uti* discussion on the virrbilitv of BWR ioro-"ri" Generation Control
;;;;t several hours, and thus maintained thc
iil.r"i*"-ifty within thesc guidelines is appropriarc' power
;;;;;;, ihernal'hvdraulic opcrating maryEs ar9 propti",. operating margins- bY controlling the
"B".using AGc
iJfiritrtidns. Thi po*Jr changes for A
m*lj:ff *#'lrrxx":um*"r;ff;
were small and power redistribution was
combination of ihc two tcchniques would
most likely be
;;G;;;ii"ai*iiar! to its hishest operating
Load changes in- a ;rt,"d to thc typical deily load following cyclc in which
;;-;fi; controllcd poscr rediitributions
within the it i. a*it a to increasc unit power to near rated condi-
nuclear reactor o*'po*o output can
;;1;t itsclf. Thesc po*"r redistributions within a BWR tions in 20 to 30 minutes' In this casc' the unit
power in less
pti*"tUy duc to void (bubble)' fssion product' be increased to about 90 percent of rated
taZ* control rod redistribution'
..'io*o it- lO minutcs- The frnal l0 percant power can be

i.ait ribution as a result of rquired loaf in about thre hotrs, as dictatd by the power
Thil "Ur"i""a
ct anges should not compromiry f.c nret3cnstraints' redistribution within the core'
;;;t accomplished by establishing sufficient
by proper
ii"tet"Lrote'and during the power mancuver EXPECTED DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS
shapins and by itablishing the appropri+:
II'iiii"iiiJ;;;;;" ductnosc tucl scsnents which will ls That All There ls?
,o in"r""Ja po*cr to thc power redistribution As is evidcnt from the examples cited' the current
during the mancuver. As an alternativc to
may bc directly op"oring BWRs are amassing significant experiencc
margins, powcr redistribution today'
.-"or.ring to meet system needs as they occurB\ilR
"Jaitfi"A .iriimi,"a rc cxcccding the
;;ilu.d "ni
oi thc maneuver and the n-i.ri.* o:f tnit experiencc shows that-the is

iir"i" 6v controlling thc timc is used for inA."O flexiblc 8s a generation source' However' im'
positions. The first techniquc
power maneuYers' i-e', power increascs in less than pto""-."" with any lechnology are poesible' and such

BWR Maneuvering capability to Follow lttility system Load Demands



LOAD rN 1978 15.30% PER HOUR




with the BWR. With expected improvements
is the case
in the fuel and core desiga, as well as in the nuclear 120

steam supply hardware, we believe the BWR, particu- a

larly BWR/6, will be even greater value to thi utility g'@
Fuel and Core Design Changes =
Fuel and core desiga changes which rvill result in I
improved BWR maneuvering flexibility ar pre- o40
pressurized fuel rods, Control Cell Core and increased
preconditioning ramp rates and threshold. E zoi
Prepressurized Fuel Rodslrepressurization refers to a
0 u-
process in fuel manufacture in which the nuclear fuel 2mo (p0 uoo (EOo 12cf, t60o 2mo
pellets are loaded into a fuel rod, the rod is filled with TIME
helium to several atmospheres ofpressure, and the rod is F8. LTyDicd drily loed cycte for plert G Teble I.
sealed. This gas fill improves the heat conductance in the
gap between the fuel pellets and cladding, resulting patterns to assure t}te most economical fuet burn. The
lower fuel temperatures end reduced Ud thermal-ex- CCC design requires no such patterns changes. Future
pansion. Fuel reliability is thus cnhanced and the rec- operation is epsier to predict with the CCC, and the
ommended preconditioning threshold is raised" The net learning curve for operators to become familiar with
effect on maneuverability is that higher power can be changes in core variables during transients is shorter
achieved before starting preconditioning, thus shortening
because the same basic sequence of rod motion is fol-
the time spent on that process.
lowed each time he maneuvers the plant. Because of this
ControlCcllCor*-The Control Ccll Core (CCC) has been simplified operation, it is easy to p;edict thar the return
developed recently by General Electric Company. (It was tb full power will be improvcd ani plant capacity factor
described in some detail in a paper given ai the lVinter maximized.
1978 ANS Conference. The diign is being demonstrated lncrcoscd Prcconditioning Ramp potes ond lhrcshol{_ operating BWR now). Thi impact-that we
expect Preconditioning is a process of easing fuel into a high
this new design to have on maneuvering flexibility
can be power state the first time. This is done on all Zircallo-y_
summed up as simplified operation. The conventional
clad UO: fuel and can be thought of in the same way as
core design rcquired periodic changes in
control rod brcaking in a new parr of shoes. By slowing risini in

in groups
in the which allow the moving of rods either singly.or
power the first time,. points of.locA $p.h stress iriiiiil i"tling of coitrol rods in "gangs" can bc ex-
and the cladding are
interaction between tni fuel pellets
power ;ffi'to maki an important contribution to maneu-
refers to the
;ffiil;. iieconditioning t-hreshold bcgins- to develop and il"Uifiiv Ui?"tting "blrt t*'o hours off of the normal
i"""i'*ii"""uie ucfore i-hii stress
to of power startup time.
li" p.*"iaitioning ramp rate refers 1!:-t1tt
condition' It iirc'Rxirculotion Flow Conttol Systcn>A major
i*.1* used in i'nto the high qoY:r gwn of variable-s@
;;.ld-;.lear that-a higher tfirestrou and a faster il;r;l; ;h. is the replacement
flow confiol Yalves
inconveniencc of the DumDs bv constant'speed pumps and
pi*"iaitio"ing rate minim-ize the system' This new
proccss by reducingthe time required to
il;;;t" iecirculation flow-control
response to
;;;;;;Iil ii. e,periettce and desigrr improvements ;;i;; provides faster and more predictable

t"tipt high threshold' It is worth aeminds for recirculation flow change'

contribute to faster
this timiihe prec6nditioning ramp
rate is
il;;il;i;t as when preconditioning
tnot" than twice as iast
"l-r*Ev procedure' Further ad- As a result of a substantial utility survey' we hare
was first startd desirable maneuvering rates and ranges for
j;-;;;.1" the ramp"" "-"orntt'o"
i"tt *ill bc made as desigrr and o,t*tinJ
H;;;t;t*g unit.. mot rates and ranges are well
test data indicate.
*ifirin-ttt" design capability of the BWR' In addition' we
Nuclear Steam SuPPIY Hardware have cited examples of current maneuvenng expenence
tl: ;'i'fiir" on uiititv systems which demonstrate the
The most notable changes which are coming l" will i.Jiii,i"iin" gwi{ to respond to.the demands placed
,r"i*t-ti*. srpptv-.iitIm lrar.lyge and
are a new Rod ;; ft;;&t The fundamentai control prqlss for making
enhance BS|IR maneu"'t'Ang fleribility sound' The interface to
desigrr in thc it *" -S*-now control-is
6lJt"i*a tnformation Syftem and a
il oJ"t in i",omating this control process is simple' The
core recirculation flow control in fuel and hardware design.will
(for oroiected improvemeits
iJ Cont*t ond lnformotion Systcn*This system per- il-fi;,he capabilitv of the BWR to satisfv utilitv
iiwnZOl is a substantial redesign of th9 functions
for-"a LV the rod control and monitoring systems cur-
a number o'f
t f" pride in the flexibility which. the BWR has
;;i;;;*i"e' rr,e ieaiign incorporates a.-o".tt"t"a to date and look forward to promising
il;#'f*iri* t*t as sef'testing-and improved diag-
impact in maneu' d;;;;;-;;;. simplicitv
wittr empuasis on operating in
io1-ti-c-;td; but probablv the major future daigns.
;;;; fi;tLtl*v i't ittin..ontrol rod positioning


t{. p. l.lueller
t{estinghouse E lectric Corporation
l{uclear Energy Systems
p. 0. Boi 3d5
Pittsburgh, pennsylvania 15230

4b?tract -: There is a widely held notion

in the The need to match network demands with
etectrtc power generation cornrrunity
that nuclear units is even more.pressing in some iorelgnnuclear
qower.ptants are, in sone way, not well suited ippii_
oynantc rote in meeting the varying generation for a cations. France will prodice gS percent iti
of the distribution neiwork. ffie ioirce of this needi electricity with nuclear power Uy'inelJarofZOOO.
Taiwan (31-percent.nuc lear by tg6si,-r6"ea
misconception is not clear. perfraps-it-sterns from iio-i".-
ge?t by 1990) and Sweden (+6-perceni Ui tgSol-plrar-
the historic role nuclear po*ei f,ii-piiyed in the
from_a plrcerveo oeri"ciency in-
lel this trend. Even todiy, ihe;; is-; presiiirg neea
llil:9-sll!:s,.or for complete power transienf capauiiities in nuc.lear
ll:j.":. ts:lngrogy or ]a9f.of marsins to cor; safety power plants. It has been incumbent on-the
nof,lons .]n!presenting ofon_line
]]I]l!: oy curngle this paper is to dispel suci
plant data to iemon_
Steam.Supply lXstem (NSSS) vendors io-provide these
strate the load following ftexiUiiitv-of a pres_ capabilities from the onset of the nuciear power
surized l{ater Reactor (pxR). Ai baalg;ound, generation age and they have genera.lly respbnded
factors that affect trinsi6nt ridibiiii; andihe the
a. design that can assume a proactive io.le in
system design features engineered into ifie pHR to the networks requirements.
lnsure continued availability of these capabilities
are also discussed. DESIGN,COI{SIDERATIONS

. T!. basic
design objective of a pttR NSSS is to
the energy generated in the reactor core to
a steam generator where it is converted io steam to
..-Historically, nuclear power plants have been generator. (F.isure il. --rn
utilized in a base loaded irode iir irrii cJuntry. This !Iir:.1-!lfOine many ways,
Ene rhermat hydraulic design requirements of i
Igl:-T: fuel economi., .nO-not U!,any - ISSS'
are less demanding than a iomparable iorsit unii.--
]lf1enl..9glisn limitations. rn spite of spiialiis
produce electrility foi a
theoperating pressure, ternperature. and flow
ruer cost of about o.4I/KWH as requtrements are well within the li;its of proven
for coal and 4tlKllH for'oil fi.Acompared to l.Z|./KWH boiler technology. The potentiat lmpiit-of the nuc_
ravorable generation costs wil.l continue to These - rear process in the core on the hea.lth and safety of
bias the. public has generated special ctrai.tenqes to the
culllnt nuclear plants toward base load-operations rechnotogy. A host of design, manufactuiing, and
unrr I more efficient modern nuclear units'are insta.l_
Ied or until the economic.aavintige ii outweigteO by construction codes and standaids have been i6veiJpea
the need to match the production inO'coniunption of- to cover.the gamut of concerns from plint site .lota_
energy on the distr.ibution network. This .litter tion to.the processing, management, and shipping-of
factor wil'l become more dominani ii il,ii radioactive waste products. -These codes-anii stin_
nuclear capacity for any glven utiiliy-glorr. iroportion of dards have been successfully reduced to practice; and
their implementation assurei a safe NSSS'daaign-6a;is
with adequate margin for operating tieiioiltii. --- -
.Currently in the United States, nuclear power
produces gyg" l0 percent of the
energy: . This_is "eiri"ia-etettricat
expected to increase to over 25 . The_operating conditions in the i{SSS needed to
lnsure fuel_integrity result in a low tenrperature and
percent by 2000. In this time frame, utilities
large nuclear cormitrents (renneisei with pl:s:yT bllance of-plant turbine generator design.
ity, v;ii;y Author_ for iow temperature pressure
Cormonweatth Edison, duke
are_expected to follow network load demands wittr ' in this area is rell definbd anO maiuii.- nsaesl!ns
their nuclear units. The same ia Mrl!:^t!g turbine generator.and its support systems
with moderate
i"G;;;'utilities ano controls are normally designed to satisfact6rily
nuclear capacity ana a-iarte proportion withstand a greater variLty ani magnituJe
of hydroelectr.ic aeneration. - variations than the
of load
wlth its 6verriding safety
requirements. the balance of piant iesign "
does not normal)y limit the ability oi ttre nucl6ar
power.p1ant to meet varying networ-k generation

The remaining and ongoing safety challenge is to

operate the plant in a way to assuri continuid m.ini_
8l_lru-167-6 A paper recomended and approved by the mum risk to the public heilth and safety. In an
IEEE Poner cenelation Comlrtee of the iiii por"" extreme sense, this translates into preierving oper-
for preeentatl.on at the IEEE pES ating and shutdown cond.itions to assure-iontainment
IfJ.ater l,leetlng, Atlaata, GeorgLa, feUiuary- l_6, 19g1. of radioact'ive fission products wittrin-the NSSS boun_
liaauecript Euboitted June 17, l9g0; uade available 9lIt:::_.1! a practical' sense, this meanl-confinin!
for publlcatioa December 29. 19g0, Ene tlssion.products in the fuel under all norma.l ind
I rKe ty accident cond.itions.
Reprinted from IEEE Transoctiow on Power Apparatus
& systems, vol. pAS-101, pp. 3943-3950, oct. 19g2.
lilaintenance of adequate marg rns
trip settingt iii-itt" frdservation of condi-
products found iiiil""ili6a-io .ti,tt"iaiiirlctorv Kl'l/Fr--and DNBR
Confinementof radioactive fission i;;;i'';;;;;g-i.iio"nis-ii ir'iiio 6v the r{sssoperating
fue'l is asi'"Ii-uy-three distinct bound- iil operitot and
within the
-ute'irer and orotection systerni-ail
:;i;r; N'SSS pressure boundarv'
irao.-tn" ffi.a;;;;:'-'duiiantiat-"tosion bf operatins mareins
iontiin'lni"It"ii'it' Primarv emphasis itip rbnders the p'lant
;ii;. i'iis i'et c1ad.integrity' The :;"ilLii'in-i-reactir 't'icn control and
is on
olaced pore'u'iq-the '
noutj"nl- coni ai nment . aredurins
re l i ed ii'ir'.iiiii. io, oesta6iizing network
n"t*otk genbration
rlisi' J[ltr..' Lou
protection illii"ir-i' riieaure
liJi. ii"-iiaioictlvitiaccidents'
IEiioin design basis ""ieuse OPERATING FLEXIBILITY --

Preserving fuel clad primary

Adeouate margins and automatit
t9ill9] in the i
nsSs' its f uel' and its maneuveri ns c apab -
a.tiLir'"tiiritEr*i tor-irte po*"i"lli gi'pi:iriili-t[I-Pt'lRforri th

control and protectloit iiit"t'i" There are four key

ities these are aval rable scheduled.power
iiitots in achieving this: vers to optimize g"n"iiiion-"conomics.
uled power changes to''iii*i'" network
- Limiting the heat generated in the fuel' inn iapiuilities include:
the power or
- t4aintaining adequate heat removal from - Daily day/n'ight cycling of 50 percent
fuel. more.

- Limiting mechanical stresses to the fuel clad' - Rapid power ramp rates of 5 percent/min'
- fai'lure
Preserving adequate-marg'ins !9 II"fconditions' - Step changes in power of at least + 10 percent
limits au"ini-ii"'il ani accident of rated Povrer'
operability percent
Each of these factors influences.the
to to - Load reiection capac'ity of at least 50
and its aiiiiiy respond changing
of the PllR
rated Power'
network demands'
control systems are prov'ided for
of'the NSSS.defines the
The power output
'local temperature, pressure'-averagerpower and core power
linear heat generatton';iil u-t anvruet' The
disiribution control (llgure z''
in the core
il;;';#;;ion-rate-'(ruriFil i Pla::
::n:l1:.f ,:li,.':;ii::lill:i:l "+,:'::{l8rlligiill" Inveqtory Contro'l
K]I/FT low and feed
tion svstem 'is aesignei-io-[Gp the local (which could are senerallv equiPPqd with a-lJeed
a sma'll dnount of
il;'.is;'ill"dr*i-ti'Ji-p"il"t-iltto"ti.on. svstem that
-'i* continuouiti'witharaws
reduceheattranstei-caialilities)causedbyexces. iiiiii" r int tot-Iii"- l i ne remova'l of impur i t i e s'
liil-t "li-i"oorcil on ii'en-auting i'ry"i. o1 accident adiustments in cnemilirv' ino ieg'tall9l. "f
conditions. por." iiltiibution-contr.ol-during power neutron absorber. i.itt6"-iy.teri.
mane'ivers is a key Iii'"nt in
prtserving adequate
ments are made by triitgitg t-he
ratio of coo'lant The
lo-firlrr iimits' .Inadequate
ffi:;;i;di tutsiniionitoi'cin removed
oi;l ill theasvstem'
to coolant ;ilru;
oower distribution result in restricted ;;T;iil "..i"-toi t[e-c6ntrot sv:tq is m'ismatch
in the pressurizer^
ffi;; i;;;it-or load fol'lo* oPerations' between the measuret-riquia-i"'il
r""i it'itt' is.a-function of average
be tolerated in-a PllR because
Iii".-'i"is".*"0 level is plggratrmed
Bulk bo'iling cannot coolant temperaturel''rn"'iiqria
of the accorpaning heat-transferred from
fuel. The Depar;;;-i;;''N'gtgltg -Boilins Ratio
;;;il;";;'i constint'miss dr coolant at a1l oper-
the ating temPeratures'
(DNBR) characterizes-iniaeq'ite heat transfer'
iiitins ni normal po*er maneuvers ; is-regulated by
itH;-i duri
"nirJri", "I""i arr l'ii itresi-operat i on s' the reactor
i"Nilt'' Steam generator fluid inventory
- il;,,r:!*.::"::"fl:tl::J#'"1 liSo':.lni'""-
i?tl?rl;itii Hq:i*i;il,ill.*l:tlil'$h::{!l:

ffiffi"i; rrnltion' ii-t'"uit" load) steam senerator

oiii"i"nt"-ii one ot the more prob-
the simultan"out 'leve'l is tn" p"'ntipil actuating error,for the con-
able PIant accidents' iiri'tvit"i,i. 'rrretrt"-ti"iioiier
miimaiih betu6en reed andquick
to provide

mechanical flow also drives

Under normal operating conditions'-any antic'iPatorY response'
'lnteraction uetweel-iie'iiei-etement and its clad
il[t' "ii'iioiie'iignii]cunt stress in the clad' Tenperature Control
the fuel
ouring rapld power'ini*ii"s'
; reactor coolant
During normal power transients' absorbing con-
:$::i';r?:*;i':":lill i;i ;"ll1;t:.i:r ;l:l: I
temperature is conltoited by neutron
iodt.'o'" in or out of
action (PCI) is onri'iigniticlni after-sustained
the clad creeps in trol rods in the Jii'"'''in"t"
iniiiutt the number of heat
- -F;;
oeriods at a consta'nt-iEtrer-when the core to oecreile-ot
'dllli"u,i ;r;i. ltri-Hestinst'ouse Pr'lR' PCI rn" rod contro'l system
sistained (one month oroducing nuctea"'iislioni' the ncasured averase
constraints [-;;i;;ite-uv a oevtition of
ii-""ouiio.power levels (or
or more) operationi - coolant temperatui!'i;;-; irogiarmeo
(function of
i ini s t'ut aown ) subseq udnt
power in-contro't is
iL r'i*ii g-'.- turbine load) valuE"' itititipiilon power mismatch'
i;;;;;; ire"etue to ut'Eot'pi"tto it rates no sreater
'level is provided bv the
i'dii-i-ili"*t/hr'- oi"! t siven powernormallv avail-
reached d.rrins u'is iiii isiini' fute
at During large rapid Power r:1'1:tions'
notablv load
able porer ct,anse'laialitities ire available any
rejections, ttre roi'conirol system is supplemented
lower' Potrer leve'l '

its terperature control,function by a steam b1ryass
capabilities normally available, cover a range
iliiil-,nlni, :#i:'di::ir itF*:i;ir,ilill.:;, scheduled and unscheiuteapower'tiiniients ano of
some-instances, to the atmispheil: -iil;
action pre-
:tfl i nc I ude:
serves a more or less constant toia in'ihe reactor
until the rod control svstem ian-ilrionj to the rapid
- A
percent load reJection.
power decreases.
- A 10 perceirt step change.
_._ The steam terperature on the secondary side of a -
Pl{R is not directiy.controll"d i.-;ili;Iations A daylnight load follow cycle.
dry and saturated iteam. senerato" -'irii'li.IJii'tl,i[.1
with a
ature varies directly wiitr .
steai i*i!r". (a function - A 35 percent power lncrease at 5 percent/min.
gl^!ll!if loadins
9i, y,: ,ilil sfi;;;iiir.i.o7J"-.-,,
---' ThF ability of the plant to
average reactor coolant tenperatrire. .
netnork transients-can be asseis"j-Ey"
Pressyre Control the margins to reactor protection tiip-setpoints. or
The criticat reactor t"ipa J;ri;;
transients are: nonlccioent power
The reactor coolant.prcssure is contro.l led by
*i!:": and a spray systLm in the p""".
duced pyssure actuates the heaieri
Re_ - Overpower (Ktr/FI protection).
anount of in the p"essuiiier-ri[o"'rp.." tottre
increase pnessure. tnc'reiiiJ
i"J.rr.E"..tuates a
- Overtemperature (DNB protection).
spray nozzle in the pressurizei vipor-sp'ice rtrictr
then quickly condenses steam to .ebr.e-ii" pnessure. - Low Steam Generator t{ater Level (Inventory
The coolant Dnessure is miintiinejliirilnt protection).
steady state) at att operitins (in the
;J*"-iir"tr. - Low pressurizer pressure (pressure protection).
generator. pressure
is not direcily
controlted in a pttR with'a a"i ind-sairrited - ttig! pressurizer pressure (pressure
generator. It is a direct fuircilon-oi-itre steam protection).
loading on the steam geflerator andlor ttte tu.Oire
reactor coolant terpeiature. . . Axial
power distribution effects are
the 0verpower and/or Ore"t"mpe.uiuie factored
trip protection
Averiqe Power Control calculations.

. The average power generated in a pl{R is set by In the l,lestinohouse. protection system, overpower
the turbine generator iontro.l syrieil,' and overtemperatuie.protlction .;; ;;;;i
w'trictr responUs on the "'--
to network demands, tf,""ouit'u"""iote dis_
sured temperature rise ac"os. the-"Iiii""-laii. mea_
t.:l:!-]iI or throush operiior aciior. ihe errect of
rurDtne-power changes reflects into Load Rejection
ant system as chanoes,in.average c*iintitre reactor cool_
These chanses stimitate til-;;,i-c;;irii"svstem
to . .A load one of the most severe non_
accident power transients exferien."i-uy'uny
regulate the fission process to changi ttr6 genera_
put of the core. freat out- unit. rt is vital
disturbances hnd retain tteir'iuiiity'io' tnrousn sucn
Power Distribution quickly to subsesuent generation ,""ir.- respono
that trips off-tine auiing ;;;; .;-;;;;t Any unit
coutd fur_
ther jeopardize the staui itiy-ot-ir,i'ivrt"r.
Core power distribution.control is generally
'limited to the axiat.aimensi"il-' iioiirrio*.. distri-
butions are essentiatry iiieo iy ;;;';;rT;,
tion.of the control in-[rE""iii.i'iilr..andrntoca-
three-toop plR to a c3 perleni-ri.p-i'oii-reduction
t{estinghouse pr{R, axiai-porr." aiti"riitiil.r contror I!9m 97 percent power. Th;-i;y-;il"aliIristic or
senerally achieved by 3{justinj tri. iiiiiirn of the is this transient is the suoain mismair[-u!ir".n
reactor control roas-wrriirr-tr";E ; ;.5;'inftuence and,[{SSS power output. Th; a.iiy-Ji"il,"'rod turbine
on system to respond to this mismatih-causes contro.l
the axial power shape. ir"rtsiirui! neutron tfre system
iil i;r;;-p"ocess and, ,B and the pressures
'lncrease in stean Dressure to increise.
absorber are used tb arfecf !g^!:1! The sudden
therefore, the reactor cooiant-t"ri;;;irIe. collapses the voids ln
stimulates the automatic .oa io,ii.6i';;il This steam. generatorwater.tnvenioryl'-ir,li"iesurts in ine
the rods to change the-axiii p"*r-iiitiiiution. to move shrink in level toward the tri[-seiilir;;'and a

chanses-in soruuie il;;;;r'#;orier rn theThe ttrg steam bypass system. 'Thi;";i;il

reactor cootant can be.performed ;;r;;iii;
from the steam generator to-eiieifir;ly-;il_
the control reguirementi u"" gen""iiiy'siir.because press any further tempirature increisei]-
Tab.le 1
sunrnarizes the minimum.marg.ins d
points encountered during tt e-tiiniieii.' trip set_
- flg
data for the load rejection transient and
the transients in-nguii-c-il ;'il;; conected
?if::'i[: ::,:if: m:.irJ"l*4,-ir' ii'ii,i.
the pr{R
with dry ani saturattj tyi.-li.ii"tenerator
to in turbine generator 6ripri.-"fi,.se nan-
changes iilioiiF
euvers, rhich represent a small simiii-or'ine prn feedback in the pr{R i; reast iiieiii;.-i;'dampins
reactor coolant temoerature. crranlei.'
nr". result,
margins would increise for trie-iimi'traisients at
later times in the fuet cycie.
SnalI Step Changes

. Compared to a 'load.rejection, a 10 percent

change in power is a mita-iieriiie. -nf[torgn itstep
is a

anv plant extended 'loss of margin or violation of technical
rlatively small change, this capabi]liY in
i;';il;;i;"i io dvnamic network conror' ::*iiii*i:;, ii ti :;it;il.;lil:'"liii:lbil:iplii'
As with the load reiection Figure'3' the
fiffiffi Hu,:::1illi" t.llii::i::l:i :!'::t!::'
.ioniii.ini i"itr". oii[li .is-a. rapid control'
iransient power oiiiriutition The-ease
tb ttre core's
iiliiiiit'-[itween turui ne senerator and. I{SSS power
iiti"*ilit-ttriL controt is achieved is shown rn
f, llEH: il.ili.':i:':1, fi ll:ifl li' ili ii :" Figure 5.
axial power distribution during
large slow
!r'd;ks::tilrifil;::i".H":;:r, 3f ii'."'$iil'- The
.v. r i'J'oil"ii r'on I i.
,-nd bv xenon ( a neut^p"'1i::irllr'li,:?llTl.:#i
imatelY Percent. in
redisiribution -'uotnwithin irt"-i'it' the llestinghouse

BX'."13-!ffi"fi1'i:'hi::fi8! :ii'i! i;ii' &;;;; ; or'utele' nect'ani sms are, s ow1 v

:iild:' i3l "o'

iransient on the pru'i'ii-i'pposiie.
(ana,smaller) from
ii:Hf #:i,il;';tn;iii'.ll':ll'
i t"i'uv.itlll+:.
iffi"i,ii";l"iiio[ ;tr1;; ii.';".;1;.';3ffi! tltl;"' '
ffi il.; ;i-l r i',i
n' lirl'llli3l,
l#t'l'.t',llii*lifi' :l:X.i::'ffi:'lh'!i ffi"il;;i;;-coorant' . The
tefiPerature *tr:iil,;$ilrii",iFd:'.,." dlstrioiiiiit-piit'eter is-desisnated
colant (
n9r919' The tro'l led power
difierence in power sen-
itti"'iiiriE-ait", *'t'"tttp-bo*ei ii.'riid it simp'lv ihe core as
corresponding drop ii-tiifi iinerator
pre-ssure allows
iop and bottom of
causing eration between tn" .the
totated-outside the
the voids in the riquii-ii.veiioiv to eipand, indicated by neutron-iEtItt'ii ih' effectiveness of
l"E il.lirt (oi spari) level swel'l' reactor vessel. rigull"i-;;;t
trips during tiiii,r r ing-ii wi,ril.lmf'Tfl.' l$liolTllf.iln-
TabIe II stmnarizes the margins-to larqe load fol'low tr
the 10 percent tt"p iiitiula"io'r'tt.power' The drop ?ii"'
i:.m':iliii;,;i#s,::'1il' l:.!1.'t: -?fl:"i,::t3;-
16r steam^oenerator ofthe oPerator'
'level , there is no oii"trtili'in the respoises of the
Large Rapid Power Increases
plant protection pariilitii
(rigu"" 3)'--This charac-
H:g[[ii+ffi 1;i:*i:F l;,nii'ffi
:*1, fir;Hlqil' * ,l[:ri#ii,l'::i'il:
a generat'ing trip-
this capabilitv l'J'ia"posliui!-cuust-further
"of a sustained grid
Day/Ni-oht Load Follow CYcIe ping of other units II'; [;;it
a day/ instabilitY.
The lorl potler ramp rates associated-with
niqht load follow ci'ii" 'ate this an insionificant A 35 percent power increasq 3t. 5, percent/min is
of of the
trinsient from a t"itp"i"t'i" ini-ptett'""-ooint and' shown on Figure o' of
rates tliloil";;;";J-l'.percent/min'
view. .instances, ir'Iv.u*-ionsidbrably leSS than
RarP system parameters trti'ia-[!-i-sialed-up-version in Figure
in most 'livel control- the 10 percent p'*"t-tt"p-increase Siygn
howiver, the contro.l
this. rhe temperat;[: ;;;t;;;ir.1l9
leepins ihese parameters 4. In the ulestinghouie-i"sign,i"op in riactor coolant
progi;ri"i-'it"' Hence' margins to svstems u"" ,uppt*lfiiEo-ui'i power output'
close to tneir
uil*it'ir'itipi' generi'lly' are not iiii"litri"temperaturl'in-i-pin
incrbases pov{er output
the oy?ssure ano Dropping
eroabo bY these maneuvers ' throuqhtheactlonit.[n.negativ.emoderatorcoet.
cyclic porer ;i'c;fi.-"ihis acti6n ii inaEpenoent.or the power
A primary concern during. large il;;;;; roJe-ot the rod control system'
cnanfe! : :. *::lyl: substantial' up to,i^t.:;li:unv-iIiin

"l'S:.llilil1 ""
pinaltv The drop in temperature
lthl?:.''illi"iflli';;;-p"iir,a"' trip set- zoor'ii ;;[ ;ppl iHi;;;;;-ili. has a-pronounced
In spite
in the overpower "niii" bviitemperature
skewed por,.' shapes'
effect on the praniis'iiiisient fgsponse'
(Fibure 6)' adequate
iltii! Il-u'iliirt";i-;';;;;i'eiv or this -tnise-a"t
additional'p;tilil;i;;; surmarized in
marqins are still p[;;;;;: of this,transient makes
b'v the 10 per- t";i;-;;il;;
Snal1 power changes characterized n-ot cause large rabie III. The conventiona'l
cent step change tfilii'i'"Fiiu"t
dis- power distributioi'tiri-iti'i""i 9v 11t
in control"I[i potiiio'' -The.resulting
turbince in axia] poil"'ojti"ibution
'is small and
Laree .and rapid power
fiI:ll'itt l:; i:i i ;)"ii'l;l:.irilli;, l1,,;'H}""0'
perturu'irtt'iiili powei oisttibution to a travel.
chanses do however' do
considerable t'rinstents'
;i";;;;;-i;"qu"niiv, ino-tn" power distribution
",t"nt"'"r[!il- COI{CLUSION
:" :iti.luttti,*rili;y'lml i t]v'i'""0' this paPer
The p'lant transients

The large load rejection mo.ves-the'reactor

in the ,nureii a' i-wig"'ffi
:::S,i'ol.:::"$:liifl ' :i ffili! :f :.
distribution ^
dlrectlon (tow poier)'ii-eipanoeo
limits. rnv "equitli po*t.
strPg-l9ilstments are *lrilr!"i;'lliii:i:iilI;iltti
dem6nstrates the
! #:ii';ir:;nq E
tran s i ent vti th no iiio-,og9riuititv qualiries

li? i.i irrt i

r rtanii il-it'tii ttre or a PllR. rnit ri'jliliiitv in dviamic load sharing
the Pt{R o, .n
"tiii'iluotuii and stability'
to maximize net*oii-Jonomics


Initial l,linirum llaximum Deviation

Trip lrlaroin Trip ilarqin From Proqram
0verpower AT 11T FP AT III FP AT
Overtenperature AT 171 FP AT 16T FP AT
High RCS Pressure 140 psi 125 psi + 25 psi
Low RCS Pressure 375 psi 270 psi - 95 psi
High Pressurizer Level 30I of span 28t of span 23* of span
Low SG Level 281 of span 17I of span - l.2l of span
High SG Level of
321 span 21I of span + 101 of span


Initi al ilinimum llaximum Deviation

Trip l4aroin Trio ltlaroin From Prooram
0verpower AT zON FP AT 1OI FP AT
0vertelrperature AT ?II FP AT 119 FP AT
High RCS Pressure 160 psi 160 psi - ,o ,r,
Low RCS Pressure 325 psi 205 psi - 30 psi
High Pressurizer Level 59X of span 52.5* of span 4.4X of span
Low SG Level 39* of span 32I of span - 6l of span
High SG Level 30fl of span 25I of span + 5I of span


Initial l.linimun ilaximum Deviation

Trip lrlargin Trip trlargin From Program
0verpower AT 58' FP AT 22T FP AT
0vertenperature A 86T FP AT 52/ FP AT
High RCS Pressure 134 psi 126 psi + 24 psi
Low RCS Prrssure 306 psi 266 psi - 24 psi
High Pressure Leve'l 55I of span 551 of span 24I of span

SG = Steam Generator
!!S = Reactor Coolant System
FP = Full Power


-,-, F||,ff#f,i'."

r iif#IDARY


Fbre I The Etssntht ElilEna of a Presurized'wttfi Reactor

Figuo 2 Maior Poncr Gontrol Syrterns

8-o tlo-
' oL

''f tr
= m-

!,?*f o -' tttttlltllttttttt
Erg"I- -t. E

Figure 5 Deily Lod

TtflE fllouRsl

Fofiow Cyc{e

rE'fI E sl-
o 80 l--
r00 200 so 4m 8m ElI, cl
TtrE (sEcot osl IaDl-
Figtm 3 Loed Rcjection from 97% power to 54% pmr 60
+E r_

E t*r-
F.* E :\-
E tao l-- ovrRreupsnAruRE arrRrp
tlo 3g
el tro F
,g';F t
'10 It< 100 l--
m l-- I
g5F go

rurlt _
tE- z@ I

a &t- *- alo I
E tzoL cl
^L tao
H= -F
Iottlll lttttttttt
I ,,rr,i,*rr.., 3 . 06t0r520?F,3035itoa5
Ttrf,E (lfiNUrES

Fiprc 4 Sp Lo.d lncna from 90% power to 100?b powcr Fiture 0 35% Power tngoarc !t S[ruin.

Illsc{ssion 3'+"Hr'r#:Hffi:*l}f{f:#l'Xi##fr Hj#f.:'--'
be maintained?
curves'-or curves showing fuel
3. Is it possible to out"'oI""tiate
available to *;v;;fii;;
concerncd with power svstem *l:iT;tt", that exceed the Design
not readilv the operational effect of loads
l'ff ffiJJJ:tfli::ff #h'm",iixt*'*iJli'?":l:: H:lf.?a data appear to relate
"!:'t* size. t^o
*"lear unit or
for all

il;;;;h,; intended
dtsPel that misconceDtion' po*tt Eneineering societv certain Has any Ut"n made to obtain similar data
A paper r"t ,i"i"ritiiiil-ii'tit "t"JV
;;;;;;;;te corsiderations' and the treat- PWRs now in oPeration?
transactions is of course In the discussion
ment of some topics must b?oi"iitti ot points' In 25' l9El'
info*ii#i"V U" pi;m.9.?1..p*fi.
"uureviated' Manuscript received February
and closure, ,or" iespond to the following
that context, perhaps ut"
uTtro", Granted that
size of unit affect the response characteristics?
tTqt--ot 800 Mw to 1000
i*tAi"tio* 'itit-*t ones are certainly feasi- the time of printing"'
most of the projected "Closure not available at
and larger
Mw, smaller unit sizes.";;;;;;"1


F. E. Fenton, .rr., Uellber, fEEE

fhe FpA Corlroration
Avon, Connecticut

Ab?tract - The current praetice of placing

large-size fossil and. nuclear -"t""r_g"rr..ating uaits Our concern here is_not for generating capacity
uaximr:m system loads with suffict"r,i i"""*. to meet
f:ag comprcial operation will
at least the next 10 years. "oitiio. unabated for because these natters are covered in nmerousurargins
Such urrit", intended planning studies. Instead, orr. systen
prlnarlly for base-load operation, ge-nera1ly do not here is fa
have large 1oad-turndown ana two_itriil the opposite .irection, on the mi.nLmum
"orr..*ioao side where
abllities. Conaequently, a loss oi operattng flex_ cap_ there-is an equally ilnportant system generating
fbi]-lty Ls slonrly belng ireatea,itir-polentiar have individual unit load turndiwn or c]rcIing need to
future ability. cap_
problems for power syEteh operation.
Thls paper sr:marizes the essential results from historic pattern for most large_size units is
corplete report published by the Electric powera to have less load turndown flexibilit! than smaller
Research Institute (EpRt), 1e51"1, ias units. Although fossil units can Ue iisigned
Technical planning study. The study r^ras
basea on an E,RI rated with cycl-ing capability, this practice ana to date

assess the rninimr:m operatLng load and cycling unilertaken to has not been conEnon in the ir.s.a., ifr"r.
abilities of l_ndividual fossii units, ana it cap_ large-size units have been designea,", only a few
data for each of 1,3g7 existing rnit"-of corq)i1eit other plant components and sr:bsyster", io, cycling with
all sizes, duty.
desigm types, and fuel tlT)es. - Sp".ifi. The large fossil and nuclear units have
been designed
constraints primarily for base-Ioad operatj.on,
were idlentlfied $hich prevent fossil_unit operation *a iittf" consid_
lower minLmrsr loads and cycling. at eration has been given for the sustained operation
Unit_reg,ulating such units during off-peak hours at low, r,ninimun of
fangeS, respOnse rates, and response-rate constraints 1oads,
were also included. or for daily two-shift cycling operation.
lhe nain burden of power systeu cyclic load oper_ In view of the above facts, the EPRI
ations will have to - carried Uy U"tir'"*i"ting Planning Study was undertaken.for the purpose Technical
ation and new fossil-steam gener_ as assessment of the capability of existing of mking
units'aesiqrrea for cyclic steam urits in meeting the new iequirements fossill
operation. The l0ading limits and consi.raints which will
units inc]uded in this study provid. of fossil be imposed on thern with increasea- cycfic
-rrria quantitive ations. In particular, the load oper_
inforaation for new unlt aesign, , "".iof, ansi{ers to
ations, planning studies, g.rr"r"tioi specific_ the.following questions: (1) "t"ay
wtlat """gii
miiirnu* loads can
futr:re EPRI supported researih pr"i".t=.-'".n"i"lilnl-'""i individual fossil units operate at foi sustained over_
_niSh! and weekend periods? (2) I{hat constra:-nts can
be identified which prevent fossil units from
at lower rninimum loads? (3) How many existing operating
Purpose of Studw units have two-shift cycling capaUiiitya 4) Whatfossil
straints can be identified which preveirt fossil con_
from being cycled? (5) i{hat are the loaaing units
During the past 10 years there has been and un_
creasing number of rarge-size fossil anJ nuclear an in_ loading response rates of existing fossii un:.tsr
steam lrhat constrai.nts can be identifiea wfrici limit and
generating units placed into coE[ercial individ_
operation, thus
foming a trend which will continue ,iiio,ra ua1 unit rate of response?
for at least the next 10 years. foi .*"rpf", abatement ft was assumed for this study that nucl-ear units
infor=ration supplied by the n giorrui- based. on will not be available for daily load turndown ana cyc_
ability Councils, a recently putiierrea DoE il".tri.-;;p"r;-ti]
Reli_ ling operation. This wi11, thirefore, ,ra an
projects for the 1978-1987 -plrioct i; ;" greater burd.en on all types of fossil ,rnit"
in respond_
UnLted States that 109 ,r", ,rr-"1".r contiguous ing to cycling load dernands; o]d and new.ulits,
on-line, with a total ""it"
*iff be placed and sraIl units, drum-tfrpe and once_through units, large
rhich corresponds
-r"=ffi':"::n#'iltiorit fired and oil/gas fired units, efficieni Jnd i.neffic_ coal
unit. n"?;].].H ient units will each, in certain casesr frave to be
sidered for this nevi type of duty. con_
A neyr powe! system operating situation
created because a growing percentige of tfre is being For EpRf planning purposes, sotne measure of
total sys_
tem generation Ls coming froat largelsize r.rnits, capability of existing fossil unj.ts was considered de_
a1ly frour units in the 400-600 Mw class and especi_ since
above. ._-",}IibIl ":pecially the magnitude oi tr,. problem
block of qeneratlon from a sLngle unit does not giveA throughout the next 5 to 1o years. Reference
LzJ J,s the complete EPRI report on which this paper is
the Bystem operator the_ same fiexiriifty- as
an equal
aaount comi,ng from two, three, based.
or nore iniividuat ,rr-i.t=.
Survev Method of Approach

.hi:. il:;.*T::"$:.T::":i":"H:::".ff,:"::::,::
123 utilitles in the United srates, fi"f"ai"q1i"";,
F 7e 823-6 A paper prEenred;t tIrc i;
rnrezas.c7ase ;#3::H::i'iii:, j5
"":#i"::: :*$"|:r,_:tj:"
Joint Pck*r GeneraLion confererce, charrotte,
carolina, october 7-Ll, 1979. *;;;;recelved ttorth turned from g8-o!eruiir,'g-=v" including power pools,
tfiv 22' 1979; oade availabl" f;;";;;ilig for groups of certain utilities;
yf:rc resions, o. i Ne'Ri resions, were incruded.alr I
-rrry ii, De-

Reprinted from IEEE Transactions on Power

Appuratus & systems, vol. pAS-101, pp. 1410-l4lg,
June 1gg2.
ls approx- 6. Once-through Units' 2400 psi Pressure Group'
266,588 t[i{ of fossil-stean capacity,-*iY} with all subcritical Pressures
inaiely 59$ of tlte total installed fossil-stean Tf?-
;iay ieporteil in the u.s.A. for the year L977 LAJ' Tabulation of Data
glith such a large survey resPonse, the results of this
Etudy ean reasonably be assrned to be a representative Table I sr:rurarizes all of the units lncluiled II
;t;;ty of the loailing limits and constraints of all this survey, ana crassitied as ilescrilceil above;Table
fossil-stea$ units in the United states' ehovrs the diviEion U"*tt" non-ryc1ing ,andunits werc
The survey docr.rsrents which were sent to the utl1- ,-it" fot each class' Data for each of 1387
itieE contained a two-Part questlon form anil a set of includeit in 2t separat" iJrt" in ieference [2]' seP-
guiilelines, wtrich conlained instructions and defini- ;;;-a;i"" were-made for unit class (pressure
iiorr" of terms concerning the infonatlon be5'nq re- ;;i-typ. (eoa1 anil oi1lgas), and cyeling or non-cvc-
E."i"a. guestions in the Part A survey form requesteil
ling units where aPPlLcallle'
infomation on Power system Ioads, resPonse rates' nl-x
In each table units were rankedl according toitems:
generation on
the influence of nuclear and other Jra .""h table incluileil the following dlata
fossil-steam unit loading and response requirements' "ir"
Eoitever, the enphasis was placed in the Part B survey 1. Unit Size, MW
foim whi-ch requlsted detailedt infornation for each 2. Regulating Bigh anil l,oi' Limits'
fossil-steam unit including unit size, boiler tyPe' and 3. negul-ating Fange, t of unit size
prfunary fuel t1pe. fhe detailed survey guestLons ancl 4. avlrage anat Maximutn unit ResPonse Rates'
fuideline instructions "tt i"tf"a"d in-Relerentt t per rainute (t unit size)
5. ne'sponse Rate Constraint, coile nusrbers
cvclinq DefLned 6, uirrimrr* IoaA, t of unit size
1. llinirmrm Loail constraints, code nunbers
Cycling is a general term !'ith broad meaning' 8- Cycling constraints, code nufiibersi or
ntrich can be useil to &escribe all kinits of tiure itepend- cicling Re-start Times, hrs'
ent variationsi also, the variations can be changing'
;;t, up ana down along a continuous curve' '9" the Eables III e rv are representative samples
of the
aify foaa profile, or they may be changing in some on- the courplete ilata tabulatioi"-gi"t" in neference [2]'
off , diserete' Pattern. In the utility Lndlustry'
termr "cycling" is widely used to mean the on-off opera-
tion ofindi;idual genelating units; the above ilefini-
tion \ti1I be used throughout this report' Units ile- Using all of the tlata for iniliviclual' units'
sigmated as cycling units refer to their eaPabillty of formance sununaries for each unit class and fuel- tyPe
onloff, two-shift operation. Units without this caP- were developed. Each class was diviilecl
into sub-
ability, that is, all other units, are ilesignated as classesaccorilingtounitsize'anclgrouPsofunits
non-cycling units. air.r, assembleil together within th9 sane size
r"t. -
large ilata base
l.*.f. -a. The chief tttiot to obtain the to be compiletl and
;;; enable statistical averages
supported with enough values to $1irnile -the values' BY
.o-nitiU"t"a by variations in iniliviclual
Classification of Unit 'lata
operating char-
.-Jirr:.rrg uniis with eounlon design anil
into classes of sjmilar size' the requirc'l
The fossil-stearn unit was treated as the principal ".i.ii=ti""
p"t=p."tir. can be given to the.rnass of inclividual ilata
unit of statistical analysis in this study' To account values. the large data base Ls useful by itself to
for the really iliverse types of individual units' each compare performance of one rmit with another' and to
rxrit was first classifieit into one of 3 basic tlT)es' observe the range of variations ofwere particular values;
and secondly, further classifieil according to fu1l-1oail therefore, all of the sgryey data inclucled in the
throttle Pressure into one of four nourinal pressure epp."ai."= of Reference [2]'- xowevet' qroupeil data
!]t the essential
groups. Thirdlyr units were classifieil under one of 2 in the performance =ur*tiit" contain all
iuef'types; coal-fired units, ot o!1/gas-fired units' i"to*aiio" compitea by this study' and are
of pri-me
the latter being eourbined because of similar oPerating i-nterest andl lmPortance'
characteristica. Fina11y, units were tlivicledl Lnto The Performance srumaries for two
unit classes
either non-cycling or cycling units according to the have been-selectecl and incluiled in this paper' Tables V'
definition given above. Siurilar tables for the-remaining unit class-
and VI.
Unit tyPe was based on its associated boiler tyPe es are also included in Referen"e [z] ' but
they have
and classitieil either as a drwt or once-through tyPe not ben reprodlueed in this PaPer' The sub-classes
r.urit. onee-through units were then classified units' as
each class were based on uw inlervals by the
either suPercritical or subcritical Pressure cfass- ntmber of units an'l range of !'t!{ sizes-in each
'leternineil class; in-
Both natural and forced circulation boilers were tervalsofl20fql'g''"tt"="afortheclassesinthis
ified as dru$ tYPe units. Each table includes the unit sub-c1ass aveEtge
roi regurating range, average and maximum re-
;:iil is given
Unit Classes rates, and miiirnun-Ioaas' each of r*hich
il;;; out that these
ii p.t cent of unit size; it is Pointed-
Using four nominal Pressure grouPs' all units were average values t ere calculated from the pereentage
classified into one of the following 5 unit elasses: valuesofindividualunits'andwerenotbasedonthe
mid-value for each sr:b-elass' lfhe tables also include
t, Dru$ Units, 24OO Psi Pressure Group' wlth all a*r"tag" re-start times for cycling units
and the most
pressures above 2001 Psi comnonly rePorted constraints in each cetegory
vrith the
2. in:sr units, 18oo PEi Pressure GrouP, wlth all nulber of units reporti"g each constraint' Tables vII'
pressures betxteen 150I and 2OO0 psi and their
irum Units, 1250 Psi Pressure GrouP, with all VIII & Ix give tfre'constiaint coileinnr:sibers this paPer'
i""""i"i"a-."ntraints referredl to
pressures between 901 antt 1500 psi
A. utit=, 850 Psi Pressure Group' with all Some General Obsefvations
pressures between9OO psl anil less
5. Unit6, 35OO psl Supercritical Exanination of Tables v and vI' reveals
a rGI-
Pressure Group, with all supercritical ativelv narrou range of variation in the percentage

values of the perfoltrance characteristics between diff_ in each of tlle three also show uniformity j.n
erent sub-classes of the same unit class and fuel type. the reported data. erEng the dj.fferent constraints re_
ALthough variati.ons do exist, there is a surprlslng un_ ported for individual units. certain constraints \rere
iformi-ty of values; for example, in Table V, th"-r.g_ reported with a relati.vely high frequency and these
ulating range of all 24OO psi diun t]?e coal_fired have been designated as the principal, constraints.
units shows only a 2t variation (52 to 54t) and the Of
course, in the case of particular units, aL1 con_
udnimum load shows a 7t variatLon (35 to 42t). Ehls straints are important, but in the statistical sense,
pattern applied with only a few exceptions to all unit the Eost reported constraints arre of chief interest for
cLasses for a cornnon fuel type. the purposes of this. study.
Tables X and Xf, sumnrize the performance char_
acteristics for all l-800, 2400 and 35OO psi dt1mr and Response Rate Constraints
once-through type units; regulating range, response
. rate and minj:num load have been tabuLated on a meg_ The principal constraints for unit response rate
awatt basis, using the mid-value and percentage values are identified in Table vII where the most repoEted
from v, vI, and Reference [2]. constraints are Listed according to the pereentage of
total units in eaeh class reporting them. It is not
Iriinimum Load surprising to see that boiler contlo1 problems dominate
the principal constraints. Steam tenq)erature, and
Tabulations for minimrm load are shown for 24OO throttle pressure control constraints were reported
psi drum type units in Table V, and for 35OO psi once_ with a high percentage of all units in each class, and
through units in Table VI; sumary tabulations are drun leve1 control constraints with somewhat less fre_
gi.ven in Tables X and XI. The infLuence of unit size quency. Boiler rate of change limit was the tnost re_
is clearly in evidence for coal-fired unj.ts, where the ported constraint in 9 of the 12 unit-fuel type classes
trend is established for aL1 units below 660 MW, and and turbine rate of ehange limit was reported in a1I
extended with a steeper slope to the larger uni.ts, 9OO classes except one. Boiler auxiliary and unspecified
MW and above. For example, j-n Table Vf, note that the boiler control constraints were reported in sevelal
3500 psi once-through unit points for 900, 1140, and classes. However, boiler related, and boiler control
1380 MW are supported by average values of 9, 3, and z constraints were clearly the most reported constraints
units respectively, that is, they are not based on per_ for all classes of units.
formance of a single unit. For oil,/gas fired units,
with no units above 9OO MW, the ninisnur loads are Lower llininn]Ilt Load Constraints
and show no connon trend 1ine lrith unit size, and in
particular, 2400 psi drum tlrtr>e units show relatively principal constraints identified with 1ow mj-n_
1ow load capabilities for 540 and 7gO MW, for i-nr:m loads are tabulated in Table VIII..
values from 13 and 3 units respectively, as can be "*r"r"g" A clear dis_
seen tinction was apparent between the most reported con-
in Table xf. straints for eoal and oi\/gas fired units. For coal_
fired units, fiame instability was the rnost reported
Regulating Range constraint, followed by boiler control problems. For
oil/gas fired units, boiler control problems were most
The regu!-aiing range for coal-fired and oLl/gas reported. Increased turbine rotor cyclic stress vras
fired units can be seen (Tables V anal VI) to be simil,ar the next most reported constraint for both coal and oi1
up to, say, 540 UW, above which the range for coaL_ /gas fired units. The remaining constraints include
fired units tend.s to flatten out with increasing unlt boiler, tulbine, and plant or operation related pro_
size, corresponding to the relatively high minimum blems as identified in Table VffI.
loads shown in Table XI. plots of unit regulatitg ra_ For coal-fired units, the use of supplementary oj.1
nge as a function of unit sub-cIass size are included to support pulverized coal conbustj.on at 1ow loads has
in Reference [z]. a strong j-nfLuence on nlnimrur load capabili.ty. Some
respond.ents noted that their 1ov, load limits were given
Response Rates rithout oi1. It was reported in Reference [s] tf,ai, i,"
Past years, operation of coal-fi,red units without aux-
Average and naximum unit response rates are in_ iIiary fuel at mini,mum loads was the most vuLnerable
cluded in Tables X and XI, in Mw per minutes. Average operating condition for furnace explosions. Therefore,
response rates versus unit size were plotted with a it can be assumed that supplementary oi.1 is used for
l-east-squares fit for each unit type and fuel in Refer- those coal-fired units reporting ninimum loads which
et"e [Z], r.rhere typically higher rates are shown for are significantly lower than the values tabulated in
oil/gas fired units than for coal-fired units. Ihe Tables V, VI, X, and XI, lrhich range on the average
tabulated average rates for coal-fired units range be- from 35 to 45*.
tween 2 ancl 14 Mglnin, and for oil/gas fired units be-
tween 2 aad 16 Mw/:Ilin, the relatively high Cyclinq Constraints
value of 36 MW,/&in reported for tro, 54O MW, lBO0 psi
drum tlpe units. Tabulated values for maximw response The principal cycling constraints are identified
rates in general are ? to 3 tl,mes the correspondlng av- in Table Ix. In nearly all cases, the nost reported
erage response rates,l constraints were turbine related, chiefly with cyclic
induced rotor stress. The only exception to this was
IDENTIF]CATION OT' CONSTRAIMTS with the once-through units where the increased duty on
the start-up systeh valves was reported for both
Lists of typical constraints in each specJ.fled classes. The rernaining constraints reported related
category were included with the survey d.ocwnents.sent either to the boiter or to the plant operation, for ex-
to the utilities; the survey respondents ldentified anple, air heater and precipitator pLugging at cold
other constraints which were added to the original gas temperatures.
lists, aDd the resulting complete 1j.sts are tabulated Because operation at 1ow mininum loads presents
in TabLes VIf, vIlI, Ix. the nost reported constraints special problems uith coal-fired units, which consti-
I{nrr p,rbli.ation length restrictions tute the majority of large size units, as shown in
hava required Table f, it seeras that increased cycling of these units
the author to choose between presenting the results will have to be consialered, and that will demand that
in tabular or graphical form and he has selected the problems with turbine operation and the balance of
tabular form.

andl aI- press're ." "::l-T:l:;
plant oPeration will have to be investigated ffums the Present tre' r,"ili"il;r*i.f"l"ir'*:r=i"
i"r""ti". solutions evaluateil. ;;H;;-#iation to alr tvPes of drrs units'
lnfomatlon obtained
Supplenenting the detaileil characteriatica' the One srirvey resPondent includeil- a list'of seecill
iia been used to facilitate sy-
on unit cyclic fo"a p"Ifo'-""t" the nrnber of unLts ln Dlant features wfrictr
'cling on two, 450 !{w' iBOO psi dln'un tyPe units' the
strrvey areo south t";";;; io fe ot general interest
,ttt "arialit (sltaing) Pressrrre' Because epecial features "r" ito"ght
"itltat"" t""=t"';;;;;ii"i *tv-t" retro-fit here in their entirety:
variable Pressure cyclic loadl- oPerations' Ha ill t.pti"t"a
existing units tor'drot'ea inilucetl turbine nore flexibility in
rlth significant reduII;;--i" ryc1ic.
of units have been re- 1. $rrbine design allows clanger of rr:bs or metal
rotor Etress, " gto*iig ntuber cycling' 'iti"rt==
conversion to
oorted in the t""t"':'"li'riteraturerstlere
-this [e]' with variable fatigue' bypasses
operating node il" it""-t"at 2. Turbine blrPass and auxiliary-?t:* of stean
operation,'-it to"a changes-are' accomplished to the to"aliltt "rlow establishment
Dreesure v:]ve I'os ltlon' before rolling the
;iii" ? ";il'ri- rii=i'it''It[i' """t'ol
pitlJ-t-"'"ration' th-t'
flow ancl teq'erature
in pure variabre "1I: i:1n
posltion-' However' turbine ' all-ow
i'i*Ii--"t'i."-iootl-i"ri-loai to have unit part- 3. Alternate auxiliary stean suppliesstart-uP'
practice, it is somet-;" i""""""ty Increases' ancl the con- Euperheat teqrerature :"":t:l^f:-t
chest n':;:-"*i"n'
iciPation with Dore iapid foaa 4. lurbine u'at"' steancontinuousry'
somew-hatrless than 10ot'
tror valve is fixed ;;;;fu two slidtj:tg PresEure ;: Fu11-arc adrnission'
typlcally 10 to 3og iess' Ttrus' 5. Variable Pressure operation' and econonizer ale
oDeratingoodesare"*uoo"t.yel5>loyed,.eitherthepure 7. suPerheaters' reheaierdrainable
oia. or the '"airi"Il g$e witr' ltuirited horizonta] fu;; ana
valve "t.i'1u;1,-
ParticapaELon L'J' 8. Boiler, turbine' nain anil reheat
turbine control the control room'
lines are dtrainedt from(55 psig rrax) with
Number of Units Reporteil 9. r,ow presslle-iott'"'" pIEP
to report the firing rate controlled by metering
Survey resPondents were requesteil the throttle pres- sPeed' systeB'
unit loacl Point at t*'iti' tt'" tol o1 feeitwater.
10. SIq)Ie conileasate andfeedwater
li" ilr-ro"il varue; the survey re- There are only three
il; ;t*'reaches necks'
i-s srsuarized as follows: other tnan those in the condenser the
"p"i". 11. lfhere is
1. 2400 psi tlrtn t;}rtr)e units' all
fuels: air-ieaeration takes place in a
system' "o-"tp"t"tt.ileaerator-in
deaeratfuig section of the
with condenser'
--34 r:nits rePorted now oPerating is proviiled
recirculation Prl[)
variable pi't"=*t' of which 24 units L2. A hotwell
to oPerate in place condlensate pumP
(7It) were above 35O ry'-^-^ valve "-f !l" or stanclbv
lOOt when in ai iveinigt't
--15 of S4 units reportedi condition'
opening' or Pure variable. Plessure'
the- toP of
--10 of si ""ii" rePorteil rasP between Boiler controf Svstems
the throttle Pressule
?0 anit 90t unit load' pressure oPer-
planned for Althouqh not leLateil to l"Ti*lt
--1s units were rePorted ation, the infomaiio' ttq'"=tuu a]:
survev concern-
future conversion to variable Pressure i" sr'ruoarizecl here' fhe
oPeration' ing boiler tot'ttof how many units were equtpp-
survey sought to atl"Li"t type control systens
fuels: eit with coorainateiTintegrated
2- laoo Psi dnm tlPe unitsr all titr'
nor oPerating with colpaleil "o"tll'iiot"i """tr"r"'
iiiti"rrv -coordinateii
for supercritical
--29 units rePorted of wtrich 14 units tror svstems "tt"-;;i;;;i to ottrer
variastl pil="*"'
pressule u''it' Lell i;i';;' T" b:ii:.:pplieitcontrol is
(48t) uere above ry'-^^- valve types of units; iitpi"""a lEhe following
--I1 of z9 units rePorte'I 1o0B possible with thesJcontrol sYsteils' - con-
opening' or Pure variable Pressure' smarizes *" co-orainated/integrated
--9 of z6'uniti rePorteilrampthe toP of "''Lli'--oi
reporteil for each unit t!Pe'
between trol systems
the throttle Pressure psi: 1OI rePorteA'
?0 and 9Ot unit load' 1. once-through units' 3500
planned for units in t]:is survey'
--18 units were rePorteil
to valiabIe pressure 881 of all such
2400 psi: Io rePorte'I'
future conversion 2. once-through ""ft"'
units in this survey'
oPeration' 48t of all such reported' 18t of
3. Drrxt units, zioo p"it 44surveY'
3. other unit tyPes: all such units in this reported' 4* of
--13 units in the 1250now psi drsr unit 4. Drun units, iio6-ptit 14surveY'
class were rePortedl using or all such units in this
Planning to use variable Pressure POYIER SYStE!'l INFORIIATION
--f '"li-ti"t' in ttre 3500 andt 2400 psl' general informa-
o"te-ti'iougi' unit class' an4 1 unit lftre survey also requesteil sore rates of
in the 850 Psi' unit class were tion concernins pouer "vli*-ii"a"' 5il'Tmix' rn con-
for futY-e conversion
ttpotiti-pr-"""ed 'trun ilil;;;' iie'inrrul'n"" "r seneration
be-classified in
t'"tioui" Pressure oPeratLon' trast tith generating*inll=-'rtitr' can only in size a'il
"o r:nique eategories, P"';';;";; all
For all Present doBestlc U'S'A'
35Oo Psl units' loail range; trrat is' Iie syste$ concept.enibraces
ind-ividual systems
ut" ;;i";-;,ri,,""" walrE are uaintaLneil above super- sl-zes. tlre installea t"p""ity fro.-of ovet 20,ooo lilw
to-avotil a ti{o-Pltl?: water-stean lncluited in rhis "*Iv--iirre"-a with a total
critical PreBsure agpttcaftfity of variable (3 systens) to under i'oo t t'ia systeurs) '
nl.xture, thus 1i.nltiig ;"

instalLed capacity-of 3g2,Igg Mw,
or approxinately loads with their large fossil_steam units.
of the U.S.A. total.installed capacity- reported G9t
1977 [4]. The dominati"s ingrolnc. 'or
urtLts need hardly be emphaslzed, and thelrfossl.l-stea$ coNcLUSTONS
to porrer system regrulation 1s consequent
ev1clent. Fossil-steam unit cyclic load capabilities
beea examined by using data from a .-frilr,.rr=i.rre have
vey. the resulting study and analyses sur_
Svste! Ipad Change Rates must be viewed
as an overview because the subject is extremely
The survey obtained data for P}c:!:d for aany reasons, ana tfr" a..g.i" of over_
syste& average rnd siuPlification must be recognized, In the absence
oeak loads for sumer and rrinter. Aiso, systert maxi_ of
un load change rates for the following 3 tiae p"ifoi" established criteri.a to neisure .na
sults with, it is nore realistic to ""*f"r. the re_
rere obtained, 3 hour sustained; t hoL sustalnedi consider the in_
ninute short-tem regulatlon. as a basis for 10 fomation contained in *ris iepori-"I*'-"
comparl_ first-step in developing nore p-r..i""-a.rinitions necessary
son, the winter and sutcer peak loads for of
r'rere averaged, and all systens classlfled eaeh systeD the probloqc associat-ed ,rrti p";;o;;.. require_
into f-of-i nents ""it
load ranges as shown in iabte XII. for eact system, ever, 1n.i.n Eeeting power system load demands. Eow_
the load change rate in x per mlnute paE caleulated spite of the dispirity in aati i.po.a"a for
terms of its average value, as shown irrfable in individual units, the performar,".
vealing an interesting pattern. Naturally, or,fryt,'r"ga- re_ grouped data frorl units of sirnilar "fr"r"it'.ristic .in
size are design
iratt basis, the system rates of change shiw i.rr"r.""iig
" :h* nade
1 unifornoity which pemit
be with some validiiy. ,r,h.",r*";-;;""rvations to
value with increasing size. On . f"ii;";;l conclusions
the 3 hour sustained rate is n""rf|-if," same forbasis,
are based on these obsersations, and
by the
systems. Ifowever, on the t hour sultai.nea large data base acquired for this ""pport.a
the short-terfi 10 minute rate, the smaller rate and "t"av,---
have larger values; .9., for the 10 minute period, systems 1. Large fossil-steam units w.irieh have been
the smaller systems change at rnore than twice the designed for base_Load operation have
of the larger systeEs. Using the values of response rate inherent, generic constr-aints rii"r,
rates for individual fossll_stean units, as tabulated prevent cycling or sustained operation
elsewhere in this report, analyses of individuaf power at low, minimum 1oads.
system response rate capabilities could be m,de, 2. Uinimum load constraints are primarily
that i.s beyond the scope of this present study. but related to boiler operation, ilame in_
stabiU.ty (for coal_fired units), and
Nuclear Cvclic Load Capabilitv boiler control problens; and secondly,
by cyelic induced turbine rotor stress
Because of certain questions raised during .an and plant auxiliary and operational
EPRI ltorkshop on the cycling ability of iarge generat_ constraints.
ing units [g], tfr" survey included ihe foI1owing 3. Cycling constraints are prinarily related
tion concerning nuclear irrrlts, ii i"-""",_.d to cyclic induced turbine rotor ltress, and
nucLear units will not be used for on_off cycLing. that secondly, by constraints which are related
ever, are any nuclear units on this system now with boiler operation and balance of plant
used or being planned for use in nigtrity 10ad being operation. For once_through t)T)e units,
If so, specify whether BWR or pWn, rinit-lal size, the increased duty on stari_up--system valves
nagmitude of load tulndordn. and is also a najor constraint-
workshop concensus vras that nuclear 4. Fossil-steam uni.ts ean be designed for cycling
would not be cycleil on-off, but load turndown rrasunits
- _The
or operation; but special features in pLant
would be used on a few nuclear units. The survey equipment specifications using a toial system
firmed the workshop concensus, and the answers are con_ concept must be incorporated at the design
marized as follows: stage.
5. An increasing number of units are being
1. For 3I systems with 54 uni.ts in operation, retro-fitted for variable pressure operation,
22 systems answered NO. which is a feasible method of red.ucing
2. Of the above 22 systens, G systems reported rotor cyclic stress, and which can be adapted
that they were planning load turndown in the to srost units.
near future, or early 19g0rs, and 3 systems 6. Average response rates for Large size units
are considering load turndown. shorr a range from 1 to 3t per minute, based
3. 4 systems reported load turndown at present, on unit size. power system response rates
3 BWR and 3 pWR units, ranging to 5Ot 1oad. range fron .1 to .5* per minute, based on
system peak load. There are no cliteria
therefore, it is concluded that the assumption form general requirements, and each system
lfurited nuclear unit participatl,on in -"y"fi. load op_ must determine its own uni response rate
erations rras valid. specifications, based on its generation mix
and daily load profile.
Influence of Generation !,lix
survey respondents were asked to indicate the
fluence of hydro, pqnped storage, and combustion in_ EL^ _-_!L__wishes to thank
The author the Electric

tur_ _ power
bine on fossil-stean load r."g. '"r,d ..;;;;;-;;il: Research rnstitute for permission to publish this
Ee,,ts' rhis infruence was reported t" t. ri"iii'i--i' to also e:q)ress his
Est svstems. However, in systems witrr l:ee:, 1d Frank to
purpea ;;r";: ll; !- 1. for his support and "pi.."i.iio'
capacity, all reported that lhe off-peak'pffii";;i;;: and to Dr. J. s. de cani for his consultation in the
tened the load curve and reduced trre-miniiri use of statistics.
cting requirements on fossil-steara i"iu--.y_
rith large hydro capaclty reported tn"i ""i;;.io*", nlnimun REFERENCES
1:.9: on-off cycling were required duri
of high_"rr"inrair-lI-"-.."orr.r high strean -1? periods
[r] u. -s. Depart$ent of Energy, Eleetyie por:er suppz!
lz) tunseg of CVcLic Loal. Capabl:Litiee of Foeei,L-S-tean Ig] Abilitu o Generati 11711,t8 WO
Generatinq tlnits. EpRr EL-975, PaLo Alto, Calif.: to,
Electric Polrer Research Institute, Feb. 1979. Feb- 1978.

ll7 herating M@u&L, NAPsrc (North Anerican Power

Systens IntercoNection CoErittee), April 1977.

[a] "reze Annual statistical Report,n EleetrLeal llorld,

p. 91, Uarch 15' 1978.
[S] r. c. Eeil and o. w. Durrant, "Desigming Boilers Fnntr H. Fenton, Jr. (M'55-Mt69) was born on December 23, 19?,4 in
for western Coa1." Paper presented at Joint Potler
Conferenee, Da1las, Texas, Septeuiber 10-13, 1978. Rockledge, Pennsylvania. He received the B.S.M'E. and the M.S. in
Physics in l9l8 and 1959 respectively from Drexel University.
He has been associated with the analysis and computer simulation of
[e] s. w. Lovejoy and w. c. Riessr 'Variable Pressure control system problems since 1948, and has been employed with
OperatLon aril Startup of Large lurbines ln Utility
Power Plants." responsibilities for a wide variety of research and development projects
Conferenee, vor. il by Combustion Enginecring, Inc., Leeds and Northrup Co., and the
U.S. Navy. He was the founder and, since t977, is the president of The
FPA Corporation.
[z] r. n. Eenton, "observations on European Practice Mr. Fenton is a member of the IEEE System Dynamic Performance
with Eossil-Steao Units in Achieving Cyclic Ipad Subcommittee, the IEEE Working Group on Power Plant Response,
Capability for Power System Grial Requirenents." and the ISA committee on Power Plant Dynamics.
Paper presented at the American Potoer Confereree'
Chicago, Illinois, April 23-25, 1979.

[e] r. laerOli and F. H. Fenton, "Ttre Flexibility of

the Supercritical Boiler as a Partner in Power
Systen Design and operation. Part I: Theoretical
Relationships. Part II:Application and Field Test
ResEfts.' tWA fY
S74stens, lt


GeneratLng Capaclty, I{91 Generating Capaeity, *

Number of Units Coal Oil/Gas TotaI coal oillGas Total
Unit Plessure Group (riw) (!{w) (Mw)
class Type (psi) Coal oillcas Tota1 (o00) (ooo) (000) (r) (r) G)
1. Drrm 24OO L57 85 243 58.6 3?.3 95. 9 22.O 14-O 36.0
2. Drum 1800 165 168 333 29.A 17.0 45.0 10.9 6.4 17.3
3. Drrrrtr I25O 157 I55 313 14.1 12.8 26.9 E? 4.8 10.1
4- Drr[n 850 141 221 362 5.4 8.6 14 .0 2.O 3-2 3-2
5. Once-through 3500 82 33 115 55.2 19.6 74.8 20.7 7 -3 2A-O
6. once-through 24OO 15 6 21 7.I 1.9 9.0 2.7 o.7 3.4
Totals 717 670 1387 169-4 97.2 266.6 63 .5 36.4 100.0

unit Pressule Group Nunber of Units Per Cent of Iotal per Class
class rvl)e (psi) Non{ycling eycling Total Non-cycling Cvclinq
Coal Fireil UnLts
1. Drrrl 240A 133 24 157 85 15
2. Drurn 1800 86 79 165 52 48
3. Dn,rl 1250 58 99 157 37 63
4. Dlnsr 850 I
26 1r5 r41 18 a2
5. Once-through 3500
793 82 95 4
6. once-through 24AO

150 15 100 0
397 320 717 55 45
OIl,/Gas aired Unlts
1. Drun 24OO 50 36 86 58 42
2. Drun 18OO 91 77 158 5A 46
3. Drrrn 1250 69 87 I55 44
'29 56
4. Drrul 850 63 158 22L 7t
5. once-through 3500 33 033 100 o
6. Onee-through 2AOO 6 o6 roo 0
Is 3L2 358 6?0 47 53

Is fr; 678 lffi 51 49

(RePre3entative Sa$p1e BroB Reference 2)
Unit size Unit Beqrulation ResPonse
And t{ange & ResponseRate Rate Load Cycling
Pressure Irigh Low Range Avg Dlax Constraint & Constraint Constraint
(t{t[) 3* (!{t{) (t{Y{) (*) (s,/tnin) Code Nos (*)-Code Nos Code Nos

1. 699 B 626 450 25 1.0 1.4 2,3,5 64 - 2,3 ,6,7 L,2,3,8 ,lO
2. 699 B 626 450 25 r.o 1.4 2,3,5 64 - 2,3,6,7 1,2,3,8,10
3. 693 693 240 65 4.0 35 - 2,3,6 1,15,15
250 62 - o.8 - ,,: ,u_
670 B
iP, Pressure Sr:bgroups: A = 2500r B = 24oot c = z\oo, D -- 22oo, E = 2100

(Bepresentative Sample From Reference 2)
Unit Regulation ResPonse Cyclincr
Unit Size Re-start
Pressure Range & ResPonse Rate Rate !'tini'trlun Load Time
& Fuel High Lord ltange Avg Hax Constraint & Constraint S+ L=T**
(t,/min) Code Nos (t)tode (hrs)
.]!!g}- (Mw) (t)
-@)- P&r* 3-2+ l.O= 4.2
1. 559 c-o 659 130 80 5.6 1O'O L 20 - 6
2. 620 A-o 24 - 6 3.0 2.0= 5.0
3. 5oo A-o 30 - 5 2.O 3.0= 5.0
4. 454 B-o 430 1OO 73 2'2 2'2 2'6 17 - 6 2.0 3.0= 5.0
*P, Pressule SubgrouPs: A - 2ooo, B = 19001 C = 18001 D = 16-1700r E = 15oo Psi
*F, Fuel Codes: o - oil; I = gas
**s + L = E: s = tiure to s]mchronization, L = tioe to ful]. load, T = total tine



Unit Sub{lasses Averaoe values for Each Sub-class constraint Identif ication
Intervals = I2OMvl Most comnon reportecl constraints for
each sub-classt constraint codes in
Cycling Tabfes vII, VIII, Ix: ( ) = no. of units
Response Re-start
Regnrlating Rate . Minimum Times Response Minimum
Range Avg llax toad S+ L=T* Load Rate Cyclinq
Mid-Va1ue Range
Constraints Constraints
(Mw) (Ml{) Units (t) (t,/min) (*) (hrs)
Coal Fired Units
1. 180 L20-239 33 52 1.8 3.6 4L 3.7+ 4.3= 8.0 3(9),5(8) 3(31),1(7) 1(14)
2(2s) '2(13)
2. 300 240-359 55 52 2.O 3.1 3s 6.2 3.8=10.0 3(14),2(13) 3(47),6(ls) 'I(Ie)
3. 420 360-479 20 54 1.1 2.s 42 2.4 2.3= 4.7 2,4Q) 3(16),1,6(3) to),2(7)
4- 540 480-599 34 52 1.7 2.A 37 NA 2(L4l ,3(T2) 3(25),6(8) 2(18),1(13)
s- 660 500-719 15 52 1.3 3.7 40 2.4 2.5= 4.e stB),3(4) 3(12),6(s) Lt'7),2(41

Gas & oil Eired Units

72 2.g g.4 2A 4.5+ 3.5= 8'0 1'8(31 '2(2) 6(7) '1(3) 1(s) '2,8(3)
1. 180 t2}-23s 11 1'4(7) 's(s)
2. 3OO 24O-35s 18 7O 2.O 4.2 24 s.l 1.8= 6.9 r'Z(O) '3(3) 5(9) '1(3)
36o-47s 2a 58 2.6 3.9 23 1.6 2.9= 4.s 3 (19) ,s (18) 6 (24) ,1(11) r 4) '3(2\
3. 42o
65 1.9 2.5 18 3.3 2.3= 5.6 5'17(4) 6(5),3(4) 2(6) '2
4. 54O 48o-see t3 6(3) 5(4)
5. 660 600-719 7 66 1.o ]r'7 30 I's l-'5= 3'0 5(4)
6. 78o 7zo-A3g 3 77 1.2 1.2 10 0.5 4.8= 5.3 L,3,4,5 12) 6(3) 6(3)
6 73 1.8 2-O 23 5.0 3.0= 9.0 l(G) '2'5(2) 2A'L9(2) 2'6,7(2)
7. 9OO 840-9s9

Code No. Constraint DescriPtion CoaI niII Problens - unspecified'

-.f .- rurbine rate of chanqe limit' 11.
.2. Boiler rate of change ld-nit. L2. I.D. damPer and furnace draft problems'
*3. Excessive throttle steam pressure deviations. 13. Stack emissions
*4. Excessive boiler dnrm leve1 deviations. 14. Base load unit, or manual load control'
*R Excessive steam temPerature deviations. 15. Tulbine differential expansion'
*6, Rate linited by'auxiliary. 15. llanufacturers' Iimit on turbine-generator'
7. Rate lfunited by variable pressure oPeration. 17. Turbine rotor stress.
*8. Boiler eontrol problems - unspecified. 18. Turbine control valve.
o Bate limited by coal urll1 capacity- 19. Tulbine shell temperature change'
10. Coal nills - do not gri.ncl properly. 20. Scrubbing system.
*Principal constraints - nost reported for all unit classes

Unit Sub{lasses Average Values for Each Sub{Iass ConstraLnt Identification
Intervals = l2oulf t{ost cotrubn reported constraint for
Cycling each sr:b-classi constralnt codes in
Response Re-start Tables VII, VIII, IX: ( ) = no. of units
Regulating Rate Minimum Times Response Ml-niunrm
ltid-Value Range Range Avg Uax Ioad S + L=T* Rate Load Cycling
(}fi{) (ut{) unit8 l!l_ (r,/urin) (t) (hrs) Constraints Constraints constrai.nts
1. 300 240-359, 3 $R NR NR A7 NA 1,2 (3) 3 (3) 1 (3)
2. 420 360-479 9 49 1.3 4.3 43 NA 2l4l 3 (7) ]2rc) ,2(4)
3. 540 480-599 15 44 1.1 3.5 4t NA 2 0l 5 (11) ,3 (8) t2 (8)
4. 660 600-719 24 50 L.2 2.O 43 l1.O+ 4.0=15.0 2 (9) ,3,5, (8) 6 (5) ,3 (9) 2(12) ,1,3(LOt
5. 780 ?20-839 t7 58 0.9 3.5 34 2.5 2.5= 5.0 1(3) 3 (8) ,5 (7) t2 (71
6. 900 840-9s9 e 44 1-0 2.o 51 NA 1(4),2(3) 3 (e) 2(7| ,r(5)
7. LO20 - o
8. Ilrto 1080-1199 3 39 0.5 I.8 59 NA s(3) 2 (3)
9. L260 0
10.1380 1320-1439 2
OLl E cas Fired Units
,, rlo rls i, ; t,s,Z, et 2Q; 1,4,8,:1o,!2 (2)
1. 300 240-359 2 55 1..8 1.8 46 NA 6,7 (1, 7,2 (2) l r3 ,4 r7 12)
2. 420 360-379 S 46 L.7 5.2 39 lrA s(4),3(3) 6 (4) 12 (6) ,11 (5)
3. 540 480-599 I 56 3.O 4.A 38 NA 2 (5) 6(4) 12 (6)
4. 660 600-719 4 46 1.6 9 .4 44 rirA ! 12 15 19 (!\ 10 (1) 12 (3)
5. 780 720-839 11 56 2.t 5.1 40 NA 2 (s) (4) L217\,!,4,71(4)
*S + L = T: S = time to synchronization, L time to full 1oad, T Eotal, based2 ,6
= = on 1O-12 hour shutdown
Code No. Constraint Description
*1. Increased turbine rotor cyclic stress. 15. Can not lEintain SH & RH steam temperatures.
*2. Need to rellove turbine-driven boiler feedpump. 17. First stage turbine wheel cracks.
*3. Flane instabllity. 18. No elq>erience wlth low load operation.
*4. Excessive SH e RH steam terq)erature difference- 19. Steam extraction for industrial customers.
*5. Turbine control vafve problem *2O. Minimur flue gas temperature.
*6. Boiler control problems. 2\. Throttle pressure stability.
7. Other - not specified. *22. Boiler slagging.
*8. Turbine tDetal temperature. 23. Burner press\rre problems.
9. Li-Edted by ty5re of coal urills and exhausters. 24. Turbine-high back pressure.
10. Loss of steam supply for BFp turbine at- low *25. Feealwater heater-draln pr:mp capacity at low loads.
loads - 25. TurbLne she1I cracking.
*11. Top of pressure ramp on onee-through boifers. 27. I..P. tulbine overheating.
L2. Turbine-generator compound unit *28. ?urbine back-end moisture anil erosi.on at low 1oads.
13. Slag tapping unit, m1.nimr:n f1ow. 29. Start-up system operation required (once-through
t4. l{inimum BPF f1ow. units) .
*15. Stea$ distribution or boiler circ. problems. *Principal constraints-most reported (all unit classes).
Code No. Constraint Description
*1. Increased turbine rotor cyclic stless. L6. fnereased fuel cost by cycling.
*2. Increased theraal stress on turbine ateaEl L7. No by-pass valve to properly match boiler
chests, valve and inner casing. steam temperature with turbine metal temperature.
*3- Particle erosion of turbine blading from 18. llhermal stress on boiler steam headers.
exfoliation. 19. Economizer leaks and boiler backpass expansion
*4. Turbine vibrations, startup and shutdown. problems.
*5. Possibility of fulnace iurploslon/exploslon. 20.Superheater boilout problems.
5. Stean requlre$ents for condenser vacutun. 2t. Natural gas not available - required for start-ups.
.7. Need for i-ryroved boiler control to nLnimize 22. I.P. turbine rotor cracks.
unit re8tart and reloading tines. 23. Boiler superheater and water waLL fatigue.
*8. Corrosion and plugging of air preheaters at 24. Lack of condensate reserve prevents daily cycling.
cold teq>eratures. ZS. Load requirements.
*9. Therroal fatigue of superheater tube supports. 2G. Rotor rub.
r1O. Fracturlng of boiler membrane walls. 27. Burners ilon't seal correctly.
11. Lack of convenient transfer to Iow-load stean 2'3. Boiler theraral stress and rrater waLl tube failure.
Eupply for boiler feed-pump iteam turbine. 29. Regional voltage protection.
*L2. Increased duty cycle on once-through boiler 30. High boiLer tube maintenance.
start-up system valves. 3I. Turbine thrust problems.
13. Other - not specified. 32. Increased costs anil system economics.
L4. High sllica concentration in feedwater. 33. Improved autotnation for balance of plant needed.
*15. Insufficient instrumentation to monitor tur- 34. H.P. tufbine steam chest cracking. uetal temperature. 35. Freezing problems.
*Prineipal constraints-noat reported (a11 unit classes) 36. Boiler-turbine steam temp, uEtching problerns.
37. Desigmed or operated as base-load unit.

EAts'E X

Requlatinq Eange ResDonge Rate uinililrn Lad

Unit Coal OLllGas
Coal o1llcas Awl Uax Avg Uax coal oi1,/Gas
Sub{lass (m{Artn) (t{t{,/U1n} (t4i) (!{w)
(!.fi{) (tn{)
50 2324 28 22
80 58 40
r60 e5 ro2 3547
L32 154 46 813 89 62
240 138
320 170 173 26 919 80

400 ,:, 256 u-,- 58 152

480 ?46 11 11
560 36 64 - 141
640 5L2

ResDonse Rate Minlmrur Ioacl
Requlating Range
DrlEt Once-through
DrrE Once-through 2400 3500 2400 Drun Once-through
Unit 2400 3500 2400
Sub-Class 2400 3500 2400 Avg !,tax Avg Max Avg I'lax (l,ft!) (MW) (l'{w)
(uw) (Mw) fiw) (!fir) (urluin) (!'fi{,/Min) (t{w,/utn)
coal fired Units
180 94-75 37 3I014-77
NR 6 9 T{RNR 2 4 105 NR L20
300 156 156
420 227 205 512618 1"80
292 237 146 915511 3 5 2OO 173
540 264 297
660 343 330 323 724 813 5 11 277

780 - 452 427 - 265

918 3 10 - 459 198
900 - 396 468
ro20 - 572
1140 - 445
1380 -ri': ol-L/Gas Fired Un1ts
14 2L 731

5L7 3 5 50 - 101
180 130 - 65
4 105 138 120
300 156 165 156 613 5 5 6
111652277 97 117 L72
420 285 193 172
97 205
540 356 302 346 10 14 16 26 16 27 194
7111152 198 290
560 436 304
7A 3r2
780 601 431 991648
15 18 207
900 657

(For 3 hour, t hour, and 10 rlnute perlods)
uaximEl ResPonse Rates
llegawatts Per Cent of Peak Load
(Avgs of RePortecl Bates) (calculated)'
System Peak Nr[ber I hr 1o nin
of 3hr thr l0nln 3hr
Load Range (tArin) ---
(l,tti) Systens (Mw^ln)

1.0 1-8 3.9 o.16 0.32 0.59

I. 200 - 999 18
2.2 3.5 8.1 o.14 o.24 0.57
- 22
2. 1000 1999
4.1 6.0 13.3 0.14 o.2L 0.48
3. 2000 - 3999 2L
11.5 20.1 o.15 0.2I 0.34
- L2 8.3
4. 4000 7999
I L7.4 23.9 31.6 o.15 o.I9 o.27
5. 8000 - 22,OOO

cent of average slnter plus ermer peak loads, caleulated for

each system'
*calculations baseal on Per

Dhcrsoion "tilting-pad" bearings. Additionally, conversion of shaft end sealing
J. Mon (General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY): During thcsc times system from water to steam seals is also a ccnsideration. Finally, chang-
of rising fossil-fuel priccs, many power plants in the U.S. that were ing the control stage admission mode of the turbine has a significant ef-
originally designed as base loaded plants are being converted to cycling fect on turbine cycling flexibility and should be evaluated.
duty operation. Mr. Fenton's work is certainly timely and contributes to the
Mr. Fenton's excellent paper points up some real concerns and limita- understanding ofthis industry problem. I would suggest, however, that
tions facing power plant owners reg;arding the ability of &ese older many of the existing limitations can be overcome by careful and
plants to operate satisfactorily in cycling duty, The limitations reported
judicious upgrading and modification of the existing equipment along
are associated with both the turbine and stcam generator operating with the implementation of operating procedures designed to improve
charactcristics. cycling duty performance.
The plants in question, almos! without exe?tion, unploy constant
pressure boilers. The negative impact of constant pressure boilers on Manuscript rcceived December 4, 1981.

cycling duty (especially 2-shift cycling) is well documented and

understood in the utility industry, Mr. Fenton points out that many
utilities recognize the benefits of variable prcssure operation for cycling
and are actively considering convcrsions. Vf'hile this is certainly a step in F. H. FeEton, Jr.: The author expresses his appreciation for Mr. Mora's
the right direction, there are also important changes that can be made comments concerning the importance and timely nature of the survey
with respect to the turbine itsclf. In virtually all cases, it is possible to results, One pupose of the survey was to identify generic constraint
improve the cycling flexibility of an existing turbine through modifica- itcms which influence the cyclicJoad capability of fossil generating
tions to existing turbine components, instrumentation, and operating units. The success of the survey is self-evident as judged by the excellent
procedures. response of the electric utility companies in providing the survey data;
For successful operation in a cycling mode, it is most important that this fact in itself further eonfirms the current interest in this subject by
thermocouples are available at the proper locations, to protect and con- operating companies.
trol the turbine operation. Water detection themocouples are impor- Mr. Mora's comments concerning the possible improvement of the
tant because the opportunity for water to enter the turbine increases cyclicJoad capability of steam turbines through modifications to ex-
during cycling operation. Other thermocouples provide information isting components, instrumentation, and operating procedures provide
necessary for controlling thermal stress during start-up and cycling an excellent example of the potential value of the survey study results.
operation. Retrofitting the turbine with a rotor stress monitor is a That is, many of the problems with cyclicJoad operation of existing
powerful tool that can be made available to many older machines. Us- generating units can be solved (or at least allieviated), after they have
ing such a device simplifies the task of an operator during start-up tran- been identified and understood, by judicious up-grading and modifica-
sients by providing on-line guidance. This feature makes it possible to tion of the existing equipment; Mr. Mora's recommendations illustrate
evaluate and optimize start-up procedures so that faster start-up times one way the large amount of data and information produced by the
can be achieved without exceeding thermal stress targets, survey can be usefully interpreted and applied,
Another equipment modification which increases the ability of older
turbines to cycle is the replacement of high pressure rotor bearings with Manuscript received Fcbruary 3, 1962.

Ai TIIE IIoLyRooD srATroN rN NElrourlDLAND

T.R. Vatcher E.V. Larsen

Senior Mechanical Engir'eer Application Engineer
Newfoundland and Labradot HYdro
General Electric ComPanY

St. Johns, Newfoundlaod SchenectadY, New York

Prepared for the American ?olcer Conference

Apri1- 24, 1979 Chicago, Illinois


The ability of a poner plant to transiently

increase its output in response !o power system de-
mands is of prime importance for units being utilized
as spinniag reserver as it can significantly affect
system securi.ty. [I,2r3] Following the loss of a
glneration unit, sysLem frequency will decrease and,
if enough generation increase ar,d/or load shedding
takes place, wiII reach a minimum at about three to
five siconds and then begin iocreasing. Hence, Lhe
response of the spinniog reserve units in the first
thrle seconds is critical to planning the amount of
load shedding necessary to Prevent a system collapse'
The response of Lhe reserve units over the next five
to ten minutes will deLermine how quickly system
operation can be restored to normal'
A system disturbance occuted on the Newfouadland a0Kv

and Labrador llydro power grid near midnight of Decem- BAY O'FSPOIR
ber 23, 1976 rghich resulted in a system collapse' mMw

This occurrence denonstrated the need to consider the

Lransient response capability of the thermal Plants at
Holyrood when used for spinning reserve. The Nunber 2
uaii at the Holyrood plant, operating at a load of 65
megawatts, tripped off due to a component failure in
the excitation circuit. Unit 1, rated at 150 mega-
watts and operating at only 100 megawaLts to provide Figure 1. ltajor Generation and Transmission
spinning reserve, tripped 13 seconds -later due to
on Newfoundland
,r'rrd".frlq,r.o"y' Plant tharts indicated that Uoit I
responded to the system disturbance --by initially Units 1 and 2 are identical as far as the major
opuoiog the main control valves to 100f,, but at Lhe eouipments are concerned, each consisting of a 1'05 x
rfib fU/Ur. oit fired reheat-steam generator, wjth
time oi its trip had picked up only 15 of the 50 mega-
watts available in steadY state. rated steam condiLions of 1800 psig, 1000-F/1000-F'
7.7" Hg. Each unit is provided with 6-stages of
The factors affecting the response capability of feedwat-er horizontal closed heaters and with a direct
thernal units include the inherent characLeristics of contact design tray-type deaerator' The No' 1 L'P'
the turbine and boiler, their control systems, and Lhe heatpr has siaialess steel tubes, No' 2 and all three
plant auxiliary systems. As a result of the system
-co11apse other H.P. heaters have carboo steel tubes' Two 100%
in December of 1976, it was felt that tests vertical extractlon prmps are provided for each unit
on thl Holyrood Station should be perforned such that with two 50% boiler feed pumps. Fuel is received from
system operating practices could reflect the actual oceao taokers at the station marine terminal in Coo-
pl.formance capabilities of these units when used for ception Bay and sLored at the Lank farm south of the
spinning reserve. Such tests are proposed by the IEEE p1lnt. A ireheated supply of fuel oil is continuously
working group oo Power plant response, [3] and similar lor boiler denands. Figure 2 shows a sche-
tests have been performed by Ohio Edison Company as matic diagram of the plant steam flow'
reported in [5].
The throttle valve assembly consisls of six
iodividual valves controlled sequentially by the ram
HOLYROOD PLANT DESCRIPTION rod. This assembly is designed to co'xpensate for the
nonlinearities of the individuai valves and yield a
The Ilolyrood Thermal Generating Station comprises lioear relation between ram stroke and sLeady-state
LvTo oil-fired units' each rated at 150 Mi'i' These flo+, rate,
represent the first major thermal units insLalled on
th-e Ner+foundland and Labrador Hydro system, adding 300 The turbine is equipped with an Electro-Hydraulic
t{\,/ to 580 MI't hydro and 100 }Ilrl gas turbi-ne Seneratioa' Control (EHC), and includes a special isochronous
plus 349 M1.7 intercoanected capacity of other utilities feature. This feature, when applied to a single unit
on the island (see Figure 1). orr a system, provides automatic reset of sysLern fre-
quency as load varies. To perform this function, an
Reprinted from Proceedings of the int.giat path is added to the convenLional propor:tion-
American Power Conference,
Volume 4L, Lg7g, PP' 1103-1106'
sl control rrithin the EEC. ooe rcsuLt of this unique BQI'IPXETT SEflJP
feature is a loner ral Etroke rrte; .bout 201/eec, for
the Holyrood uaits es oppoeed to rbout 501/aec. rith a fhe tcst cetup cuployed a Honeyuell Visicorder
conventional reheat EHC.
rodel 1858 CRT shich eorploys high gain (188 HGD) and
log gain (f883 lfPD) arplifiers. The chart size of the
visicordcr (oaly eight incbes) prevented the use of
the total +10 volt inputs available, and to permit
sider defleition.the + outputs nere scaLed on a 0-10
volt basis. ?he erplifiers used on the 1858 CRT
vieicorder nould have loaded the output signals fron
the plant iastnuentation system. To prevent this
Ioading, a high iapedance voLtage divider consisting
of e 100 lfl end a 10 lf,) resistor were used. The
sitnal rcroas the 10 lfl resistor was ampli.fied in the
vigicorder to tive sufficient dcflection. The signals
I recorded were: forced draft fan daarper position, dnrm
tlt\ level, ltean flow (point B in Figure i), oain steam
L prcaaure ahead of the stop valve (point A in Figure
r-i -l 2), generator negarratts, and throttle valve
fr I
rao stroke, or ilvalve" position. All steady-state
il I
L data ras read froa the cxisting statiou instrumenta-
Flgure 2. Flow Chart
Eolyrood Geaeratlog Statloo the results fron valve stcp tests of iacreasing
levels are thonn in Figures 3 and 4. Figure 3 shows
rEST DESCRIPTIOH the reeponse of valve positioo, Degaeatt clange out of
the uDit, Drin' ateao flow, aod aain steam pressure.
The first part of the tests involved sioulating Froa this figure it can be seen tbat the rate limit on
step increeses in load deland, or injections of power the valve is 201/sec, and the resulting initial rate
into the systeo, on Units 1 aad 2. To cause the uait of lise of output poyer rras about gI per second,
to pick up 1oad, a resistatrce sas srritched into an roughly the aDouat expected based on the proportion of
amplifier ia the EEC prior to the load linit. The power froa the high pressure section relative to the
unit's load linit rras aet to tive the deeired fiaal reheat poeer. It is also seen from Figure 3 that the
valve position, and the ssitched resistance was euffi- relative increase in negauatt output over the first
cient to drive the EIC into load linit. Thus, a very three secoads betveen the 30 atrd 40 netai.att steps is
rapid step change in valve cootrol sitnel eas less thao that erpected based on liaeai extrapolition
achieved, vith the throttle valve ral rod respondiag of responses froa the 20 to 30 negawatt steps. This
sith a rate linit of 2ol/sec. and thea holding steady is iadicative of eaturation in the ectual response
at the desired Level. over the first three seconds coopared to the requisted
response. This saturation effect is due in pirt to
The conplete utrit els closely aooitored to nsure the valve rete IiEit, and in part to the initlal
that each Etage of the testing ras Etarted vith steady pressure drop which is deterrined by the drum size o{
state conditions and that critical variables, such as the unit.
drum level, reaained eithiD safe linits for the dura-
tion of the transieat, A11 te:ts sterted froo full PSI aPRESSURE
pressure, buL the iaitial teqrerature varied fron
948-F to 980-F. This variatioa in terperature has
oaly a Dioor effect upon the traasieot perfornance of
the plant. Prior to each iajection teat a couat down - 100
nas lade fron five to zero sith the chart recorder
startiDg .t three, aad the eritch thrown at zero. The
recorder trace rras started rith r chart epeed of 0.4
in./sec. for approxilately oae Einute aod theo changed
to .l in./sec. for the duratioa of the tcst.
Ia the aecond series of t.sts, e ruall unit at
Bay D'Espoir uas tripped caueiag oae f,olyrood unit to
pick up the rysteE geoeration deficieacy. For theee
teata, the tovernor droop sag dccreased fron 5I to
2.75I tr,d the other l{olyrood uait rls rua into loed
|-iait. The. govcroors rt Bay D'Espoir scre .djusted to
31 droop (vcrrus 2! ooraally). Prior to each uoit
trip tt 3ry D'Erpoir, ! couatdora erc lade froa ten
seconds to zcro ryith tbe visicordcr stlrting .t threc
.ad the uEit trip occurriag .t tbe couat of zero. To 0.3
prevent qoaecer!.ry lord ahedding during ihese tcsts,
systea uaderfrequcncy conditions rcre ronitorcd. o2
Two-ray rsdios were used to ulrn the control rooa io
the event that frequency dropped belon relay Betti[te 0,1
of 58.8 llZ for lorc thaa 30 seconds, rs the relays
vere aet to trip rt 45 rec. The ectioa to allcviate
thie condition sould have beea to take the load liait
off th f,olyrood uEit Dot uader t3t sad 1et it a3siat t ts5co
EystCA recovery.
Plgure 3. Valve Step (IDjectlon) Test Reeults,
lrnlt 1

The HW response to step increases in valve posi-
Over a longer term of several mioutes, it can be
tion is sumarized in Figure 6. This figure shows the
the megar{att increase after
seen from Figure-step 4isthat
somewhat slos'er because of the
actual chaage in megawatts at various times after the
it. ioiti"f step as a lunction of the oegatratt demand, or -the
reheat time constant, which from the test data appears final steady state value for that particular valve
io--il-a"t.t"u"n ten and twelve secoods ' Pressure couti- position. The curves graphically illustrate the
decay after its initial drop until iL reaches iaturation characteristics with respect to increasing
, ,inirut betveen 1 and 1.5 mitrutes, whereupon the
megardatt demands on the uni!, which are due to valve
the increased firing rate halts the decline raie of opeoing and drum size for the first few sec-
and begins to bring pressure back to its set point'
onds, and- goveioed for this unit by the forced draft
fan for peiiod" betq,een half a ninute and five min-
utes. Such a curve cao be used to predict the ex-
pected response should a major loss of generation and
lt.quuo.y decline cause lhe EIIC to respond
with fu11 vaive opening. This is the information
required by the utility to accurately predict their
spinning reserve nargins.

aMW(tl t >10MlN.

39^'Xff*?"H3[ fL** o' 18m Psrc

t = lMlN.


Flgure 4. Valve SteP (Injection) Test Results' t= SSEC.

Unit 1
t= 3SEC.

The boiler power output during the period from

about one half 1o five minutes is limited by turn the
maximum al}owable firing rate' The firing rate in t= 1SEC.
can be limited by any or several of a number of vari-
ables, among them feedwater flow and air flor'r' Figure
5 shows the response of the feedwaEer flow valve and
ih. fot..d draft damper position to this disturbance'
It is seen from these .r..'u" that the feedwater flow
,oir. op.rr"d and then closed prior to reaching its
fi*it, i"ai.ative of sufficient feed water capability'
d" iorced draft fan damper, hovrever, Soes to flow MW DEMAND
maximum limit. Thus, the maximum available air vs Demaod
is limiting the firing rate' Figure 6. ResPonse

The final tests on this unit consisted of drop-

oins a 50 l{Irr generaLor from the system and forcing the
'r;I;t;"; ,roi.t" to pick a portion of the load to main-
taii system frequency. The response shown in Figure 7
demonstrates Proper action of the EHC and a resulting
pit"a tu"poo". otti.n assists the power system return
't"-E"i1iiii"r. The Holyrood unit provides 22 MW
iraasiently and a smaller amount in steady-state in
load sharing among other units on the


Figure 5. 40 MI,I Valve SteP Test' Unit 1

ity of Lhe reserve units. This rill be of increasiag
slgnificance as utilities are forced !o operate witi
smaller and smaller reserye margins due to linited
AMAIN STREAM PRESSURE capacity grohrth. TraEsient respoase capability of a
power plant can be predicted prior to installatioa by
simulation and by field testing oBGe Lhe unit is in
operation. Such tests can be relatively straightfor-
ward to perforil, especially r,rith electro-hydraulic
A MAIN STEAM FLOW governors where abrupt changes to valve positioa can
easily be oade. This paper is a report on such tests
performed at the Holyrood Station in fewfoundlaad. It
is hoped that this report will provide guidance and
inspiration for future tests of this nature.

tll "Effect of Prine llover Response and Governing

Characteristics on Systeo Dynamic perfornance",
C, Concordia, F.P. Dellello, L.K, Xirchoayer, R.p.
0 Schulz, American Poner Conference, Chicago,
l2l "Systen Requireoents for D3manic perfornaace and
Response of Generating Unitsr', R.D. Dualop, D.}{.
Ewart, IEEE PAS ltaylJuoe 1975 pp. 838-849.
t3] 'Power Response Requirements for Electric Utility
Generating Unitsr'r D.N. Ewart, !I.H. Dawes, R.p.
Schulz, A.S. Broner, American por*er Conference,
0I2 Chicago, Illinois, 1978.
141 xMegawatt Response of Fossil Fueled Stean Units'r,
IEEE 1{orking Group oo poner plant Response to
Flgure 7. Unit 2 Response to 50 IIW Loss of Load. pAS l,larch/April 1973, pp.
Generation oa SysteD -Chaages, IEEE
tsl "Frequency Response Tests oo tiH Samis plaat #5
Spinning reserve margins nust be established rrith Unit", K.II. htorkraan, II.D. Vollner, Jr. , IEEE pAS
consideration given to the transient respoase capabil- July/August l97l pp. f734-1738.



O. W. Durrant
Manager, Engineering Technology
Fossil Power Generation Division
Babcock & Wilcox Company
Barberton, Ohio

ABSTRACT response rates of oncetbrough boilers as compared to drum boilers

The need for further discussions on the subject of boiler response lor efficient cycles. Other than runbacks to house load performed by
foreign utilities (notably Canadian, Japanese, and Italian) and the
!o gartial ioad rejections was prompted by a system islanding and TVA Qumberland tests [5], little effort has been exercised in testing
high frequency incident experienced in the Missouri-I1linois area o,
February 13, 1978. Whjle low frequency incidents occur periodically, or demonstrating such capability for any unit and especially those
the high frequency incident was unusual and required a pu*ial loud served by drum boilers. U.S. utilities have exercised caution in
runback. Test data that demonstrate the capability of oncethrough exploring the potential for higher rates of normal or emergency load
boilers to accept runbacks are presented. Similar experience dnd changes in any unit, partly because of their comJortable positiLn
data for drum boilers are limited. The requirement for instant with extensive interconnections and partly because of conservative
runback of fuel and its results on the shrink of drum level operating policies.
contribute to the difficulties encountered when drum boilers are run The underlying cause of the difficulties in achieving good boiler
back quickly. Potential directions for resolving difficulties are control when operating with partial turbine load rejections is
presented. To achieve not only immediate response to frequency
disturbances, but also second minute (> B0 seconds) stability,
greater effort must be placed on achieving a balance between steam I 3700
generator thermal input and the generated load. Throttel pressurel
' |
| 3400
) a)n^
During the period following the first New york City blackout in Sumulated frequency I O

1965 [1], extensive effort was exerted to improve the control and error,. Hertz J I
emergency response of all turbine generator units. Since most new I /OU

units at that time were served by oncethrough boifurs, more effort I 600
' MW 1500
was placed on their control. Several technical papers [2,8,7] ) +oo '-

preseuted during that time described test and demonstration

programs for control of oncethrough boilers. Examples of the Steam I 1050
TemO, F 1000
response to severe, but arfificially applied, frequency errors are J 950
shown in Figures 1, 2, and B. 80

Also_durilg this period, the capability of units served by once Grr"rno, l 70
through boilers using both boiler following and integrated control valves I 60
systems was demonstrated for normal load following and load oosition 50
control plus emergency operation, such as system frequency upsets. J
Since the early 1970s, Iittle test or development work has been
performed on fossil-fired, oncethrough boilers to optimize or to
demonstrate the capability to perform through rapid load following
or emergency operation. Tests of sustained fast valving have been Figure 1 Unit response to simulated low frequency error
planned on some units, but few have been conducted. iieported
maximum rates of response for BE00 psi coal-fired units range identified by Figure 4. The time constant of fueI input followed by
between 1.5 and 4.5 percent/min over a regulating range of that of the boiler are both two orders of magrritude slower than tle
approximately 2:1. For oil- and gas-fired units, the maximum rate response of the turbine valves; and all are very slow compared to
ranges up to 9.5 percent/min. This rate compares to a range of 8.0 to the electric system response and the combind turbine rotor inertia
4.0 percent/minute for coal-fired drum boilers serving 2a00 psi in a large system. The relatively long time constant of the boiler and
cycles [4]. This report indicates little difference in the maximum fuel equipment is a shortcoming when responding to fast load
changes, including partial load rejections, but cai benefit the
stability of the process. Where the boiler fuel input (or reactor flux)
is maintained at a prescribed and predetermined level, the unit will
return to an_ equivalent generation level essentially independent of
the turbine load inde* or control valve position, tirrottlJpressure,
steam tmperature and drum level, turbine speed and system
frequency, and generator excitation, recognizing that none can be
ignored. The challenge to the industry is to devilop systems that
can use the inherent stability of the heat source to keep units on
9L IPPC 922-4 A paper recommended and approved by the Iine without compromising the protection of the turbine generator
IEEE Power Generatlon Courlttee of the tfLf power Ungi_ and the electrical system.
l!9l1"g Soelery for presenEarlon ar rhe IEEE/ASME/ASdE
1981 Jolnt Power Generatlon Conference, October 4_g, The total process can be compared to a series of at least three
1981, St. Louis, Mlssourl.Manuscript submitted Jtly ?7, protective fences, each with its own time constants, its own inertial
1981; rnade aval1ab1e for prlnting Seprember 10, 19g1. fly'wheel effect, its own capability to initiate and to affect corrective
actions to system disturbirnces,, and its own timitations. Ideally, the

Reprinted fromIEEE Transactions on PowerApparatus & Systems, vol.'pAS-101, pp.2630-2639,

Aug. l9gl.

pressure, psi


freque.ncy 60
error, Hz

Load, MW 500


temperature, F 1000



position 40

Time in minutes

Figure 2 Unit response to simulated high frequency error

proceds is arranled to take progressive action in a cascading 'Darurer
conventional control systems such as the turbine speed governor
and excitation systems. They are continuous proportional controllers
'-'The (i.e., they are always in service and they exert a control effort
most fluid and flexible protective fence has been the subject
proportional to the output error). Relays are included as discrete
of several reports by the Working Group on Discrete Supplementary
controls, programmed to operate only upon recognition of a
Controls (DI-SCOS). Those DISCOS actions that enhance electric
predetermined class of disturbances.
svstem stability during the short time intervals up to 0'5 to 1
The second defensive fence also consists of the following DISCOS
slond following a transmission line fault with the objective of
preventing synchronism loss would include: control actions:
o Protective and load shedding relays
. Dynamic braking r Controlled system separation
. Circuit breaker reclosing o Superheater and turbine bypass valve systems
. Independent PoIe triPPing . Sustained fast valving
o Discrete control bf excitation systems
. Series eapacitor insertion . Load separation with the option to maintain house load on the
. Power modulation of DC lines turbine geuerator
r Momentary fast valving (power/load unbalance relay) Such control actions contribute significantly to system stability
during various emergencies; but they also have their own
Normally, there would be no int'eraction with the boiler turbine limitations:
generator (BTG) unit control system because the capacitance or
[ywheel of the boiler will not be affected for such short time 1. All second level control actions will affect the BTG unit
intervals [7]. control system requiring control of thermal input'-The fist two
Oisc.ete supplementary controls have two distinguishing features: witl have indirect effect while the other three will have direct
1. They are noncontinuous.
2. They are supplementary rather than primary' 2. Where possible, the direct boiler control actions must be
predetermined and discrete if they are to be effective and stable'
fhs limitatrien of such DISCOS actions is the short time intervals S. bther than load shedding, such turbine generator control actions
for their effectiveness. Their function is to protect the system have only a temporary eff.xt \2 to 60 seconds) until the load-
stability against short-term system transients and loss of thermal input c; be brought into balance througlr the control of
sy"cUto"is*. When the transient condition persists, the protective thermal in-put and/or release of the enerry through superheater or
f"rrce o,ilt be breeched; then immediate and where possible, pre turbine bypass systems or relief valves' When the balance has
established (DISCOS) steps must be taken to fall back to the second been esta-biished, the unit can operate for an extended period'
line of defense.
The Ieast flexible protective fence, which in in turn the most
The secoud defensive fence is made up of the primary


pressure, psi

Simulated 61
frequency 60
etrot, flz


Load, MW

Throttle steam temperature
temperature, F 1000
Reheat steam temperature


Governor 50

Time in mir,utes

Figure 3 Unit response to simulated high frequency error

Electric I


Fast close Speed control

Turbi ne
Control - - I
- -

tltlttttllllli HP

I rtt tt lt t!t rrr r rrrt tt I



.00r .010 .100 1 - 10 100 1000

Response time, seconds rrrrrrr. Time constant, seconds

Figure 4 Comparative response times

stable or resistant to change, is the thermal input and control to the
fossil boiler or nuclear steam generator. The interaction between the
turbine control and the boiler and/or unit control can be described 3-
by the following basic relationships [8]: O
1, The effective Btu release in the boiler or nuclear steam c
generator will esLablish and maintain the electric generation !h
output under steady-state or long-term load transient conditions' ,- .4
2. The capability to controi MW output by manipulation of the j
turbine valves is limited to short-term transients.
Based on these principles, the long'term ( > 30 to 60 seconds)
generation can be equated to the thermal input. Thus, the balance =n
o- 9 Secs.
between thermal input and load must be brought into balance
within this time interval if second minute system stability is to be
established and maintained.
The most common interaction starts with the movement of the Figure 5 Power decay requirement
turbine speed governor in response to a speed or system frequency
error or perhaps to the power/load unbalance relay' The boiler main control valves. Prior to run-up of the turbine,'the intercept
commoniy responds to the speed governor action by readjusting valves are opened fully and come into action only temporarily on
energy input based on measured steam flow plus proportional and load rejection. The unit is furnished with a Bailey electronic analog
integral control action on the throttle pressure error' While it has integrated contrbl system (iCS) which provides a series'type
been possible historically to tune a few unit control systems to integrated boiler/t'urbine control with subsystems for combustion,
accommodate this process for relatively small frequency errors, it feedwater flow and steam temperature (Figure 6). The integrated
generally has not proved to be a reliable system for large errors or system is basically a turbine following system and, as applied to the
large step changes in 1oad. B&W once-through boiler, controls load by controlling feedwater
An imp.oved system has been applied to most fossil and nuclear and fuel in a parallel relationship with the turbine control valves
units served by oncethrough boilers by means of a frequency error responsible for throttle pressure control.
bias signal summed with the unit and boiler load demand, but on a
proportional only basis and only to accommodate the anticipated CONTROL FEATURES TO IMPLEMENT FAST VALVING
gorutr,o. action responding to the frequency error [3]' This lnitiation of Fast Valving
irrangement has been extended to many drum-boiier integraled
The Cumberland Unit is fast valved when operated in excess of 60
control systems.
percent load for close-in, three-phase line faults and for operation of
One necessary function of system emergency control actions in to
establish a balance between load and generation after the first few ihe switchyard bus differential and breaker failure relays The three
500 kV lines at Cumberland are equipped with special
seconds of control action. This balance can be achieved by
establishing the level of fuel input or reactor power at a discrete and supplenentary line protective relays to initiate fast valving All
definable level consistent with the needs of the load. If this function thiee solid-state relays {one for each phase) associated with a line
is to be performed consistently with good system stability' must operate to initiate fast valving.
improved methods are needed over the common system of first the Turbine
go1'ernor control, and then the response of pressure or temperature To calculate the required valve strokes and the result'ing poN'er
i..o. on the boiler fuel control. Simply stated, a feedforward control decays for fast valving, the turbine generaLor was simulated
action is required, rather than oniy feedback, to establish the level dieitaUy by the iurbine supplier. The pdlameters considered ri'ere
of fuel demand. main steam, reheat and extraction flows' pressure and temperatures,
as well as volumes of the reheat and exLraction systems' 'Ihe
SUSTAINED FAST VALVING variable input data were main steam pressure behavior and assumed
An example of establishing a predefined levei of fuel input was the conLrol valve strokes duriirg fast valving.
near instantaneous BTG unit runbacks reported by Tennessee A further requirement was to achieve fast valving with the
Valley Authority at their Cumberland Station [5]' The sustained fast simplesl auxiliary equipment possible The results indicated the
valve operation rvas initiated by running back the turbine conlrol following:
and intercept valves to a preestablished position. A similar type of
1. The normal control must be overridden for a short time in such a
boiler operation initialed was that of running back the fuel input
way that the main control valves (CVs) and intercepl valves (IVs)
and feedwater flow to preestablished leveis, along with other
are actuated.
misceLlaneous operating procedures such as opening superheater
2. The openings of the valve groups must be reduced with
bypass valr,es.
maximum possible limiting speed and limited and controlled
Suslained fasl valving (FV), as applied at Cumberland' is the
rapid partial closure of both main and intercept control valves, with
3. As soon as the normal control is capable of controlling the
sui" full reopening of intercept valves. It functions to rapidly
turbine generator output at 60 percent ioad, the auxiliary
reduce driving polver to a predetermined sustained level which is
equipment is deactivated. At this poinl, the intercept valves
within the capability of postfault transrnission connections' reopen fully, resulting in a temporary increase in outpuL'
'Ihe rcquirements for sustained fast valving for the Cumberland
4. Since stearn producLion in the main steanl and reheat systems
Unit are shorvn in Figure 5. The turbine-generaLor supplier was cannot be reduced rapidly and equally, main and reheat stealll
requested to provide a power decay curve within lhe boundaries of
pressures increase. The pressure increase results in increased
Area A ar.rd to minimize the dead-time, Tp' in the actuation of n.rain
output and the need for additional equipment to influence the
and intcrcept conLrol valts.
op"ri.g ratio of main control and intercept valves' To avoid
PLANT DESCRIPTION lifting of reheater safetl' relief vaives, the reheaL pressure must
be kept nearly constant during FV. In other words, the conlrol
Cumberland Steam i)lant consisLs of two identical coal'fired units and intercept valve openings were selected such that the tnass
except that tlnit 2 is fitted with fast valving controls. Each turbine flows of the HP and IP turbines rvere approxirtately equal 'Ihe
geneialor is a 1300 l\1W llrown Boveri Corporatioil (BBC) single calculated valve opcning reductions were 41 percenl for the CVs
ieheat cross compound machine with rated inlet conditions of 3500 and 33 percent for the IVs, of lhe respective full open positions'
psig, 1000 F/1000 t-. Both shafts run at 3600 rpm driving identifical These values were based on the assumption that throttle slean.l
722 I\IVA generators. pressurc would increase from 3500 to 3920 psig.
Each sleanr generaLor is a Babcock & Wilcox supercritical, once
through, universal pressure boiler with a single reheat' The boiler is Control logic was incorporated to process the FV initiation signal
rated at 10 million lblhr steam flow at 3515 psig with 1003 F/1003 F which then energizes the solenoid valves, disconnects the turbine
main and rehtat steam temperatures. control from the boiler control, and reduces power setpoint to 60
The turbine has mechanical-hydraulic control and safety systems' percent rvithin 6 to 8 scconds. As soon as the power seL point has
ieached 60 percent, the FV signai is cancelled. This cancellation has
Under normal operation the speed and load control acts only on the


Courtesy Broun Bouri Corporation

Figure 6 Unit control block diagram

the effect of disengaging the solenoid valves, causing the intdrcept Only the boiler master and firing rate stations are overridden by
valves to reopen fully. the fast-valving system. It is assumed that most or all of the lower
The original mechanical-hydraulic acceleration limiters were level selector stations, such as pulverizer, forced-drafb (FD) fan, aad
replaced by electronic limiters set to respond to OnIy above preset boiler feedpump masters, will be in automatic mode whenever the
acceleration, and with either overfrequency or with the generator 780 MW load is exceeded. Any lower level selector station not in
breaker open. automatic will not be run back. The generally parallel ruuback of
Boiler feedwater and fifing rate will ideally result in a post-runback load
equivalent to 780 MW.
When the concept of fast valving was first explored, tittle physical
Temperature Control. The parallel runback of feedwater and fuel
modification was expected for the steam generator or its auxiliaries
to achieve the desired boiler fesponse. The major emphasis was acting through the normal control systems was proven satisfactory
placed on modifying the analog boiler control system to obtain the
for fast-valving runback where the initial load was less than 1100
MW. With runbacks initiated at loads greater than 1100 MW,
desired load runback while controlling pressure and temperature
additional action is required. As pulverizer loading is incrmsed, the
steady-state storage cripacity of the larger pulverizers increases
Load Runback During a fast-valving runback, the integrated geometrically. This large storage capacity resultd in a time lapse
boiler-turbine control system is compromised and the boiler and between a change in feeder speed and a change in furnace fuel
turbine are independently run back to the ?80 MW target value. delivery. A typical time constant for a load change at 60 percent
Upon relmse from the fast.valving runback demand, the control pulverizer capacity would be approximately five minutes. To acLieve
system reverts to a boiler following arrangement with the boiler the desired decrease in fuel input at loads above 1100 MW,
master in automatic following actual generated megawatts and pulverizers and their associated feeders and burners were tripped,
controlling throttle pressure, and the unit master in a following resulting in an instantaneous decrease iri Btu input to the furnace.
mode tracking generated megawatts. The turbine is now responsible Plant operations adhere to a fixed sequence of placing each of the
for load control and, by reverting to the boiler following mode, the eleven pulverizers in service as load increases. With this procedure
turbine's ability to respond to post-runback load and frequency in mind, a trip signal was initiated for the last four pulverizers in
conditions is optimized. The fast-valving runback is accomplished this sequence regardless of whether each miII was in service.
with the following actions taking place: Although several schemes for selecting in-service mills were
1. Unit load demand signal is blocked and a load signal considered, it was felt that for this plant and for demonstration
equivalent to 780 MW (60 pereent signal) is substituted for the p{rposes the fixed sequence for pulverizer tripping would be
orig.rral unit load demand. adequate. After testing, the automatic sustained fast load runback
2. Unit load demand maximum rate of change limiter is modified to has been set to trip the last four pulverizers in the starting sequenoe
provide the desired load runback rate. when the initial load is above 1100 MW. No pulverizers are
3. Regardless of the selected operating mode, the boiler master and automatically tripped when the initial load is below 1100 MW.
firing rate master selector stations are transferred to automatie Pressure Control. When initially armed for overpressure reliei, the
and temporarily bypassed for the duration of the runback setpoint for valves 202 and.207 was raised to 4100 psig primary
demand allowing a modified runback sigrral to become the boiler superheater outlet pressure. When a fast-valving runback occurs,
demand and firing rate demand signals. The boiler and fuing rate valves 202 and.207 are immediately driven open to provide relief
masters remain in automatic at the termination of the runback. from the anticipated boiler pressure rise. These valvqs remain open
4. The unit control frequency error bias signal is blocked until with underpressure protection until primary superheater outlet
runback demand is terminated. pressure drops below 3750 psig. This drop occurs at approrimately

as shown on the high speed recorder.
90 seconds for the test shown later in Figure 9'
The Jluid discharged by valves 202 and' 207 causes a rapid Turbine Generator ResPonse
increase in flashtank pressu"e which is in turn relievd by valve 240 From the large amount of recorded data, the most important are -
and mechanical spring-loaded safety valves on the flashtank' selected and sliown in Figure 7. They demonstrate that the electrical Feed. Pump Tfurbine and Reducing Statian Control of the power output of the turbine generator yas 1duc1d from 100 to 60
reducing station was also improved. The boiler feed pump turbines percent
-ltlW io O.O to. In absolute values, this is a reduction from 1300
,r" oo"iully supplied with steam from extraction no' 4' During to ZAO MW. AIso of interest are the curves of steam Pressures
lower load op"tutio" and large transients, iacluding FV, the steam
is in the lndividual turbine sections as shown in Figure 8' These curves
supplied through a reducing station which is-fed from cold reheat or represent the best available input for determiningthe, power
ur"ifiuty steam. Under these transients, quick changeover from one *^o-"ot"tity generated by thcsteam in the individual sections of
stmm slurce to another is essential. The reducing station was the turbine.
modified accordingly. Boiler Response
Fietd Tests to Verify Power Decay. The official test program The results of the final runback are shown in Figures 9 and 10'
included four fast valving tests with ulit power factor at the 500 Boiler performance during fast valving was quite, satisfactory' The
kV terminals of the generator stepup transformer' toad levels for analog control system ran unit load back to the dested value and
the tests were 70, 80, and two at 100 percent to evaluate fast n"td ioit". p.""t,t" rise to a reasonable value without lifting
at lower loads and to verify the power decay curve at full safety valves. The excursions of main and reheat steam
Ioad. I*n all tests, initiation was by action of the permanent fast- ieorpl.utu."* were less than had been expected, and were within
valving line relays. acceptable limits for the turbine.
FIELD TESTS Auxiliary System ResPonse
The test procedure was divided into two major parts, based on As can be seen in Figure 11 the no' 4 extraction pressure drops as
Iower loads and higher loads. the intercept valves close on a fast valving runback, and
subsequently rises as the intercept valves are reopened' It then
Pretests at Lower Loads MW' The initial
Ora"iUV decreases as the system sfbilizgs at ?80
A few days of on-line operation were provided for tuning the Irop in extraction pressure and rapid rise in boiler.plessure causes a
rise in
individual ilant In this phase it becan-re evident that deciease in feedpump speed and flow. Then the quick, short
successful iast valving required not only optimized movement of
the pressure as the iVs *o""" a sudden increase in feedwater
-ffo* ""ol"t
artificially large feedwater flos'error sigrral'
turbine valves, but fu1ly coordinated control interaction of the tfrtt generates an
individual plant subsYstems. itis was realized during low load tests and additional
ifre initiaf portion of this phase consistd of a thorough tuneup of iooiog"itriiot
*u" carried out to minimize the effect of the artificial error
the analog ICS system to optimize the boiler response to rapid' sigrral.
normal loid changes of 100 MWmin with minimal variations in
steam temperatur:e and pressure. This portion was cnmpleted with HIGH FREQUENCY DISTURBANCE
good resulis. The boiler and its control systems performed well An example of where the fuel demand to the boiler was not well
during all subsequent tests. establishe,il'occurred at the Sioux Station [9,10] of Union Electric
The-second portion of this phase consisted of a series of FV Co. on February f3, 19?8, during a system separation and islanding
*"1""t. thaigradually increased from an initial prerunback load of incident with an excess of generation. Figure 12 shows the result of
845 MW to thJfinal full load runbacks initiated at 1300 MW' iri" tr"q*r"v disturbance on one unit of the system operating with
During this second portion, the following difficulties were an integrated control on automatic. While the control system has
encountered: the fr{uency bias signal that could have set the neces-sary fi1e.I . . .
1. On FV runback the turbine control was not completely input, ii *u" bypu"""d and ineffective during this incident' The high
separating from the integrated control system' After terminating
th; Fv si;nd and transfering the turbine to manual, the CVs did
not remain at "60 percent strokb," but reopened to the previous Percent Electrical Power
load point. Modifications were made to the turbine controls to
overcome this Problem.
2. Upon initiation of fast valving, the boile1 feedpump turbines were
being run back to unnecessarily low loads' This carrsed the
feedfump reclculation valves to open and allowed the boiler
feediater flow to fall near the minimum feedwater flow trip
point. Under normal boiler control action, the unit load demand

60 \ lr\ L I \
io modified before becoming the boiler demand signal and
belng applied to the feedpump controls' One of the signal Frequency Deviation
rnodiltiu.t is throttle p."t"u." deviation, which is amplified and +0.2
used to decrease pump speed if actual throttle pressure exceeds
the throttle pressure p"ogram. During fast valving, the resulting +0.1
large rise inihrottle pressure was generating a large throttle
,r'an"C -
auJiutio" signal and severely deereasing the feedpump speed' 0
v \ 1
Therefore, aiditional circuitry was added to the analog boiler -0.1
feedpump controls to negate the throttle pressure. deviation I I a fast'valving runback and to keep it negated until -o.2
"lgnul pressure fell below 3550 psig.
Tests at Higher Loads
The validity of these measures was verified with troublefree tests
at higher loads from 80, 90, and 100 percent to 60-percent load' 80
Fina[y, the four official fast-valving tests initiated at 70, 80' and 60
t*ice at 100 percent load were conducted to demonstrate reliable
operation without operator intervention'

TEST RESULTS O.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2'2Secs'
lnitiation Signal F.V. lnitiation

Of major interest was the measurement of the time delay between Courtesy Brown Boueri Corporation

output of the FV fault-detection circuit and energizing of the turbine generator

turiine control solenoid valves. The delay was found to be 0'8 msec FigureT Principal test measurements -
HP Cold Hot lP lnlet
Main Steam lnlet Reheat Reheat lP Outlet & Ext. 4

Ext. 1 Ext.3

100 Cold Reheat




0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.7 1.8 1.9 Secs.
lnitiation of F.V.
Couttesy Brown Boveri Corporation

Figure 8 Turbine steam pressures

frequency and resulting turbine speed error resuited in a temporary runback initiated by fast valving, the feedwater flow for a once
but sigrrificant closing of the turbine control valves with a through boiler can be reduced immediately. For a drum boiler,
corresponding reduction in generation. Without the frequency bias however, the feedwater cannot be reduced for 30 to 60 seconds to
sigrral, however, the megawatt demand on the unit remained at restore drum level.
approximately 400 with limited or no change to the boiler fuel and 3. The shrink of drum level results from both increased drum
feedwater demand. pressure and reduced fuel input, both of which are present during
The resulting excessive throttle pressure was relieved by opening a.partial or toal load rejection.
the turbine controi valves, thereby overriding the action of the If the power industry is interested in partial load rejections [12],
frequency and turbine speed errors. Aiso during the initial turbine such as the fast valving of turbines served by drum boilers in a
control valve excursion, the resulting buildup of boiler storage and manner similar to the Cumberland tesis, further tests and
pressure could only be relieved by operation for an equivalent period
development are required.
at a load above 400 MW. Thus, the load surged above the initia! The industry need is to identify those drum boiler and control
load for a fes, minutes even though this was certainly noi desired
system problems occurring during fast load runbacks that now
since the islanded system frequency continued to be high. At some
frequently result in boiler trips. Boilers and control system actions
undefined poinl, the turbine control and placed on manual with the
that will keep drum boilers in service during load runbacks are
unit in a boiler following conlrol mode, thus permitting stabilization required. It is first necessary that several utilities conduct fast load
at a new load and normal throLtle conditions. Since the event, all
runback tests on drum boilers similar to those reported for once
units in this area having integrated control systems have been
through boilers to identify the operating difficulties now causing the
updated to include a frequency bias signal that has been maintained
trip of drum boilers and the necessary corrective measures to keep
in service at the proper calibration.
them on the line during system emergencies.
DRUM BOILER RESPONSE TO LOAD REJECTIONS Several approaches can be taken to overcome the present
limitations of drum boilers to accept fast load runbacks.
A logical question from this experience in reporting runbacks on First, the difficulties in drum water level control have potential
once-through boilers is whether a similar test can be or has been solutions:
conducted on a drum boiler unit. If not, what type of operating
proccdure or bypass system would permit partial load rejections. 1. Programmed drum water level over the load range has been
Operating data and experience that would provide an answer have applied successfully in both nuclear and fossil systems [13,14,15].
not been reported. The primary difficulty in accomplishing The common horizontal orientation of fossil drum boilers
transients such as sustained fast valve runbacks is the control of together with limited fluid storage between high and low level
feedrvater flow to limit the drum level shrink that will occur during trips reduces the potential benefit from this approach.
such a Lransient and to avoid the excessive throttie steam pressure 2. The trips from load and high drum level may be time delayed
and./or sLeam temperature oscillations that often occur during fast several seconds as a fixed time delay or up to approximately 1.5
load changcs [11]. minutes on a variable time delay based on the relationship of
In comparing differences between drum and once-through boilers measured feedwater to measured steam flow [11].
in Lerms of accepting fast load runbacks, Lhree contrary Second, the reported problems [4] of excessiveJ throttle pressure
characteristics of tlrum boilers arc apparent: and steam temperature oscillations are directly interrelated.
1.. The direct change in thermal sLorage with load of a 1. The major cause of steam temperature oscillaqions is the
drum boiler circulation system at saturation temperture is 60 to overfiring and underfiring necessary to control throttle pressure,
80 percent greater than for an equivalent oncethrough boiler. especially for variable pressure operation [11,1b].
Thus, the underfiring requirements to avoid throttle pressure 2. Because of prior industry emphasis on constant throttle pressure
oscillations are greater for a drum boiler; and the greater operation for load following.the turbine valve movement during
underfiring in tum may cause steam temperature oscillations. system frequency excursions, perhaps too great a priority has
2. 1'he negative change in fluid storage with load for a drum boiler been placed on minimizing the extent and time interval of
is greater than for a oncethrough boiler. Thus, on a fast load throttle pressure errors [151. When it is recognized the number of


202 Y alve Positon Dema nd
zlz J"r,J po]itiol' oJrula


Primary Superheater Outlet Pressure 4000

'a 3500
oi 3000
o 2500
G) Turbine lst Stage Pressure 2000
o- 2000

1 100
I 100
= 700






o ro zo so 40 50 60 70 80 90 10o110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 1902co210220 Secs.

Figure 9 Boiler load response






Primary Superheatei Outlet Temperature
Convection Pass Outlet Temperature

Figure 10 Boiler temperature response


lntercept Valve Position 06 _J
80 -l
I Feedwater Flow %

lrllit - Psig

blo I l.wr-T I
Feedwater Flow Demand ryo l
T I I I 100
20 #4 Ext Pressure, sig


Figure 11 Auxiliary system response

for controlling fuel for either a drum or a oncethrough boilers:
. Trip all fuel while operating the turbine on stored energ-y,
repurge the furnace and light off the necessary burners and
o pulverizers
c -. . Tripback to a minimum predetermined and prescribed fuel
o bl
f input
o 4. B&W believes any problems with fuel control, including
L60 l_ pulverized coal firing can be solved.
I0:40 10:45
Fourth, the control of reheat temperature or the protection of the
reheater has not proven to be a serious problem.
1, Many units have been operated through momentary fast valving
500 excursions with no indication of either overheating or
overpressurization of the reheater' A common excursion is to
450 close the intercept valves in 0.1 to 0.2 seconds and then fully
open within a total time of eleven seconds.
2. For the Cumberland sustained fast valving tests [5], the intercept
> 400 valves were closed to approximately 33 percent for -

i approximately 8 seconds before release to wide open. Again there

E:so was no indication of reheater overheating or overpressure and
o safety valves did not operate.
o 3. Based on this experience, the general practice has been to initiate
a master fuel trip (MFT) boiler trip in the event the intercept
:l valves close and remain closed for 10 seconds. For an extended
period of only partial intercept valve opening, the reheater
pressure up to the reheaL safety valve popping pressure may well
provide an adequate guide for acceptable operation to avoid
200 either overheating or overpressurization of the reheater. In the
10:35 A.M. l0:40 10:45
event extended operation with t'he intercept valves closed or
throttled were necessary, power-operated relief valves at the
reheater outlet may be warranLed.
Figure 12 Sysiem separation - unit frequency upset auto
control without frequency bias If a successful operating procedure for accepting fast load
runbacks of drum boilers cannot be established and the industry
throttle pressure and also that full need is required, it may be necessary to apply a superheater or
uniLs now operating variable
throtile pressure is required only near 100 percent load, the turbine bypass system to accept the excess steam generation by the
boiler when the lurbine valves are run back'
priority for controlling rapid excursions in throttle pressure
during load Lransients can Iikely be reduced. It should be
A turbine bypass system would be useful to operate during such
an excursicn providing the system had sufficient breakdown valve
necessary only to sustain the desired steam florv through the
flow and condenser, boiler feed pump, and attemperator capacity to
superheaLer to Lhe turbine independent of throttle pressure'
accommodate all the steam resultiag from the turbine valve runback
3. Any means for controlling superheater outlet temperature is also
a means for conlrolling throttle pressure and steam flow. [11]. This system would permii a conlrolled and iimited runback of
fuel and air resulting in a level of approximately 50 percent fuel and
Interactions between output parameters can be reduced by
air inpuL within 10 to 15 minutes.
anLicipaiing con[rols. For example, low steam temperature that
will result from underfiring can be anticipated and moderated by An increased capacity of superheater bypass valves (drum to
condenser) would be useful in limiting throttle pressure rise and the
imnrecliaLely reducing superheat and reheat spray flow while
shrink of drum level. Its advanlage is the lower cost of the valves
slowly reducing combustion air flow and/or gas recirculation
and attemperator system since they pass only saturated steam to
l 1,14,1 5].
outlel safety valves are the condenser. It would be necessary, however, f,o reduce fuel inpul
4. IJecause the spring loaded, superhealer
often sel belou the full load drum pressure, special effort may be
to approximately 50 percent within a ferv minuLes as the
superheater and reheater receive the effect of any excess fuel input
nocessary to relieve drum pressure rather than throttle pressure
above steam flow.
lhrough power relief valves, similar to the present procedure for
once-Lhrough boilers. Since this action will also reduce Lhe
undcrfiring necessary to reduce throttle pressure, il may
moderate the steam Lemperature excursions during fast load Test data over a span of several years has demonstrated the
runbacks. The decision to apply power-operated relief valves at capability of once-through boilers to accept partial load rejections
eit.hcr the drum or superheater outlet would depend on test resulting from system upsets. The best results have been achieved
rcsults for each unit and for a specified range of runback with coordinated boiler turbine generator control systems requiring
operaLions. that a frequency error bias signal be included direclly into the boiler
't'hird, the problems associated with fast fuel reductions for fuel demand. Recent data from the TVA Cumberland plant
demonstrates a similar capability to accepl near instantaneous
1;ulverized coai firing are related Lo pulverizer storage and to flame
st.abiiit-\' susLained fast valving runbacks.
The industry has not demonstraied a similar capabiliLy for the
Such problerns *'ere resolved by the Cumberland tests [5] when response of drum boilers. Where the industry has a need for such
lhc runbacks were initiated from 100 pereent load through a capability, tests on drum boiler units should be conducted to
cor,rrbination of tripping the pulverizer, including closing of swing determine Lhe limiiations and corrective measures to meet those
or burner linc valves on one group of pulverizers, and running requirements.
fuol back to a minimum prescribed firing rate on another gToup.
Ilunbaeks lroin u0 percent load were achieved by running back
onl.t' the pulvcrizer dentatrds, including primary air flow and
fecdt,r speed. One opLion not applied would be to trip only the 1. O. W. Durrant, L. L. Joyner, and R. P. Broadwater,
feeders and run lhe stored coal out of the pulverizers with or "Maneuvering Capability of B&W Steam Plants with OTSG's,"
without ignitors in service. American Power Conference, April 23-25, 1979.
'l'his action requirod rhe application of a discrete signal to 2. K. H. Workman, "Frequency Response Tesling of a Large Once
identif.r' the event of a sustained fasL turbine valve incident to a Through Unit," IEICE Winter Power Meeting, 19?1.
level below'60 percent. Special control action would be required 3. O. W. Durrant, "Operation and Control of OnceThrough Boilers
to identifv the need for pulverizer and feeder trips based on high During Electric Power SysLem Emergencies," ISA Power
svstem frequency excursions. Instrumentation Symposium, Kansas Cily, Missouri, May 20,
For any turbine runback Lo house load, two choices are available 1970.

4. "survey of Cyclic Load Capabilities of Fossil-Steam Generating already existing steam Plants.
Units," EPRI EL'975, TPS77'732, February' 19?9. When it comes to field tests, a point that needs to be given considera-
5. L. Edwards, et a1,, "Sustained Fast Valving at TY'A's tion is that, as pointed out in reference (A), when partial loss of load
Cumberland Steam Plant: Background and Test Results," equals or exceeds 40 percent, both the control and intercept valves of
American Power Conference, 1981. GE turbines will fully close, and stay closed until turbine speed drops to
6. O. W. Durrant, "Discussion oI the Report by the Task Force on 2 percent above normal, at which point, though intercept valves will
Discrete Supplementary Controls for Stability, " ASME-IEEE begin to open, control valves will remain closed until a predetermined
Joint Power Generation Conference, 1976. degree of decrease of reheat pressure has taken place. This means' in
?. R. P. Siegfried and O. W. Durrant, "Operation of Drum and turn, that when partial loss of load exceeds 40 percent, a boiler load re-
OnceThrough Boilers During Electric Power System jection of 10O percent is experienced for some seconds. Accordingly, if
Emergencies, " ASME-IEEE Joint Power Generation held tesis aie to be carried out by merely rapidly repositioning the con-
Conference, 1967. trol valves of a turbine the generator of which is tied to an entire power
8. O. W. Durrant, "Design, Opei'ation, Control and Modeling of systeln that is operating normally, it will be'needed to first predict and
Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler," Boiler-T\rrbiire Modeling and next simulate the way in which the turbine's control valves will reposi-
Control Seminar, Syd:rey, Australia, February' 1977' tion when whatever type of partial loss of load due to islanding that is
L O. W. Durant, "T\rrbinegenerator Steam Supply Interactions of inteiest takes place.
During Frequency Disturbances," IEEE Winter Power Meeting' Again, where the boiler's control system would be made responsive to
February 1-6, 1981. frequency, the frequency change as a function of time that would be ex-
10. E. F. Wolff, "Speed Controls Vital During Islanding"' Elzctical perienced in the case of partial loss of load would equally require to be
Worl4 November 15, 1979. simulated.
11. A. J. Zadiraka and O. W. Durrant, "Control of Pulverized Coal- Though the details of the control schemes are different,
Fired Utfity Drum Boilers During Load Changes," American Westinghouse turbines behave ln much the same way' and it appears
Power Conference, 1981. that Euporean turbines respond, also, in a somewhat similar manner.
12. P. Kundar, "survey of Utfity Experience with Power Plant
Response During Partial Load Rejection aud System
Disturbances," Joint Power Generation Conference, 1980' REFERENCE
13. F. Montgomery, "Report on Quick Load Pickup Testing of
Steam Generating Units," Hawaiian Electric Co. (A) T. D. Younkins, and L. H. Johnson, "Steam Turbine Overspeed
14. E. G. Lansing, "Variable Pressure Peaking Boiler, Operatio , Control and Behaviour During Syitem Disturbances," Joint
Testing, and Control," ASME Winter Arinual Meeting' 1974. Power Generation Conference, 1980 (80 JPCC 8ll-0)'
15. O. W. Durrant, "Changing Criteria for Boiler Control," Power
' Engineeing, September, 1972. Manuscript received November 18, 1981.

Discussion O. W. Durrant: Mr. Park has cohtributed useful arid valid comments'
R. H. Park (Fast Load Control Inc. Freeport, IL): The paper under His suggestion for applying presumably power operated relief valVes to
discussion can be expected to help considerably in leading to improve- avoid l-ifting spring ioaded safety valves and to avoid the high cost of
ment in the ability of U.S. steam electric installations to respond other retrofittingi iurbine by-pass system is discussed in the paper' Before
than in an unsatisfactory way to sudden large partial reductions of adding su-h valves to an existing drum boiler, however, the BTG unit
generator load. should be tested under conditions approaching the expected runback
In relation to what is called for, a point that the author has not touch- conditions to establish the need and optimum location for such valves.
ed on, but that deserves mention, resides in the fact that prevention of i{eferencb A discusses control and IV valve closure under conditions
safety valve lifting can be achieved by providing merely to discharge to of tripping the PLU relay and sustaihed turbine overspeed. With the
atmosphere over a period of time during which rate of steam generation load itill connected and the speed maintained by the interconnected
is being reduced via prompt reduction of fuel input to the furnace. In an system, any speed error would likely be sustained for only a few
approach of this type savings in first costs can be large, while- the cost seconds. See Figrtre 7. For a few secortds the effects on the boiler can
involved through waste of treated feedwater taking place on thbse few likely be neglecled, The Cumberland tests (Figures 7 through ll and
occasions when partial loss of load is experienced will be found to be of Reference Stdid not identify a boiler limitation for the short time inter-
distinctly minor consequence. For another point, should valve leakage val before reaching stable load. In the event a load separation occurs,
develop it will be known rather than concealed, and, with use a favor- followed by a triil to house load, a inaster fuel trip may be initiated or a
able design of valve, and employment of shutoff valves that .Ire arrang- trip to a minimum level cif fuel input with gas temperature control. (See
ed to be pressurized with nitrogen, reseating can be effected without Reference 7.)
need to schedule a unit shutdown. Still another advantage that applied
is that valves that discharge to atmosphere can be readily installed in Manuscript received December 2, 1981.


F. P. de Me11o, Fe11ow, IEEE Undrilt, Senior Member, IEEE

Power Technologies, Inc,
Schenectady, Ncw York

Automatic Generation Control is the eontnolling
link between the dispatch office and the generating
plants that it supervises. The dispatcher., the
aid of the optimization and secu:rity analysis functions SYSTEM INERTIA
cover.ed in companion papers,' decides on the correct
Ievel of intennal generation for his system and con-
tracts to purchase or sell power i.n order to meet his
company's load in the most economic manner, The auto- --t t
matic generation controll function (AGC) is assig:red the
responsibility of adjusting generator outputs to meet AL
the overall system objectives of: LOAD

Figure la
i) Regulating frequency to the scheduled va1ue.
Collective Action of Al-l System Goveinors in
ii.) Maintaining net interchange of power across Determining Variations of Average Frequency
the company's boundaries at the value re-
quired by the severaf interchange contracts
in force at each instant. AREA A DAMPING

The AGC system is a compendium of equipment and

computer programs implementing closed loop feedback
control of frequency and net interchange. Generator
outputs, tie-1ine flows, and frequency are measured,
compared with setpoints, and adjusted tl correct error
in the controll-ed quantities. As with any feedback
system, dynamic behavior is of prime inportance. Cor-
respondingly, the prime technical objective in the de-
iign of the AGC system is the correct accommodation of TIE LINE PHASE
the dynamic characteristics of the power system :o STIFFNESS ANGLE
achieve prompt, smooth, and stable maneuvering of gen- AOJUSlMENT

eration in response to system disturbances and changes A.REA 8 (REMAiNDER OF SYSTEM )

of operating setpoints.
This paper reviews the AGC function as implemented
by a modern di.spatch offi.ce digital computer system. figure Ib
Role of Differences in Frequency of Adjacent
Subsystems in Determining Net Power Interchange
Between Them
Process Res se Characteristics
Load Sharing by Turbine Governo:fl It mav readilv be shown that a change in load will
produce a steady-state change in frequeney given by
The most direct control inf:uence on power system
frequency and generator toad d:lstribution is exerted
by the turbi;:e governors, Ea.:h turbine speed (fre- AL
Hz (2.3)
quency, f) and power, P*., are related by a "permanent I
drooprtt R., where ell K __
*, = #1 Hz/w
g1 1f
'eff ' I
The spnsitivity of system load to frequency is ex-
pressed by a Camping Factor, D^.,, where and
AL = loaC change expressed in terrns of additional
eeJ__ l.!s:
t = -- Ol
wt/Hz Q.2) power at rated frequency, in MW.

It is permissible for gcverning analysis purDoses lJormal practice is to set the Dermanent droop, F.,
to assune that all turbine/gererators rotate at the of everv governor so that a load change from zero to
same ( s1'nchronous ) speed, 2 This being rhe case, sys- rated output is assocj.ated with the same speed change.
tem acceleration and frequency are determined by the The value of this speed change is from 3 to 5 percent
collective action of all governors as shom by Fi;ure in most power systems. Figure 2 illustrates the
steaoy-state relationship between ioad change, fre-
quency change, and inerease in power output proviCed
by governor action.

Reprinted from IEEE Tutorial Course 77 TUDO 010-9-PWR.

BASE LOAD The representative form of the response to a load
NEW LOAD change within the subsystem with control action being
CHARACTER IST] C contributed by governors only is shown by the solid
curves in Figure 3. The high-frequency oscillatory
component is associated with tie-line elasticity and is
of interest to AGC work only in that it represents a
noise component in tie-line power flow measurements.
The slower transient component represents the tran-
sient behavior of the prime movers, whiJ-e the final
APT offsets of net interchange and frequency ane the re-
sult of the governor steady-state characteristics noted




Figure 2

Relationship Between Nominal Load Change, AL,

Total Turbine Power, APr, and
Frequency Change, Af, Under Governor Action

The power output increase of each individual unit I NTERNAL

under governor control is given bY GENERATION

lp = AL r2.q)
Ri(D"ff * R I
etl-' TIE LINE
Since the goveunon droops are set to an agreed per-unit
value on the basis of rated turbine powers' a s;stem ( NET INTER.

frequency change would ideally change the outputs of CHANG E )

all units in proportion to their ratings. This ideal

is seldom attained because most load changes are so
smalf in relation to the capacity of the system that
some governors remain within their deadbands leaving a
subset of the systemrs total capacity to accept the
J-oad. The key point, nevertheless, is that natural
governor action causes changes in electrical load
to be distributed essentiai-1y io proportion to unit
Figure 3
Fi-gure 1a applies to a comPlete system I^rithout Variation of Internal Generation and Net
recognition of the effect of the load change on the Interchange Following Load Disturbance in
constituent parts of its transmission network. Most Utility A
large power" systems are made up of a number of inter-
connected subsystems with power fl-ow across their
boundaries the subject of commercial interest.
The basic dynamic load bafance of Fi.gure Ia may be Generating Unit Load Response
restated as in Figure lb for the case of an indivia-ral
subsystem Hithin the overall interconnection. Here . The effect of ke-'r importance to AGC is the bal-
all units of the subsystem are viewed as rotating at ance between tota] gerlerator electr:ical power and total
identical speed at at.L times, but the elastic charac- turbine power within a given subsYstem of the compl-ete
teristic of the electrical ties between subsystems power system. Total generator electr:ical Dower is
alfows the speeds of different subsystems to differ determined by the subsystemrs (e.g., company's) eiec-
during transients. This viewpoint is acceptable be- trical load and the net powen flow over the .tie lines'
cause only net power flows between subsystems are of Totaf turbine Dower, which the AGC s1'stem must natch
concern to AGC' The steady-state frequency change to the electrical load, is determined by the resDonse
caused by a load change within this subsystem contin- of 1-he individual prime movers to load control
ues to be given by the application of (2.3) with r:e- actions.
spect to the whole interconnected system. The chanee .q1I adjustrent of generitor pcwer output is ef-
in the tie-Iine power flow fotlows from the natural fected by changing the turbine load setting. De-
loading distribution implied by (2.5 ). The dyr,amic pending upon unit type, the load reference may be im-
response of frequency and tie-Iine flow are determined pl,emented Cirectf:/ at the governolr, or may have boiler'
by, controls interposed between it anC the governor. A
typical load control arrangement is shown in Figure 4.
i) The transient load response of the turbine
governors and prime movers. The response of generator power to a change in
governor reference is determined by the dy'namic :'e-
ii) fhe elastic synchronizing effect of the tie sponse characteristic of the turbine and energy supply.

with the pertinent time constan'-s being mea-
sured in seconds. Load changes exceeding a
small band (say, 5 percent) about the initial
operating point must, however, be executed at a
rate far below that implied by the natural
f(FLow) small distunbance response.
b) The natural response of units with t'boi.ler
I leading" eontrol arrangements, whe::e the boil-
uaa, e
er controls are interposed between the load
reference and the governor, is. gener"ally deter-
FLOW mined by the steam generation process' with
pertinent time constants being measured in
minutes. Hence, such units do not have the
initial quick response capability normally
associated with conventionally controlled drum-
type steam units.
c) The use of integrated boiler-tu::bine controls,
PRE SSU R I depending upon specific design, resul-ts in
plant response characteristics covering the
* DASHED PORTION APPLIES TO SOME SYSTEMS USING whole spectrum between the forms a) and b) cov-
ered above.
Figure 4 d) The initial natural tlesPonse of hydro units is
Funciiona] Block Diagram of Typical intermediate between the two steam unit ex-
Controls tremes covered above. The pe::tinent time corr-
stants are measured i.n seconds, but are longer
The modeling needed to characterize this may range from than those pertaining to dnum-type units. Most
a single time constant, in the case of a simply con- hydro units, however, can change load at their
maximum natunal rate without restriction over
figured gas turbine, to the 1evel typified by Figure 5
which shows a model of a large drum-type boiler: and re- their entire operating uange.
heat turbine. 3 Careful consideration is needed to Figure 6 illustrates these gener:aI forms of prime
determine, for each pfant type, both:
mover .Ioading response.
i) The natural response characteristic as deter-
rnined by the form and time constant values of 5% LOAD CHANIGE 50% LOAD CHAI.6E
the principal transfer-function blocks' REQUEST REOUESI
ii) Limitations placed on plant load change rate
by thermal stress considerations (steam tur'- REOUES1ED

bines ) , hydraulic surge (hydro plants ) , nu- CHANGE

clear reactor safety, and so on.

30 sEc o



30 sEc 0 20 MIN


Figure 5
i,'nanics of T,.rbine Power f ncluding Boilen
Pressure Effects Figure 6

While details need not be considered here, the Variation of i-lnit Response Time with Unit
breadth or unit response characteristics3 that AGC Type and Magnitude of Fequested Load Change
;:ltst'rocognize can be indicated by the fol-Iowing sum-
nary of some principal unit characteristics: Basic AGC ,a-ctions

a) The natural response of drum-type steam units The control objective of AGC may be illustrated
?ith "turbine lea<iing'r control arrangements to with reference to Figure 7. Subsystem S, a member of
smal1 load change requests can be very rapid the interconnected system, i.s committed to maintain net

inter.changes of power, PAd, PBd, and PCd with its It shoufd be noted that this control error re-
quires each control area to measure quantities only at
neighbors. Since the :"cuting of power is not to be its boun,laries and requires no intelligence on external
conirolled, the subsystem can meet its commitments by conditions or on internal loads.
maintaining a net outward incerchange power flow of
(Pea * PUU + PaU) while simultaneously holding its own
The parameter, B., is cal-Ied frequency bias' As
f:requency at the scheduled value, Each subsystem in
-interconnection shom in Refer:ence 4i a steady-state analysis may be
the has a similar generation control made to find a value of Bf such that each AGC system
requirernent. The subsystem enclosed by a net inter-
-!o as a control area. pr.oduces steady-state gene::aticn changes only when they
ehange boundarY is referyed ire nee<ied to compensate fon a change of load or inter'-
change schedule within its own control area. It is
emphasized, howeve::, that the power system is seldom,
if ever, in the steady state' and that the AGC system
must be designed to respond correetly to dynamic vari-
ations in ACE. In view of this, d1'namic rather than
static analysis shou.Id be used as the basis for the
over:all design of the AGC system and Br, like other
parameters, should be viewed in terms of its effect on
system dynamic beha''ior. 6

The AGC system is wo:rking corectly when the in-

evitabl-e and continual variations of net interchange
elror and frequency error are held within acceptable
bounds by Plant output adjustments that are within
thermodynamic (or hydraulic) Iimitations and arle ac-
ceptable to the P1ant oPerators.
The control of generation to meet AGC objectives
invo.Ives action at three Ievels as fol]ows:

Eirst - the required individual generator out-

puts having been determined, their load
reference setpoints must be manipulated
Figure 7 to achieve these outPuts.
fnterchanges Between a Utility, S, and Second - given a set of scheduling rules, the out-
its jieighbors puts requested of indivi.dual generators
must be determined so as to meet the ob-
Now, without AGC, any load change or other dis- iective of ze::o ACE'
turbance within the controi area wifl result in the
majority of the required power increment being supplied Third - the generatoL loading rules must be up-
by the interconnection via the tie lines according to dated continually to recognize optimum
the aatural governing characteristic, as il-Iustrated dispatch principles, boiler-turbine load
by Figure 3. This will drive the net interchange away changing limitations, and transmissi'on
from its scheduled va1ue. securitY.
The principal objective of an AGC systen is to Normal- variations of system load and normal oper-
adjust the load reference settings of units wj-r:hin the ating disturbances require the control actions in thg
control area to override the naturai governing effect first two levels to occur on a second-by-second basis,
and hold net interchange and frequency at their sched- while the third l-evel is required to revise the loadirrg
ured values. The additional task of AGC is to ensure rules at interval-s ranging flom a few minutes (in most
that e;.ch control area contributes its proper share to U.S. companies) to hours. Second-by-second actions
the svstem generation adjustments needed to hold sys- at the first two fevels are handled by the AGC system.
tem frequency at scheduled value. The third level of action is discussed in conpanion
AGC is, then, a reset control action supe::imposed
over the natural governing action tq cancel steady- STRUCTURE OF THE AGC SYSTEM
state deviations of net interchange and frequency. The
desi.r.ed effect of AGC is shown by the dotted curves in AGC Elements
Figure 3.
The simplest AGC system would be that needed by a
Since frequency is equal at aI1 points of the utility with one generator and one interconnection
inter.connection in the steady state, this common con- point. The principal el-ements of such an AGC systern'
trol objective can be maintained by having each utility as shown in Figure B, are:
control its generation independently to achieve a zera
steadv-state value of a quantity termed Area Control i) An inner loop using controller, L(s), which
iror, ACE.*" p.CE is defined, for each control area positions the governor reference to achieve
by, a desired generator power outPut.
ACE = Net Interchange Erron + Bf ,'r frequencyer"ror (2.6) ii) An outer locp using controller, K(s), to alter
the desired generator power output in :'esponse
For the case of Figur"e 7, ACE is given by: to changes i:r ACE,
nu! \.A,i +, p
^.E - i'|D
p .) - (P. + p^ + P^) + -fl-
.Bd * .Co A b _ B-Af (Z,l 1

The detailed design and construction of AGC equip-
ment is influenced by the nequirements of secunity and
noise-free performance of the information Paths betv.een
the widely-spaced measurement points' contro.l-1ers' and
generating unit. Nevertheless, the general procedunes
ior designing a control system of the foim shown in
Figure 8 are well :recognized. Figure I may be reduced
fo:r analysis Purposes to the block diagram shown in
Figure 9.



f ) Pscnro
scxeo I


Figura I0
Multiple Unit Control Loops in AGC of
I Multiunit Control Area
The inner control loop of Figures 8, 9, and t0 is
called the Unit Control Loop white we shalI refer to
AGC SYSTEM _l theouterpa@'
Figure I
Ear1y AGC systems, developed in the I950rs were
3asie Form of AGC for System With Single ba'sed onthe analog control equipment prevailing at the
Generator and Intenconnection time. The disposition of equipment and the selection
of signals to be sent between dispatch office and the
AI-LOCATION /,,uNtT generating units was determined in many instances by
CoNTROLLER t--- ^/ the availability and economics of analog tone telemetry
channels. Analog AGC eontrol schemes began to be
l-' P(S) superseded by all-digital systems in the mid-1960rs and
the use of digital telemetry, and digital computaticn
is now the universal choice fo:: new installations.
The flexibility and secur.ity of modenn digi'ual
Figure 9 data transmission allows the location at which the con-
trol loops are inplernented to be selected on the basis
Two-LooP Structure of AGC of logical convenience rather than equipment economics'
Present p::actice favors placement of both unit controL
Good feedback system design practice :recommends loop and load allocation loop logie in the centralized
that: dispatch office computer, since all the nequired data.
is already available in this location for independent
a) The inner controlle, ' L(s)' he set up to reasons. ft would be entinely practical, however', to
achieve prompt, stable following of the inter- implement unit control loops in individual smal1 com-
mediate signal, tU."("), by the outPut quan- puters located at the generating units without chang-
tity, P_(s). ing the fundamental or^ganization of the AGC process.
b) Given proper pe::formance of the inner: loop, Unit Contr'ol Loop
the outer controller K(s) should exert control
of the output, Pg, by adjustments of Pdes that The unit control- loop is a simple servo system
are within the bandwidth that the innen control whose task is to match generaton output to a megalratt
loop is able to follow' setpoint. While the equipment used to build the unit
control loop varies between AGC system vendors, the
fn a reaL power system with many generators and
transfe:: function achieved is generally equivalent to
interconnection points, the simple system of Eigure I the basic reset arrangement showl in Figure 11a. A
rnust be expanded to include several unit control loops
unit control error is ccmputed and accumu.Lated to give
cperating in para11el as showa in Figure 10. It is the load reference signal which continues to be ad-
justed until- measured genelator output matches the set-
vital- to note, however, that the basic structure of point. one repnesentative mechanization of this loop
inner and outer control loops remains unchanged; all is shown schernatically in Figure I1b. Ihe oPerating
that happens is that the single innen loop of Figure 8 sequenee of this loop r.ecurs at intervals of two to
is joined by several para1le1 innen loops, one for each foun seconds and is as folloers:
generating unit, rhile the deSign prineiple stated
above stands.

i) The unit control Program is started in the e) The required resolution and response rate does
AGC eomPuter. It picks uP the generator not r:equire a large number of bits for the
power setpoint from the load allocation loop raise/lower message.
program and the actual generator power from
telemetry tables. The unit control en::or is The basic minimum message format uses two bits and
computed as is able to nequest a single quantum of ::aise o:: lower:
motj-on as shown in Fi.gure 12. Such a sirnpl.e seheme
UcE=K(P- (3.1) would impose a fixed relationship between controf r"es-
u -P)g olutjon, maximum rate-of-ehange and unit control loop
ii) The unit control program generates a request repetition interval. If resolution of x percent is
to dr:ive the governor control motor in the needed, the worth of one governor motor motion reqr.,est
raise or lowen direction by a specified must be x percent of unit output, Then if te.Iemetry
amount and sends this request in digitally retransmits the message every T seconds,. the maximum
encoded form to the telemetry system. possible rate of ehange of gene::ator output is

iii) The next telemetry outgoing transmission ..

casies the request for movement to generat- f Per'cent per second.
ing unit controller. The unit controll-er A 1/4 percent resolution and 4-second ::epetition in-
closes the power contacton of the governor ter-ral then gives a maximum rate-of-change of
reference motor for" a plleset time, usual]-y
a fraction of a second' to accumulate the
requested r.aise/lcwer steP onto the prebent _-xbU = 3.75 per:cent per minute,
reference Position.

2 gt.|'

r ' d!'F6 Lfa CALC U L ATED

Simple *"="a ,om l: *ia Controt LooP ERROR

ltl Approximation of Cal-eulated
Signal Composed of Limited
by Digital
of Bits

This is a reasonable rate-of-change limit for sus-

| tained load ramping of thermal generating ulits, but
-)-- is unreal-isti-caI1y restr"ictive for regulating purposes.
- -
Figure 11b Steam units can be maneuver:ed very ::apidly over the
limited range of 5 to 10 percent of tl:eir output, and
Digital Computer/Telemetry Implementation most hydno units can move at a much higher rate ov'er
of Basic Unit Control LooP their entir:e no-load-to-fu11-1oad rarrge. To take ad-
vantage of this the unit contnol locp should be ab.Ie
The resoluti,on and rate-of-cl.range capability of to move the governor neference signal at a rate of
this scheme are determined by the number of bits used l-0 to 15 percent pen minute.
to tr?ansmit the raise,/lowen signal. An "ideal" ar-
rangement would be to transmit the computed UCE di- Such a rate of change capabJlity may be achieved
rectly to the unit controller as the raise/1ower sig- while retaining the previously mentioned resolution
nal, using the same number of bits as used to compute and repetition interval by adding one or more bits to
UCE. While this approach may be practical in a few the basic two-bit telemetry message for,mat to a11ow
specialized applications whene the unit controller specification of the amount or governor motor motion to
includes a small computing unit, it is not w:r-CeJy be produced by each request.
favored because:
The final format of the telemetrl/ message and the
a) It woul-d require an elaborate and expensi-re logic by which the governor motor motion request is de-
decoding capability in the unit control-l-er, rived from the calculated unit control eruor is lirnitej
and would not be compatible with many existing onLy by the ingenuity of the individual AGC r.endors.
unit controLlen designs. The form of telemetry message and unit controller logic
used to transmit AGC instructions and translate them
b) There is an incentive to minimize the number of into load refenence changes must be expected to evolve
bits used for the AGC raise/1ower message so continuously as manufacturers produce new telemetr.y
that a single digital data channel of limited equipment and as turbine governors make increasing use
baud rate can be shared with other telemetr'/ of dj-gital control technology.
functions, or be "party-Iined" to sevenal gen-
erating units. Regardless of its details, the important point is
that each unit control loop is implemented as a se.Lf-
contained entity and must operate satisfactorily as a

prerequisite for the application of the AGC load aI- loop of Figu:re 9. It is therefore common to pnovide
location loop. one or mo:re addj.tional loaC a.l-Iocation paths to in-
crease the gain with whieh ACE is applied to thg gen-
Load Allocation Loop erator outputs, as illustr:ated in Figure 15. Such
additional paths may use alloeation factors, bi, that
As indicated above and in Figure I0, the outer
loop of the AGC must manipulate the unit control loop are different from those detenmined by economic load-
inputs in such a way that the present system genera- ing nu1es. The generator power allocation in this case
tion is raised by an amount equaL to ACE; ACE being a becornes
statement of the additiona.l- generation needed to re-
turrr the net interchange and frequency to scheduled P.
Ges]-= P.. + (IPg1 + ACE - XP..) a.1 + b.1 ACE
Dr- D]-
A sinple arrangement for determining unit control (XP - XP..) a. + (a. + b.)
Ioop setpoints, Pr^.r at any instant is illustrated = P..
D]-+ grDr. 111 ACE

in Figure 13. Ifi"this arrangement, ACE is added to

the present total system generation and the-new total The value of the summation of the b. factons de-
is allocated according to a set of rrsplitting factorstl pends on the gain desired in the outer J-Bop transfen
to the several- generating units. While this load function, f(s), of Figu:re 9-
allocation scheme would give a wor.kable AGC system, it
would not satisfy several key requirements of AGC. Tts
principal drawbacks are: UN IT
a) It is poorly suited to the economic allocation
of generation because economic loading rules D
are inevitably nonlinear and, henee, would re- 'b2
quire the splitting factors to be updated fre-
quently as functions of total genenation.
b) It fo::ces the sieady-state gain of the outer
loop transfer function, K(s), to be unity, even to,
though the optimum gain for effective regula-
tion may be greater than unity.
c) ft forces the allocation of ACE to be made in
the same proportions as the allocation of base SYSTEM FEQ.D
generation. GENERATON. MW

ACE Figure 14
'des I Allocation of Unit Outputs According to
Base Points and Participation Factors

--l!_. \ i-
Pdes z

Paes 3
Determined by Optimum Dispatch Calculation

Pdes 4

rrv--J! Paes 5

I RAlos I

Figure 13 t

Simple Allocation of Total Load to Unit

Control LooP Setpoints

The more widely used method of load allocation is Pdes

a linearization of the exact economic loading rules to
express each unitrs output in terms of a "base point',,
Pr.,,r and a "participation factor", a., as shown in Fig-
ufl6 14, The participation factorslare normalized so o
that Ia. = 1, and, hence, the allocation of the re- 'des3
quired total generation is given by
fig""._ fg
Pd"=i = Pb' + (tPci + ACE - rPo')a' (3.2) Use of Allocation Paths in Parall-el to
A11ow ACE to be Allocated with Net cain
This method cf load all-ocation a]_]-ows the AGC and Other than Unit-v, and with Distribution
optimum disp.atch functions to be l-inked by having the Other than Economic Distribution
economic Cispatch update the "PO" and trafi values at
intervals of about 5 minutes, or i+henever the condi- The most cormonly eited neason for dif-
tions of the old linearization become inval-id. ferent values to the a. and b. factons is that the reg-
ulating capabilities of gener:ating units are not neces-
Sinee the summation of a-. is unity, the altoca- sarily in proporti.on to their economic panticipation
tion (3.2) still gives a net gdin of unity in the outer factor.s. In .fact, 1o1., operating costs are usual].y

associated with large steam or nuclear units which are of a signlficant event and that control action should
much less toleaant of than are smaller begin immediately, whiLe sma1l ACE values generally
units having higher running eosts. It is quite common' indicate that all is nonmal and that control action may
therefore, to find a unit being assigned a relatiwely reasonably be delayed. Fil-tering action of the general
large. value of a, and relatively smalI value of b., type illustrated by Figure l-6 should be accompanied by
and vace versa. logic to ensune that any persistent offset in a se-
quence of ACE vafues falling below the threshold of
Secondary allocation paths as characterized by the Figure 16 will be detected and passed through to rhe
factors, b,, may be used to obtain temPorary strong load all-ocati.on pnocess.
coruective' action by the AGC system in emergencies.
fhis may be achieved, for example, by using two inde- References 7 anC I give details of tr+o ACE filter'-
pendent secondary paths, having sets of unit allocation ing schemes meeting these general objecti.ves.
factors by bfi and bril with the first path being ac-
tive at all times and the second being active only
when ACE exceeds a suitable threshold value. The terms MAGNITUDE
ttemergency actiont' and ttassist actionrr have been used OF ACE
to describe this form of supplementary load allocati.on.
It witl be noted that the scheme shovm in Figure
15 allocates the system load entirely on the basi.s of
optimum dispatch when ACE is zero. The occumence of
an upset, say a toad increase, will create a nonzeno
ACE. This ACE wil-l be all-ocated acconding to the sums
(a. + b. ), hence generation and canceling
itself. When ACE returns to zero, the new total gen-
eration is again allocated on the basis of optimum
dispatch only,
AGC Refi.nements

Relarion to Sasic Efenenrs REQUIRED BEFORE
AcloN rs
The basic elements described above represent the ?xIrff.
core of the AGC system. The implementation of any AGC figure 16
system within a digitat suoervisory control system re-
quires that tie flows, frequency and generator powers Nonlinear Cha::acteristic Rejecting Contr"of
be measured, telenetered at the required interval of Action in P.c.,"ccnse to Sma.L1 Values of ACE
two to four seconds, and fed to subroutines executing
the unit control a,l,l load allocation loop calculations. Command and Penmissive Control
It also requires that the outgoing raise/]oweir signals
be telemetered out to the units on complet.i.on of each The straightforward. implementation of the two-l-oop
AGC subroutine execution.
control- structure descri.bed in the preceding two sec-
Execution of the AGC subroutines, once telemetry tions allows the load of any unit to be changed in
requirements have been handled, eonsumes only a small either direction at any time. This form of control
fraction of the capacity of a typical dispatch office action is termedl "conrnand" control- in the AGC context.
computer. Hence, once the basics have been provided, a
brcad r"ange of refinements may be added to the AGC pro- An alternative to command control is the "permis-
cess by the sirnple addition of code to the AGC sub- sive" fonm of controll in which the raise/lowen sig-
routines of the central computer. The following pana- naling logic can generate raise signals only when ACE
graphs summarize some of the refinements'found in up- is positive and vice versa' This method of control is
to-date digital AGC systems. claimed to reduce the control activity of the generat-
ing units since it can adjust thej,r loads onJ.y in the
ALL illterlng direction required to neduce the val-ue of ACE.
tt" nl*: i.porta.,t refinement of the basic Pro- h:ne permissive control has the disadvantage that
cess is the filtering of^the ACE signal to avoid un- it impairs the ability of the AGC to handl-e the valid
needed conr-ro1 action. /'o ACE contains a strong ran- and important situation where the load of an individual
dom component, comesponding to random variations of unit must be adjusted in opposition to the trend of
load and may also significant components at the system load and the load of other units. This need
natural frequencies of rotor angle oscillations. The arises, for instance, when a large efficient unit is
frequency band of these variations in ACE extends right returned to service during a period of flat or declin-
through the bandwidth of the AGC system, hence favoring ing system load and is to be brought up to fuI1 l-oad to
a nonlinear filtration process which can reject varia- displace the output of other mone expensive units,
tions of ACE on the basis of both magnitude and fre-
quency. The ease with which digital comPuters accommodate
changes in control logic makes it quite practicai. to
F.ejection of smaII high frequency variations may take advantage of the strong points of both command and
be handled by standar:d linear filtering. Aclditional permissive control methods. One approach, for example'
logic is needed to recognize that srxall values of ACE operates on a command basis allowing both raise and
do not require control action, even when they are with- lower requests, while ACE is sma11 but switches to a
in the AGC bandwidth and have been passed by high fre- permissive arrangement when ACE exceeds a suitable
quency cutoff filtration. One way of avoiding exces- threshold.
sive control rlesponse to smal1 values of ACE is i1lus-
trated by Figure 16, This form of filtration recog-
nizes that a Iarge value of ACE is a fair indication

Rate Limiting ' Conti.nuing AGC action with centain telemetered
data items beir:g replaced by manual data en-
Rate limiting in the unit eontrol loops is highly tries,
desirable but is complicated by the nonlinear nesponse t Informing the operator whenever its mode of
cha::acteristics or- the majority of generating units.
Rate limiting logie should recognize the folLowing fac- operation is altered or requires alteretion.
Alternative Control Modes
1l The quantity to be rate limited is actual
genenator outPut, not load reference. The AGC system should recognize that systen dis-
patch often requires generator loading to be controlled
ii) The relationship between load reference set- aecording to criteria other than economj.c operation and
ting and unit output may be highly nonlinear, cancellation of ACE. The AGC should, correspondingly'
including both flat FPots in the steady-state be capable of cont::ol1ing each unit to a Pot/er set-
characteristic and varying transfer function point, PUu", determi.ned according to a variety of spe-
lags. cial crite::ia, This can readily be accomplished in the
schemes described above by accepting the input signal,
iii) The permissible rate-of-change of actual unit P,t"=, of the unit control toop fi:om an independent
output depends uPon the irnmediate past his-
tory of load changes of that unit. source rather than from the outer loop of the AGC. The
independent source could be a manual seParate entry by
fn view of these factors, the rate limiting of the the operato! or, as in the case of a Preplanned load
uni,t controf loops should be implementeC by giving the program, it could be an independent comPuter subnoutine
Ioop the eapability of the load refer:ence at a r.rhich calculates the desired unit power as a function
rapid rate an$ by inhibiting this capability only when of time of day. In either case it will be fioted that
aciual unit output is observed to exceed its permissi- the unit control loops, by themselves' constitute an
ble rate-of-change' effective control system for generation not falling
within the realm of classieal AGC requirements.
Non- Following Detection
rate limiting of the type described above
can move the l-oad reference quite rapidly, it is essen- operatrng KeaJ-rtaes
tial that the unit control loop be able to lnhibit
transmission of raise/lower signals promPtly when: The ovemiding concern in evaluating AGC perfor-
mance is its influence on the powe! plants that it con-
i) The unit is taken off automatic control at the trol-s. The plant maneuvering that it produces must,
prdriL. above a1l- else, be gentle and reasonable from the view-
point of the plant operator. Any attemPt by AGC to ex-
ii) The output of the unit fails to follow the ert sudden control actions, or actions that appear to
load reference within a reasonable tolerance him to be arbitrary' creates immediate difficul-ties for
while in automatic control- mode.l-. the operator who must continually anticipate required
ehanges in status of feedpurnps, coal mills, oi1 guns'
The first condition may readily be accommodated by and so on to keep the plant openating safely. This im-
telemetering the status of the control-room control plies that only simple control will be ac-
mode switch to the AGC c.rnPuter. Failune to follow eepted in AGC, and tUat smooth weJ-I-damped response is
whil-e in automatic mode may be detected by comparing a preferred over rapid neutralization of ACE.
quantity such as integrated unit contnol ernon with a
set of reasonable bounds. Detection of failure-to- Tuning
follow should produce an operator alarm, deactivationof
the unit control- Ioop and reassignment of the economic AGC is a well-understood control process applied
dispatch parameters PO. and a. fc.rr the units remaining to a system whose response is well understood in prin-
ciple but widely vaniable in detail' Because it must
under automatic control-. accommodate wide variations in system response charac-
teristics, must wonk i.rith inputs containing sigoifieant
Provisions for Telemetry Eailu:re noise components, and must give inherently smooth re-
sponse, AGC systems should be tuned for slow reset ac-
llhite the non-fol-lowing detection logic provider; ti.on an overall low-pass fil-ter form of resPonse.
a degree of protection from inconrect operation in the
event of telemetry failure, the AGC function should be Tmmunity frorn noise effects is best achieved by
advised of telemetry failures by the telemetry-driving tuning the individuat subloops for smoothr stnongly
software and should be able to adapt its operation damped response, hence assuring that each will function
automatically. The telemetry remote station or con- reliably by itsel-f regardless of the validity of the
troller at each generating unit, as wel-1 as the central action of the othe::s. It is important that the AGC
computer, shoul.d be able to detect loss of telemetry subroutines allow each individual unit control subloop
inputs, stuck contacts, and other 1ike1y causes of to be tested and retuned individually at any time with
emoneous operation. tilhile the details of telemetry the power system in normal operation. Tuning derived
failure detection depend on the specific structure of fnom optimal control theories and assuming that the en-
the equipment, the AGC logic shou]-d be able to respond tire AGC system is in service with valid tel-emetry data
to failures by: inputs is not acceptable; a practical AGC system is
tikely to be called on regularly to dperate on a "par-
' Suspending operation of an individual unit con- tial ccntrol" basis while some of its subsections are
trol- Ioop. out-of-service,
' Suspending all AGC action. It is critical to riote that practical AGC systems

are strongly nonlinear for all magnitudes of distur.- REFERENCES
bance and that their nonliilarities al:e essential to
their proper operation. As a result, sirnulation of [1] IEEE Standard 94, 'rDefinitions for Tenminology for
realistic disturbances, followed by test observations Automatic Genenation Contt?o1 on Electric Power sys-
duning field installation, have pnoved to be the only tems,rr IEEE Transactions on Power and
viable way of handling AGC optimization work, of pnov- Systems,
' PP.
ing new ideas, and of assuring safe performance. Simu-
Lation of the system environment that an AGC system [2] "Process Dynamics in Electnic Utility Systemsr"
will experience can be achieved with a high degnee of ISA Paper. 505-70, International Conference and
realism, and it is usually practical to preset the ma- Exhibit of ISA, October 26-29, 1970, Philadej.phia,
jor.ity of the parameters of a new AGC system on the Pennsylvania.
bi..sis of simulations, leaving only key parameters such
as overall loop gains to be finalized during commis- [3] "Mi.I Response of Fossil Fueled Steam Units,'r IEEE
sioning tests. Working Group on Power Plant Response to Load
Changes, IEEE Transaetions on Power Apparatus and
Cur::ency of Telemetened Data Systems, VoI. PAS-92, pp.. 455-463, 1973.

. AGC is a feedback control- system and, as with all [4] L. K. Kirchmayer:, Economic Control of fntercon-
feedback systems, its stability and ability to reaet to nected Systems, Wile@
changing inputs are sharply influenced by phase lags in
the receipt of its measured outputs or in the transmis- t5l N. Cohn, Contro]- of Generation and Power' !1ow on
sion of its control signals. fnterconnected Systems, Wi1ey, New Yonk, 1966.
The optimum penformance of the AGC system ther:e- [6] D. N. Ewart, rrAutomatic Generation Control--Per.for"-
fore depends very heavily on the comeet timing of the mance Under Normal Conditions,rr U.S. ERDA Publica-
telemetry sean and control output cycfes, tion CONF-750867, pp. 1-13, 1975.
Exper:ience has shown that the complete AGC pro- [7] f. P. de Me1lo, R, J. Mi11s, W. F. BrRe1ls, ttAuto-
cess, ineluding load allocation and output of raise/ mati.c Generation Control - fI: Digital Control
lower signals to the unit contnollers, should be re- Techniques," IEEE Tnansactions on Power A
peated ever5r two to four seconds. Ihe receipt of tele- and Systems, v;I:-EES:E7;]F; Tlf::ri;ffi,
metered inputs, caleulations, and trarrsmission of con-
trol signals by the generating units would ideally be [8] C. W. Ross, "Erron Adaptive Control Conputer for.
instantaneous. 'Ihis is imp::actical because the eco- Interconnected Power" Systems, " IEEE Transactions on
nomics of digital telemetry schemes make it necessary Power Apparatus and Systems, v;r.- PAS-85, ep. 7Lr-
to scan the Dany measurement points used by AGC on a 749, l_966,
seguential basis. Expenience, again, has shown the
AGC process to be tolerant of the input data age vari-
ations that result from car.efully coordinated and timed
telemetry arrangements. It must be noted, how<!ver",
that propen timing of the telemetry scan cycle and the
execution of the AGC subroutines in the real-time op-
e!'ating system of the dispatch computer are essential
to high-quality AGC pe:rformance.

The AGC system is a feedback control whose task is

to hold a utilityrs net interchange and fr.equency at
scheduled values. The operation, design and tuning of
this control can readily be understood on the basis of
straightforward feeCback system theory, with proper
recognition of power plant dynamic response being the
key consideration.
AGC serves to link system optimum scheduling and
security analysis functions with the power. system by
maneuvering generating units to their scheduled load-
ings. This linkage is achieved by having dispatch eal- F. P. dellIo (i"{'52 Slr'58, Fr74)
culations hand over new unit base point and loading graduated '.^rith B.Sc. aqd ia.Sc. degrees
participation factor"s at intervals, ranging firom min- in Electrica-l Engi:reerinq t-rer,r ltT
utes to hours, depending upon the util_ityts particul_ar rrhere he r,ras elected to Tau Beta Pi
scheduling needs. and Srgr.a Xi. I{aving been er.r,o11edia
l'ilTrs cooperative engineering prcgrmr
The overriding concern in the design and applica- his
academic exDerience jrrcluded
tion of AGC is its effect on power plant operations, sever:al test engineering and laboratory
and up-to-date AGC systems include many special Iogic assigrurents vrittr Electric
elenents tailored to minimize unnecessary control ac- betrueen 131+5 and 19a8.
tion at the power: plants. AGC is both an In 1949, he joined the Pjo Li*rt
contrrcl during normal system operation and a first fine and Pcr,rer Corpanlr jn Brazil. In 1950, tre was prorDted
of cor::ective action in emergencies. lmprovements in to a staff assigment under the Assista. t Ceneral-
the quality and flexibility of generation contr"ol- are Ihnager, PlannJng and Consiled @ratiorr; of tJ:e Engi-
incr,easingly recognized as justification for the in- neering Serwi-cres Organization, serving ,-re operEting
stallation of digital computer-based supervisory con- ecriparies of flre Brazilian Tracton L.i ,- and pcrrer
trol systems.

Grrrup. In this capacity, until 1955r he vras resPons- .Ioln M. Undrill (Mr65)r (SMr7r+)

ible for pcx,.rer systen pfa:rning and design studies ccs-l- receGa;Tffielor of Engineering
cerning the futre e>pansion of the Rio Ligfrt, Sao Paulo degree, with first elass honors, fron
Light and City of Santos systen6. In'1955, Iar. delbllo tJ:le University of Canterburyt
joiaed the Analytical Engineering Section of General Or:..istchurch, I'lew Zealandr in 1963t
Electricrs Apparatus Sa1es Eivision. In 1959, he was and a Ph.D. from the sare Unive::sity
assigned to ttre Electric Utility Engineering in 1965. Follcrdng a Pet Doctorral
Operition. Silce 1961, he has conducted-and guided - Fellcwshio at ttre University of
extensive researctr efforts on rodeling of dynamics of Torcnto, he joiled the General Elecrtric
Doirer systarc and pover Plants for r:se in advanced -- Conparryis Utility Ergineering Qoeration
boiler and plant eontrol design studies. He was the in 1966. He joined ruI jn rc71,
recipient of C.f .rs F.ana[1er:ia] A^rard and G.E.!s Ralph Dn. Undrillrs vtork has covered tle a::ea of
Cordiner Award. He also nade sigrrificant ccrrtri-butions elestric utililv d5manic behavior analysisr indrrstnial
in ttre study of elect='ical- madrile dynarnies. Sjnce process sjmulations and electric flcruer netlrork
1963, he nas netd fl:re oosition of Senior ApoLication ijrmrlation and security analysis. At Ceneral Electrict
En3:;eer headilg a group of slzsterns engineers speeial- Dr. Undrill vras responsible fon research on the
izi-ng :l Electric Utility csttrol and drTnarLics i:rplenentation of calculatics-rs for qr-1ine conputel:s
problerc. ltc. del'b1Io joined Pcrnrer Tedrrologiesr Inc. irr security analysis applications. Under the
at the tire of its forrnation irr August of 1969 as a sponsorshiP of the Elecfric Researctr Councilr he
Principal Engj-neer. He sen/es" as Vice President- directed (bne::al Electricf s researrh effort cxl Pcr.rell
Secretary of tlre Conpany. lle was an ilstructor of syster^l equivalents for use il d.ynardc perfornrance
(bneral- Llectricts Pcr,rer Systers Engileering Course and arra stafi:-it_v studies. fn dr,znamics engireeringr Dr.
currently teaches Dynanric and Qoerational sr:bjects in Undrill ha-e made conlr'.ilutica'rs to the d,Tnamic
PlIrs Pcr,rer Teclrrolory Ccrlrse. analysis rethods available for large iltercorrrecticrr
lt'. del{elIo has authoned over 30 tedrLical paPers of sjmctrronors rrachines, and has applied.these nethods
in IFTE, ISA, Arerican Porer Conference, I^lon1d Pourer on probler"'.rs rangirg frrcm electric utility porer
Conference, and ottrer utility i.ndusl-y publications, svrings to torque rnagni-fi-cat:i.ons i:l industrial- &ive
and has parricipated in nnny lectures to professional syst"ens. Hi.s'dynanric si:mlation ccu"rtr"ibutions ccver
society groups. He has served jn the IEEE Systen- trydraulic and f1o,r, hydro oIant, steam boiler/
Controis-subcomittee ( ft airnen of Technical Sessions furnace, and nechanical drive/gear systers. IIe is
Task Force) and joint IE-ASIE Working Group on Pcuer presently resDonsible for the develoDlrent of inter-
Plant Respcnse of vrhich he is presently the drairrnan. active corputmg sJrstems for electric Porer system
He is also a nerber of the TF.IF Working Group on Sys- si.:rulation.
tem t\rnarn-ic Perforrnance. He is al-so servirg 9s c}rair' Dr. Undrill has gjven graduate courses at
rqan oi the Pcrer Plant {namics Corraittee of ISAr }b. Universiti-es in Canada and itrew Zealand and is a
delbllo i,s a Fe11cp 6f TIfF, a Senior lrrtber of ISAI lecturer il the Ft[ Pcxver Tedrrolog; Course. FIe is
a registered Professional Engineer il New Yori< Statet a registered engineer il Ner,r Yorlc, Onta::io and
and a nemben of CIffiE. New Zealand.


R. D. Dunlop D. N. Ewart
American Electric Power General Eleitric Company
Service Corporation


A power system never operatea at a point of true
Starting frorn a die cue sion of the fundarnental char - steady state and thug ia alwaya characterized by dy-
acteristica of rnodern i:rterconnected power systems, namic behavior. The purpose of thic section iB to
this paper goes on to categorize requirementsfor dy- ideatify thoee elemente of the powet' 8y8tem and its
narnic perforrnance aad response imposed on tbe ag- controls which are aud contribute to dy-
gregate generatiou which supplies the syetern. Both namicbehavior and todiecuee t"he objectivea of systern
norrnal and abnorrnal operating rnodes are coneidered. cont!o1.
The perforrnance and regponee requirernents are shown
to stornfronl basic needs to rnaintainvoltage, frequen- Whenever a diaturbiug event occura oD a power
ry, time, and conti:ruity of service as wellas the sec- Eyatem; there is a nearly inetantaneoua chaDge fur the
oadary requirernents of rnaintaiaing operating econo- state of the electric and magnetic fields of the ayatern
rnies and controllilg inadvertent interdrange between followed iu seconda and minutes by the longer term
aeighboring power systerns. Typical data taken frorn electromechanical reaponse of the rotating elemente
operating records are used to illuetrate and quantify of generatiag sources arrd loadg. Although the tran-
eeveral of tihe reapoaae requirementa. sient and eteady state overvoltage performance aaso-
ciated with initial electromagnetic phenomena is irn-
INTRODUCTIQN portaEt in power ry8tem design and operation, the
longer term responseis the Bubjectof intereet here.
Power generating units, when connected into a
large power 6yetem, become an integral part of that Elements of Svstem Dyaamic Behavi.or
system and areaffected by a numberof coaditions and
controlling influences to which they would not be sub- Itre power s yatem element g which r elate to systerri
jected iI they were sirnply serving au isolated load. dynamic performance are illuetrated i'rr the functional
Some of these conditioag are directly related to basic block diagram of Figure l. For convenience in thie
physical laws and others arise because of the manner discueeion, the ayetem ehowrt represente an entire
in which todayrs powe! systems are operated. generation control area which may be either a single
system or a poolconsisting of several powe! systems
In a previous paper sponsored by the IEEE Work- operating under mutually beaeficial contractual ar-
ing Group on Power Plant Response, definitions and rangements. Ttre controlarea consiets of geographicll.
typical characteristics of response of fossil-fired area with boundaries ueually along eorporate liaee
generating unite were discussed. (1) within which geaeration is continually controlled to
meet loads plue or miaus any echeduled net interchange
Ihe purpose of thie paper is to describe require- across l*re boundariee.
ments for dynamic performance of power generating
unite imposed by operation on bulk power eyeterne. covered willbe duties irnposedfor voltage
regulation and prime-mover response under normal --t-- rlst
and abnormal operation. o+{
',.J uu
Thie paper starts with. an qverview of syetem
dynamice which identdies the elements of dynamic ffi
behavior and states the objectivee of power eystern
control. T'hie ie followed by a quantitative discuesion
of the duties irnpoeed on generating units by syetem

caxErlttxe uttT coxrRoll

kpcr T 74 3596, recommended and approved by the IEEE Power Gencra- t oas&ftto utt
tion Committce of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for prescntation at the roftt tYaEr ccilol
IEEE PES Summer Mecting & Energy Resources Conf., Aaaheim, Cal., July 14.19,
1974. Manuscript submitted January 25, 1974; mzde available for Printing APril tr'igure I Bagic Elementa of Power Syatem and lte
t8,1974. Coatrol
Reprinted from IEEE Trowactions on Power Apparatus & Systems, vol. PAS-91, pp. 838-849, MaylJune 1975.
llhe major elements of the power syatem are the ?lhe fundamental relation which determineg elec-
generation Bourcea, the 1oads, and the tranemission tromechanical dynamicB of Power systems ie the ao-
network which interconnects thern. called 'rewing equationt'. It ig derived by applying
Newtonte law of motionto the rotating elernents of gsB-
. The generation sources, generally concentrated erators and motorc. Fot example, the equation of
in a relatively few large synchronous genelators, ate motion applied to synchronoue generatora ia illuatrated
driven by hydro, ga8, or stearn prirnemovers and are on Figure 2. (2)
cloeely coupled electrically through the tranernission
network. The generatingunits, together witha $ariety
of control ayaterna, play a major tole in determining
aystem dynarnic responBe.

Ihe total svstem }oad is rnade up of rnany elements

of varying size and widely dispersed throughout the net-
Tmcr. - recuuclt ronou oEvzuPEo 8, PRIIE rovEn

work. For example, Iarge industnial customers rrray Telecr - eugrftoillclfrtc roRatE oEvEL0PID BY gYll -
be s'upplied directly off the high voltage transmieaion
network; whe!eaa, emaller industrial, comrnercial and
residential customers are supplied from the subtrans-

mission or low voltage distribution networks in the most ro- nAieo $Eo

econornic and reliable rrranner. T'lee individual loads E - AtiGLE EErtrEEtl R0T0R PoSIIlot{ All0 sYllcHRollous

are for the rnost part not under the direct control of REFEREI{CE

the aerving utility, but follow seasonal, weekly and H - IURBB'E-GEIIERAMR }'Ef,TIA
daily as influenced by weather and other fac- "for
- nreonll flIIH RESPESI ro rHE
tors. Becauee of the largenurnber of individual loads,
the composite utility load over short periods of tirne Figure 2 Fundarnental Electromechanical Dynamic
takee on certain randorn characteristics. RelationshiP of Power SYstems as
Applicable to Synchronoue Machinee
The manner in which loads respond t6'changes in
systern voltage and frequency is important in gaining
an underetanding of Power systern dynarnic behavior. Steadv state operation is characterizedby thefact
The large rotating synchronous or induction rnotor that the rnechanicaltorgue ie essentially in equilibrium
loads contribute to overall systern electrornechanical with the electrical torque developed, so that the rotor
behavior in a rnanner sirnilar to that of the large syn- acceleration is characterized by srnalldeviations frorn
chronous generators in the systern. Ilowever, the zero and the speed varies around the synchronous
relative influence of these loads on system dynarnic speed corresponding to the common electrical fre-
performance is very dependent on the nature and loca- quency of the power systerrr.
tion of the disturbance. In many cases the behavior
of the apparent cornposite loadas supplied by the high During a diEturbance when the equilibriurn is up-
voltage network is the rnost irnportant consideration set, all elements of thesystern illustratedin Figure I
in viewing power system dynamic performance. are involved through thia basic equation of motion in
deterrnining the dynarnic response of the systern. In
In the connection between the generating the case of a generatoi, the prirne mover torque de-
sourceB and the loade, the transrnission svstern plays veloped is a functionof the flow into the turbine v.'hich
an irnportant role in determining the character of is in turn controlled by local speed-governor control
syatem dynarnic perforrnance. Since all generating and by systern automaiic generation control. (3) Ttre
sourcea are electrically coupled together through the electromagnetic torque developed is dependent on the
cornrrron transmission network, dynarnic interaction rotating field which is eupplied by the exciter under
between individual generators and between the gener- the control of the feedback voltage regulator and on
ators and loads is very dependent on the nature of the the coupled magnetic field which is dependent on the
trangrnission network and its control. ac current inthethree-phase stator winding. But this
current is dependent on the instantaneous perforrnance
Individual utilities have found it advantageous to of all other generation units and the loads which are
interconnect their systerns by rneans of ac tie lines. coupled to this machinethrough the t:ranernission net-
When this is done, thoee systems whichform an inter- work. Conseguently, the electrornagnetic torque re-
connected group will be locked in synchronism, and, flecte the coupling between each generator and all other
aside from oceaeional short-lived local oscillatiotrs, eystern elernents.
the frequency of the ac voltages will everywhere be
the eame. At the present time, a large part of the Control Elements
U. S. eaat of the Rocky Mou'ntains and parts of Canada
operate aB one interconnected group with a peak coin- , Since rnost power Bystem loads are compoeed of
cident loadestimatedin excese of 300,000 Mri[. \{hen equipment which is deeigned to utilize the energy at a
the East-West ties are closed, an additional 70, 000 Ivflry given voltage and frequency, the Power system is de-
are added. signed to supply the energy eubject to conBtraints on
the variationof voltageand frequency, Feedback con-
trol is an irnportant factor. in rneeting thie objective.

However, the effectiveness of the various control sys- range and response that they do not become limiting
tems in bringing about the deeired performance is factors in overall planl.response during norrnal or
subject to such factors as limits on the maximum eIIrergency conditi.ons. [ /)
change or rate-of-change which the controlled units
can tolerate, the inherent dynamic ri:sponse charac- Secondarv controls, on the other hand, act to
teristics of the controlled units and li.rnits on control initiate control at a 1ocal 1evel based on rerrrote meas -
systern behavior itseU which rnay be due to physical urernents. .The automatic generation control and eco-
li.rnitations or requirements for stable control per- nornic dispatch function shown in Figure I is vitally
f ormance. irnportant to the successful operation of interconnected
Figure I shows a number of these feedback con- power systems which are otherwise independent eco-
trol functions which rnay be conveniently divided into nomi.c entities, Automatic generation control acts to
primary and secondarv control. Prirnarvcontrols are regulate the power output of the electric generators
those f eedback control loops which initiate acti.on at the within the control areas in response to clranges in
Iocal generating unit based on loca1 rneasurements. systerrr frequency, tie-1ine Ioading, or the relation of
The most important of these i.n system dynamic con- these to each other, so as to maintain the scheduled
siderations are the voltage control, the speed control, systern frequency and/or the established net-inter-
and the boiler control. change with other control areas within prescribed
limi;. (8)(9) To accomplish'this, each control area
Systern voltage control is achi.eved at the gener- continuously f orrns an Ar ea. C ontrol Error (AC E) whiclr sources, at the loads through power factor cor- consi.sts of net tie flow deviation frorn scheduled flow
recti.on, and at interrnediate points in the supply systern plus a fraction of the deviation of s)'stern frequency
by rneans such as f jxed and switched capacitors, syn- from scheduled frequency. This Area Control Error
chronous conden s er s, shunt r eactor s and transf orrner s is then distributed to a nurnber of generators to effect
with variable voltage ratio (tap changing) under 1oad. conti.nuous controlthroughthe generator speed control
systems. A demand signal may also be sent to coordi-
The coupling of synchronous machines through the nated boiler-turbine controls to initiate proper boiler
transrnission network creates rnany lightly damped action for i.rnproved overall unit response.
resonant modes whose frequency frorn about
0.? Hz to 3 Hz, The stability of these modes Since customers use the utility supply for time-
is dependent on very subtle effects, including in par- keeping, presentpractice is to keepthe error between
ticular, voltage control. By varying the strength of Bureau of Standards time and tirne derived by inte-
the field fluxin the geperator, not only is the terrninal grating systern frequency' to a value less than Z or 3
voltage maintained, but also a fai.rly signif icant tran- seconds. In order that rnanualintervention to correct
sient change in electricaltorque can be exerted. Thus, time error be kept to a minirnum, it is desirable tq
the ability of a generatorto ride through network dis- keep frequency at or near 50 Hz at all times.
turbances, such as short circuits, and line switching,
and even to rnaintain steady state stability, is depen- Superirnposed onthe necessity to rnaintain voltage,
dent to a degree on voltage regulator and exciter re- frequency and tirne error within narrow lirnits, the
sponse characteristics. Ln cases where very strong area control genters also operate to rninirnize inad-
transmission ties cannot always be counted upon, so vertent interchange and total energy cost.
ca1led high response exciters.,and power system sta-
bilizer s have been employed. (a) lnadvertent interchange is the accurnulated mis-
rrratch between desired energy import or export to
The speed control systern adjusts florv into the
neighboring control areas and actual import or export
turbine in response to changes in shaft speed. Since as measured by accurate integrating rneters at the
operation on a large interconnected network rnaintains boundary tie points. Inadvertent interchange results
all generating units at the same average electrical frorn a variety of causes, arnong thern, rnetering
speed, the individual speed control systerns do not errors, dispatcher error, and systern disturbances.
actually control speed, per se, but rather the power
which each turbine generator contributes to the net- Control is usually effected by rnanual correcti.ons to
work. This control is of prirne irnportance during desired interchange at tirnes which wi.Il also irnprove
an existing time error.
rnajor systerndisturbances where large sustained fre-
quency deviations occur, but it is usually too slorv to
have a significant effect for short-lasting network dis-
The economic dispatch function, sometrmes re -
turbances such as short circuLts, (5) Considerable ferred to as tertiary conttol, acts through the auto-
rnatic generation control to adjust the output 1eve1 of
interest exists however Ior special controls to initiate
fast cLosureand reopeningof intercept valveson large individual generating units to achieve maximum econ-
steam turbines following short circ.uits near the unit
6my of systern operation taking into the account.the cost
to aid in rnaintaining synchronisrn. (b) of unit operation, day-to-day ope-rating constraints,
and transmission system 1oss"s. (1u) Econornic Cis-
patch is augmented by the purchase or sale of econon-ry
In responseto changes in demandfor stearnenergy, or firrn power from neighboring control areas ar-ld by
boiler controls and auxili.aries maintai.n the flow of timing the start-up and shut-down of peaking uni.ts.
fuel, air and water into theboiler, andthrough various
sub-1oops, rnaintain drum Ieve1, steam temperature,
etc, These elements should be capable of sufficient

sometimes varying from maximurrr to rninirnum by a
factor of.2 to I during the courge of a day, but occur-
ring at relatively slow rates and behaving in a fairly
As mentioned earlier, the system never oPeratea pr.di"t"bl. manner. Typical maximurn ratee of change
in a true steady state condition but rather is charac- Lf horrrly average load during the rnorning load rise
tlrized as a continuing dynarnic process' For con- and evening load drop might be . L51o of' peak load per
'venience, the dynamic Processes involved' the class
of events which stimulate them, and their influence on
the generating plants will be discussed here in the con- Irnpact on Voltage Control
t.*iof ,rotrrraia.rd abnorrnal modes of systerrr operation'
During system load changes, the autornatic volt-
Modes of Svstem OPeration
age regulators atthe generating units, along the trans-
rril""i"" systern and at the loads will be acting to hold
Norrnal operation is identjJied here. with the be- scheduled voltages. The principal duty imposed on
harriot *lri.h results f rornthe norrnal variation in total generating units during load changes is to provide
load taking place over the period of a day' as well as It.ft., reasonably prornpt voltage control, andto have
the'more random load fluctuations taken place from suff icient reactive-vott-ampere capability in the gen-
rnornent to moment. In addition, it is not unugual on
erator to perrnit thedesired voltageand systern reac-
a large interconnected systemf or a generating unit to
tive power requirements to be m'aintained as the real
te trippedduetolocalplant problerns or, perhaps less po*.t is varied. If the voltage is not maintained at
likely, io transrnission systerndisturbances' Accord- plant, the auxiliary supply may be affected and' fur-
ingly, the dynamic processes and resulting dutiee as- ih"rrrro"., overall stability of thenetwork rnay suffer'
so-ciatea with the loss of generation within one of
contiol areas on the interconnected systern will be Irnpact on Control of Real Power
discussed under the heading of norrnal operation'
Becauge of the large change of real power during
Abnormal operation on the other hand will relate the morning load rise, .generation changes are often
to the behavior o1 the power systern imrnediately fol- carried out manually under the direction of the system
lowing the temporary or Pelrrranent loss oJ' trarrsrnis- load dispatcher. In anticipation of the morningload
sion network elements and/or large loads or load
under extremely rare and rise, he rnight request that pumped storage units be
In addition, it is possible, disconnected as pumps, and a short time later be con-
nearly unpredictable cornbinations of events' for a
into one or rnore nected in the generaling rnode. Likewise, relatively
portion of the systern to seParate
srna11 peaking gas turbine and fossil units would be
islands which are cornpletely isolated frorn the re- started and loaded as needed. He would control the
rnainder of the interconnected network' This extreme tirning and arnountsto rnatchexpected trendsor actual
.disturbanee will also be discussed here as it relates needs inarrranner intended to achieve econornic oper-
to perf ormance of generators oPerating withinthe iso- ation of the sYstern.
lated island.
Since loading is often done manually at the plants
Norrnal Ooeration
in response to r6quests from the load dispatcher' unit
The daily load cycle as typically illustrated on loading rates do not necessarily rneet the rising load
exactly. Misrnatches between total load and total gen-
Figure 3, is characterized by a large change in load' eration rnay therefore occur because the units are
being loaded too fast or too slow or because too rtlany
or too few units are being loaded. The mismatch will
appear at thesystem control-eenteras anarea eontrol
ACE, and those units under AGC control will
atternptto drivethe ACE to zero. Consequently, fairly
large control errors can develop in a short period of
time and the units under ACG must be quite responsive
ES and have sufficient regulating range to prevent the
-u70 systern from contributingto excessive inadvertent in-
terchange or to frequeney deviations'
{eo A second factor which contributes to real power
response needs in followingthe daily load cycle is the
aa desire to maintain the units f airly close to an econornic
'Since units of diJferent
50 dispatch whenever possible.
frpZ.-"na ages will have different incrernental cost
characteristica, they will have a tendency to load and
40 unload sequentially rather than in unieon as the total
0 load variee. Thus, firstoneunit, thenanpther in turn'
o246Epl? 14 6 lE?s2?4 will tend to follow the entire load change during the
TIIE Of OAY tirne the systern incremental cost is within the incte-
Figure 3 TYPical Daily Load Curve mental cost range of individual units. This effect is

of connected generation ie under activeautomatic gen-
100 eration control, then thoge units under control must
ur.\ t4 be capable of reaponding in magnitude and rate of 4 or
w Lxa- UNIT NO 2
more tirnes that of the underlying load variations.
\ 80
70 Figure 6 is a trace of frequency at a location in
\. MW

the Eastern part of the U. S. for a periodof tirne frorn

\A rL


{A tWl*lr!o s. lr $t,r5o ,l?o *::r.*

s.s ll '0., a s rm ,o. I

'. 14 II
50 td
Url,i{, rr ,,ll\tfilU"
\ ,o' \ A
MW i5 sgr
Illil 'I'I nilI"
$- rr ,\ 40 "



Figure 6 Trace of Frequency in U.S. Interconnection
Figure 4 Loading Pattern of Units Subjected to Illustratin g -Short - Term Fluctuat ion s
Economic Diepatch. (Unit I has higher
incrernental coBt than Unit 2 and therefore 6 a. m. to 8 a. m. on a weekday morning. Essentially,
unloads earlier as total load decreases. ) the sarne trace would hav6been generated had the re-
eordingbeenmadein Chicago, New Orleans, or Miami
illustrated in Figure 4. Modern units having very flat at the eame time. The frequency trace appears to
incremental cost curvea will be affectef most by this contain fairly rapid fluctuations with rnagnitudes of
facto r. about . 0l Hz peak-to-peakand slo.wer trends of larger
rnagnitudes. Only when major upsets occur does the
Short term load fluctuations create a need for gen- frequency deviate rnore than t.Ob Hz frorn 60. This
eration response to maintain scheduled tie-line flow frequency trend was sensed by each of the governors
and freguency. Looked at over a time scale shorter in the interconnection.
than hourly averages, normal fluctuations in load on a
system can be in excess of. l% of. peak for periods of a Under normal operation, the frequency deviations
minute and in excess of 3fo f.ot periods of l0 minutes. exceed the .06%, (or .036 Hz on a 60 Hz system),
An illustrationof short terrn loadfluctuations appears deadbqnd allowed for governore on large steam tur-
on Figure 5. In the area where the load change takes bines(11) only upon loss of a major generating unit in
p1ace, the area control error is used to cause the gen-
the interconnection. Thus norrnal frequency regula-
erators in that control area to correct system fre- tion appears toSe accomplished mainly by the integral
action provided by the 6ystem control centers. As
control action is taken to rnaintain area control error,
the governors on controlled units are driven out of
their deadband and then become sensitive to frequency
deviation. The response requirement for thie mode of
t*t /ur^r\ h^4,+ operation is fairly modest. The ability to move plus
\ or minus lfo inoutput in about 5 secondsunder gover-
5 rtll nor control appears to be adequate for norrnal fre-
{ quency regulation on a large interconnecti.on. Note
ILl that if only half of the uni.ts in a systern are actually
on governor control, then the response required for
the responding units will be twice the systern need.
Upon sudden loss of generation, the load will be
Figure 5 Total Load on Utility System Illustrating served by a redistribution of power arnong the gener_
Short - Term Fluctuation s
ators in the total interconnection. In the first milli_
seconds following the loss the redistribution is accord_
quency and tie-line power schedules. While it may be ing to network and generator iinpedances, followed in
a few seconds by a redistribution according to governor
acceptable to perrnit lfo variations for I minute periods
to appear as tie-line fluctuations , 30/o var j.alions f or l0 characterietics. A trace of frequency on the inter_
minute periods are excessivefor most eystems and if co4nection following loss of a large unit appears on
permitted, would reduce the tie-line capability for Figure 7. Deviations on the order of .05 to ,l Hz
exchanging power with neighboring systems under nor, might be experienced.
mal or emergency conditions. Thus, on a system basis In those control areas outside the affected area,
most of the larger variations over I0-rninute periods the frequency error and tie-line
must be followed by generating units under autornatic tend to cancel
so that little or no AGC control"rror"
takes place. Thus,
generation control. If, Ior exarnple, only 2516 or lese each unit in the interconnection under governor con-

trol rnight pick up f rorn I to 3% of its MW' rating. Since ernphasized. Accordingly, attention willfocus on thoae
it is just this pickup under governor control which disturbances which signi-ficantly influence generator
limits the frequency excursion, it is important that dynamic perforrnance; for example, network distur-
this duty be shared by as many units as Possible and bances which are electrically remote from the Power
that the units respond quickly. plant may be indistinguishable frorn normal system
Ioad changes.

. l, Network Disturbances
II .Ult
fl''l I I'r Network disturbances are commonly caused by
f,f# short circuits on thetransrnission systern. The mag-
ktrh nitude and durati.on of the resultant dynarnic resPonse
t r,lJ of the systern is dependent on the type and location of
2 AYNI the fault, on the time required for norrnal protective
zp apparatus to respond and isolate the faulty elernent,
and on the manner in whichthe systernand.its controls
respond to the initial disturbance and its subsequent
Short circuits or faults whichoccur on the trans-
ro ult{
mission systemclose tothe power planthave the rnost
severe effect on generator perforrnance. Further-
more, three-phase faults, although rnuch less likely
Figure 7 Trace of Frequency on U. S. lnterconnection to occur, have a far greater irnpact than the rnore
Following Loss of a Large Unit comtrron occurrence of a single line-to-ground fault.

Operating guidelines presently callfor the control Thefault is generally removed within 0. I seconds.
1o s s to make it up ip I 0 rninute s
ar ea which suff er ed the However, duringthis time system voltage on the faulted
or less, and thus alleviate the inflow of power on the phases is very low in the general vicinity of the fault,
tie-lines and restore frequency to norrnal. Norrnally and voltage measured at the terminals of nearby gener -
this would be taken frorn operating reserve and picked ators is also affected significantly. After the fault is
up autornatically under AGC control with or without cleared by switchingthe affectedcircuit, systern volt-
manual as s istance. ages generally return to near normal levels. If auto-
rnatic circuit reclosing is ernployed, then reclosing
The amount of operating reserves carried by in- into a permanent fault further perturbs the system.
dividual companies varies with operating philosophy'
but typically is in the range of. l50Yo of the largest The electromechanical response of generators in
loaded generator, and it rnust beavailable in a rnatter the vicinity ofafault is characterized by a rotor angle
of l0 minutes. Many companies perrnit portions of transient such as shown in Figure 8. The speed devi-
this reserve to be non-spinning. On a systern-basis,
the requirement for generation pick-up to meet this
need is in the range of' I lZ to ITo of total generation XOTE:s.PfiASEFAULT NEAR A
per rninute for a period of 10 rrrinutes. Thj.s can be NO RECLOSUBE OF CIRCUiT

accornplished withafew very reaponsive units or with

many units being called upon for rnore modest loading
rates. Requirements for up to lO% of rating per min-
ute rnay be irnpoaed on individual units to rneet this

Abnormal Operation

As stated earlier, abnormal system operation ae

discussed here pertains to the behavior of the system
irnrnediately following major system distutbances' It
is conveni.ent to identify two classes of disturbances TtrE-3ECOi03
as those which vrill result in loss of transmission Figure 8 Typical Rotor Angle Transient Following
Eystem elements and/or significant loads or load areae a Network Disturbance Near Plant A
and those very unlikely events which lead to islanding ;

of a portion of the system where significant load gen-

eration unbalances may exist within the island' The ation or rate of change of angle is oscillatory about
firet will be referred to here as network disturbances the normal unit speed corresponding to the normal
and the latter as load /generation unbalance or islanding' systern frequency of. 60 Hz. Usually this deviation
doee not exceeda value of. +zlo, {dl.z }{zl, unless the
For each of these broad classea of disturbance distutbance is unusually severe due to prior contin-
eventa, typical Eyatern dynamic perforrnance will be gencies or failures of prirnary Protective meehanisms.
illustrated, the influencs of varioua unit and systerri In this case, the affected generators could becorne
controls will be noted and the impact on generating unstable (1ose synchronisrn withthe rest of the gener-
unit and power plant performance will be Particulally atorB) and be tripped f romthe power Bystern on over-

speed. In certain caseB, where transient stability is have on system operation and to institute design and
a criticalfactor, the practice of tripping one of several operating practices which will both rninirnize thei.r
units to prevent the loss of the remaining ones on in- irnpact and insure a return to normal operation in
stability has been employed. . A1eo, fast valving has minimum time. In keeping with the seope of the paper,
been applied to temporarily reduce mechanical power the discussion here will center on how these dietur-
input and maintain stability without tripping a unit. bances related to duties irnposed on the generating
plant s.
The impact of such network-type disturbances on
plant performance may be summarized as follows: In the process of ielanding it is unlikely that the
load and generation will be equal. For exarnple, iJ the
l. The duration of theresulting transients are on. total load in the ieland initially exceede the surn total
the order of l0 seconds or less and are char- of prime rnover i.nput, then in accordance with the
acterized by oscillations inthe rotor angle and swing equation discussed earlier and illustrated in
speed about the normal operating point. Figure 2, all generators will tend to decelerate more
or less together. The result is a declining systern
2. The mechanical torquedeveloped by the prime frequency as shown in Figure ! where the initial rate
mover does not change appreciably becausethe
speed deviations are oscillatory in nature and
oceur too rapidly for the Bpeed cont!ol system
to follow.
3. The electlical torque developed by the gener-
ator is subject to abrupt changes whenthe fault
occurs and is cleared a fraction of a second
later and to variations over a wide range, say
+ 100% or more of rated torque, during the sub-
sequent rotor angle oscillations. The abrupt
transient torques may be magnified by the
torsional response of the turbjne-generator
shaft and must be taken into account in the
design of the rotor shaft and turbines.

4. Since the feedback voltage control system can Figure 9 Typical Unit and System Response for
directly influence the magnitude of the elec- Isolated Area With Initial Excess Load
trical torque developed, it is important that the
regulatorbeapplied soas notto cause negative
darnping of the rotor oscillations. In fact, it
is possible to utilize dynarnic variables in addi.- of deceleration is a direct function of the initial un-
tion to voltage error to cause positive darnping balance between load and generation, If the island
of the rotor angle oscillations and thereby im- contain s two or;rro r e machine s, the f r equency r e s pon s e
prove stability of the unit and sys- rnay be characterized as depicted in Figure !, by an
tern. average value within a band of actual values deter-
rnined by individual rnachines. The variation of fre-
5. The rather large temporary voltage dip which quency values throughoutthe island is a reeult of inter-
occurs during such disturbances rnust be taken machine electromechanical oscillations which are
into account in the design ofthe plant auxiliary dependent on the degreeofelectrical coupling between
supply sothatcritical motorsand support sys- machines, onthe influence of voltage and speed control
tems are not tripped during the transient and systems, and on the size of the initial disturbance as
thus lead to unit shutdown. well as subsequent t aqtions
' tz, such as load shedding or
generator tripping. \^ 13)
Since network disturbances cause only a temporary
ucbalance between total prime mover input and total Since the system response is basically a sustained
electrlcal load on all generators in the system, the speed or frequency transient, the speed control and re-
Bystem autornatic generation control is not affected. sultant prirne rnover responaeof the generators plays
If, however, the disturbance should lead to the loss a rnajo! role in determining the nature of the system
of a generator or of a large load or load area, the AGC dynamic performance. Figure t also shows how a
system and the generators on control are affected. typical steamdriven prime mover might respond. Note
The response of the system under these circurnstances tlrat the change in valve position follows the.speed
was discussed earlier. change closely until the maxirnum open position is
reached. The resultant change in prirne rrrover torque
Major Load/Generation Unbalance (Islanding) or power is dependent on the response characterigtics
of ihe speed governor and valve control mechanisms
It requires a rather unusual combination of cir- and on the response of the boiler-turbine system to
cumatancea and events to causeaportion of the inter- changes in steam flow requirements.
connected systemto separate completely andform one
or more ieolated islands which contain both load and The frequency transient shown in Figure 9 indi-
generation. However, such evente have occurred and cates that the spinning reserve response in the island
it is prudent to consider the impact whi,ch they can was suff icient to overcome the initial def iciency in total

generation and thus returnto a near norrrlal oPerating SUMMARY
Bpeed. Underfrequency load shedding rnay also be
ernployed in euch eituations to prevent total collapse Operation of bulk power genelation-iranemissioil
of the ieland in the event that either the total spinning systems to aerve customer loads entails control of
ieserve ia inadequate in rnagnitude or, if adequate in voltage, frequency, tirne, and inadvertent interchange
magnitude, the speed of response is not adequate to as well as the need to rnaintain overall syatem economy.
rnaintain systernfrequency(and unit speed) above safe These objectives place requirernents on generating
operating levels on the order 58-I lZ I1z. (14' 15) units which operate on the interconnected systern.

Coneequently, the initial part of the transient, to Thia paper has describedthe fundamentals of sys-
the pointof minimum frequency, is dependent on spin- tern dynamics and operation and delineated a number
ning reserve response characteristics and possibly on of requirernents irnposed on generating units under
Ioad shedding if required;the rninimurn point typlcally norrnal and abnormal operating conditione.
would be reached in a few seconds. The character of
the reeponse and the tirne required to reach steady
state is essentially dependent on prime mover resPonse ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
characteristi"". (IZ) Inadequate response character-
istics following an initial period of partial recovery, The authors are grateful to Mr. David Magee and
-rnay lead to a periodoffurther frequency decline, and the REMVEC {Rhode Island, Ehstern Massachusettg
steady etate conditions in the plant and throughout the and Verrrront Energy Conttol) Control Center for pro-
island rnay not be reached for several rninut;. (l) viding load and frequency data presented on Pigures
5 and 5. Figure 7 has been derived from an illugtra-
In the oppoeite situation of an island having an tion presented in 'lRelating'Frequency Transients to
initial exceaa generation, the frequency will rise and Generation-Load Miernatchesrr, J. P. Hunt, IEEE 59
the traneient will dependprirnarily on the reeponse of CP 649-PWR.
prime mover systems in reducing the total power input.
The concern here is that as the valves close rapidly, REFERENCES
conditione may develop which cause the ugit to trip.
l. "MW Response of Fossil Fueled Stearn Unitsrr,
System and generating unit performance in the IEEE Working Group on Power Plant Response
period following an islanding situation suggest several to Load Changes, IEEE Trans., Vol. PAS'9?,
factors whlch can helpto minimize the impact of such March/April 19?3, Pages 455-463.
a disturbance and hasten the return to norrnal, fully
integrated syetem operation. 2. S. B. Crary, "Power System Stability'r, John
W'iley and Sons, Inc., New York, I94?.
l. The generation speed control and prime mover
should be made as responsive as possible to 3. "IEEE Standard Definitions No. 94 of Terms for
ehanges in systern frequency and unit speed. Autornatic Generation Control on Electric Power
However, controls should be designed so a6 to Systerrrsrr, IEEE Trans. , VoI. PAS-89, July/
prevent critical plant variables from reaching August 1176, Pages 1358-1364.
a point where the unit will be tripped. Such
meaaures will help to lirnit the excursion of 4, F. P. deMello, C.. Concordia, rtConcepts of Syn-
f requency within the island, prevent unit trip- chronous Machine Stabili.tyas Affected by Excita-
ping, minimizet}:.e tirne for the frequency tran- tion Controltr, IEEE Trans., VoI. PAS-88, No.
Eient to reach steady state and in the case of 4, April 1969, Pages 316-329.
declining frequency (excess load), prevent or
minimize the arnount of load shedding required 5. F. P. deMello, D. N. Ewart, M. Temoshok,
to arrest the decline of system frequency. M. A. Eggenberger, 'tTurbine Energy Controls
2. Plant auxiliary systerns should be designed to Aid in Power Systern Performance'r, Proceedings
tolerate sustained deviations in electrical fre- of the Arnerican Power Conference, Vol XXVIII,
quency and voltage which rnay occu! following 1966, Pages 438-445.
6. E. W. Cuehing, Jr,, G. E. Drechsler, W. P.
3. Voltage regulators should be maintained in Killgoar, H. G. Marshall, H. E. Stewart, rrFast
eervice to assist incontrolling system voltage Valving As an Aid to Power System Transient
in the island andto help preventthe generating Stability and Prompt Resynchronization and Rapid
unit from going unstable during periods of Reload After Full Load Rejectionrr, LEEE Trans. ,
rapidly changing systern voltage and reactive Vol. PAS-9 t, July/Augus{ lg7z, Pagea 1624- 1636,
power requirementa.
?. C. Concordia, F. P. deMello, L. K. Kirchmayer,
4. In the event that the unit is tripped during the R. P. Schulz,'rPrime-Mover Response and System
initial disturbance or the ensuring tranaient Dynarnic Perforrnance'r, IEEE Spectrum, October
and becomes part of a blacked out area, it ia I966, Pages 106-lII.
very irnportant that provisionbe made in plant
design and systemoperating practicesto allow 8. L. K. Kirchrrrayer, rtEconornic Control of Inter-
a rapid restart so that all customer. service connected Power Systemst', John'ffiley and Song,
may be restored in minimum time. (15) Inc., New Y6rk 1959.

9. N. Cohn, trConttol of Generationand Power Flow rnediate hnd low pressure turbines from the hot side of the reheatet to
on Interconnected Power Systemsl', John W'iley and the condenser.
With the introduction of bypass systems of this type it became
Sons, New York, 1966. possible to simuitaneously effect fast sustained reductions in the steam
acceptance of high and intermediate pressure turbines, and hence fast
t0. L. K. Kirchmayer, 'rEconomic Operationof Power sustained reductions in turbine driving power, and at the same time nc
Systemsrr, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, only limit rise of pressure ahead of these turbines sulficiently to
eliminate lifting of safety valves, but also avoid change in the amount
I 958. and temperature of steam passiag through the reheater.
Fuither, by providing, within ihe steam generator to effect reduc-
II. ttRecommended Specif icationf or Speed-Governing tion of rate of steam generation, it became possible for control and
of Stearn Turbines Intended to Drive Electric Gen- intercept valves to be progtessively reopened, with the effect that
temperature drop due to throttling could be minimized to an extent
erators Rated 500 KW and La.rger", IEEE Stand- thaf avoids signiiicant turbine thermal fatigue effects regardless of the
ard No. I22. extent of turbine driving porver reductions involved.
Accordingly with development of rather general prol'ision of by-
pass systems of this type, modern German once through steam-electric
IZ. R. M. N{aleszewski, R. D. Dunlop, G. L. Wilson, installations incorporate a high degree of flexibility when it comes to
"Frequency Actuated Load Shedding and Restora- rapidly effecting sustained load reductions (a,b), zuch as can be required
tion'r, IEEE Trans., Vol. PAS-90, No. 4, It7l, in the event of system separations.
Pages l45Z-1459. This type of bypass system, and associated flexibility, is being
-provided in U. S. deveioped HTGR nuclear installations.
When it comes to fossil fuel steam-electric plants incorporating
I3. R. D. Dunlop, rrResponse and Perforrnance of steam generators of U, S. design, whether of the dnrm or once-through
Large Generation Units During SysternFrequency type, with attention to providiag adequate fast-acting means of diverting
Disturbancesrr, Presented at the I972 Minnesota high pressure steam either to the condenser, or to atmosphere.,
feasible to provide to bri-ng into effect large sustained changes in the-
Power Systerns Conference, October 197?, Mio- driving power of the turbine, withrn % second, while avoiding lifting of
neapolis, Minnesota. safetivalves, by providing, on a preprogrammed, fed forward type
contiol basis, to simultaneously rapidly effect partial closure of control
14. Brandon, R. E. IrEmergency Operation of Large and intercept YalYes, which, optionally, and in the interest of fastest
feasible driving power reduction, can be done by fully or nearly fully.
Stearn- Turbine Generatorsr', Presented at the closing and thereafter rapidly parfially reopening them, w-hile.simul-
Southeastern Electric Exchange, Atlanta, Georgia, taneoJsly initiating a maiching preprogrammed runback of fuel, feed
October 13-14,1966. water and air carried out fast enough to preYent damage to the reheater.
Also in BWR and PWR nuclear installations, subject to certairr
reservations that the leading U. S. turbine producer has expressed relative
15. H. T. Akers, J. D, Dickinson, J. W. Skooglund, to whether its large plug type intercepting valves can satisfactorily
ItOperation and Protection of Large Steam Turbine contend with the requirement of reopening against fuli MSR pleasure,
Cenerators Under Abnorroal Conditions'r, IEEE and a chance of poisible difficulties due to transients in MSR drain
Trans. Vol PAS-87, April I968, Pages 1180-I188. systems (c), it is feasible to similarly provide to reduce turbine driving
power on i sustained basis, to an extent determined by the amount of
turbine steam bypass capability that has been made available.
I6. C. F. Paulus, 'rKeep Generators Running, Im- Whereas in ihe PaCihc Northwest, and in neighboring systems, dif-
prove Reliability at Little Cost", IEEE Trans., ficulties were at one time regularly experienced when loss of area load
Vol. PAS-92, January/February It73, Pages of the order of 10 percent rvas experienced due to the opening of the
?43-?47. two 500 kv lines leading south (d), the problems encountered were
solved by providing to respond to line opening by tripping off a pre-
progtammed amounT of hydrogeneration in response to a signal trans-
mitted by miclowave, and by also opening of ties to the east in
response to a transfer trip signal.
Discussion This implies that in sitrrations in which sudden reduction of area
load can be expected to coincide with circuit breaker operation but
Robert H. Park (b-ast Load Control Inc., Brewster, Mass.): I would like tripoff of hydrogeneration is not possible, it is feasible to provide to
to endorse the general concept of IEEE papers being presented, that deal with sudden area ioad loss by putting into effect similarly initiated
include considcration of the dynamic performance of generating units preprog;rammed processes of sustained reduction of steam furbine driving
in the event of systems separations, po*er, while also, as an altemate procedure, provision could be made to
It is easy to see, in retrospect, that the celebrated Nov. 9, 1965 initiate in response to over-frequency relaying.
Northeast U. S. Blackout came about because too little study was being Furthermore, rapidly executed preprogrammed sustained reduc-
directed to what can take place under unusual conditions. tions of turbine driving power can additionally be employed as a way
Following the blackout there rvere those who maintained that to favorably affect preservation of system stability when endangered
since it was essential to design power qtstems so that separationswould by network disturbances (e).
never occur, it could be viewed as unnecessary to take steps to resolve Costs involved in providing controls of this type are not large, and
and contend wiih wliat could happen when and if there was occurrence. it is hoped that continuing costs such as could occur due to added
However, al'ter due consideration, the view has prevailed that it maintenance, will prove to be minor, or at any rate capable of being
would be well to at least provide automdtic load shedding in response to rendered minor.
development of underfrequency, as well as local emergency means of To ensure reliability the control system can be exercised from
restarting units that have shut down. time to time, while if a problem is at any time encountered, or antici-
On the other hand virtually no attention has been given to takirg pated, the system can be rendered inactive until an opportunity arises
the further step of designing generator prime movers and their steam to put into effect corrective measures.
generators so as to prevent unit tripping when islanding results in : A point warranting mention, in relAtion to the foregoing, is that,
development of overfrequenc-v due to a net loss of area load, or to where, in nuclear installations, only a little steam bypass,capability is
minimize need to shed load when islanding resuits in a deficiency of being provided, only a small partial loss of area load can suffice to cause
generation relative to load. a reactor scram, a circumstance that raises a question as to the desir-
Moves in these potentially useful directions are warranted and ability of having resort to this cost saving practice.
and indeed overdue.
As regards ability to deal with system breakups of the types that REFERENCES
cause sudden partial lcss of area load, in Germany, as of 1960-69, the
practice began of providing coal-flred once-through type steam gener- [a] Werner Trassl - "Safe Cycling of High-Pressure Turbines" Proc.
ators with fast acting steam bypass systems incorporating desuper- 1969 Amer. Power Conf. pp. 306-313.
heaters, arranged to bypass desuperheated steam around the high pres- [b] Peter Martin and Ludrvig Holly - "Bypass Stations for Better
sure turbine to the cold side of the reheater, and around the inter- Coordination Between Steam Turbine and Stearn Generator Opera-
tion" Proc. 1973 Amer. Power Conf. pp.365'377.
Manuscript received August 9, 1974. tcJ P. G. Brown - "Early Vaive Actuation as an Aid to System Stabil-

ity", presented before the Relay Committee of the Penn. Electric 4. Networkdisturbances:
Assn. May 25,1973. In addition to the impacts stated by the authors, the following
tdI Electrical World, July 28, 1969, pp. 28-31, and Sept. 15, 1970, might be of interest.
pp.82{4. a- A fault reduces the initial electrical power output of the geher-
[e] R H, Park - "Fast Turbine Valving" IEEE paper T 72 635-l ators, Thus an eicess power transient is introduled,
b- In Figure 8, for a large interconnected system covering wide
. areas, the modes of oscillations would differ appreciably in
periods and in other dynamic characteristics (such as damping).

P. M. Anderson and A. A. Fouad (Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa):

The authors are to be commended for this excellent review of the
dynamic performance and response oi generating units. This lucid
presentation brings a large and complex subject within the grasp of
many engineers. We are somewhat concerned, however, that this fine
paper should not have been given a chance to a wider readelliip in such x
lr Bo11er Control Automatlc Generatlofl
IEEE journals as the Spectrum or the Proceedings. q,
The following comments are offered in the hope that they may lJ Nuclear Reactor Control
enhance the usefulness of this valuable work: o
Control Tie-1lne Control
l. Figure 2:
After working with the swing equation for nearly 20 years (and
not totally in the academic community), we are constantly reminded
that special attention should be given to the units used. Part of the
problem lies in the fact that quite often it is convenient to express the
time in the equations of one part of the system in radians, while in oi\
others the unit of time used is seconds. Similarly, the angle 6 could be I Islandlng
EE Scheoea
in radians or degrees. Just as confusing the moment of inertia J (seldom OE'!1
used), the angular momentum M, and the inertia constant H (stored o
r]{ I
K.E. at rated speed per unit power), are often referred to as "inertia," aa
Therefore we have become "sensitive" to this kind of ambiguity, which
unfortunately appears in Figure 2. Assuming that the torques are in per
unit (based on rated torque), the angle 6 is in radians, and the inertia tocal Reoote
constant H is in seconds, we suggest the following instead (using sub-
script u to indicate per unit quantities): Source of Intelligence

*irne irl gecan4S

(nJ )

?i,ne ,n 7a/;ttt5
(ral )

Suggested block diagram for swing equation

2. Primary and secondary controls: The danger of an enforced swing past the initial swing may be
The authors propose the definition ol primary controls as those eminent.
"which initiate action at the local generating unit based on local of the fact that transient stability means "irst swing
c- Because
measurcments" and secondary controls as those which "initiate control transients" to some people we hope that the impact given in the
at a local level based on remote measurements." We would propose an authors' Item 4 would not be misunderstood. The excitation
alternate dellnition which use these terms in a different way, as follows: system's effect on the first swing is maryinal, but with the
Primary controls are those continuously acting (usually propor- proper equipment, significant reduction in subsequent swings
tional) controls with time constants of a few seconds or less and which can be achieved.
are active in controlling short-lived disturbances such as transient stabil- d- The rotor swings of the generators are reflected in power swings
ity disturbances. in the transmission network. Tie-lines connecting groups of
Secondary controls are those controls which are usually slowly machines carry power and voltage s*rings which reflect the swing
responding and are often intermittently or manually initiated and which ol the groups of machines with respect to each other. An
are used to adjust the system for proper economic and operating interesting result: i- the capacity of the ties sltould depend on
conditions. the systems it interconnects, and ii- networks located in between
Beyond these coarse definitions of control according to speed of very large systems always sulfer when a transient is initiated to
response there is also the segregation of control according to the source cause the two large systems to swing with respect to each other.
of intelligence, viz., local or remote intelligence. These are the categories The material presented in this paper should come to the attention
referred to by the authors as primary and secondary, respectively. Both of the IEEE membership. lile would urge a similar prqsentation for
characterizations are useful and can be compared in a two dimensional Spectrum or hoceedings where wider distribution could be obtained.
plot as shown in the figure. Note that few primary controls exist which We would also suggest a discussion of some of the terms and definitions
use remote intelligence, but such controls are theoretically possible and used as a flrst step toward common acceptance of certain terms which
could provide global response to major disturbances. are sometimes used ambiguously.
3. lmpact on control ofreal power:
We feel that the authors are too "tactful" about the practice of
permitting portions of the operating reserve generation to be non-
spinning. Such practice is questionable at best, and simply means relying F. Paul de Mello (Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, N.Y.): This
on neighboring systemsand ties to come to rescue in situations of severe paper represents a most valuablp contribution to the subject of Power
transienls. Generation dynamics.

Manuscript received August 5, 1974. Manuscript rcceived luly 22,1974.

It is valuable because it covers in an excellent tutorial sense a diffi- of system regulating requirements, past experience indicates little hope
cglt subject, and offers factual data on orders of rnagnitude which are so that this will be accomplished for many years to come. Therefore, we
important in lending perspective to the complex subject of response can expect the types ofunits currently beinginstalled to reduce the per-
requircments of generating units. centage of available capacity to adequately carry system regulation.
The IEEE Working Group on Power Plant Response has had as its Consequently, it is essential that a// systems critically review their de-
objective the exploration of technical factors affecting Plant Response, sign and operating policies to see if system regulating requirements andi
both from the point of view of equipment capabilities and requirements reliability will be adequately met.
imposed by the System. One of the major problems faced by this group Although this discussion has been very critical of the regulating
hai been one of establishing consistent terminology' "What is meant by performance of the more recent vintage generating units, there would
response?" ' appear to be several areas whereby improvements can be made. Con.
A great service has been rendered by the authors in classifying the siderations along this line are as follows:
types of response duties that are imposed by the System through 1. The "mix" of generating units being developed by system
normal daily load cycles or through other realistic disturbances' planners should be critically reviewed as to types of units and the mix
There is a natural tendency on the part of engineers to ignore of hydro, combustion turbines, fossil, nuclear, etc. System operation
problems that cannot be easily quantified or analyzed' Response 199uir9- may have to be modified to accommodate lack of adequate response.
ments of prime mover units is one of these problems which are difficult 2. Economic dispatch should be critically reviewed by all systems
to quantily and which are generally igrrored unless they become a to determine if wider "deadband" is needed in the economic dispatch-
fimiiing factor (usually in the operating environment). thereby allowing more units to participate in system regu.lation.
Iiwould be a relatively simple matter for Utilities to predict the 3. Existing and new control schemes should be provided which will
duty cycle that compositions of generation units scheduled to meet allow slower responding units to automatically and contiaually iacrease
future ioads would be subjected to if these units were to be dispatched or decrease generation on a "ramp" basis rather than having to have
based on economics. Granted that surprises can crop up due to step manual intervention-particularly during sustained load "pickup" or
functions of fuel costs as have been experienced recently. Nevertheless, "dropoff" periodi. Under this concept, system economics would su{fer;
these can be accounted for in parametric studies coverirg a range of and fhe uniis would be related to sustained rates of response as opposed
credible possibilities. the smaller "fringe" swings.
to taking-Consideration
It will be very instructive to carry out such exercises and establish 4. of all systems (probably through NAPSIC) of
response duties wfuch are being tacitly assumed by selection of genera- recommending wider area control error deviations during those periods
tion expansion plans which rarely take response capabilities of generating when system loads are relatively flat. Although this will reduce tie line
units into account as a parameter in determining location, sizing, timing capacity at times, it would be an offset as compared to the inability of
and type of units. units to respond at faster rates.
Tiris paper gives important inputs to the clarification of th.e power 5. Continue to interface with suppliers of equipment and insist
plant responie pioblem ind is a uieful reference to engineers involved that designed to carry their proportionate share of system
with power system planning, operations and co-ntrol.- regulation. This is a continualjob and must be brought to the attention
The authors are to be conglatulated on a fine job. oldesigners, planners, operating, and management personnel.
6. Unit-avaiiability must be increased, and definite plans of attack
shouid be.established to improve both availability and performance.
This would not only improve system regulation, but increase the ability
of units to adhere closer to economic dispatch.
R. O. Usry (Southem Services, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama): The authors 7. Atlequate unit response is essential if system reliability is to be
have accomplistred their objective of describing broad requirements for maintained. With this in mind, more emphasis should be placed upon
dynamic peiformance and response imposed on the aggregate generation the "worth" of system regulation and response of units and their
which supplies a power system. The comments of the writer, although enhancement to system reliability as opposed to "savings" which may
general in nature, will address several ateas of concern which have been be incLrrred by economic dispatch.
observed for the last few years.
It strould be of vital concem to system designers, operators, and
planners that the installation of larger units and more sophisticated^
iontrol schemes during the last few years has reduced the avaiiability of R. D. Dunlop and D. N, Ewart: This paper was prepared as a joint
generating units while deteriorating the overall automatic generation project of tha IEEEJVo*ing Group on Power Plant Response (Power
iontrol pirformance of the aggregate power system. For example, the Generation Committee) and the Task Force on Overall Plant Response
older units, which are predominantly of the drum-type boilers, are able (Dynamic System Performance Working Group). The purpose was to
to sustain ioad change iesponse characteristics of approximately 5% per stimulate interest and discussion and to encourage further related
minute, and eyen greater responses during abnormal system disturbances. papers. We appreciate very much the thoughtful comments of the dis-
The laiger units. howeyer, are finding it difficult to even accomplish cuisers which contdbute directly to the substance of the paper. For the
half thii desired response and are becoming a larger percentage of the most part their comments need no reply or elaboration on our part.
overall system generation. Recent deterioration of fuel quality (primarily Mr. Park has called attention to the need to ensure that generating
coal) has further compounded the problem because of probiems asso- units remain on the line during major disturbances so that they are able
ciated with slagging, mill maintenance, etc. It is therefore appropriate quickly to serve the connected load. Likewise Mr. Usry not-ed that maltl'
that as responsible engineers and management, we shouid critically lirge units are incapable of being reloaded rvithin 10 to 20 minutes if
review existing design of generating units to see if system requirements they are tripped off the line for any reason. These comments reinforce
are being adequately met. the. message contained in reference l6 by the late Mr' Paulus.
It f,as bein th'e observation ol the writer that most of the troubles We appreciate the clarification of Figure 2 by Messrs. Anderson
concerning unit response lies with the boiler and boiler controls as and Fouad. Their suggestion to modify the definitions of primary and
compared to other parts of the unit installation. This is related primarily secondary control so as to distinguish between fast acting, continuous
to the sizing of thi units, but boiler controls should be designed, as a control and slower acting, often discontinuous control is well taken and
minimum, to cope with load swings of 57o of capability per-minute on a is worthy of consideration by power system control engineers. Their
sustained or "up and down" basis. Additiona-lly, the writer knorvs of no proposed alternative is rather inprecise, however, and we suggest that
significant number of super-critical units which have been able to reduce what is fast acting to some wiil be considered slow acting to others and
load, hold station service, and be returned to operation within 10 to 20 visa versa, For example, boiler control and nuclear reactor control
minutes when tripped from the line for various reasons. Storage capacity would probably not be considered by their designers as "slowly respond-
and "sophisticated" controls simply do not permit such operation. ing", We recommend that these definitions be the subject of further
Ability io reduce load and hold station auxiliaries are much more deUate.
prevalent with the drum-type boilers. We would like to emphasize that the practice of permitting a por'
In our zeal to seek lower costs which inure to the ratepayers, it is tion of the operating reserve to be non-spinning (item 3) recogJrizes that
probable that we have reached or "ctossed over" the maximum benefits the operating reserve is also intended to cover non-dynamic contin-
bf "economies of scale," and critical review should be made of the gencies such as eror in the daily peak load forecast. Beyond this, how-
sizing of generating units now and into the future. For example, it may ever, the recoyery in interchange schedules following a mote severe
be that t[e "optimum" size of units which should be installed at this dynamic transient, such as loss of generation, may be improved by the
time is ia the 500 MW range-which still provide choices between drum- uie of non-spinning reserves zuch as quick-start generation and inter-
type boilers and once-through boilers, and also increase the availability ruptible loads. We would also point out that such practices are mutually
of operation. ageed upon byall parties in the interconnection so as to ensure that the
A.lthough many systems have included as part of their specifications duties imposed on the interconnected systems are commensurate with
that nucleaiunits jhould be designed to carry their proportionate share the capacity of the inter- and intra-system network. In this manner the

Manuscript received May 23, 1974, Manuscript received November 20, 197 4.

legitimate benefrts of interconnection are shared by all within the over- Usry's comments are addressed to the same point but expressed as the
all context of operating reliability. Although the point ('ld) ree,arding converse. When insufficient attgntion is given to response characteristics
the influence of inter-machine and inter-system oscillations on transmis' to meet basic system operating requirements, uneconomic opemtion or
sion network design requirements was beyond the scope of this paper, it uneconomic utilization of transmission lines in carrying excessive re-
gerves to emphasize the fact that in order to gain the zubstantial gulation may resrlt. Mr. Usry's remarks suggest an approach whereby a
lzenefits of interconnection, there is a need to maintain a proper rela- dollar value may be assigrred to the quality of control.
tionship between the size and capacities of all the elements within a Recent activities on the part of industry organizations such as
system and among systems. NAPSIC indicate a need for improved quality of real power control. It
We endorse Mr. deMello's suggestion that sfudies be made to is hoped that the forum for discussion provided by this paper will focus
determine response requirements imposed by economic dispatch. Mr. additional attention on this subject.


P. Kundur
Senior t"lernber, IEEE
Ontario Hydro
Tloronto, Ontario, Canada

Abstract Another incident i-rl wlrich generatjng units trilped out

as a result of large frequenql excursions was reported
Itris IEIEr presents the results of a survey of by the American EleqLric Porer Senrice Cor4nraLion in a
experiences of r.rtilities witJ. grurer plant control and p:aper'presented at the 1979 Anerican Pcr^ier Conference.
protection devices during parlial load rejection arrl TLre incident !'ras caused by a lightning storm on August
systen disturbances involving severe frequenqg 2A, L974 and resulted in the near simultaneous loss of
excursions. I'he survey rdas conducted on behalf of the t$,o 1300 I.6{ units. Hctu/ever, in t}ris case a systsn
TEEE l{crking Group on Porrer Plant Response.* breakup was not involved; the units tripped as a result
of the action of the turbine overspeed protection
IIMROfi]gIION during tlre q;stem transj-ent. A rnechanical acceleration
limiter installed on the turbine was not capa.ble of
In recent years there tnve been several i-nstances of discriminatilg betvreen sigrnificant angular oecillations
generating units tripping out duririg system transients in an othennrise stable systsn and load rejection, for
involving relatively wide frequenql excursions. One hnrich it lrad been designed to prevent overspeeds. As a
such incident vras on Februarlr l-3, L97B wlren a systern solut.ion to ttris problem, an electronic acceleration
.separatj-on lras experiencsl lry Union Electric Cffpany Umiter calEble of providing such a discrimination was
and portions of the Illinois Pcr/er fu@any and developed.
Associaterl Electric Cooperative Slzstems. T-l-re
separation produced a "generation-rich" island causing These incidents serve to illustrate the need for
frequency to increase. Rapid valve clreure was ocordinating ttre cperation of pcrr/er plant control ard
initiated by the turbine overspeed conlrol in 1l out of protection devices with the requirenents of the
14 units at 5 poder plants. As a result, 4 units interqcnnected systern. Frorn ttre turbine generator
tripped out: tvo by boiler tripping, one blz boiler and point of view, tlre transient can be Gcnsiderd to be a
turbine tripping, and one by rnanual trippi-ng of tlre pa.rtial load rejection. Altf.ough the Union Elestric
turbine. Cong>any rectxnrendation and tJ.e discussion in the AEP
pa.per focus on turbine speed control. it would be
A re.oorL- on this incident by Lhe Union Electric appropriate to consider Lhe conbinerl action of tlre
C$pany recqirnends that: turbine and boiler.
"An industry sturly of ti.e different facets of In order to determine utility.experiences w"ith, and
turbine-generator speed control and protection ilterest in, problem of lErti-al load rejection, a
seerrs to be in order. This study should include a survey was lnitiaterl by the IEEE hlorking Group on P-ov/er
review of present and Flture speed control ard Plant Respdlse. This .oaper reports ttre results of this
protection devices, an analysis of their probable survey.
response to frequency excursions, and a -o1an of
action to c-oordinate their operating
ctraracteristics wittr proper interconnection SUR1IEY RESULTS
The survey was ntailed to 5I utilities il.I the Uni-ted
States and Canada in December L979. Replies were
*Ihe laft:rking Group reports to the Pc&ier Plant Control, received frqr' 26 utilities. 1\aio of Elre replies did not
Proteclion and Autcrnation Subconn[ttee of the Pcr,/er have anirttring to report or ccmnents to offer. The
Generation Cc{rmittee. Menbers of t}re 'rlorking Group other 24 replies res;:cnded to flrcst of the questions i-n
are: T.D. Yourikins (Chair.nan), D.G. Carroll, F.P. the survey.
de},lello, R.D. Drnlop, E.L. Eichelberger, D.N. E\,vart,
F.H. Fenton, J.L. Jsles, P. Kundur, M.E. Lettrn, B. Ttre survey included questions in the folloaring
Littrnan, J.P. McDonald, N.P. Mueller, T.D. Russell, categories:
R.S. Shakeshaft, T-.q. Fink, R.o. Usry and C.N.
WhiEnire. . Ilxperience during disturbances with systqrn

Experience during disturbances without systern


I-oad rejection tests.

General questions relaLed to:

80 JPGC 804-5 A paper presented ar the IEEE/ASME/ASCE - turbine aclions resulting in boiler trip
Joint Power Generatlon Conference, phoenix, Arizoaa
September 28-0ctober 2, 1980. Manuscript submltted - trErcentage of load that can be lost without
tripping units
{g1g 13, 1980; made available for prinring Juty 29,

Reprinted from IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus & Systems, vol. PAS-100, pp. 2471-2475, May 1981.
- irportance of cordinating plant crcntrol arxl - rrnder frecluenql and overexcitati.xl
1 case
protective <levices with systsn
requirerrents I case - unit becane isolatsl on the bus
- need for designing trn^'er plants so wittput
asi to In cne incident it 'r,,as reporEed that an unspecified
wittrstard partiat load rejection nrmber of units trif+ed on rDt ring clue to high
tri.r4>ing frequency.
Plants Prcblg!:
- general qlnnents.
In addition to specific questiorrs asked under these For cases thaL resulted in uniL triS2ping, the folloling
categories, the receipients of tte questionnaire were plant prcblenrs were reported:
,rq"d to provirie c(}mlents ard any additional of circulating water tr:r:trq> '
infonration considered ap.oropriate. 2 cases- Ioss
2 cases- fire in the coal PiPes
'Ihe replies to tlle questions in each of these I case - failure of boiler to .glrge
categoriLs are sr.unnarize<l in the renrairrler of this 1 case - faihrre of boil-er safeLy valve to reset
e>qTresserl by those who 1 case - condenser leaks frorn earlier rei:air
fEpe;. ccnnents arrl vielsincluded in the sunrlEry' I case - loss of service and instrumenC air across the
iesponded to the survey are
st-ation for 15 nrilutes
In adriition, units were reportel to have failed to trip
in trrp cases, due to relay probletns.

Eleven of Lhe utilities reportd having disturbances I\rrbine an<1 boiler data of the units that tril4Ed were
leaCing to breakup of their systerns into crle or rDre provided by the utilities. Different sizes arxf tytrEs
islanrls. firr,Ever, ttrree of the utilitie-s cited the of uruits were involved and speciat Problerns could rnt
s.urE incident. srrrE of ttre disturbances reported be traced to any Particular tlpe of turbines or
r:ccurrerl as far back as 1956 wtrile others q/ere very boilers. Therefore, these rfata are rDL include<l here.
The folJ-cr.ving is a su{rilary of the information
IErtaining to these disturbances.
Generatsiot, Ioad, and Prequency Rise F}(PERIET'CE UlRrlre DISTRBAI,CES WITtxCxIr SyS'rEll BREAKITP

Five utilities provided infomation or generation and Seven utilities reg)rted loss of units during
tcad fumre<liately tolloaing t-he disturbance. The disturbances not resulting in systesn breakup. Of
islarxls hr{:re overgeneratd in aII the five cases, the tlrese, . only tv,o v,rere related to plant aontrol or
an-ount of load rejeceerl being equal to 22.8, 35'9, protection devices. In one case, ttre tripping of the
45 ,2, 47 .3 , ard 75 .5 .oercent of the pre-separation unit $,as rlue to boiler controls, turbine @ntrols ard
1oarl. The corresponJing values of the iniLial reheat stop valve closure. In tlre other case, the les
frequetrcy rise h/ere 2,5, 4-5, 3'4' L'5, and 2'3 Hz of load relay caused tle unit trip.
rr:sg:cLively. RaLe of initial frequency r:ise was
re.oorte(i for LuD cases: O.52 tlz/s* Elr hlre island Ttre causes of unit Lri.opinE in the reminirrT five cases
wiilr az.:t loac rejecLion, and I'o7 tlz/s* for the were relate<l t- ID^/er system problelns such as systern
islaoC with 36.98 loatl rejection. stability arrl. operaLion of the lcs of excitation
Generat ir-rg Units Trigping-
In alt, 47 units were reportel to have trip6xxl as a
result of systern breakup. Of t-]rese, 35 units were Six utiliti-es reported ttrat rejection tests uiere
uripperl by olEraLor acLlon. 'I'tre reasons given for caffid ort cn tlreir units. Three otlrer utilities
rnanually tril4ing tJ.e units were as follcr,vs: stated that such tests uiere previor:sly corductal, but
lrari been discontinue<l.
11 cases - unit ;nctorirrJ tlue to high frrluency
7 cases - ofreraLcr error In four of the six utilities thaE carryoN.rt loa'f,
3 cases - boiter instabilitY rejeceion tesLs, they are done as 5ra.rt of the initial
2 cas.:s - gas feed interl(rk tescing of the units. In qre of these utilities it is
2 cases - crcrdr-rstion control problems also carrie<l out follo^ring sigrnificant mslifications to
2 cast:s - unstable boiler control the governing systetn. Of tlle other r:tilities, one
2 cases - turbine lockout relaYs stated tlrat only nuclear units were teste{i, trtrile the
2 cases - failure Lo frrrge after boiler trip others rtirl not .orovide any slEcific infonnation.'
case - boiler going subcritical
case - Ioss oE boiler tevel c.onErol Rejection tests are, in general, carried rrrt from full
case - Iarqe lD.rer s\^rings after boiler trip load to unit ar:xiliaries or no laid. Ho'rever, one
case - lonr frerluency and voltage utility reported tlrat tests are carried ant at three
different generator load levels ranging frcrn 2OB to
Ttre re.esons f6r 3utcnEtic tripping of the units rlere as IOO? of fuLL load.
fol Loors:
I\4ost of the utilities tllat carrllcut load rejecticrt
4 cases - unkno^rn rGlsons tests staLed tlrat the action of AIe overspeed
3 cases - boiler trip due V: intercept valve cl:sure proLectiofr is nnnitorsl durlrrs Lhe tesLs.
1 case - high water '.raII tcressure


GM{ERAL (XIESTIONS ATiD VIEWS 7. Various L:nits tavedifferent relatiorrships between
turbine and boiler action. For ner./ units,
Boiler Trip ho/rever, any turbine action less than a turbrine
tripout will not cause a boiler tripout,
In response to a question on vtrat turbine actions \rould
cause boilers to trip out, tle follcnring answers were 8. Closure of the governor valves on rehlt u:rits
given by Lhe different utilitiesr will initiate a tirrer (by Umit sw-itches trr tlre
valves) and trip fuel on drwn and once t!'rrough
I. If the intercept valves fully close arxl tJrere is units. The time settings range frcrn 3 to 12
at least a fiLini-rnnn load on the unit, the boiler seclf,nds, depending on recornended boiler
will trip out after a tirne delay of 3 secrcnds. protection. On once-through r.rnits any fuel trip
A1so, any tr:rbine trip, such as an overspeed trip, will innediately trip tlre turbine for a controlled
wiII result in a boiler trip. A parLial load unit shut dcrarn.
rejection of signi-ficant rnagnitude will probably
trip the boiler off-line due to fluctuations 9. Opening of generator breaker or turbine trip.
caused by open-c1ose signals in the turbine
valving. 10. A turbine trip will cause a boiler unit Lrip.
2. On once through super-critical uni-ts, follorring a When the four rnain stop valves are clased,
large rapid loss of load that causes the throttle stopping steam florar through tlre turbine, the
and intercept valves to close rapidly, a pressure boiler is tripped. A1so, if a cr:rnbination of tvo
s,witch in the \^raterwalls w:iIl sense the rnain stop valves and two c-ontrol rzalves close,
overpressure caused by Lhe clming of the walves stqpping the steam flcxar, the boifer will trip.
and wi1I trip off all fuel to the boiler,
requiring a start-up.
1]. !!hen trip isolation switch is in the proper
A time delay of even short duration, 2 seconds for position, closure of bottr main stops ardr/or both
exanple, places a boiler in jeopardy. On super- reheat stops will trip boiler fuel flonr, with no
critical boilers especially, a delay in tripping tirne de1ay.
t].e boiler wtren the feed water flo'i departs
radlcally frcrn ttre firirg rate will cause 12. Stop valves or j-ntercept valves fully closed will
overheating damage to the tubes in the water,{alIs trip tJre boiler critfrout any time de1ay.
and superheater.
13. A t)pical interlock schene for turbine aclions
On a drum tlpe unit with good o:nrb:stion c\cntrols, tlnt will trip boilers is any one of the
the o3nLrols w"il1 try to run ttle boiler back, follcrr,ring:
upsetting ttre fuel firing rate, then blorring tire
superheater safety valves, and if the boiler has (a) nU stop valves close w"ith a 3 second T.D.
flame safeLy systen, t].e cunl::stion process will wipeo:t
bec-orc so unstabl-e wj-thout auxiliary oil firing,
that the safety system in all probability will (b) Retreater stean flo, less than 8? and fi:el flovr
trip the fuel to Lhe boiler. greater ttan 108
3. No load switch actuatef for 5-10 secordsi turbine (c) Reheat,/nain steam flcni ratio less than 7O?.
trip and lockout.
L4. Boilers trip out vfien all turbine firain steam stop
4. No turbine action will rlirectly Lrip non-reheat valves c1ose.
15. If ttre turbine reheat stop or intercpt valves are
On reheat boilers, the turbine ean irritiate a ccrrpletely closed and ttre rnain brea]<er has not
boiler fuel trip if the fuel floqv is greater than tripped, a 4 milute ti-rre delay is triggered which
the floar equi-valent to the rnaximum allc;,aable heat trips ttre r:n:it, including tJ.e boiler, upon tine
input wit.h no stearn flow ttrrough tl-re boiler's out.
rdleat section, and in addition, if either (a)
ttrere is a turbine trip sigrnal or (n) tne turbine 16. AII tr:rbine trips and retreat intercept ard rmin
control valves and the intercept valves close for stop valve c.Iosure will trip the brriler wittror:t
10 secrcnds. any tirre delay,
5. Dnnn q?e boil-ers are rx:t directly tri-;4ed by a 17. (a) Both rdleat stop valves or both rnain stop
turbine trip. valves close<1 \"/ith 5 second ti-rne delay.
chce through boilers are tripped by closure of (b) Either o14rcsit-- pa.i-r of reheat stop valves ard
turbine valves, wit.hout tirne delay. intercept valves closed or aI1 control valves
closed with 10 second ti:re delay.
6. Any of tl.e follcrving turbine actions will lead to
a boiler trip: 18. Nuclear rnits are designed to operate with the
generators rnctoring.
(a) Control valve closure; wiUr 5 to 10 sec\cnds
delay. Fossif fired urrits will trip if steam flc*ri through
the reheater is interrupted rritren the unit is above
(b) Main sto,o valve closure; no time delay. a minjrn-rn load level. TLre sensing nrethod rzaries
w'ith the turbine rnanufacturer. Cqrsideration is
(c) On scme of the units, reheat stop valve being given to introducirrg short tire delays into
closure; no tirne deLay. the tri-pping cj-rcuits.

19. Anti-motoring schene, wtrictr prevents generaLor 1\zo utilities did not consider the problem of
frcrn q:erating as rrotoi will cause tl-e boiler caordination to be an irrportant qle for theii systffrs.
trip. One stated tl-rat usu.rlly ttre turbinegeierator
protection requirenents frequenqg an6 voltage
20. Boilers trip r*ren ttre turbine intercept valves are- sufficiently belos, system requirerents that no
close and wtren the Lhrottle valve closes. Ttrere crcnflict exists. ihe other felt -that it \i,as not
is no ti:ne delay. irryrcrtant because their transn_ission systsn has many
high capacity intercr:nnections.
21. Closure of valves in any arrangernent that shuts
off stearn supply will trip ttre boiler.
Need to Design Pctu/er Plants to
Withstand ParLiaI Load Rejection
There was unanifi3us agreeflEnt arTong the 22 utilities
Irrhren askedto esLilnate the lErcentage of load in their vto responded to t]-is question ttlat lDver plants should
system that could be lost without tripping out any of be designed to withstarxf partial load rejections
the generating units, about 4OZ of those wtro respondecl witho{rt tripping.
stated that they c\ou1d not rnake such an estinEte. One
suggested that this question rnay be rTore appropriately A11, except thrc utilities, iqdicated that thqf would
directed .to the boiler rnanufacturers. specify Lhis as a recluirenrent for firture geoLrating
stations. Four of them stated that their units meet
the figures estirrated by the rernaining respondents ttris requirenent at present.
rangerl frorn l5E to 1008, as tJre load that ceuld be lost
withcxrt causing a unit trip. Four of these respondents I"lost of . t]:e resgrcndents irdicated Ulat any associated
e{pected nnny of their units to be able to reject fulI additional c.ost \,,,ou1d be a consideration arrd riiculd be
Ioad. One resg:ondent indicated that t! units with sulcject Co cost/benefit analysis. Scrp of the
once Urrorrjr boilers crculd not survive any load utilities felt that, although scnre additional mt is
re jection without tripping. Iikely to be involved, it is necessary to design poller
plants to withstard partial- Ioad rejection.
The t)4Es of units that are believst to be best in rhis
regard also raried. The follcraring are some of the One utility statsf: ,,Alt]"otrgh costs are crLainly a
ansvrers received: consideration i.n the design of a plant/unit, Lt"
engineering and capital costs are fiLinute b1r cory>arison.
1. rjnits with dnm t)pe boilers are best able to It has been our crxpany's philosop*ry to builrl into its
respond to system frequency excursions. units gooJ reliable operability and rmintenance,
cronsi-stent with tire level and quality of tjre technology
2. Drrnn tyfre reheat are best suited for load at the ti:ne. We are always evaluating ways arxl reans
rejecLion. Super-critical uni_ts would probably to .orovide as nnrch flexibility of olEration of otr
not be able to reject nDre t1-ran 50U load due to unlts to system neexls, no* and in the futlre,,.
the boiler pressure sensitivity.
Anotlrer utility felt Lhat load rejection capability in
3. AII units are same in regard. a coal firsl plant is difficul-t to design because of
fuel supply regulation; hc*rever the capabitity to
4. Units with Electro Hydraulic Control. w"ithstand scrre load rejecLion should be rlesigrneri in, if
possible. Cost I'lrculd not l- a significant
5. Probably the fastest responding units woulrl be the crcnsideration.
sug:er-critical reheat units.
6. Tanden crqlound units. C,enera1 Ccrgnent_l

7. Once Lhrough super-critical units rnay have greaLer Ihe folloring. general ccrnrents were offered by three of
exposure to tripplng due t, pa.rLial loacl the res^u>ndents:
re jecLi-on.
1. "We are dealing with three areas of eq)ertise with
B. I,lost. r:nits are expected to be abte to handle full fsu, if any, people wtro possess kno^rl&ge in alt
Ioad rejection without turbine trips. Hcrrever, areas. I am fully in agreerrent Lhat an irdustry
scfiE rnits wil} have boiler fuel flcrvr trip and study is needed".
scrre will be able to recover anrl reestablish flanre
and hoLl auriliaries. 2. "ltfuch time, effort ard cost has been spent to
develop the sophisticaterl protection systsn for
rnajor plant equiprent to protect it fron hunran
Inportnnce of plant Control and errors, uncontrollaifle systern (electrical)
Protection Devi,ces i,/iqr Syste,n Rec{uirenents
problems, as well as in-plant problans, To
corprornise these rD'ould be to our detrirnent ard not
Tlventy-tvD trtilities expressed Lhe opinion U]aL the
problon of srrrlinating tJre pov,rer plant conlrol ard 3. "Orr Cofipany is considering intentional islan<ling
protecLion devices with t].e . requirerrents of Ure at ti:nes of severe capability shortages wttere
intercicnr) poarer systero is an ingrrtant one. there is little tope of the survival of the
interconnected systern. I?re idea is ttlat the load-
one utility staLed that, although this is desirable, generation balance might be ccntrolled within
realistically it would be inq:ossJ.ble to cpver every these srnaller islarxls. Ho^rever, .1t is 1i.ke1y that
eventr:ality. Ttreir presenL philosophy is to harxll-e rrE \,"ould go fron an insufficient generation
systen loed problems with the capabilily built into the situation to an excss generation situation
control system and the unif limits. Beyond this, the (partlal load rejection) if no generation is
protection of eluipnent is pararor_rnt. intentionally drolped. Tlrerefore, the results of
this survey vpuld be of gireat interest to us',.

plant reaction to tlre Febrtrarl' L3' 1978
There is significant utility interest in partial
load I. "Pq,oer
despite uoit rel-ative rarity of slparation of porcions of tlre l4isscn:riIJrLi'dI
rli""ci"L, of "r"e"*
iili;;-+a** rnun trre i-nterconnection"''
;*;*-"; trtit.--it i-rrlicated ry t!" targe nwri:er ElecLric Ccnpany relnrt. August 30' 1978'
i."por="" to the survqf (26 q't of 5I) ancl the ootrcnts
p#"ia"a try the to$d"t't"' Tkrere is uuk to be done of
rejectior capabillty of 2. R.D. Drnlop ard M.I' Olken, "IrrqllefiEntation
to determine *re part'iaf load bv the rad< or ai=oi*it"t! acceleratisr limiti-rg devices on
&;;*-;r.i.*-'tti"- i" :-naicitea ann-iioO tfi- *rit"", paper presented--at L919
'"..*lit - on tlre capability of ttre various porrer PIan!
;;;; G ttp"ti'ta boiler. trip criteria terd enreti"ut pcr*o cctf"tJtt"", April 23-25' 1979'
=. Ckricago, Illirois.
ao partial lbad reject'ion catrxbility; ard
;tdirraiJ iurbin+boiler transient behaviour i'f tlte
cantrol studies are reguired to deter-mme
*"i"ti"S regi-me liniied bY thege triPs .F
"tt' t]re
enlarged. rina[y, th- sttt'"1i results indicate
#;iliiay ot'gr.,ia"ritt"" on ttre design of po*er
ffutt" for lnrtiat load rejection'

of the
trr Mr- T.D. Younkins
-l; in t1r6 preparationpaper'
ot *ris rn
;I.";i;t *i;; "td autlprtheiswriti-rre
grateful to t'lessrs'
Jaiti"", the for their
F.P. dd'Ieuo, R.D' n-f"p-of and F'H'
input to the pneparation the questionnaire ard the to
;T;.;. M;;.i1J for--Lsistance- in swnnarizins
results of tte survqf'
-h& ttle.
Filally, author r'putd like to tJrari< t{rs' J' Clark
.td assdciates for the assistance in tJre
pretrnration of ttre nanuscriPt'


D.N. Erart, H.H. Dawes, R.P. Schu1z, A.S. Brower

General Electric Company
Scheaectady, New York L2345


Over the past few years, there has developed an increasing aware-
ness of the inportance of the overall response performance of power
generation units in operation on the interconnected electric utitity
systems in the U.S.A. This paper discusses plant response requirements,
with emphasis on specific capability for regulating duti." under both
normal and abnormal operating conditions.

The material presented should be of value not only to utilities in

specifying and operating poerer plants, but may have particular value to
designers in the engineering of advanced power genJration systems and
pohTer control centers which must- operate in this environment. This
paper originated, in part, from the conceptuar design of an advanced
coal fired po!/er plant. The response reguirements for a Pressurized
Fluidized Bed CoaL Fired Combined Cycle plant (PFB-CFCC) were defined as
part of a study of that proposed equipment configuration for power
The report begins with a review of the current operating principles
in U.S. utility interconnectioas. It discusses thJ speciiii require-
ments placed on units under normal operating conditions-, followint loss
of generation in the interconnection, and under system emergency con-
ditions. Finally, requiremeats for operation of baJeload, intErmediate,
and peakiag plants are surmarized.

These coasiderations are presented as a basis for further discus-

sion by utility engineers and power plant designers. It is hoped that
cognizance of these requirements for generating uoit response will
ensure that advanced generation techoologies are properly evaluated for
utility applications and that new unit specifications are adequately
defined to easure-desired utility system performance.
* DOE Contract Number EX-76-C-01-2357

Reprinted froro Proceedings of the

American Power Conference, Volume 40,
7978, pp 1139-1150


System Operating PrinciPles

Operation and control of large interconnected electric polJer sys-

tems io supply continually changing amounts of connected load with
varying amounts of connected generating unit capa\itity are-accomplished
ty L nlerarchy of automatic and manual controls.' Automatic Generation
Clntrol (AGC), is the highest level of control at the power company or
area level, as shown in Figure 1. Uader sornal conditions, the role of
Automatic Generation Control is: (1) to maintain frequency in the
larger interconnection of areas at its scheduled value; (2) to maintain
net power interchange between control areas as scheduled; and (3) tO
mainiain power alloiation among generating units at desired values as
determined by security and enviroomental constraints.


- ------l------ -

+---- ----: )i! rO OTHER


TO rxra
t --r-TP
DlvtsloNS f + I


otvtstoNS- DtvrsroN PLANT -* PLANTS



OISTRIBUTION <--+ s (votcE oR

CENTERS ?ut++BE :l

Figure 1 Hierarchy of Electric Utility Control

In extreme cases, often weather relatedrr.these factors can conpound
to create very difficult operating conditions.q
Control Heaos

fa addition to reliance upon proportioaal control of frequency by

uoit governor action and integral control by Automatic Geaeration Conl
trol, the system operator has a nunber of steps that can be taken manu-
1- Unit conmitneat through a request for generating units to cone on
line or go off line. This nay include punped hydro storage uaits
which can be changed from a pumping mode to a generating mode and
vice versa. ft nay also include combustion turbines which caa come
on the line. Provision for doing this remotely through supervisory
control is often preseot at the area dispatchers office.
2. Arrangement to buy or se1l power with other areas for economic or
for emergency reasoDs.
3. Requesting that generating units change their generatioo at rates
faster than that which can be obtained 'nder automatic generation
4. Reduction of load, either through a reduction in vortage or by
direct control of individual substation loads.
Use of the first three means is fairly common. Operators are
understandably reluctant to reduce load except io clearly eitreme situa-
Consequences of Poor Control
The consequences of failure to control within the established
guidelines range from the nuisance l-eve1 to those sith very serious
inpact. As an exampre of the latter, if a large generator within the
area suddenly trips off, failure to restore the area generation/load
unbalance within 10 minutes as prescribed by the NApSIc guides may
result in overheated and thus sagging eonductors on transmission 1ines,
line faurts, and the initiation of a cascading power system fairure.
Principles of Unit Control
Qleration of an interconnected potrer system places certain control
and maneuverability requirements on the aggregaLe generation in the
intercoanectionl obviously these requirements must be imposed ultimately
on the individual units. Since individual units vary in their relative
ability to maneuver aad'play different roles in the overall econonics of
day to day operation, it is not possible to define unequivocally abso-
lute response reguirements. However, there are some general guidelines

In extreme cases, often weather relatedr6these factors can compound
to create very difficult operating conditions. '

Control Means

In addition to reliance upon proportional control of frequency by

unit governor actioo and integial control by Automatic Generationmanu- Con-
trol, the system operator has a aumber of steps that can be taken
I. unit commitment through a request for generating units to come on
Iine or go off l-ine. This niy include p,mped hydro storage
which can be changed from a pr:mping mode to a geaerating mode and
vice versa. It may also include conbustion turbines which can come
on the line. Provision for doing this remotely through supervisory
control is often present at the area dispatchers office.
2. Arrangement to buy or selI power with other areas for economic or
for emergency reasons.

3. Requesting that generating units change their generation at rates

faster than that which can be obtained under automatic generation
4. Reduction of }oad, either through a reductioo in voltage or by
direct control of individual substation loads '
use of the first three means is fairly common. operators are
understandably reluctant to reduce load except in clearly extreme
Consequences of Poor Control
The consequences of failure to control within the established
guidelines range from the nuisance level to those with very serious
Impact. As an example of the latter, if a large Senerator within the
suddenly trips- off, failure to restore the area generation/load
unbalance within 10 minutes as prescribed by the NAPSIC guides may
result in overheated and thus "agging conductors on transmission lines,
line faults, and the initiation of a cascading power system failure.
Principles of Unit Control
Operation of an interconnected power system places certain control
and maneuverability requirements oo thu aggregate generat_ion in the
interconnectionl oUviousiy these requirements must be imposed ultimately
on the individual units. Since individual units vary io their relative of
ability to maneuver and play different roles in the overall economics
day to day operation, it is not possib]e to define unequivocally
lute response requirements. Hove-ver, there are some SeneraI guidelines

whicb can be used in the design of power plants for use on electric
utility networks.

The most general guidelines are as follows:

1. Each generating unit and its controls should be inherently stable
u'rder all conbioations of possible manual and automatic control
while connected to the system. That is, under no circrrmstanCs
should the stable operation of any unit depend on the characteris-
tics of other uaits.
2. It is highly desirable that each unit, if called upoo, be able to
assune its proportionate share of load regulating aad/ot frequency
regulating duty.
3. Generating unit controls, in responding to external stimuli (such
as frequency deviation, or AGC signals), should not impose on the
unit an excursion wbich would cause the unit to lose control or to
trip off the line. That is, control actioa should be linited to
the amount of control to which the unit can respond without exceed-
ing limits on process variables (such as sater leveI, pressures or
temperatures). fn this event, other units may be called upon to
carry a larger portion of the power systen needs. If the system
need cannot be net by the total available generation, the individ-
ual units must rely upon their protective devices to prevent unit
damage arising from extremes of frequency or voltage.

It is true that many units operating on systems today cannot meet

all of the above principles, and in nany cases the economies of plant
design and system operation provide reasonable justification for such
situations. However, these are still desirable objectives in the design
of a new plant concept.
Hethod for Obtaining Quantitative Unit Response Guidelines
Based on these principles, it is possible to specify quantitative
goals for the control of individual generating units from an analysis of
the aggregate system needs. In the sectioos which fol}ow, the aggregate
system needs are quantified, and the resulting requirements for response
of individual units are presented. In some cases, a range of require-
ments is giveo. Io general, units with the lowest fuel costs may be
expected to meet the minimum response requirements and those with
higher fuel costs are expected to meet the higher requirements.

Under normal day-to-day operating conditions, unit respoose re-

guirements can be classified iuto three general areas; frequency govern-
ing, daily load following and start-up/shutdown. These requirements
will be discussed in turn.

Frequency Governing

The requirements for frequgncy goweraing are best described by

starting with industry standards" covering speed control of steam tur-
bines r Bas turbines, and hydro turbines.

Proportional Control - Basically these standards require that turbines

sysLem sense) of from 20 to 25% of turbine nameplate rating for
each }f, change in frequency. In practice, u.s. power system frequency
seldom exceeds a deviation of 0.l'f, durinS system normal conditionsr. or
.06 Hertz on a 60 HerLz system. This range is asslmetrical and a devia-
Converting these deviations to their eguivalent Megawatt value results
in a requirement for generation changes under governor control to be
+1.3% -0.7% of turbine nameplate rating in round nurnbers.
Lioearity - The standards define the lineariLy commonly expected of
g"""EEfig units. This is specified in terms of the Steady-State Incre-
iental Speed Regulation whiih is defined in similar terms for all three
t)lpes of turbinJs. The specifications provide bounds on the incremental
rlgulation, correspondin[ to gains (again in a control system sense)
belr^,een 10% ana 6i% of turbine po\{er ratirrg for each 1% of rated fre-
quency change. These linearity specifications are relaxed at the ends
of .rilrru opening ranges for combustion and steam turbines wheregain the
iocremental regulati-on may increase, corresponding to a focal

Deadband - The standard specifications for all three turbine ty?es

proviae that deadband shall Le'less than 0.06 percent of rated.speed for
units larger than 5 Megawatts. This deadband of 0.036 Hertz is defined
as the chinge of steady-state speed to which the governor may be insen-
Slability - Each standard specification provides that a Sovernor wilI
control turbine admission so as not to produce sustained oscillations
speed or po\^,er under sLeady-state conditions. The specifications
tLrms of peak-to-peak magnitude of sustained oscillations of (a) turbine
speed in lsolated operutlon of less than 0.07 per cent of rated spee-d,
0-.042 Hertz, for ,rritr larger than 5 w and (b) of changes of turbine
power in paralle1 operation corresponding to 110% of the specified
ieadband ,i the incremental speed regulation. Thus, for steady-state
operation on the'interconnected system, the ,speed conLrol system may not
introduce sustained Power oscillations with a magnitude which exceeds
approximately I.3% "f rated power; this limit cycle power-magnitude
.Lir""por,ds to a tain of 20% of rated PohTer per l'f, change of speedgain'
frequeircy. The firnit cycle magnitude will increase r.'ith increased
Response Time - The standards do not specify response times ' The hy-
draulic turbine Sovernor specification defines and specifieschanges
dead time to requfre that the governor respond to sudden load
not more than 0.2 seconds.

There is an interplay betweeo response time and deadband that,
while not a part of the standard specifications, should be considered.
The requirement that the deadband be as small as possible is significant
in the aggregate utility system dynanics where frequency is essentially
the same throughout the system. In this long term mode, all units sense
essentially the same variations in freguency. Cousequently, the dead-
band is aPt to be a major element in determining the magnitude and
period of the frequency excursions. In inter-unit and inter-area hunt-
ing coaditions, where the periods of oscillation are lower (in the range
of 0.5 to 5 seconds), it may be desirable for governors to be relatively
insensitive to small frequency changes. That is, governors should not
be responding to frequency swings with periods less than about 3 seconds
because the inherent delays in most prine movers offset the value of the
governor response. For sustained frequency excursions }arger thaa about
0.1 Hertz, which indicate a potential islanding situation, rapid gover-
nor action is important to arrest frequency excursions.
Implication for Overall Plant Controls - The specifications cited above
apply only to governor control of turbiaes. This assumes that the
energy suppry (steam, water or gas) is capable of meeting the demands
made upon it by the governor, and therefore control of power output is
entirely achieved by the governor alone.
rn newer power plants where the energy suppry is comprex, the
overall plant control design nay provide for overriding the governor
action. In such circumstances, the plant level control determines a
megawatt demand from frequency and Automatic Generation Control signals,
just as the goveroor does, and directs both the turbine and
supply to meet this master megawatt demand. Ilost advanced por.rer geoera-
tion systems probably have such plant control. If such is the case, all
the requirements pl-aced upon the governor (proportionality, Iinearity,
deadband, stability, and response time) should also be met or exceeded
by the plant control.
Daily Load Following

During the course of a 24-hour period, utirity system roads can

vary over a two to one range, and over an aunual period, the ratio of
the highest peak load to the lowest minimr:m load can be four to one.
Figure 2 shows how hourly-average loads vary on a utility over a period
of week. Arthough this curve is typical, it does not represent the
extremes as seen by some utilities, whose loads are dominated by heavy
industry on the one hand, or metropolitan areas on the other.
In meeting these loads with available generation, the utility will
usually plan to have a portion of its total generation ia so-called
baseload units which provide the lowest total system cost if run at full
output for a large nunber of hours per year. These units are typically
high capital cost, low fuel cost units, such as nuclear or large fossil




Figure 2 Typical l{eekly Load Curve

A nymber of factors, such as long-range load forecasting errors,
economic mix, forced outages, scheduled maintenance, and high minimum
load capability of some intermediate range units, combine to create the
necessiiy for even baseload units to do a certain amount rof daily
cycling, particularly during periods of annual minimum loads.' Hence a
biseload unit may have an amual capacity factor as low as 65%.
At the other end of the scale, peaking units provide their greatest
return if run for only a few hours a week r"ith a capacity factor of 0 to
ZA%. These units, such as combustion turbines, have lower capital costs
but usually burn high cost fuel. In between these extremes are the
intermediate range units represented, for example, by variable-pressure
steam units o. old"r units originally installed for base-Ioad operation.
These units wiII frequently start and shut down daiIy, aod oPerate with
capacity factors of 20 to 50%.
To meet the requirements for daily load following' many uLilities
would like base load units to have the ability to go from }00"f, power
They would like to be able to
.manualat night.'control
during the day to 50'f, power
Dove these units under or AGC at rates of I to 2[ per
minute over much of this range, but certainly to go from I00% to 50%

output over a 2-hour period and return in the same elapsed time. fn
stating these reguiremeats, there is a recognition of the need to pause
duriag loadiag aad usloading cycles to make necessary manual adjustnents
or to change auxiliaries.
Iaitially a base Ioad plant may not be required to undergo contin-
ual duty ia the tie-line back up or tie-line regulation mode. Higher
cost mid range and peaking units would assure most of that duty. The
uait would, however, be expected to take its share of frequency regula-
tion, and to have the necessary dynamic characteristics to behave in a
stable but responsive manner, even under isolated or island operation.
Peaking units (normally combustion turbines) would be required to
load and unload over a range of 70% of capability in periods of I0 to 20
As a generating unit passes through its expected 30 or 40 year
lifetime, oerr units with improved technologies, cycles, aad naterials
may be expected to be installed in the same power system. Since the
economic operating point of a generating unit is determined by its
incremental energy cost, dollars per megawatthour, it should be expected
that the newer units will displace existing uoits upward as illustrated
in Figure 3.


Figure 3 Pressures of New Techoology on Plant Operating Regime

Thus, over the course of its life a generating unit built for base
load (lowest energy cost) at the tine of its installation will tend
toward operatiou as aa intermediate range unit as technological inprove-

menLs take place. Likewise, a unit originally performing intermediate
load duty would tend to become a peaking unit toward the end of its
life. Figure 4 further illustrates this tendency, showing how the
capacity factor for a uait installed for base load operation in 1960 has
st.eadily gone down' through the years as newer technologies have been



1960 1965 1970 1975 1s80

Figure 4 Change in Operating Regime Over Plant Life

During periods of minimum load, the utility r+ould, if possible,
continue to run units which have the lowest incremental energy cost. It
is unlikely that incrernental fuel costs for plants such as the PFB-CFCC
would be below those for auclear plants; therefore, if operated in
conjunction with nuclear units, the new teehnology plants would be
expected to back off generation first. Thus, depending on the relative
mix of new technology, nuclear, and other ty)es of generation, and
depending on the load factor of the utility, a new technology plant
could be expected to have the ability to undergo sone daily load follow-
ing. A1so, depending on the same economic and operating factors, it may
be desirable for the unit to have the ability to undergo weekend shut-
down a limited nuruber of times.

Sta rtup/Shutdown

Just as diffbrent requirements for load following exist for diffet-

ent types of units, there is a distinction made for startup and shutdowu
raLes. Peaking units, most likely combustion turbines, often are used
for non-spinning reserve to meet unexpected sudden load increases; as
such, these units should be capable of.a start to full load in 30 min-
utes or less. For intermediate range steam units, starts to full load

in I to 2 hours are desirable. Base load units could take from 2 to 4
hours for a start following a brief shutdown and 5 to 10 hours following
8 Eore extended shutdown.

Shutdown rates conparable to startup rates would be pernissible.


One of the mild emergencies which nust be dealt with several times
a year by any given utility is the sudden and unexpected tripping of a
large generating unit within the utility's control area. The imediate
result of such ao event is an inflow of power into the area (comiag over
the tie'lines) and a slight drop in freguency on the entire interconnec-
tion. The power inflow nearly eguals the smount of power which was
being carried by the unit which rsas lost.
The effect of the drop in freguency is usually small aad units are
expected to respond under oornal speed goveroor control. However, the
effect of the sudden inflow of power on the tie lines is not snall since
conductor themal load limits Day be exceeded. In addition, the utility
will be highly vulnerabre in the event of a second contingency. The
only way the utility caa bring the tie-line loadings back to normal is
to restore a balance between generation and load in the affected area.
Short of reduciag customer load, this is done by increasing generation
within the area by an amount equal to the lost generation, or by arrang-
ing for purchase of energency polrer from a neighboring utility in a
controlled manner. Hhen the bal4nce is restored, the snall frequency
deviation also will be eliminated.-
NAPSIC Guides3 require that the increase in generation be accom-
plished within 10 minutes. Operating requirements of nost utilities
also specify that this generation come out of units already synchronized
to the systen (spinniag).
For the most part, spinning reserve is carried on intermediate
range units, although during minimr:m load periods when these units oay
be offline, the base load units would be called upon to rgspond.
Since spinniag reserve is usually carried oD several units, intet-
mediate range units would be expected to respond at rates of 2 to 3% per
minute over periods of 10 to 15 minutes. The 1 to 2% per ninute daily
load following rate required of base load units is probably sufficient
for tie-line backup duty since, at periods of minimum load, most units
on line would bac-ked down and be ia a position to respond. Furthermore,
the maximun load carried by most units at these tines would be snaller,
and thus the spinning reserve required, based on the loss of the nost
heavily loaded unit, might be somewhat less thaa at periods when many
units were fully loaded.


A system emergency is here defined as a sqries of events which have

led to the formatioo of an electrical island.- An island is a portion
of an interconnection which has become completely isolated from the rest
of the system through the openiag of all the connecting transmission
lines; iL iucludes one or more Seneratint units and connected load which
in general is initially uuequal to the amount of generation. Islanding
nay be the result of uncontrolled cascading, or it may be the result of
preplaaned action taken as a result of a given set of circumstances.

Electrical Islaads
It is very difficult to characterize the size of an island formed
following "t".idiog. In the past, islands have formed around very large
geographical areas, such as the eatire states of Califoroia and Arizona,
aad- tfey have formed around vqry small areas consisting of only one
plant oi a smal1 group of plants'. It is also difficult to characterize
the maximum mismatch Letweln load and generatioa in the island. Islands
have been formed around generation-rich areas and generation-poor areas.
Because of the mechanics of formation of an island honrever, they usually
do have a substantial mismatch in one direction or the.other at the time
of formation. (Ao exception to this can occur when transmission inter-
connections are verY weak. )
Probably the most fundanental requirements imposed on power gener-
ating plants under these circumstances are as follows:
l. The units should be responsive to governor control as quickly and
over as wide a dynarnic range as is possible. Frequency nay rise or
fall 3 Hz at rates which may exceed'3 Hz per second following
formation of the islaod and prompt goveraor action is the most
effective way to bring about a quick match betweeo island genera-
tion and load.
2. Notwithstanding point 1, the respoase under governor conLrol should
so large or so fast as to cause tbe plant to trip off the
not be '(This
Iine. is guideline 3 under Principles of Uuit Coatrol,
above. )

3. The unit and its auxiliaries should be designed to oPerate stably

for extended periods of tine at levels of voltage and frequency
which are outiide normal ranges. As a point of reference, utili-
ties generally will be prepared to trip generating units(for if fre-
queacy goes below 57 or-57.5 Hz for any length of time unit
irotecti"on) and are also prepared to respect loading guides pub-
iirhua by turbine manufacturers which limit the aqount of time a
unit may deliver load at off-nominal frequencies.' It is impor-
tant, however, that plant auxiliaries oot limit plaat capability if
the plant is operated within these guidelines '

Fioally, if the island foros around a generation-rich area, fre-
quency will rise and, in response, speed governors will cause uaits
t6 back off generation. An excess of generation in an island and
consequent oversp'eed nay also occur after the formation of a geoer-
ation deficient island and excessive load shedding. In either
case, a large anorrnt of stored energy may be dunped due to relief
valve or turbine blpass valve action. As system operators subse-
guently take steps to bring frequency in the island down to a point
where reslrnchronization with the rest of the interconnection is
possible, the unit, once slmchronized, will be called upon quickly
to increase generation again. Recent experience indicates that
generating uaits often are unable to respond in this situation,
with the result that underfrequency load shedding has followed. It
would be desirable if units which had backed off to minimum load
were able to reload to their original levels in about 20 minutes.
As with requirements in other areas, this is expected more of
peaking and intermediate range units than for baseload uaits, but
aay contribution by baseload units would be beneficial, and in
many cases, nearly essential.
Load Rejection

Load rejection is a special case of islanding in which oae unit or

plant suddenly is disconnected fron the rest of the system, leaving the
unit with no conoected load. In this case, overspeed protection usually
will trip the unit. If the load rejection was caused by a transmission
related event, it would be desirable to resynchronize and reload the
unit as quickly as possible, i.e., within 20 Lo 30 minutes. However,
utilities often are able to do without lhis capability and a reload time
of 2 to 3 hours appears to be acceptable.'

The preceding sections have discussed the requirements placed upon

power generating plants to neet normal and unusual conditions in elec-
tric utility operatiohs. The discussioa of power plant naneuvering
reguirements included the circumstances which create the need, the
ranges of requirements, aod the consequences of not neeting the require-
ments; the discussion necessarily included economic considerations -in
the design and operation of generating plants.
The suggested performance requirernents are surnmarized in Table 1
and ia Figure 5. The table reviews each of several performance aspects
and the reguirements for baseload, intermediate range and peaking
units; where only'one requiremeut is given, it applies to arr units.

Sutgested Perforoaace iequi'reoeots

ResPonse Reouired
Pcrforoance Need
of uait nameplate Eegaqatt ratinS io 2 sbcoods
a. Respood +1.3%, -O'7%
Frequency Governing ia Noroal Operation io PronPt, sLable fashioo'
b. !{axlnurdeadband of 0'05% frequency'-.
;. Overa11 steady-sLaEe regulation of 5%'
d. Linearity-per standards (reference oJ'
to to 50% of naneplate-t{ll ralingfor
go from I00%
at rates u-p Lo 2% Per
Able load 4 ro 6 hours aud
Noroal DailY Load Eolloriag EiBute over a z uou.--p"uii;; ;ti at 50%
to per miout_e. of zero
rcturn to 100% ia 2 hou'rs at rates up 2% .periods
ohile plant
rea?oose rate are p.-i-i""iurt durioi lotaioiia addition' peaking uniLs
and ualoadia.g
coEpooeats ere uuird*l-Jal or .reived'
ZOZ of aameplate load in 10 to 20
ahould be able to fjXa "-.-tf."a "".r
a. StrrtuP of beccloed-Loursulite fol}o*iag
r brief- =l"ldo.T it 2 to 4
Noroal StartuP aod Shutdosn foLlorliaS t it" erteaded shutdown' Ioter-
bouri; 5 to t0 i to 2 hours f ron startup ' Peakiag
xdlatA uoi'tr et iuli loaa il
u[its Et full load ln 3O risuteg'
D. shufib,^iil". "ttt ar rdleitup 're rccsllt'ble'
rrter or rirpoara er for iletly lodit fo1louia3, ovcr
epinniag reserve
Tie-1ine BackuP
Ability. of rtcad rYppfy rad lrrilie"i:: ta rdtotaio operation at full
Systco Emergency - Off-[oni-Ell Frequcocy {or reri'rur: pernissible times as sPec-
Ioed rltb off-notoaf'fleqt'-acfta A tlryical linit of 11
tfied by turbiae ""a'gtir:ttl"t sustaiBed
opcrltioq has been ci-red' Tbe
cbange froo rated f;"?;tyf;; deviations decreases'
;;i;"i;i; tine of- operation at-8reat'r fr-quency
5% or
u.Eril i@edi"t. trr-i1:.-r-ru[.,ir.a-ror deviations of approrinateLy
3 Eertz.

Rapid resposse under Soveraor control froo 100% to some looer value and
retura to 100% io zo'oro,rt.=. should rarger tbe totar possible excursioo
,loii ttiii"i" bi coordioated in a fashioo so as
the better, U,rt
gerlratioB of 70% rEder these
rloe. A oioj.aun
to keep the uniL on-tle be a desirable objective'
abnoroil coaditioas r'rould
Capability for contiouous oPeration rated load at any teroinal
Systeo Eoergeacy - Off-Nouiaal Voltage 'rared. -at
capable.of luaistaini.og auxiliaries
voltage sithia .5 ;;;;;a-of voltlgcs iq the. ra:ee:l 80% to 1101
supportinS foaa ,iti-It*ili"ty bus
95% of rated voltaSe'is
of uoroal voltage.--c"".;"; operation-belo*,r
possiblc sith suitabit-tla"ttion of load ar defioed by the generator
aay be reetricted by volts Per Hertz
Dr'ufacrurer. G.".;;;t-;;11.;e
ohich oould peroit rcloadiog to 1001
ig desired is a las.aerproapt
Uait Eoergeocy - Total Load Rejectioo Response
ooger ia 20 to 3o Lit"u" eftser tctyotUiooizing' particularly of
ieatiog and cYcliag Plants'

A plot of response rate in percent MW/mi_nute versus the number of

minute$ at which thlis rate can be sustained' plotted on log-1og coordin-
in Tab1e 1'
ates,l.I ls a oerpful way to preseot in graphii forn the data response
excursion-limited to
Figure 5 illustiates tle transition from AIso
rate limits over the range of normal oPeration conditions ' shown
are omitted fron this figurl siice they do not represent the same kind
of requiremeot in specification and design of unit resPonse'


5 too
G ulrilT
l, I

o.or I to too

Figure 5 Maoeuvering Requirenents of Generating uaits for

Utility System Operation

It is hoped that the data presented and discussed in this paper

will be instrrrqental in enlargiag dialog in the industry oa this sub-
ject, and will contribute to better understanding of the role of gener-
ating unit response in utility system perfor:mance.

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Governing of steam Turbines Intended to Drive Electric Generators
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