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BBSE2008 Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering

www.hku.hk/bse/bbse2008/

Dr. Sam C. M. Hui

Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Hong Kong E-mail: cmhui@hku.hk

Jan 2012

Contents

Basic Concepts

Outdoor and Indoor Design Conditions

Transfer Function Method

Energy Estimation

Basic Concepts

• Conduction
• Convection

Heat transfer mechanism

Thermal properties of building materials

Overall thermal transmittance (U-value)

Thermal conductivity

Thermal capacity (specific heat)

Q = U A (Δt)

Four forms of heat transfer

CONVECTION

(Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, www.fao.org)

Basic Concepts

Heat transfer basic relationships (for air at sea level) (SI units)

Sensible heat transfer rate:

q sensible = 1.23 (Flow rate, L/s) (Δt)

Latent heat transfer rate:

q latent = 3010 (Flow rate, L/s) (Δw)

Total heat transfer rate:

q total = 1.2 (Flow rate, L/s) (Δh)

q total = q sensible + q latent

Basic Concepts

The amount of heat that must be added or removed from the space to maintain the proper temperature in the space

When thermal loads push conditions outside of the comfort range, HVAC systems are used to bring the thermal conditions back to comfort conditions

Basic Concepts

Estimate likely plant/equipment capacity or size

Specify the required airflow to individual spaces

Provide info for HVAC design e.g. load profiles

Form the basis for building energy analysis

Cooling load is our main target

Important for warm climates & summer design

Affect building performance & its first cost

Basic Concepts

General procedure for cooling load calculations

1. Obtain the characteristics of the building, building materials, components, etc. from building plans and specifications

3. Obtain appropriate weather data and select outdoor design conditions

4. Select indoor design conditions (include permissible variations and control limits)

Basic Concepts

General procedure for cooling load calculations (cont’d)

5. Obtain a proposed schedule of lighting, occupants, internal equipment appliances and processes that would contribute to internal thermal load

6. Select the time of day and month for the cooling load calculation

7. Calculate the space cooling load at design conditions

8. Assess the cooling loads at several different time or a design day to find out the peak design load

Basic Concepts

A building survey will help us achieve a realistic estimate of thermal loads

Orientation of the building

Use of spaces

Physical dimensions of spaces

Ceiling height

Columns and beams

Construction materials

Surrounding conditions

Windows, doors, stairways

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Basic Concepts

People (number or density, duration of occupancy, nature of activity)

Lighting (W/m 2 , type)

Appliances (wattage, location, usage)

Ventilation (criteria, requirements)

Thermal storage (if any)

Continuous or intermittent operation

Basic Concepts

1. Rough estimates of design loads & energy use

Such as by rules of thumb & floor areas

See references for some examples of databooks

2. Develop & assess more info (design criteria, building info, system info)

Building layouts & plans are developed

3. Perform detailed load & energy calculations

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

They are used to calculate design space loads

General info: e.g. latitude, longitude, altitude, atmospheric pressure

Outdoor design conditions include

Derived from statistical analysis of weather data

Typical data can be found in handbooks/databooks, such as ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

Previous data & method (before 1997)

For Summer (Jun to Sep) & Winter (Dec, Jan, Feb)

Based on 1%, 2.5% & 5% nos. hours of occurrence

New method (ASHRAE Fundamentals 2001+):

Based on annual percentiles and cumulative frequency

of occurrence, e.g. 0.4%, 1%, 2% (of whole year)

Findings obtained from ASHRAE research projects

Data can be found on a relevant CD-ROM

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

Climatic design conditions (ASHRAE, 2009):

Annual heating & humidif. design conditions

Coldest month

Heating dry-bulb (DB) temp.

Humidification dew point (DP)/ mean coincident dry- bulb temp. (MCDB) and humidity ratio (HR)

Coldest month wind speed (WS)/mean coincident dry- bulb temp. (MCDB)

Mean coincident wind speed (MCWS) & prevailing coincident wind direction (PCWD) to 99.6% DB

(Latest information from ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2009)

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

Climatic design conditions (ASHRAE, 2009):

Cooling and dehumidification design conditions

Hottest month and DB range

Cooling DB/MCWB: Dry-bulb temp. (DB) + Mean

coincident wet-bulb temp. (MCWB)

Evaporation WB/MCDB: Web-bulb temp. (WB) +

Mean coincident dry-bulb temp. (MCDB)

MCWS/PCWD to 0.4% DB

Dehumidification DP/MCDB and HR: Dew-point temp.

(DP) + MDB + Humidity ratio (HR)

Enthalpy/MCDB

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

Climatic design conditions (ASHRAE, 2009):

Extreme annual design conditions

Monthly climatic design conditions

Temperature, degree-days and degree-hours

Monthly design DB and mean coincident WB

Monthly design WB and mean coincident DB

Mean daily temperature range

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

Other sources of climatic info:

Joint frequency tables of psychrometric conditions

Annual, monthly and hourly data

Degree-days (cooling/heating) & climatic normals

To classify climate characteristics

Typical year data sets (1 year: 8,760 hours)

For energy calculations & analysis

Recommended Outdoor Design Conditions for Hong Kong

 Location Hong Kong (latitude 22° 18’ N, longitude 114° 10’ E, elevation 33 m) Weather station Royal Observatory Hong Kong Summer months June to September (four hottest months), total 2928 hours Winter months December, January & February (three coldest months), total 2160 hours Design For comfort HVAC (based on summer 2.5% or annualised 1% and winter 97.5% or annualised 99.3%) For critical processes (based on summer 1% or annualised 0.4% and winter 99% or annualised 99.6%) temperatures: Summer Winter Summer Winter DDB / CWB 32.0 o C / 26.9 o C 9.5 o C / 6.7 o C 32.6 o C / 27.0 o C 8.2 o C / 6.0 o C CDB / DWB 31.0 o C / 27.5 o C 10.4 o C / 6.2 o C 31.3 o C / 27.8 o C 9.1 o C / 5.0 o C
 Note: 1. DDB is the design dry-bulb and CWB is the coincident wet-bulb temperature with it; DWB is the design wet-bulb and CDB is the coincident dry-bulb with it. 2. The design temperatures and daily ranges were determined based on hourly data for the 35-year period from 1960 to 1994; extreme temperatures were determined based on extreme values between 1884-1939 and 1947-1994.

(Source: Research findings from Dr. Sam C M Hui)

Recommended Outdoor Design Conditions for Hong Kong (cont’d)

 Extreme Hottest month: July Coldest month: January temperatures: mean DBT = 28.6 o C mean DBT = 15.7 o C absolute max. DBT = 36.1 o C absolute min. DBT = 0.0 o C mean daily max. DBT = 25.7 o C mean daily min. DBT = 20.9 o C Diurnal range: Summer Winter Whole year - Mean DBT 28.2 16.4 22.8 - Daily range 4.95 5.01 5.0 Wind data: Summer Winter Whole year - Wind direction 090 (East) 070 (N 70° E) 080 (N 80° E) - Wind speed 5.7 m/s 6.8 m/s 6.3 m/s Note: 3. Wind data are the prevailing wind data based on the weather summary for the 30- year period 1960-1990. Wind direction is the prevailing wind direction in degrees clockwise from north and the wind speed is the mean prevailing wind speed.

(Source: Research findings from Dr. Sam C M Hui)

IndoorIndoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

Basic design parameters: (for thermal comfort)

Air temp. & air movement

Typical: summer 24-26 o C; winter 21-23 o C

Air velocity: summer < 0.25 m/s; winter < 0.15 m/s

Relative humidity

Summer: 40-50% (preferred), 30-65 (tolerable)

Winter: 25-30% (with humidifier); not specified (w/o humidifier)

ASHRAE comfort zone

ASHRAE Comfort Zones (based on 2004 version of ASHRAE Standard 55)

IndoorIndoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

Indoor air quality: (for health & well-being)

Air contaminants

Outdoor ventilation rate provided

ASHRAE Standard 62.1

Air cleanliness (e.g. for processing), air movement

Other design parameters:

Sound level (noise criteria)

Pressure differential between the space & surroundings (e.g. +ve to prevent infiltration)

(NC = noise critera; RC = room criteria)

* Remark: buildings in HK often have higher NC, say add 5-10 dB (more noisy).

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

External

1. Heat gain through exterior walls and roofs

2. Solar heat gain through fenestrations (windows)

3. Conductive heat gain through fenestrations

4. Heat gain through partitions & interior doors

Internal

1. People

2. Electric lights

3. Equipment and appliances

Infiltration

Air leakage and moisture migration, e.g. flow of outdoor air into a building through cracks, unintentional openings, normal use of exterior doors for entrance

System (HVAC)

Outdoor ventilation air

System heat gain: duct leakage & heat gain, reheat, fan & pump energy, energy recovery

Internal
External

+ Ventilation load & system heat gains

= Σ(sensible items) + Σ(latent items)

Three major parts for load calculation

Ventilation and infiltration air

Example: CLTD/SCL/CLF method

It is a one-step, simple calculation procedure developed by ASHRAE

CLTD = cooling load temperature difference

See ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals for details

Tables for CLTD, SCL and CLF

External

Roofs, walls, and glass conduction

q = U A (CLTD)

U = U-value; A = area

q = A (SC) (SCL)

Partitions, ceilings, floors

q = U A (t adjacent - t inside )

Internal

People

q sensible = N (Sensible heat gain) (CLF)

q latent = N (Latent heat gain)

Lights

q = Watt x F ul x F sa (CLF)

F ul = lighting use factor; F sa = special allowance factor

Appliances

q sensible = q input x usage factors (CLF)

q latent = q input x load factor (CLF)

Ventilation and infiltration air

q sensible = 1.23 Q (t outside - t inside )

q latent = 3010 Q (w outside - w inside )

q total = 1.2 Q (h outside - h inside )

System heat gain

Fan heat gain

Duct heat gain and leakage

Ceiling return air plenum

Schematic diagram of typical return air plenum

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Terminology:

Space – a volume w/o a partition, or a partitioned

room, or group of rooms

Room – an enclosed space (a single load)

Zone – a space, or several rooms, or units of space

having some sort of coincident loads or similar operating characteristics

Thermal zoning

Definitions

Space heat gain: instantaneous rate of heat gain

that enters into or is generated within a space

Space cooling load: the rate at which heat must be

removed from the space to maintain a constant space air temperature

Space heat extraction rate: the actual rate of heat

removal when the space air temp. may swing

Cooling coil load: the rate at which energy is

removed at a cooling coil serving the space

Conversion of heat gain into cooling load

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Instantaneous heat gain vs space cooling loads

They are NOT the same

Effect of heat storage

Night shutdown period

HVAC is switched off. What happens to the space?

Cool-down or warm-up period

When HVAC system begins to operate

Need to cool or warm the building fabric

Conditioning period

Space air temperature within the limits

Thermal Storage Effect in Cooling Load from Lights

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Space heat gain (sensible, latent, total)

Space cooling / heating load [at building]

Space heat extraction rate

Cooling / heating coil load [at air-side system]

Refrigeration load [at the chiller plant]

Instantaneous heat gain

Convective heat

Convective and radiative heat in a conditioned space

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

Shows the variation of space cooling load

Such as 24-hr cycle

Useful for building operation & energy analysis

What factors will affect load profiles?

(Source: D.G. Stephenson, 1968)

West

North

South

East

Cooling loads due to windows at different orientations

(Source: D.G. Stephenson, 1968)

Space cooling load (sensible & latent)

Supply system heat gain (fan + air duct)

Return system heat gain (plenum + fan + air duct)

Do you know how to construct a summer air conditioning cycle on a psychrometric chart?

Typical summer air conditioning cycle
Return system heat gain
Supply system heat gain

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

Supply airflow (L/s)

1.2



t

To determine supply air flow rate & size of air system, ducts, terminals, diffusers

It is a component of cooling coil load

Infiltration heat gain is an instant. cooling load

To determine the size of cooling coil & refrigeration system

Max. heat energy required to maintain winter indoor design temp.

Usually occurs before sunrise on the coldest days

Include transmission losses & infiltration/ventilation

Assumptions:

All heating losses are instantaneous heating loads

Credit for solar & internal heat gains is not included

Latent heat often not considered (unless w/ humidifier)

Thermal storage effect of building structure is ignored

A simplified approach to evaluate worst-case conditions based on

Including infiltration and/or ventilation

No solar effect (at night or on cloudy winter days)

Before the presence of people, light, and appliances has an offsetting effect

Also, a warm-up/safety allowance of 20-25% is fairly common

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

From load estimation to energy calculations

Only determine peak design loads is not enough

Need to evaluate HVAC and building energy consumption

To support design decisions (e.g. evaluate design options)

To enhance system design and operation

To compile with building energy code

Energy calculations

More complicated than design load estimation

Form the basis of building energy and economic analysis

Based on the same principles

But, with different purposes & approaches

Focus on maximum load or worst conditions

For a particular hour or period (e.g. peak summer day)

Energy calculations

Focus on average or typical conditions

On whole year (annual) performance or multiple years consumption

May involve analysis of energy costs & life cycle costs

Tasks at different building design stages

Conceptual design stage:

Rules of thumb + check figures (rough estimation)

Outline/Scheme design:

Design evaluations (e.g. using simplified tools/models)

Detailed design:

Energy calculations + building energy simulation

Basic considerations

Evaluate max. load to size/select equipment

2. Energy analysis

Calculate energy use and compare design options

3. Space cooling load Q = V ρ c p (t r t s )

To calculate supply air volume flow rate (V) and size the air system, ducts, terminals

To size cooling coil and refrigeration system

Basic considerations (cont’d)

Assumptions:

Heat transfer equations are linear within a time interval (superposition principle holds)

Total load = sum of individual ones

Convective heat, latent heat & sensible heat gains from infiltration are all equal to cooling load instantaneously

Main difference in various methods

Different methods have different ways to convert space radiative heat gains into space cooling loads

Conversion of heat gain into cooling load

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Thermal

Heat Gains/Losses

Heat storage

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

q ko = convective flux into the wall, W/m 2 q ki = convective flux through the wall, W/m 2 T so = wall surface temperature outside, ºC T si = wall surface temperature outside, ºC

Possible ways to model this
process:
1. Numerical finite difference
2. Numerical finite element
3. Transform methods
4. Time series methods

Wall conduction process

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Common methods:

Transfer function method (TFM)

Total equivalent temp. differential/time averaging (TETD/TA) method

Other existing methods:

Finite difference method (FDM)

Transfer Function Method (TFM)

Laplace transform and z-transform of time series

CLTD/CLF method

A one-step simplification of TFM

TETD/TA method

Heat gains calculated from Fourier series solution of 1-dimensional transient heat conduction

Average heat gains to current and successive hours according to thermal mass & experience

Basic concepts of TFM, CLTD/CLF and TETD/TA methods

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Other methods:

Heat balance (HB) method

The rigorous approach (mainly for research use)

Requires solving of partial differential equations and often involves iteration

A simplified method derived from HB procedure

Finite difference/element method (FDM or FEM)

Solve transient simultaneous heat & moisture transfer

Heat Balance (HB) Method

Use heat balance equations to calculate:

Surface-by-surface conductive, convective & radiative heat balance for each room surface

Convective heat balance for the room air

Calculation process

Find the inside surface temperatures of building structures due to heat balance

Calculate the sum of heat transfer from these surfaces and from internal loads

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Transfer Function Method

Transfer Function Method (TFM)

Most commonly adopted for energy calculations

Three components:

Conduction transfer function (CTF)

Room transfer function (RTF)

Space air transfer function (SATF)

Implemented numerically using weighting factors

Transfer function coefficients, to weight the importance of current & historical values of heat gain & cooling load on currently calculated loads

Input

Transfer
Function

Output

Transfer function (K)

Polynominals of z-transform

Y = Laplace transform of the output
G = Laplace transform of the input or driving force

When a continuous function f(t) is represented at regular intervals Δt and its magnitude are f(0), f(Δ), f(2Δ),…, f(nΔ), the Laplace transform is given by a polynominal called “z-transform”:

φ(z) = f(0) + f(Δ) z -1 + f(2Δ) z -2 +…+ f(nΔ) z -n where Δ = time interval, hour z = e tΔ

v 0 , v 1 , v 2 , … & w 1 , w 2 , … are weighting factors for the calculations

Three components of transfer function method (TFM)

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Transfer Function Method

Sol-air temperature (t e )

A fictitious outdoor air temperature that gives the rate of heat entering the outer surface of walls and roofs due to the combined effect of incident solar radiation, radiative heat exchange with the sky vault and surroundings, and convective heat exchange with the outdoor air

Outdoor air temp

Surface absorptance

Surface emittance

Heat balance at a sunlit surface, heat flux is equal to:

q   (  ) 
A
E
h
t
t
R
t
o
o
s

Assume the heat flux can be expressed in terms of sol-air temp. (t e )

Thus, sol-air temperature is given by:

Transfer Function Method

Sol-air temperature

External walls and roofs:

Ceiling, floors & partition wall:

aj = adjacent r = room

Transfer Function Method

Window glass

Solar heat gain:

Solar heat gain factor (SHGF)

Sunlit

Conduction heat gain:

U-value

Sunlit

Transfer Function Method

Internal heat gains

People (sensible + latent)

Lights

Machine & appliances

Infiltration (uncontrolled, via cracks/opening)

If positive pressure is maintained in conditioned space, infiltration is normally assumed zero

Transfer Function Method

Convert heat gain into cooling load

v 0 , v 1 , v 2 , … & w 1 , w 2 , … are weighting factors

Space sensible cooling load (from convective):

Transfer Function Method

Convert heat gain into cooling load (cont’d)

Heat extraction rate & space air temperature

Cooling coil load (sensible & latent)

Air mixture & air leaving the cooling coil

Energy Estimation

Two categories

Degree-day method

Variable base degree-day method

Bin and modified bin methods

Dynamic methods

Using computer-based building energy simulation

Try to capture dynamic response of the building

Can be developed based on transfer function, heat balance or other methods

Energy Estimation

Degree-day method

A degree-day is the sum of the number of degrees that the average daily temperature (technically the average of the daily maximum and minimum) is above (for cooling) or below (for heating) a base temperature times the duration in days

Heating degree-days (HDD)

Cooling degree-days (CDD)

Summed over a period or a year for indicating climate severity (effect of outdoor air on a building)

Heating degree-day:

+ Only take the positive values

Cooling degree-day:

t bal = base temperature (or balance point temperature) (e.g. 18.3 o C or 65 o F); Q load = Q gain + Q loss = 0 t o = outdoor temperature (e.g. average daily max./min.)

* Degree-hours if summing over 24-hourly intervals

Degree-day = Σ(degree-hours) + / 24

To determine the heating degree-day:

To determine the heating degree-day (cont’d):

Correlation between energy consumption and degree days

Energy Estimation

Variable base degree-day (VBDD) method

Degree-day with variable reference temperatures

To account for different building conditions and variation between daytime and nighttime

First calculate the balance point temperature of a building and then the heating and cooling degree hours at that base temperature

Require tedious calculations and detailed processing of hourly weather data at a complexity similar to hourly simulations. Therefore, does not seem warranted nowadays (why not just go for hourly simulation)

Energy Estimation

Bin and modified bin methods

Evolve from VBDD method

Derive building annual heating/cooling loads by calculating its loads for a set of temperature “bins”

Multiplying the calculated loads by nos. of hours represented by each bin (e.g. 18-20, 20-22, 22-24 o C)

Totaling the sums to obtain the loads (cooling/heating energy)

Original bin method: not account of solar/wind effects

Modified bin method: account for solar/wind effects

Energy Estimation

Dynamic simulation methods

Usually hour-by-hour, for 8,760 hours (24 x 365)

Energy calculation sequence:

Secondary equipment load (airside system) [SYSTEMS]

Primary equipment energy requirement (e.g. chiller) [PLANT]

Computer software

Building energy simulation programs, e.g. Energy-10, DOE-2, TRACE 700, Carrier HAP

Weather

data

Building

 - physical data -

description

design parameters

Simulation tool (computer program)

Simulation

outputs

- energy consumption (MWh)

- energy demands (kW)

- environmental conditions

Energy Estimation

Building energy simulation

Analysis of energy performance of building using computer modelling and simulation techniques

Many issues can be studied, such as:

Thermal performance (e.g. bldg. fabric, glazing)

Comfort and indoor environment

Ventilation and infiltration

Energy consumption of building systems

Major elements of building energy simulation

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

“Seven

steps”

of

simulation

output

(Source: eQUEST Tutorial Manual)

Building energy simulation process

HVAC air systems

HVAC water systems

Energy storage
Thermal Zone
Systems
Plant
(air-side)
(water-
side &
refrig.)

Energy input by appliance

Energy input by HVAC air/water systems

Energy input by HVAC plant

Software Applications

Carmel Loadsoft 6.0 [AV 697.00028553 L79]

Commercial and industrial HVAC load calculation software based on ASHRAE 2001 Fundamentals radiant time series (RTS) method

Carmel Residential 5.0 [AV 697.00028553 R43]

Residential and light commercial HVAC load calculation software based on ASHRAE 2001 Fundamentals residential algorithms

Software Applications

TRACE 700

TRACE = Trane Air Conditioning Economics

Commercial programs from Trane http://www.trane.com/commercial/

Most widely used by engineers in USA

Building load and energy analysis software

Carrier E20-II HAP (hourly analysis program)

http://www.commercial.carrier.com/commercial/hvac/general/0,,C

LI1_DIV12_ETI495,00.html

Software Applications

Examples of energy simulation software:

Energy-10

A software tool that helps architects and engineers quickly identify the most cost-effective, energy-saving measures to take in designing a low-energy building

Suitable for small commercial and residential buildings that are characterized by one, or two thermal zones (less than 10,000 ft 2 or 1,000 m 2 )

http://www.nrel.gov/buildings/energy10.html

E NERGY-10 Design Tool

Example: Energy-10

ENERGY-10

ENERGY-10 focuses on the first phases (conceptual design)

Activity

Tool

Phase
Develop Brief
Develop reference case
Develop low-energy case
Rank order strategies
Initial strategy selection
Set performance goals
Pre-design
Review goals
Review strategies
Set criteria, priorities
Schematic Design
Develop schemes
Evaluate schemes
Select scheme
Design Development
Confirm that
component performances
are as assumed
Construction Documents
ENERGY-10
Preliminary team
meetings
ENERGY-10
EnergyPlus
or other
HVAC simulation
and tools

E NERGY-10 Design Tool

ENERGY-10

Example: Energy-10

Creates two building descriptions based on five inputs and user-defined defaults.

Location Building Use Floor area Number of stories HVAC system

Gets you started quickly.

For example:

apply

Reference Case

Low Energy Case

R-8.9 walls (4" steel stud) R-19 roof No perimeter insulation Conventional double windows Conventional lighting Conventional HVAC Conventional air-tightness Uniform window orientation Conventional HVAC controls Conventional duct placement

R-19.6 Walls (6" steel stud with 2" foam) R-38 roof R-10 perimeter insulation Best low-e double windows Efficient lights with daylight dimming High efficiency HVAC Leakage reduced 75% Passive solar orientation Improved HVAC controls Ducts located inside, tightened

E NERGY-10 Design Tool

Example: Energy-10

ENERGY-10

2,000 m 2 office building

ANNUAL ENERGY USE

100
96.5
Reference Case
80
Low-Energy Case
60
47.3
40
35.1
27.4
22.7
20
15.1
6.7
6.9
4.1
1.5
0
Heating
Cooling
Lights
Other
Total
kWh / m²

E NERGY-10 Design Tool

Example: Energy-10

ENERGY-10

RANKING OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT STRATEGIES

Duct Leakage
Glazing
Insulation
Energy Efficient Lights
HVAC Controls
Air Leakage Control
Daylighting
High Efficiency HVAC
Economizer Cycle
Thermal Mass
Passive Solar Heating
115.04
72.49
57.33
56.56
48.43
45.92
45.24
38.84
37.82
-4.02
-6.23
-57.14
-100
-50
0
50
100
150

Net Present Value,

1000 \$

E NERGY-10 Design Tool

ENERGY-10

Example: Energy-10

Sample - Lower-Energy Case

40
50
20
0
0
-50
-20
Energy, kWh
Temperature, ?

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Jul

Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Average Hourly HVAC Energy Use by Month

Heating

Cooling

Inside T

Outside T

References

Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering (Wang and Norton, 2000)

ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals (2009 edition)

Chapter 15 – Fenestration

Chapter 17 – Residential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations

Chapter 18 – Nonresidential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations

References

Remarks:

“Load & Energy Calculations” in ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals

The following previous cooling load calculations are described in earlier editions of the ASHRAE Handbook (1997 and 2001 versions)

CLTD/SCL/CLF method

TETD/TA method

TFM method