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BBSE2008 Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering

www.hku.hk/bse/bbse2008/

and Refrigeration Engineering www.hku.hk/bse/bbse2008/ Load and Energy Calculations Dr. Sam C. M. Hui Department of

Load and Energy Calculations

www.hku.hk/bse/bbse2008/ Load and Energy Calculations Dr. Sam C. M. Hui Department of Mechanical Engineering The

Dr. Sam C. M. Hui

Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Hong Kong E-mail: cmhui@hku.hk

Jan 2012

Contents • Basic Concepts • Outdoor and Indoor Design Conditions • Cooling Load Components •

Contents

Contents • Basic Concepts • Outdoor and Indoor Design Conditions • Cooling Load Components • Cooling

Basic Concepts

Outdoor and Indoor Design Conditions

Cooling Load Components

Cooling Load Principles

Heating Load

Load & Energy Calculations

Transfer Function Method

Energy Estimation

Basic Concepts • Conduction • Convection • Radiation • Heat transfer mechanism • Thermal properties

Basic Concepts

• Conduction • Convection • Radiation
• Conduction
• Convection
• Radiation

Heat transfer mechanism

Thermal properties of building materials

Overall thermal transmittance (U-value)

Thermal conductivity

Thermal capacity (specific heat)

Q = U A (Δt)
Q = U A (Δt)

Four forms of heat transfer

CONVECTION
CONVECTION

(Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, www.fao.org)

Basic Concepts • Heat transfer basic relationships (for air at sea level) (SI units) •

Basic Concepts

Basic Concepts • Heat transfer basic relationships (for air at sea level) (SI units) • Sensible

Heat transfer basic relationships (for air at sea level) (SI units)

Sensible heat transfer rate:

q sensible = 1.23 (Flow rate, L/s) (Δt)

Latent heat transfer rate:

q latent = 3010 (Flow rate, L/s) (Δw)

Total heat transfer rate:

q total = 1.2 (Flow rate, L/s) (Δh)

q total = q sensible + q latent

Basic Concepts • Thermal load • The amount of heat that must be added or

Basic Concepts

Basic Concepts • Thermal load • The amount of heat that must be added or removed

Thermal load

The amount of heat that must be added or removed from the space to maintain the proper temperature in the space

When thermal loads push conditions outside of the comfort range, HVAC systems are used to bring the thermal conditions back to comfort conditions

Basic Concepts • Purpose of HVAC load estimation • Calculate peak design loads (cooling/heating) •

Basic Concepts

Basic Concepts • Purpose of HVAC load estimation • Calculate peak design loads (cooling/heating) • Estimate

Purpose of HVAC load estimation

Calculate peak design loads (cooling/heating)

Estimate likely plant/equipment capacity or size

Specify the required airflow to individual spaces

Provide info for HVAC design e.g. load profiles

Form the basis for building energy analysis

Cooling load is our main target

Important for warm climates & summer design

Affect building performance & its first cost

Basic Concepts • General procedure for cooling load calculations • 1. Obtain the characteristics of

Basic Concepts

Basic Concepts • General procedure for cooling load calculations • 1. Obtain the characteristics of the

General procedure for cooling load calculations

1. Obtain the characteristics of the building, building materials, components, etc. from building plans and specifications

2. Determine the building location, orientation, external shading (like adjacent buildings)

3. Obtain appropriate weather data and select outdoor design conditions

4. Select indoor design conditions (include permissible variations and control limits)

Basic Concepts • General procedure for cooling load calculations (cont’d) • 5. Obtain a proposed

Basic Concepts

Basic Concepts • General procedure for cooling load calculations (cont’d) • 5. Obtain a proposed schedule

General procedure for cooling load calculations (cont’d)

5. Obtain a proposed schedule of lighting, occupants, internal equipment appliances and processes that would contribute to internal thermal load

6. Select the time of day and month for the cooling load calculation

7. Calculate the space cooling load at design conditions

8. Assess the cooling loads at several different time or a design day to find out the peak design load

Cooling load profiles
Cooling load profiles

Cooling load profiles

Basic Concepts • A building survey will help us achieve a realistic estimate of thermal

Basic Concepts

Basic Concepts • A building survey will help us achieve a realistic estimate of thermal loads

A building survey will help us achieve a realistic estimate of thermal loads

Orientation of the building

Use of spaces

Physical dimensions of spaces

Ceiling height

Columns and beams

Construction materials

Surrounding conditions

Windows, doors, stairways

height • Columns and beams • Construction materials • Surrounding conditions • Windows, doors, stairways
(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Basic Concepts • Key info for load estimation • People (number or density, duration of

Basic Concepts

Basic Concepts • Key info for load estimation • People (number or density, duration of occupancy,

Key info for load estimation

People (number or density, duration of occupancy, nature of activity)

Lighting (W/m 2 , type)

Appliances (wattage, location, usage)

Ventilation (criteria, requirements)

Thermal storage (if any)

Continuous or intermittent operation

Basic Concepts • Typical HVAC load design process • 1. Rough estimates of design loads

Basic Concepts

Basic Concepts • Typical HVAC load design process • 1. Rough estimates of design loads &

Typical HVAC load design process

1. Rough estimates of design loads & energy use

Such as by rules of thumb & floor areas

See “Cooling Load Check Figures”

See references for some examples of databooks

2. Develop & assess more info (design criteria, building info, system info)

Building layouts & plans are developed

3. Perform detailed load & energy calculations

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions • They are used to calculate design space loads • Climatic design

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

They are used to calculate design space loads

Climatic design information

General info: e.g. latitude, longitude, altitude, atmospheric pressure

Outdoor design conditions include

Derived from statistical analysis of weather data

Typical data can be found in handbooks/databooks, such as ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions • Climatic design info from ASHRAE • Previous data & method

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

Climatic design info from ASHRAE

Previous data & method (before 1997)

For Summer (Jun to Sep) & Winter (Dec, Jan, Feb)

Based on 1%, 2.5% & 5% nos. hours of occurrence

New method (ASHRAE Fundamentals 2001+):

Based on annual percentiles and cumulative frequency

of occurrence, e.g. 0.4%, 1%, 2% (of whole year)

More info on coincident conditions

Findings obtained from ASHRAE research projects

Data can be found on a relevant CD-ROM

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions • Climatic design conditions (ASHRAE, 2009): • Annual heating

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

Climatic design conditions (ASHRAE, 2009):

Annual heating & humidif. design conditions

Coldest month

Heating dry-bulb (DB) temp.

Humidification dew point (DP)/ mean coincident dry- bulb temp. (MCDB) and humidity ratio (HR)

Coldest month wind speed (WS)/mean coincident dry- bulb temp. (MCDB)

Mean coincident wind speed (MCWS) & prevailing coincident wind direction (PCWD) to 99.6% DB

(Latest information from ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2009)

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions • Climatic design conditions (ASHRAE, 2009): • Cooling and

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

Climatic design conditions (ASHRAE, 2009):

Cooling and dehumidification design conditions

Hottest month and DB range

Cooling DB/MCWB: Dry-bulb temp. (DB) + Mean

coincident wet-bulb temp. (MCWB)

Evaporation WB/MCDB: Web-bulb temp. (WB) +

Mean coincident dry-bulb temp. (MCDB)

MCWS/PCWD to 0.4% DB

Dehumidification DP/MCDB and HR: Dew-point temp.

(DP) + MDB + Humidity ratio (HR)

Enthalpy/MCDB

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions • Climatic design conditions (ASHRAE, 2009): • Extreme annual

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

Climatic design conditions (ASHRAE, 2009):

Extreme annual design conditions

Monthly climatic design conditions

Temperature, degree-days and degree-hours

Monthly design DB and mean coincident WB

Monthly design WB and mean coincident DB

Mean daily temperature range

Clear sky solar irradiance

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions • Other sources of climatic info: • Joint frequency tables of

OutdoorOutdoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

Other sources of climatic info:

Joint frequency tables of psychrometric conditions

Annual, monthly and hourly data

Degree-days (cooling/heating) & climatic normals

To classify climate characteristics

Typical year data sets (1 year: 8,760 hours)

For energy calculations & analysis

Recommended Outdoor Design Conditions for Hong Kong

Location

Hong Kong (latitude 22° 18’ N, longitude 114° 10’ E, elevation 33 m)

Weather station

Royal Observatory Hong Kong

 

Summer months

June to September (four hottest months), total 2928 hours

 

Winter months

December, January & February (three coldest months), total 2160 hours

Design

For comfort HVAC (based on summer 2.5% or annualised 1% and winter 97.5% or annualised 99.3%)

For critical processes (based on summer 1% or annualised 0.4% and winter 99% or annualised 99.6%)

temperatures:

 

Summer

Winter

 

Summer

 

Winter

DDB / CWB

32.0

o C / 26.9 o C

9.5 o C / 6.7 o C

32.6

o C / 27.0 o C

8.2

o C / 6.0 o C

CDB / DWB

31.0

o C / 27.5 o C

10.4 o C / 6.2 o C

31.3

o C / 27.8 o C

9.1

o C / 5.0 o C

Note:

1.

DDB is the design dry-bulb and CWB is the coincident wet-bulb temperature with it; DWB is the design wet-bulb and CDB is the coincident dry-bulb with it.

2.

The design temperatures and daily ranges were determined based on hourly data for the 35-year period from 1960 to 1994; extreme temperatures were determined based on extreme values between 1884-1939 and 1947-1994.

(Source: Research findings from Dr. Sam C M Hui)

Recommended Outdoor Design Conditions for Hong Kong (cont’d)

Extreme

Hottest month:

July

Coldest month:

January

temperatures:

mean DBT = 28.6 o C

mean DBT = 15.7 o C

absolute max. DBT = 36.1 o C

absolute min. DBT = 0.0 o C

mean daily max. DBT = 25.7 o C

mean daily min. DBT = 20.9 o C

Diurnal range:

Summer

Winter

Whole year

 

- Mean DBT

28.2

16.4

22.8

 

- Daily range

4.95

5.01

5.0

 

Wind data:

Summer

Winter

Whole year

 

- Wind direction

090 (East)

070 (N 70° E)

080 (N 80° E)

 

- Wind speed

5.7 m/s

6.8 m/s

6.3 m/s

 

Note:

3.

Wind data are the prevailing wind data based on the weather summary for the 30- year period 1960-1990. Wind direction is the prevailing wind direction in degrees clockwise from north and the wind speed is the mean prevailing wind speed.

(Source: Research findings from Dr. Sam C M Hui)

IndoorIndoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions • Basic design parameters: (for thermal comfort) • Air temp. &

IndoorIndoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

Basic design parameters: (for thermal comfort)

Air temp. & air movement

Typical: summer 24-26 o C; winter 21-23 o C

Air velocity: summer < 0.25 m/s; winter < 0.15 m/s

Relative humidity

Summer: 40-50% (preferred), 30-65 (tolerable)

Winter: 25-30% (with humidifier); not specified (w/o humidifier)

See also ASHRAE Standard 55

ASHRAE comfort zone

ASHRAE Comfort Zones (based on 2004 version of ASHRAE Standard 55)

ASHRAE Comfort Zones (based on 2004 version of ASHRAE Standard 55)
IndoorIndoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions • Indoor air quality: (for health & well-being) • Air

IndoorIndoor DesignDesign ConditionsConditions

Indoor air quality: (for health & well-being)

Air contaminants

e.g. particulates, VOC, radon, bioeffluents

Outdoor ventilation rate provided

ASHRAE Standard 62.1

Air cleanliness (e.g. for processing), air movement

Other design parameters:

Sound level (noise criteria)

Pressure differential between the space & surroundings (e.g. +ve to prevent infiltration)

(NC = noise critera; RC = room criteria) * Remark: buildings in HK often have

(NC = noise critera; RC = room criteria)

* Remark: buildings in HK often have higher NC, say add 5-10 dB (more noisy).

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Cooling Load Components • External • 1. Heat gain through exterior walls and roofs •

Cooling Load Components

External

1. Heat gain through exterior walls and roofs

2. Solar heat gain through fenestrations (windows)

3. Conductive heat gain through fenestrations

4. Heat gain through partitions & interior doors

Internal

1. People

2. Electric lights

3. Equipment and appliances

Cooling Load Components • Infiltration • Air leakage and moisture migration, e.g. flow of outdoor

Cooling Load Components

Infiltration

Air leakage and moisture migration, e.g. flow of outdoor air into a building through cracks, unintentional openings, normal use of exterior doors for entrance

System (HVAC)

Outdoor ventilation air

System heat gain: duct leakage & heat gain, reheat, fan & pump energy, energy recovery

Components of building cooling load

Internal External loads loads
Internal
External
loads
loads
Components of building cooling load Internal External loads loads + Ventilation load & system heat gains

+ Ventilation load & system heat gains

Cooling Load Components • Total cooling load • Sensible cooling load + Latent cooling load

Cooling Load Components

Total cooling load

Sensible cooling load + Latent cooling load

= Σ(sensible items) + Σ(latent items)

Which components have latent loads? Which only have sensible load? Why?

Three major parts for load calculation

External cooling load

Internal cooling load

Ventilation and infiltration air

Cooling Load Components • Cooling load calculation method • Example: CLTD/SCL/CLF method • It is

Cooling Load Components

Cooling load calculation method

Example: CLTD/SCL/CLF method

It is a one-step, simple calculation procedure developed by ASHRAE

CLTD = cooling load temperature difference

SCL = solar cooling load

CLF = cooling load factor

See ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals for details

Tables for CLTD, SCL and CLF

Cooling Load Components • External • Roofs, walls, and glass conduction • q = U

Cooling Load Components

External

Roofs, walls, and glass conduction

q = U A (CLTD)

U = U-value; A = area

Solar load through glass

q = A (SC) (SCL)

SC = shading coefficient

For unshaded area and shaded area

Partitions, ceilings, floors

q = U A (t adjacent - t inside )

Cooling Load Components • Internal • People • q s e n s i b

Cooling Load Components

Internal

People

q sensible = N (Sensible heat gain) (CLF)

q latent = N (Latent heat gain)

Lights

q = Watt x F ul x F sa (CLF)

F ul = lighting use factor; F sa = special allowance factor

Appliances

q sensible = q input x usage factors (CLF)

q latent = q input x load factor (CLF)

Cooling Load Components • Ventilation and infiltration air • q sensible = 1 . 2

Cooling Load Components

Ventilation and infiltration air

q sensible = 1.23 Q (t outside - t inside )

q latent = 3010 Q (w outside - w inside )

q total = 1.2 Q (h outside - h inside )

System heat gain

Fan heat gain

Duct heat gain and leakage

Ceiling return air plenum

Schematic diagram of typical return air plenum (Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Schematic diagram of typical return air plenum

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Cooling Load Principles • Terminology: • Space – a volume w/o a partition, or a

Cooling Load Principles

Cooling Load Principles • Terminology: • Space – a volume w/o a partition, or a partitioned

Terminology:

Space – a volume w/o a partition, or a partitioned

room, or group of rooms

Room – an enclosed space (a single load)

Zone – a space, or several rooms, or units of space

having some sort of coincident loads or similar operating characteristics

Thermal zoning

Cooling Load Principles • Definitions • Space heat gain : instantaneous rate of heat gain

Cooling Load Principles

Cooling Load Principles • Definitions • Space heat gain : instantaneous rate of heat gain that

Definitions

Space heat gain: instantaneous rate of heat gain

that enters into or is generated within a space

Space cooling load: the rate at which heat must be

removed from the space to maintain a constant space air temperature

Space heat extraction rate: the actual rate of heat

removal when the space air temp. may swing

Cooling coil load: the rate at which energy is

removed at a cooling coil serving the space

Conversion of heat gain into cooling load (Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Conversion of heat gain into cooling load

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Cooling Load Principles • Instantaneous heat gain vs space cooling loads • They are NOT

Cooling Load Principles

Cooling Load Principles • Instantaneous heat gain vs space cooling loads • They are NOT the

Instantaneous heat gain vs space cooling loads

They are NOT the same

Effect of heat storage

Night shutdown period

HVAC is switched off. What happens to the space?

Cool-down or warm-up period

When HVAC system begins to operate

Need to cool or warm the building fabric

Conditioning period

Space air temperature within the limits

Thermal Storage Effect in Cooling Load from Lights (Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Thermal Storage Effect in Cooling Load from Lights

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Cooling Load Principles • Space load and equipment load • Space heat gain (sensible, latent,

Cooling Load Principles

Cooling Load Principles • Space load and equipment load • Space heat gain (sensible, latent, total)

Space load and equipment load

Space heat gain (sensible, latent, total)

Space cooling / heating load [at building]

Space heat extraction rate

Cooling / heating coil load [at air-side system]

Refrigeration load [at the chiller plant]

Instantaneous heat gain

Convective heat

Radiative heat (heat absorption)

Convective and radiative heat in a conditioned space (Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of

Convective and radiative heat in a conditioned space

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration , 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration , 2nd ed.)
(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration , 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration , 2nd ed.)
(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration , 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration , 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

Cooling Load Principles • Cooling load profiles • Shows the variation of space cooling load

Cooling Load Principles

Cooling Load Principles • Cooling load profiles • Shows the variation of space cooling load •

Cooling load profiles

Shows the variation of space cooling load

Such as 24-hr cycle

Useful for building operation & energy analysis

What factors will affect load profiles?

Peak load and block load

Peak load = max. cooling load

Block load = sum of zone loads at a specific time

Cooling load profiles

Cooling load profiles Total cooling load (Source: D.G. Stephenson, 1968)

Total cooling load

Cooling load profiles Total cooling load (Source: D.G. Stephenson, 1968)

(Source: D.G. Stephenson, 1968)

West

North

West North South East Block load and thermal zoning

South

East

Block load and thermal zoning

Cooling loads due to windows at different orientations

Cooling loads due to windows at different orientations (Source: D.G. Stephenson, 1968)

(Source: D.G. Stephenson, 1968)

Cooling Load Principles • Cooling coil load consists of: • Space cooling load (sensible &

Cooling Load Principles

Cooling Load Principles • Cooling coil load consists of: • Space cooling load (sensible & latent)

Cooling coil load consists of:

Space cooling load (sensible & latent)

Supply system heat gain (fan + air duct)

Return system heat gain (plenum + fan + air duct)

Load due to outdoor ventilation rates (or ventilation load)

Do you know how to construct a summer air conditioning cycle on a psychrometric chart?

See also notes in Psychrometrics

Typical summer air conditioning cycle Ventilation load Return system heat gain Supply system heat gain
Typical summer air conditioning cycle
Ventilation load
Return system heat gain
Supply system heat gain

Cooling coil load

Space cooling load

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

Cooling Load Principles • Space cooling load Supply airflow (L/s)  Sensible load (kW) 1.2

Cooling Load Principles

Cooling Load Principles • Space cooling load Supply airflow (L/s)  Sensible load (kW) 1.2 

Space cooling load

Supply airflow (L/s)

Sensible load (kW)

1.2



t

To determine supply air flow rate & size of air system, ducts, terminals, diffusers

It is a component of cooling coil load

Infiltration heat gain is an instant. cooling load

Cooling coil load

To determine the size of cooling coil & refrigeration system

Remember, ventilation load is a coil load

Heating Load • Design heating load • Max. heat energy required to maintain winter indoor

Heating Load

Heating Load • Design heating load • Max. heat energy required to maintain winter indoor design

Design heating load

Max. heat energy required to maintain winter indoor design temp.

Usually occurs before sunrise on the coldest days

Include transmission losses & infiltration/ventilation

Assumptions:

All heating losses are instantaneous heating loads

Credit for solar & internal heat gains is not included

Latent heat often not considered (unless w/ humidifier)

Thermal storage effect of building structure is ignored

Heating Load • A simplified approach to evaluate worst-case conditions based on • Design interior

Heating Load

Heating Load • A simplified approach to evaluate worst-case conditions based on • Design interior and

A simplified approach to evaluate worst-case conditions based on

Design interior and exterior conditions

Including infiltration and/or ventilation

No solar effect (at night or on cloudy winter days)

Before the presence of people, light, and appliances has an offsetting effect

Also, a warm-up/safety allowance of 20-25% is fairly common

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Load & Energy Calculations • From load estimation to energy calculations • Only determine peak

Load & Energy Calculations

Load & Energy Calculations • From load estimation to energy calculations • Only determine peak design

From load estimation to energy calculations

Only determine peak design loads is not enough

Need to evaluate HVAC and building energy consumption

To support design decisions (e.g. evaluate design options)

To enhance system design and operation

To compile with building energy code

Energy calculations

More complicated than design load estimation

Form the basis of building energy and economic analysis

Load & Energy Calculations • Load estimation and energy calculations • Based on the same

Load & Energy Calculations

Load & Energy Calculations • Load estimation and energy calculations • Based on the same principles

Load estimation and energy calculations

Based on the same principles

But, with different purposes & approaches

Design (peak) load estimation

Focus on maximum load or worst conditions

For a particular hour or period (e.g. peak summer day)

Energy calculations

Focus on average or typical conditions

On whole year (annual) performance or multiple years consumption

May involve analysis of energy costs & life cycle costs

Load & Energy Calculations • Tasks at different building design stages • Conceptual design stage:

Load & Energy Calculations

Load & Energy Calculations • Tasks at different building design stages • Conceptual design stage: •

Tasks at different building design stages

Conceptual design stage:

Rules of thumb + check figures (rough estimation)

Outline/Scheme design:

Load estimation (approximation)

Design evaluations (e.g. using simplified tools/models)

Detailed design:

Load calculations (complete)

Energy calculations + building energy simulation

Load & Energy Calculations • Basic considerations • 1. Peak load calculations • Evaluate max.

Load & Energy Calculations

Load & Energy Calculations • Basic considerations • 1. Peak load calculations • Evaluate max. load

Basic considerations

1. Peak load calculations

Evaluate max. load to size/select equipment

2. Energy analysis

Calculate energy use and compare design options

3. Space cooling load Q = V ρ c p (t r t s )

To calculate supply air volume flow rate (V) and size the air system, ducts, terminals

4. Cooling coil’s load

To size cooling coil and refrigeration system

Load & Energy Calculations • Basic considerations (cont’d) • Assumptions : • Heat transfer equations

Load & Energy Calculations

Load & Energy Calculations • Basic considerations (cont’d) • Assumptions : • Heat transfer equations are

Basic considerations (cont’d)

Assumptions:

Heat transfer equations are linear within a time interval (superposition principle holds)

Total load = sum of individual ones

Convective heat, latent heat & sensible heat gains from infiltration are all equal to cooling load instantaneously

Main difference in various methods

How to convert space radiative heat gains into space cooling loads

Different methods have different ways to convert space radiative heat gains into space cooling loads

convert space radiative heat gains into space cooling loads Conversion of heat gain into cooling load

Conversion of heat gain into cooling load

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Thermal

Load

Heat Gains/Losses

Thermal Load Heat Gains/Losses Heat storage (Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Heat storage

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

q ko = convective flux into the wall, W/m 2 q ki = convective flux through the wall, W/m 2 T so = wall surface temperature outside, ºC T si = wall surface temperature outside, ºC

ºC T s i = wall surface temperature outside, ºC Possible ways to model this process:
Possible ways to model this process: 1. Numerical finite difference 2. Numerical finite element 3.
Possible ways to model this
process:
1. Numerical finite difference
2. Numerical finite element
3. Transform methods
4. Time series methods

Wall conduction process

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Load & Energy Calculations • Common methods: • Transfer function method (TFM) • Cooling load

Load & Energy Calculations

Load & Energy Calculations • Common methods: • Transfer function method (TFM) • Cooling load temperature

Common methods:

Transfer function method (TFM)

Cooling load temperature difference/cooling load factor (CLTD/CLF) method

Total equivalent temp. differential/time averaging (TETD/TA) method

Other existing methods:

Finite difference method (FDM)

CIBSE method (based on admittance)

Load & Energy Calculations • Transfer Function Method (TFM) • Laplace transform and z -transform

Load & Energy Calculations

Load & Energy Calculations • Transfer Function Method (TFM) • Laplace transform and z -transform of

Transfer Function Method (TFM)

Laplace transform and z-transform of time series

CLTD/CLF method

A one-step simplification of TFM

TETD/TA method

Heat gains calculated from Fourier series solution of 1-dimensional transient heat conduction

Average heat gains to current and successive hours according to thermal mass & experience

Basic concepts of TFM, CLTD/CLF and TETD/TA methods
Basic concepts of TFM, CLTD/CLF and TETD/TA methods
Basic concepts of TFM, CLTD/CLF and TETD/TA methods (Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Load & Energy Calculations • Other methods: • Heat balance (HB) method • The rigorous

Load & Energy Calculations

Load & Energy Calculations • Other methods: • Heat balance (HB) method • The rigorous approach

Other methods:

Heat balance (HB) method

The rigorous approach (mainly for research use)

Requires solving of partial differential equations and often involves iteration

Radiant time series (RTS) method

A simplified method derived from HB procedure

Finite difference/element method (FDM or FEM)

Solve transient simultaneous heat & moisture transfer

Load & Energy Calculations • Heat Balance (HB) Method • Use heat balance equations to

Load & Energy Calculations

Load & Energy Calculations • Heat Balance (HB) Method • Use heat balance equations to calculate:

Heat Balance (HB) Method

Use heat balance equations to calculate:

Surface-by-surface conductive, convective & radiative heat balance for each room surface

Convective heat balance for the room air

Calculation process

Find the inside surface temperatures of building structures due to heat balance

Calculate the sum of heat transfer from these surfaces and from internal loads

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Transfer Function Method • Transfer Function Method (TFM) • Most commonly adopted for energy calculations

Transfer Function Method

Transfer Function Method (TFM)

Most commonly adopted for energy calculations

Three components:

Conduction transfer function (CTF)

Room transfer function (RTF)

Space air transfer function (SATF)

Implemented numerically using weighting factors

Transfer function coefficients, to weight the importance of current & historical values of heat gain & cooling load on currently calculated loads

Input

Transfer Function
Transfer
Function
Input Transfer Function Output Transfer function (K) Polynominals of z -transform Y = Laplace transform of

Output

Transfer function (K)
Transfer function (K)

Polynominals of z-transform

Output Transfer function (K) Polynominals of z -transform Y = Laplace transform of the output G
Output Transfer function (K) Polynominals of z -transform Y = Laplace transform of the output G
Y = Laplace transform of the output G = Laplace transform of the input or
Y = Laplace transform of the output
G = Laplace transform of the input or driving force

When a continuous function f(t) is represented at regular intervals Δt and its magnitude are f(0), f(Δ), f(2Δ),…, f(nΔ), the Laplace transform is given by a polynominal called “z-transform”:

φ(z) = f(0) + f(Δ) z -1 + f(2Δ) z -2 +…+ f(nΔ) z -n where Δ = time interval, hour z = e tΔ

v 0 , v 1 , v 2 , … & w 1 , w 2 , … are weighting factors for the calculations

Three components of transfer function method (TFM)
Three components of transfer function method (TFM)
Three components of transfer function method (TFM) (Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Transfer Function Method • Sol-air temperature ( t e ) • A fictitious outdoor air

Transfer Function Method

Sol-air temperature (t e )

A fictitious outdoor air temperature that gives the rate of heat entering the outer surface of walls and roofs due to the combined effect of incident solar radiation, radiative heat exchange with the sky vault and surroundings, and convective heat exchange with the outdoor air

surroundings, and convective heat exchange with the outdoor air Outdoor air temp Surface absorptance Surface emittance
surroundings, and convective heat exchange with the outdoor air Outdoor air temp Surface absorptance Surface emittance
surroundings, and convective heat exchange with the outdoor air Outdoor air temp Surface absorptance Surface emittance
surroundings, and convective heat exchange with the outdoor air Outdoor air temp Surface absorptance Surface emittance

Outdoor air temp

Surface absorptance
Surface absorptance

Surface emittance

Heat balance at a sunlit surface, heat flux is equal to:

q   (  )  A E h t t R t o
q   (  ) 
A
E
h
t
t
R
t
o
o
s

Assume the heat flux can be expressed in terms of sol-air temp. (t e )

o s Assume the heat flux can be expressed in terms of sol-air temp. ( t

Thus, sol-air temperature is given by:

o s Assume the heat flux can be expressed in terms of sol-air temp. ( t
Transfer Function Method Sol-air temperature External walls and roofs: • • Ceiling, floors & partition

Transfer Function Method

Sol-air temperature

External walls and roofs:

Method Sol-air temperature External walls and roofs: • • Ceiling, floors & partition wall: aj =
Method Sol-air temperature External walls and roofs: • • Ceiling, floors & partition wall: aj =

Ceiling, floors & partition wall:

Sol-air temperature External walls and roofs: • • Ceiling, floors & partition wall: aj = adjacent

aj = adjacent r = room

Transfer Function Method • Window glass • Solar heat gain: • Shading coefficient (SC) •
Transfer Function Method • Window glass • Solar heat gain: • Shading coefficient (SC) •

Transfer Function Method

Window glass

Solar heat gain:

Shading coefficient (SC)

Solar heat gain factor (SHGF)

Sunlit Shaded
Sunlit
Shaded

Conduction heat gain:

U-value

Sunlit Shaded
Sunlit
Shaded
Transfer Function Method • Internal heat gains • People (sensible + latent) • Lights •

Transfer Function Method

Internal heat gains

People (sensible + latent)

Lights

Machine & appliances

Infiltration (uncontrolled, via cracks/opening)

If positive pressure is maintained in conditioned space, infiltration is normally assumed zero

Transfer Function Method • Convert heat gain into cooling load • Space sensible cooling load

Transfer Function Method

Convert heat gain into cooling load

Space sensible cooling load (from radiative):

load • Space sensible cooling load (from radiative): v 0 , v 1 , v 2

v 0 , v 1 , v 2 , … & w 1 , w 2 , … are weighting factors

Space sensible cooling load (from convective):

, w 2 , … are weighting factors • Space sensible cooling load (from convective): •

Space latent cooling load:

, w 2 , … are weighting factors • Space sensible cooling load (from convective): •
Transfer Function Method • Convert heat gain into cooling load (cont’d) • Heat extraction rate

Transfer Function Method

Convert heat gain into cooling load (cont’d)

Heat extraction rate & space air temperature

• Heat extraction rate & space air temperature • Cooling coil load (sensible & latent) •

Cooling coil load (sensible & latent)

Air mixture & air leaving the cooling coil

Ventilation load

Energy Estimation • Two categories • Steady-state methods • Degree-day method • Variable base degree-day

Energy Estimation

Energy Estimation • Two categories • Steady-state methods • Degree-day method • Variable base degree-day

Two categories

Steady-state methods

Degree-day method

Variable base degree-day method

Bin and modified bin methods

Dynamic methods

Using computer-based building energy simulation

Try to capture dynamic response of the building

Can be developed based on transfer function, heat balance or other methods

Energy Estimation • Degree-day method • A degree-day is the sum of the number of

Energy Estimation

Energy Estimation • Degree-day method • A degree-day is the sum of the number of degrees

Degree-day method

A degree-day is the sum of the number of degrees that the average daily temperature (technically the average of the daily maximum and minimum) is above (for cooling) or below (for heating) a base temperature times the duration in days

Heating degree-days (HDD)

Cooling degree-days (CDD)

Summed over a period or a year for indicating climate severity (effect of outdoor air on a building)

Heating degree-day:

+ Only take the positive values
+ Only take the positive values
Heating degree-day : + Only take the positive values Cooling degree-day: t b a l =

Cooling degree-day:

: + Only take the positive values Cooling degree-day: t b a l = base temperature

t bal = base temperature (or balance point temperature) (e.g. 18.3 o C or 65 o F); Q load = Q gain + Q loss = 0 t o = outdoor temperature (e.g. average daily max./min.)

* Degree-hours if summing over 24-hourly intervals

Degree-day = Σ(degree-hours) + / 24

To determine the heating degree-day:

To determine the heating degree-day:

To determine the heating degree-day (cont’d):

To determine the heating degree-day (cont’d):
Correlation between energy consumption and degree days

Correlation between energy consumption and degree days

Energy Estimation • Variable base degree-day (VBDD) method • Degree-day with variable reference temperatures •

Energy Estimation

Energy Estimation • Variable base degree-day (VBDD) method • Degree-day with variable reference temperatures • To

Variable base degree-day (VBDD) method

Degree-day with variable reference temperatures

To account for different building conditions and variation between daytime and nighttime

First calculate the balance point temperature of a building and then the heating and cooling degree hours at that base temperature

Require tedious calculations and detailed processing of hourly weather data at a complexity similar to hourly simulations. Therefore, does not seem warranted nowadays (why not just go for hourly simulation)

Energy Estimation • Bin and modified bin methods • Evolve from VBDD method • Derive

Energy Estimation

Energy Estimation • Bin and modified bin methods • Evolve from VBDD method • Derive building

Bin and modified bin methods

Evolve from VBDD method

Derive building annual heating/cooling loads by calculating its loads for a set of temperature “bins”

Multiplying the calculated loads by nos. of hours represented by each bin (e.g. 18-20, 20-22, 22-24 o C)

Totaling the sums to obtain the loads (cooling/heating energy)

Original bin method: not account of solar/wind effects

Modified bin method: account for solar/wind effects

Energy Estimation • Dynamic simulation methods • Usually hour-by-hour, for 8,760 hours (24 x 365)

Energy Estimation

Energy Estimation • Dynamic simulation methods • Usually hour-by-hour, for 8,760 hours (24 x 365) •

Dynamic simulation methods

Usually hour-by-hour, for 8,760 hours (24 x 365)

Energy calculation sequence:

Space or building load [LOAD]

Secondary equipment load (airside system) [SYSTEMS]

Primary equipment energy requirement (e.g. chiller) [PLANT]

Computer software

Building energy simulation programs, e.g. Energy-10, DOE-2, TRACE 700, Carrier HAP

Weather data Building - physical data - description design parameters Simulation tool (computer program)

Weather

data

Building - physical data -
Building - physical data -
Building - physical data -
Building - physical data -
Building - physical data -

Building

-

physical data

-

Weather data Building - physical data - description design parameters Simulation tool (computer program)
Weather data Building - physical data - description design parameters Simulation tool (computer program)
Weather data Building - physical data - description design parameters Simulation tool (computer program)
Weather data Building - physical data - description design parameters Simulation tool (computer program)
Weather data Building - physical data - description design parameters Simulation tool (computer program)
Weather data Building - physical data - description design parameters Simulation tool (computer program)
Weather data Building - physical data - description design parameters Simulation tool (computer program)

description

design parameters

- physical data - description design parameters Simulation tool (computer program) Simulation outputs -
- physical data - description design parameters Simulation tool (computer program) Simulation outputs -
- physical data - description design parameters Simulation tool (computer program) Simulation outputs -

Simulation tool (computer program)

Simulation

outputs

- energy consumption (MWh)

- energy demands (kW)

- environmental conditions

Energy Estimation • Building energy simulation • Analysis of energy performance of building using computer

Energy Estimation

Building energy simulation

Analysis of energy performance of building using computer modelling and simulation techniques

Many issues can be studied, such as:

Thermal performance (e.g. bldg. fabric, glazing)

Comfort and indoor environment

Ventilation and infiltration

Daylighting and overshadowing

Energy consumption of building systems

Major elements of building energy simulation

Major elements of building energy simulation

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

“Seven

steps”

of

simulation

output

(Source: eQUEST Tutorial Manual)

Building energy simulation process

HVAC air systems

HVAC water systems

Energy storage Thermal Zone Systems Plant (air-side) (water- side & refrig.)
Energy storage
Thermal Zone
Systems
Plant
(air-side)
(water-
side &
refrig.)

Energy input by appliance

Energy input by HVAC air/water systems

Energy input by HVAC plant

Software Applications • Examples of load calculation software: • Carmel Loadsoft 6.0 [AV 697.00028553 L79]

Software Applications

Examples of load calculation software:

Carmel Loadsoft 6.0 [AV 697.00028553 L79]

Commercial and industrial HVAC load calculation software based on ASHRAE 2001 Fundamentals radiant time series (RTS) method

Carmel Residential 5.0 [AV 697.00028553 R43]

Residential and light commercial HVAC load calculation software based on ASHRAE 2001 Fundamentals residential algorithms

Software Applications • Examples of load/energy calculation software: • TRACE 700 • TRACE = Trane

Software Applications

Examples of load/energy calculation software:

TRACE 700

TRACE = Trane Air Conditioning Economics

Commercial programs from Trane http://www.trane.com/commercial/

Most widely used by engineers in USA

Building load and energy analysis software

Carrier E20-II HAP (hourly analysis program)

http://www.commercial.carrier.com/commercial/hvac/general/0,,C

LI1_DIV12_ETI495,00.html

Software Applications • Examples of energy simulation software: • Energy-10 • A software tool that

Software Applications

Examples of energy simulation software:

Energy-10

A software tool that helps architects and engineers quickly identify the most cost-effective, energy-saving measures to take in designing a low-energy building

Suitable for small commercial and residential buildings that are characterized by one, or two thermal zones (less than 10,000 ft 2 or 1,000 m 2 )

http://www.nrel.gov/buildings/energy10.html

MIT Design Advisor (online tool)

http://designadvisor.mit.edu/design/

E NERGY-10 Design Tool

Example: Energy-10

E NERGY - 10 Design Tool Example: Energy-10 ENERGY-10 E NERGY -10 focuses on the first
ENERGY-10
ENERGY-10
E NERGY - 10 Design Tool Example: Energy-10 ENERGY-10 E NERGY -10 focuses on the first

ENERGY-10 focuses on the first phases (conceptual design)

Activity

Tool

Phase Develop Brief Develop reference case Develop low-energy case Rank order strategies Initial strategy selection
Phase
Develop Brief
Develop reference case
Develop low-energy case
Rank order strategies
Initial strategy selection
Set performance goals
Pre-design
Review goals
Review strategies
Set criteria, priorities
Schematic Design
Develop schemes
Evaluate schemes
Select scheme
Design Development
Confirm that
component performances
are as assumed
Construction Documents
ENERGY-10
ENERGY-10
Preliminary team meetings
Preliminary team
meetings
ENERGY-10
ENERGY-10
EnergyPlus or other HVAC simulation and tools
EnergyPlus
or other
HVAC simulation
and tools

E NERGY-10 Design Tool

ENERGY-10
ENERGY-10

Example: Energy-10

E NERGY - 10 Design Tool ENERGY-10 Example: Energy-10 • Creates two building descriptions based on

Creates two building descriptions based on five inputs and user-defined defaults.

Location Building Use Floor area Number of stories HVAC system

Gets you started quickly.

For example:

• HVAC system Gets you started quickly. For example: apply Reference Case Low Energy Case R-8.9
apply
apply
HVAC system Gets you started quickly. For example: apply Reference Case Low Energy Case R-8.9 walls

Reference Case

Low Energy Case

R-8.9 walls (4" steel stud) R-19 roof No perimeter insulation Conventional double windows Conventional lighting Conventional HVAC Conventional air-tightness Uniform window orientation Conventional HVAC controls Conventional duct placement

R-19.6 Walls (6" steel stud with 2" foam) R-38 roof R-10 perimeter insulation Best low-e double windows Efficient lights with daylight dimming High efficiency HVAC Leakage reduced 75% Passive solar orientation Improved HVAC controls Ducts located inside, tightened

E NERGY-10 Design Tool

Example: Energy-10

E NERGY - 10 Design Tool Example: Energy-10 ENERGY-10 2,000 m 2 office building ANNUAL ENERGY
ENERGY-10
ENERGY-10

2,000 m 2 office building

ANNUAL ENERGY USE

100 96.5 Reference Case 80 Low-Energy Case 60 47.3 40 35.1 27.4 22.7 20 15.1
100
96.5
Reference Case
80
Low-Energy Case
60
47.3
40
35.1
27.4
22.7
20
15.1
6.7
6.9
4.1
1.5
0
Heating
Cooling
Lights
Other
Total
kWh / m²

E NERGY-10 Design Tool

Example: Energy-10

E NERGY - 10 Design Tool Example: Energy-10 ENERGY-10 RANKING OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT STRATEGIES Duct Leakage Glazing
ENERGY-10
ENERGY-10

RANKING OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT STRATEGIES

Duct Leakage Glazing Insulation Energy Efficient Lights HVAC Controls Air Leakage Control Shading Daylighting High
Duct Leakage
Glazing
Insulation
Energy Efficient Lights
HVAC Controls
Air Leakage Control
Shading
Daylighting
High Efficiency HVAC
Economizer Cycle
Thermal Mass
Passive Solar Heating
115.04
72.49
57.33
56.56
48.43
45.92
45.24
38.84
37.82
-4.02
-6.23
-57.14
-100
-50
0
50
100
150

Net Present Value,

1000 $

E NERGY-10 Design Tool

ENERGY-10
ENERGY-10

Example: Energy-10

E NERGY - 10 Design Tool ENERGY-10 Example: Energy-10 Sample - Lower-Energy Case 40 50 20

Sample - Lower-Energy Case

40 50 20 0 0 -50 -20 Energy, kWh Temperature, ?
40
50
20
0
0
-50
-20
Energy, kWh
Temperature, ?

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Jul

Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Average Hourly HVAC Energy Use by Month

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Average Hourly HVAC Energy

Heating

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Average Hourly HVAC Energy

Cooling

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Average Hourly HVAC Energy

Inside T

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Average Hourly HVAC Energy

Outside T

References • Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering (Wang and Norton, 2000) • Chapter 6 –

References

References • Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering (Wang and Norton, 2000) • Chapter 6 – Load

Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering (Wang and Norton, 2000)

Chapter 6 – Load Calculations

ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals (2009 edition)

Chapter 14 – Climatic Design Information

Chapter 15 – Fenestration

Chapter 17 – Residential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations

Chapter 18 – Nonresidential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations

References • Remarks: • “Load & Energy Calculations” in ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals • The following

References

References • Remarks: • “Load & Energy Calculations” in ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals • The following

Remarks:

“Load & Energy Calculations” in ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals

The following previous cooling load calculations are described in earlier editions of the ASHRAE Handbook (1997 and 2001 versions)

CLTD/SCL/CLF method

TETD/TA method

TFM method