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# Kinematics of

Rigid Bodies
Contents
Introduction Absolute and Relative Acceleration in
Translation Plane Motion
Rotation About a Fixed Axis: Velocity Analysis of Plane Motion in Terms of a
Rotation About a Fixed Axis: Parameter
Acceleration Sample Problem 15.6
Rotation About a Fixed Axis: Sample Problem 15.7
Representative Slab Sample Problem 15.8
Equations Defining the Rotation of a Rate of Change With Respect to a
Rigid Body About a Fixed Axis Rotating Frame
Sample Problem 5.1 Coriolis Acceleration
General Plane Motion Sample Problem 15.9
Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Sample Problem 15.10
Motion Motion About a Fixed Point
Sample Problem 15.2 General Motion
Sample Problem 15.3 Sample Problem 15.11
Instantaneous Center of Rotation in Three Dimensional Motion. Coriolis
Plane Motion Acceleration
Sample Problem 15.4 Frame of Reference in General Motion
Sample Problem 15.5 Sample Problem 15.15 15 - 2
Applications

## A battering ram is an example of curvilinear translation the

ram stays horizontal as it swings through its motion.

15 - 3
Applications

## How can we determine the velocity of the tip of a turbine blade?

15 - 4
Applications
Planetary gear systems are used to get high reduction ratios
with minimum weight and space. How can we design the
correct gear ratios?

15 - 5
Applications
Biomedical engineers must determine the velocities and
accelerations of the leg in order to design prostheses.

15 - 6
Introduction
Kinematics of rigid bodies: relations between
time and the positions, velocities, and
accelerations of the particles forming a rigid
body.
Classification of rigid body motions:
- translation:
rectilinear translation
curvilinear translation
- rotation about a fixed axis
- general plane motion
- motion about a fixed point
- general motion

15 - 7
Translation
Consider rigid body in translation:
- direction of any straight line inside the
body is constant,
- all particles forming the body move in
parallel lines.
For any two particles in the body,
rB = rA + rB A ( rB A being constant)
Differentiating with respect to time,

rB rA rB A rA

vB v A
All particles have the same velocity.
Differentiating with respect to time again,
rB rA rB A rA

aB a A
All particles have the same acceleration.
15 - 8
Rotation About a Fixed Axis. Velocity
Consider rotation of rigid body about a
fixed axis AA

Velocity vector v dr dt of the particle P is
tangent to the path with magnitude v ds dt
s BP r sin
ds
v lim r sin r sin
dt t 0 t

## The same result is obtained from

dr
v r
dt

k k angular velocity

15 - 9
Rotation About a Fixed Axis. Acceleration
Differentiating to determine the acceleration,

dv d
a r
dt dt

d dr
r
dt dt

d
r v
dt

d
angular acceleration
dt

k k k

## Acceleration of P is combination of two

vectors,

a r r

r tangentia l acceleration component

15 - 10
Rotation About a Fixed Axis. Representative Slab
Consider the motion of a representative slab in
a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

v r k r
v r

a r r

k r 2r

## Resolving the acceleration into tangential and

normal components,

at k r a t r

an 2 r an r 2
15 - 11
Equations Defining the Rotation of a Rigid Body About a Fixed Axis

## Motion of a rigid body rotating around a fixed axis is

often specified by the type of angular acceleration.

d d
Recall or dt
dt
d d 2 d
2
dt dt d

Uniform Rotation, = 0:
0 t

## Uniformly Accelerated Rotation, = constant:

0 t
0 0t 12 t 2
2 02 2 0
15 - 12
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Due to the action of the cable, the
tangential velocity and acceleration of
D are equal to the velocity and
acceleration of C. Calculate the initial
angular velocity and acceleration.
Apply the relations for uniformly
accelerated rotation to determine the
velocity and angular position of the
Cable C has a constant acceleration of
pulley after 2 s.
225 m/s2 and an initial velocity of
300 mm/s, both directed to the right. Evaluate the initial tangential and
normal acceleration components of D.
Determine (a) the number of revolutions
of the pulley in 2 s, (b) the velocity and
change in position of the load B after 2 s,
and (c) the acceleration of the point D on
the rim of the inner pulley at t = 0.
15 - 13
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
The tangential velocity and acceleration of D are equal to the
velocity and acceleration of C.

## Apply the relations for uniformly accelerated rotation to

determine velocity and angular position of pulley after 2 s.

1 1 2
0t 2
t2 4 rad s 2 s 2

1 rev
N 14 rad number of revs N 2.23 rev
vB r 125 mm 10 rad s vB 1.25m s
yB r 125 mm 14 rad yB 1.75 m
15 - 14
Sample Problem
Evaluate the initial tangential and normal acceleration
components of D.

2
=1200 mm s2

## Magnitude and direction of the total acceleration,

2 2

( 225)2 (1200 )2
1220.9 mm/s2

tan
1200 79.4
225
15 - 15
Example General Plane Motion
The knee has linear velocity and acceleration from both
translation (the runner moving forward) as well as rotation
(the leg rotating about the hip).

15 - 16
General Plane Motion

## General plane motion is neither a translation nor

a rotation.
General plane motion can be considered as the
sum of a translation and rotation.
Displacement of particles A and B to A2 and B2
can be divided into two parts:
- translation to A2 and B1
- rotation of B1 about A2 to B2
15 - 17
Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Motion

## Any plane motion can be replaced by a translation of an

arbitrary reference point A and a simultaneous rotation
vB v A vB A

vB A k rB A vB A r

v B v A k rB A
15 - 18
Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Motion

## Assuming that the velocity vA of end A is known, wish to determine the

velocity vB of end B and the angular velocity in terms of vA, l, and .
The direction of vB and vB/A are known. Complete the velocity diagram.

vB vA vA
tan cos
vA v B A l
v B v A tan vA

l cos
15 - 19
Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Motion

Selecting point B as the reference point and solving for the velocity vA of end A
and the angular velocity leads to an equivalent velocity triangle.
vA/B has the same magnitude but opposite sense of vB/A. The sense of the
relative velocity is dependent on the choice of reference point.
Angular velocity of the rod in its rotation about B is the same as its rotation
about A. Angular velocity is not dependent on the choice of reference point.
15 - 20
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
The displacement of the gear center in
one revolution is equal to the outer
circumference. Relate the translational
and angular displacements. Differentiate
to relate the translational and angular
velocities.
The velocity for any point P on the gear
The double gear rolls on the may be written as
stationary lower rack: the velocity of
its center is 1.2 m/s.
vP v A vP A v A k rP A

Determine (a) the angular velocity of Evaluate the velocities of points B and D.
the gear, and (b) the velocities of the
upper rack R and point D of the gear.

15 - 21
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
The displacement of the gear center in one revolution is
equal to the outer circumference.
For xA > 0 (moves to right), < 0 (rotates clockwise).
xA
xA r1
2 r1 2

y
Differentiate to relate the translational and angular
velocities.
x
v A r1
vA 1.2 m s
r1 0.150 m

15 - 22
Sample Problem

For any point P on the gear, vP v A vP A v A k rP A

## Velocity of the upper rack is equal to Velocity of the point D:

velocity of point B:

vR vB v A k rB A vD v A k rD A

1.2 m s i 8 rad s k 0.10 m j 1.2 m s i 8 rad s k 0.150 m i

1.2 m s i 0.8 m s i

vR 2 m s i vD 1.2 m s i 1.2 m s j
vD 1.697 m s

15 - 23
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Will determine the absolute velocity of
point D with

vD vB vD B

The velocity v B is obtained from the
given crank rotation data.

The crank AB has a constant clockwise The directions of the absolute velocity v D

angular velocity of 2000 rpm. and the relative velocity v D B are
determined from the problem geometry.
For the crank position indicated,
determine (a) the angular velocity of The unknowns in the vector expression
the connecting rod BD, and (b) the are the velocity magnitudes v D and v D B
velocity of the piston P. which may be determined from the
corresponding vector triangle.
The angular velocity of the connecting
rod is calculated from v D B .
15 - 24
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Will determine the absolute velocity of point D with

v D vB v D B

The velocity vB is obtained from the crank rotation data.

( )
w AB = 2000 rev min = 209.4 rad s
min 60s rev
vB = ( AB) w AB = ( 75mm ) ( 209.4 rad s) = 15705 mm/s

## The velocity direction is as shown.

The direction of the absolute velocity vD is horizontal.

The direction of the relative velocity vD B is
perpendicular to BD. Compute the angle between the
horizontal and the connecting rod from the law of sines.

200 mm 75mm

15 - 25
Sample Problem

## Determine the velocity magnitudes vD and vD B

from the vector triangle.
vD vD B 15705mm s
= =
sin 53.95 sin 50 sin76.05

## vD 13083mm s 13.08m s vP vD 13.08m s

vD B 12396 mm s

vD B l BD

v D vB v D B vD B 12396 mm s
BD
l 200 mm
15 - 26
Instantaneous Center of Rotation in Plane Motion
Plane motion of all particles in a slab can always be
replaced by the translation of an arbitrary point A and a
rotation about A with an angular velocity that is
independent of the choice of A.

## The same translational and rotational velocities at A are

obtained by allowing the slab to rotate with the same
angular velocity about the point C on a perpendicular to
the velocity at A.

The velocity of all other particles in the slab are the same
as originally defined since the angular velocity and
translational velocity at A are equivalent.

## As far as the velocities are concerned, the slab seems to

rotate about the instantaneous center of rotation C.

15 - 27
Instantaneous Center of Rotation in Plane Motion
If the velocity at two points A and B are known, the
instantaneous center of rotation lies at the intersection
of the perpendiculars to the velocity vectors through A
and B .

## If the velocity vectors are parallel, the instantaneous

center of rotation is at infinity and the angular velocity
is zero.

## If the velocity vectors at A and B are perpendicular to

the line AB, the instantaneous center of rotation lies at
the intersection of the line AB with the line joining the
extremities of the velocity vectors at A and B.

## If the velocity magnitudes are equal, the instantaneous

center of rotation is at infinity and the angular velocity
is zero.

15 - 28
Instantaneous Center of Rotation in Plane Motion
The instantaneous center of rotation lies at the intersection of
the perpendiculars to the velocity vectors through A and B .
v v v
A A v B BC l sin A
AC l cos l cos
v A tan

## The velocities of all particles on the rod are as if they were

The particle at the center of rotation has zero velocity.
The particle coinciding with the center of rotation changes
with time and the acceleration of the particle at the
instantaneous center of rotation is not zero.
The acceleration of the particles in the slab cannot be
determined as if the slab were simply rotating about C.
The trace of the locus of the center of rotation on the body
is the body centrode and in space is the space centrode.
15 - 29
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
The point C is in contact with the stationary
lower rack and, instantaneously, has zero
velocity. It must be the location of the
instantaneous center of rotation.
Determine the angular velocity about C
based on the given velocity at A.
Evaluate the velocities at B and D based on
The double gear rolls on the their rotation about C.
stationary lower rack: the velocity
of its center is 1.2 m/s.
Determine (a) the angular velocity
of the gear, and (b) the velocities of
the upper rack R and point D of the
gear.

15 - 30
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
The point C is in contact with the stationary lower rack
and, instantaneously, has zero velocity. It must be the
location of the instantaneous center of rotation.
Determine the angular velocity about C based on the
given velocity at A.
v 1.2 m s
v A rA A 8 rad s
rA 0.15 m
Evaluate the velocities at B and D based on their rotation
vR vB rB 0.25 m8 rad s

vR 2 m s i

rD 0.15 m 2 0.2121 m
vD rD 0.2121 m 8 rad s
vD 1.697 m s

vD 1.2i 1.2 j m s

15 - 31
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Determine the velocity at B from the
given crank rotation data.
The direction of the velocity vectors at B
and D are known. The instantaneous
center of rotation is at the intersection of
the perpendiculars to the velocities
The crank AB has a constant clockwise through B and D.
angular velocity of 2000 rpm. Determine the angular velocity about the
For the crank position indicated, center of rotation based on the velocity
determine (a) the angular velocity of at B.
the connecting rod BD, and (b) the Calculate the velocity at D based on its
velocity of the piston P. rotation about the instantaneous center
of rotation.

15 - 32
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
From Sample Problem 15.3,
( )
vB = 10095i -12031j ( mm s) vB =15705mm s
b =13.95
The instantaneous center of rotation is at the intersection
of the perpendiculars to the velocities through B and D.

## Determine the angular velocity about the center of

rotation based on the velocity at B.
B 40 53.95
D 90 76.05 vB BC BD
vB 15705mm s
BC CD 200 mm BC 253.4 mm
= =
sin 76.05 sin 53.95 sin50 Calculate the velocity at D based on its rotation about
the instantaneous center of rotation.
BC 253.4 mm CD 211.1 mm v CD 211.1 mm 62.0 rad s
D BD

vP vD 13090mm s 1.309m s
15 - 33
Instantaneous Center of Zero Velocity

## What happens to the location of the instantaneous center of

velocity if the crankshaft angular velocity increases from
2000 rpm in the previous problem to 3000 rpm?

## What happens to the location of the instantaneous center of

velocity if the angle is 0?
15 - 34
Absolute and Relative Acceleration in Plane Motion

## As the bicycle accelerates, a point on the top of the wheel will

have acceleration due to the acceleration from the axle (the
overall linear acceleration of the bike), the tangential
acceleration of the wheel from the angular acceleration, and
the normal acceleration due to the angular velocity.

15 - 35
Absolute and Relative Acceleration in Plane Motion

## Absolute acceleration of a particle of the slab,

aB a A aB A

Relative acceleration a B A associated with rotation about A includes
tangential and normal components,

a B A k rB A
t

a B A r
t

n
a B A 2 rB A
a B A r 2
n

15 - 36
Absolute and Relative Acceleration in Plane Motion

Given a A and v A ,

determine a B and .

aB a A aB A

n
a A aB A aB

A t

Vector result depends on sense of a A and the
n
relative magnitudes of a A and a B A

## Must also know angular velocity .

15 - 37
Absolute and Relative Acceleration in Plane Motion

Write a B a A a B A in terms of the two component equations,

x components: 0 a A l 2 sin l cos

## Solve for aB and .

15 - 38
Analysis of Plane Motion in Terms of a Parameter
In some cases, it is advantageous to determine the
absolute velocity and acceleration of a mechanism
directly.
x A l sin y B l cos

v A x A v B y B
l cos l sin
l cos l sin

a A xA a B yB
l 2 sin l cos l 2 cos lsin
l 2 sin l cos l 2 cos l sin

15 - 39
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
The expression of the gear position as a
function of is differentiated twice to
define the relationship between the
translational and angular accelerations.

## The acceleration of each point on the

gear is obtained by adding the
acceleration of the gear center and the
The center of the double gear has a
relative accelerations with respect to the
velocity and acceleration to the right of
center. The latter includes normal and
1.2 m/s and 3 m/s2, respectively. The
tangential acceleration components.
lower rack is stationary.
Determine (a) the angular acceleration
of the gear, and (b) the acceleration of
points B, C, and D.

15 - 40
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
The expression of the gear position as a function of
is differentiated twice to define the relationship
between the translational and angular accelerations.
x A r1
v A r1 r1
vA 1.2 m s
r1 0.150 m

a A r1 r1

aA 3 m s2

r1 0.150 m

15 - 41
Sample Problem
The acceleration of each point
acceleration of the gear center
and the relative accelerations
with respect to the center.
The latter includes normal and
tangential acceleration
components.

aB a A aB A a A aB A aB A
t n

a A k rB A 2rB A

2

3 m s i 20 rad s k 0.100 m j 8 rad s 0.100 m j
2 2

3 m s 2 i 2 m s 2 i 6.40 m s 2 j

aB 5 m s 2 i 6.40 m s2 j aB 8.12 m s2

15 - 42
Sample Problem

2
aC a A aC A a A k rC A rC A

3 m s 2 i 20 rad s 2 k 0.150 m j 8 rad s 2 0.150 m j

3 m s 2 i 3 m s 2 i 9.60 m s 2 j

ac 9.60 m s j 2

aD a A aD A a A k rD A 2rD A

3 m s 2 i 20 rad s 2 k 0.150 m i 8 rad s 2 0.150m i

3 m s 2 i 3 m s 2 j 9.60 m s 2 i

2
aD 12.6 m s i 3 m s j 2
15 - 43
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
The angular acceleration of the
connecting rod BD and the acceleration
of point D will be determined from

t

n
The acceleration of B is determined from
the given rotation speed of AB.

## Crank AB of the engine system has a The directions of the accelerations

constant clockwise angular velocity of

a D , a D B , and a D B are
t n
2000 rpm. determined from the geometry.
For the crank position shown,
Component equations for acceleration
determine the angular acceleration of
of point D are solved simultaneously for
the connecting rod BD and the
acceleration of D and angular
acceleration of point D.
acceleration of the connecting rod.

15 - 44
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
The angular acceleration of the connecting rod BD and
the acceleration of point D will be determined from

n
The acceleration of B is determined from the given rotation
speed of AB.

## AB 2000 rpm 209.4 rad s constant

AB 0
2 2
aB r AB
75
100
m 209.4 rad s 3289m s2

( )(
aB = 3289 m s2 -cos40i - sin 40 j )

15 - 45
Sample Problem

B t , and a

D B n are
determined from the geometry.

From earlier Problem, BD = 62.0 rad/s, = 13.95o.
2 2
200
1000
m 62.0 rad s 768.8m s2
n

200
m BD 0.2 BD
t

15 - 46
Sample Problem

## Component equations for acceleration of point D are solved

simultaneously.

t
x components:
-aD = -3289cos40- 768.8cos13.95+ 0.2aBD sin13.95
y components:
0 = -3289sin 40+ 768.8sin13.95+ 0.2a BD cos13.95

(
a BD = 9940 rad s2 k)
aD = - ( 2790 m s2 ) i

15 - 47
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
The angular velocities are determined by
simultaneously solving the component
equations for

vD vB vD B

## The angular accelerations are determined

by simultaneously solving the component
In the position shown, crank AB has a
equations for
constant angular velocity 1 = 20 rad/s

Determine the angular velocities and
angular accelerations of the connecting
rod BD and crank DE.

15 - 48
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
The angular velocities are determined by simultaneously
solving the component equations for

v D vB v D B

(
vD = w DE rD = w DE k -340i + 340 j )
= -340w DE i - 340w DE j
(
vB = w AB rB = 20k 160i + 280 j )
= -5600i + 3200 j

(
vD B = w BD rD B = w BD k 240i + 60 j )
= -60w BD i + 240w BD j

x components: 17 DE 280 3 BD
y components: 17 DE 160 12 BD

15 - 49
Sample Problem
The angular accelerations are determined by
simultaneously solving the component equations for

aD = a DE rD - w DE
2
rD

( )
= a DE k -0.34i + 0.34 j - (11.29) -0.34i + 0.34 j
2
( )
= -0.34a DE i - 0.34a DE j + 43.33i - 43.33 j
aB = a AB rB - w AB
2 2
(
rB = 0 - ( 20) 0.16i + 0.28 j )
= -64i +112 j
aD B = a BD rD/B - w BD
2
rD/B

( )
= a B D k 0.24i + 0.06 j - ( 29.33) 0.24i + 0.06 j
2
( )
= -0.06a B D i + 0.24a B D j - 206.4i - 51.61j

## x components: 0.34 DE 0.06 BD 313.7

y components: 0.34 DE 0.24 BD 120.28

BD 645 rad s k 2

DE