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Chapter 2-AIR CRAFT

CHARACTERISTICS
Major Parts of Airplane

EMPENNA
GE
FUSELAGE

WING

ENGINE
Parts of an Airplane
Cockpit/ Flight Deck
Front part of the fuselage and contains all the instruments
needed to fly the plane.
The cockpits have hardened doors, securing them from
unauthorized persons during flight, takeoffs and landings.
Cabin
Section of the fuselage for passengers, cargo, or both. A
typical passenger cabin has galleys for food preparation;
lavatories; one or more seating compartments & etc
Cargo
Below the passenger deck where cargo and baggage are
carried.
Boeing 747 Elevator
Rudder

Aileron Rudder
Flaps
Primary Control Surfaces
Ailerons: horizontal surfaces located on wing tips.
Provide roll control- Roll the aircraft to the right or
left.
Elevator: horizontal surface located on the tail
Provide pitch control-Nosing the aircraft up and
down.
Rudder: vertical surface located on the tail
Provide yaw control- turning the aircraft to the
left or right.
Flaps:
Additional Control Surfaces
A movable control surface on the aircraft wing,
used to change the amount of lift generated.
Flaps deflect downward during take-off &
landing to increase lift.
Flaps retracted immediately after landing to
decrease lift.
Slats:
A movable control surface on the aircraft wing,
also used to change the amount of lift
generated.
Slats enable the airplane to get off the ground
quickly and to land more slowly.
Additional Control Surfaces
Spoilers:
Located on the upper wing which, when opened,
decreases lift and increases drag.
They reduce lift by disrupting the airflow over the
top of the wing.
They are used during the descend prior to landing
and immediately after landing.

Spoiler
Basic Aircraft
4 Forces acted on an airplane
4 Forces acted on airplane
1. Thrust
The force that moves the aircraft through the
air.
Generate by the engine
2. Lift
This force is generated by the flow of air
around the airplane especially to the wing.
Amount of lift generated depends on
airspeed, angle of attack, airfoil shape, wing
area.
Forces acted on Aircraft
3. Drag
Drag is the force of resistance an aircraft feels as it
moves through the air.
Wing is designed to be smooth in order to reduce drag.
Drag important during landing in order to slow down the
aircraft.
4. Weight
Weight is the earths gravity pulls down on objects and
gives them weight.
It includes the aircraft itself, the payload and the fuel.
Airplane can fly because.
1. Four forces acted on the plane
2. Thrust generated by the engine
3. Lift force produced by airflow to the Wing.

Lift
Boeing 747

Thrust

4. Drag is air resistance


5. Weight is gravitational pull
An Airbus A380's nose
landing gear (consisting
of a single 2-wheel
bogie)
A Boeing 777's central
landing gear (consisting
of two 6-wheel bogies)
An Airbus A330's
central landing gear
(consisting of two 4-
wheel bogies)
An impressive, and
unique of its kind,
Antonov An-225's 14-
wheel bogie from the
plane's central landing
gear (consisting of two
14-wheel bogies)
Example 1
Aircraft fly from M to N, given:
MTOW = 6180kg
MLW = 5740kg
MZFW = 5395kg
OEW=4400kg
Flight Fuel = 767kg
Reserve Fuel=250kg
Calculate maximum payload that the aircraft is able to
carry.
MPL=
Answer: 763kg
Example 2
Aircraft fly from A to B, given:
MTOW = 41,300kg, MLW = 32,250kg
OEW = 23,000kg
Fuel Flow= 2000kg/hr, Mean Speed=455knots, Flight
Distance=2150nm
Reserve Fuel=2500kg
Calculate maximum payload that the aircraft is able to carry.
(**Assume MZFW is not specified)
Solution:
Step 1: Calculate Flight time & Flight Fuel
Step 2: Find the maximum payload by ensuring total weight
MTOW, MLW
Answer: 6350kg
Capacity
The passenger capacity has an important
bearing on facilities within and adjacent to the
terminal building, such as : waiting room
capacity, the passenger facilities, land parking
system, gate in the terminal for passengers
boarding to the aircraft, ext.
HOW far can an AIRCRAFT FLY ?

The distance it can fly is referred to as the range.


A number of factors influence the range of aircraft among
the most important is payload.
If the range is increased, the payload is decreased, with a
weight tradeoff occurring between fuel to fly to the
destination and the payload which can be carried.
The relation between both parameter is illustrated in the
payload vs. range curve.
PAYLOAD versus RANGE

Payload D A
Pa
E
Pe
B
Pb

dr ar er br cr
Range
Explanation of the Curve
The farthest distance ar which an aircraft can fly with a maximum
A payload Pa. The aircraft must take off at its maximum TOW.

The farthest distance of br which an aircraft can fly if its fuel are
B completely filled however the payload can be carried is Pb<Pa. The
aircraft must take off at its maximum TOW.

The maximum distance of an aircraft which can fly of cr without any


payload. It is referred to as the ferry range and is used for delivery of
C
aircraft. The aircraft can take off at less than its maximum structural
take-off weight, however the maximum of fuel is necessary.
The range of the aircraft when payload is limited by the maximum
DE structural landing weight (MSLW).

Payload Curve at the connected line of Pa D E B C instead Pa-A-B-C


Example of Payload vs Range Curve
For Some Aircrafts
Jenis
Pa ar Pb br cr dr Pe Er
Pesawat

DC-9-32 30.1 - - - 1600 900 27.5 1230

B-727-
37.5 - - - 2200 450 23 1800
200

100.
B-747 B 3900 65 6100 6900 - - -
7
Summary the Equation for Computing Payload-
Range Curve
MSTOW = OEW + max.struct.payload + allowable fuel
MSTOW = OEW + max.fuel + allowable payload.
LW = MSTOW route fuel.
Reserve fuel = reserve time in route service*average route
speed*average fuel burn.
Allowable fuel = route fuel + reserve fuel.
Example Problem (see at page 101)

The weight characteristics (in lb) of a commercial aircraft are :


MSTOW= 220,000;
MSLW=198,000;
Zero Fuel Weight = 182,513;
Operating Empty Weight= 125,513;
Max. Structural Payload = 57,000;
Fuel Capacity = 75,400.
Its assumed that the regulations governing the use of aircraft require
1.25 hours reserve in route service. The aircraft has an average route
speed of 540 m/s and an average fuel burn of 22.8 lb/mi. Plot the
payload versus range diagram !
Solution :
1. Find served range that aircraft carries the maximum payload (Pa ar)
formulation: MSTOW = OEW+Max.Payload+Allow.Fuel
220,000 = 125,513 + 57,000 + Allow.Fuel
Allow.Fuel = 37,487 lb.
Allow.Fuel = Reserve Fuel + Route Fuel
Reserve F.= reserve time*avr.route speed*avr.fuel burn
= 1.25*540*22.8 = 15,390 lb.
Route Fuel = 37,487 15,390 = 22,097 lb.
Range at Pa = 22,097/22.8 = 969 mi.
Solution Continued
For Controlling Weight that the landing weight at destination cannot
exceed the MSLW.

The actual landing weight for maximum payload (Pa) is :


LW = MSTOW route fuel
= 220,000 22,097 = 197,903 lb. (< 198,000 lb.)

The point of Pa-ar in plotted Payload vs. Range diagram is (57,000 lb.; 969 mi)
Solution Continued
2. Find served range that aircraft carries the maximum fuel (Pb br).

Aircraft fuel capacity at 75,400 lb. Therefore, the maximum route fuel is
computed from the weight of fuel capacity subtracted the reserve fuel.
Max.route fuel = 75,400 15,390 = 60,010 lb.
Range at max.fuel = 60,010/22.8 = 2632 mi.

Thus, if the aircraft flies in max.route length of 2632 mi, the payload must be
restricted by subtracting the OEW and Weight of fuel capacity from MSTOW.
Solution Continued
formulation: MSTOW = OEW+Allow.Payload+Max.Fuel
220,000 = 125,513 + Allow.Payload + 75,400
Allow.Payload = 19,087 lb.

The point of Pb-br in plotted Payload vs. Range diagram is (19,087 lb.; 2632
mi)
Solution Continued
3. Find served range that aircraft flies without any payload and carries
the maximum fuel (Po cr : Ferry Range).

Ferry Range = Max. Fuel Capacity/Fuel Burn


Ferry Range = 75,400/22.8 = 3307 mi.

The point of Po-cr in plotted Payload vs. Range diagram is (0 lb.; 3307 mi)
Plotted PAYLOAD versus RANGE Diagram

Payload, lb.
A
57,000

19,087 B

C
969 2632 3307
Range, mi
Calculation of final Runway
length

32
Airplane reference Field Length
(RFL)
The minimum field length required for take-off at maximum
certificated take-off mass, sea level, standard atmospheric
conditions, still air an zero runway slope, as shown in the
appropriate aeroplane field manual

33
Runways Width
Recommendation. The width of a runway should be not less
than the appropriate dimension specified in the following tables

Code Code letter


number
A B C D E F
1 18 m 18 m 23 m - - -

2 23 m 23 m 30 m - - -

3 30 m 30 m 30 m 45 m - -

4 - - 45 m 45 m 45 m 60 m

34
Exercise
Define the required runway width for the
Boeing 747-400 and Airbus A 380?
B737 may be permitted to operate
from 30 m wide runways, although
they are coded as 3D and so that
a 45 m runway should be
provided.

35
Declared distances
Declared distances are the distances which
the airport owner declares are available and
suitable for:
Take-off run available (TORA)
Take-off distance available (TODA)
Accelerate stop distance available (ASDA)
Landing distance available (LDA)
TORA: Take-off run available
TORA is defined as the length of runway available for the
ground run of an aeroplane taking off.
TORA = Full Length of RW

38
Declared distances

39
TODA: Take-off distance available
The length of the take-off run available (TORA) plus the
length of the clearway, if provided
TODA =TORA + CWY

41
ASDA: Accelerate-stop distance
available
ASDA is defined as the length of the take-off
run available plus the length of any SWY. Any
CWY is not involved.
ASDA = TORA + SWY

43
LDA: Landing distance available
LDA is defined as the length of runway available for the ground run of
a landing aeroplane.

LDA = Length of RW (if threshold is not displaced.)

45
Runway Strip
A defined area including the runway and stopway.
To reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off a
runway ; and
To protect aircraft flying over it during take-off or landing
operations

Figure: Composition of Runway Strip


Runway End Safety Area (RESA)
At each end of runway strip
Purpose:
to reduce the risk of damage to an airplane
undershooting or overrunning the runway
Not included in declared distances
Minimum length: 90 m
Width: twice that of runway

49
Calculation of final Runway

length

50
Length of runway
Selecting the length of runway is perhaps the
important decision which must be made in the
planning of landing area.
Length of runway mainly depends on
The type of aircraft
Its payload
Trip length (fuel weight)
Altitude and temperature at the airport
Safety regulations
Basic runway length
It is the length of runway under the following
assumed condition at the airport:
Airport altitude at sea level
Temperature at airport is standard (150 c)
Runway is leveled in the longitudinal direction
No wind is blowing on runway
Runway surface is dry
Aircraft is loaded at its full loading capacity
Corrections to basic runway length
Typical runway lengths
Aircraft Type Takeoff (ft.) Landing (ft.)
B747-200B 10,500 6,150

DC-10-30 10,490 5,960

Concorde 10,280 8,000


B727-200 10,080 4,800
A300 B4 8,740 5,590

B737-200 6,550 4,290


DC-9-50 7,880 4,680

F28-2000 5,490 3,540

F27-500 5,470 3,290


SD3-30 3,900 3,400
Terms used for runway length
FS = full strength pavement distance
CL = clearway distance
SW = stop way distance
FL = field length (FS+SW+CL)
LOD = lift off distance
TOR = takeoff run
TOD = takeoff distance
LD = landing distance
SD = stopping distance
D35 = distance to clear an 11 m (35 ft.) obstacle
DAS= distance to accelerate and stop (ASD)
Runway design concepts
Runway in future discussion refers to full strength
pavement (FS) - Support the full weight of the
aircraft
For turbine aircraft the regulation do not requires
FS for the entire Take-off Distance (TOD), while
for piston aircraft requires FS for entire TOD
Runway Field Length (FL) have three basic
components
Full strength pavement (FS)
Clearways (CL)
Stopways (SW)
Runway requirtements
The following cases are considered for
determining the basic runway length
Normal takeoff (all engines working fine)
Engine-out takeoff condition
Continued takeoff
Aborted takeoff
Landing

The cases which works out the longest runway


length is finally adopted
Normal landing case
The normal landing case requires that an air
craft should come to a stop within 60% of the
landing distance. The runway of full strength
pavement is provided for the entire landing
distance. Stop

Runway

60% of landing distance

Landing distance
Landing distance case
The landing distance should be 67% longer
than the demonstrated distance to stop an
aircraft
Normal take-off case
The normal take-off case requires a clearway
which is an area beyond the runway and is in
alignment with the centre line of runway.
The width of clearway is not <150m and is
kept free form obstruction.
The clearway ground area or any object on it
should not protrude a plane inclined upward
at a slope of 1.25% from the runway.
Normal Takeoff Case

clearway
Clearway of this distance

10.5m height

Lift-off distance
115% of Lift-off distance
Distance to 10.5m height
115% of distance to 10.5m height ( take-off distance)

Longitudinal section

Min150m
Runway Clearway

Plan
Normal Take-off Case
Normal Takeoff Case

CL is min. 500 ft. wide with


a grade less than 1.25 deg.
Engine-Out Takeoff Case
Dictated by two scenarios:
Continued takeoff sub case
Actual distance to clear an imaginary 11 m (35 ft)
obstacle D35 (with an engine-out)
Aborted or rejected takeoff sub case
Distance to accelerate and stop (DAS)
Engine Out Analysis

* Decision speed is the speed chosen by the aircraft captain in relation to the respective limitations
of the aircraft, the airline operator rules and procedures, runway characteristics and actual
meteorological conditions
Clearway of this distance
Engine Decelerated stop distance 10.5m
Failure height

Stop way
Lift-off distance
Clear way
Accelerated stop distance

Distance to 10.5m height ( take-of distance )

Longitudinal section

Clear way

Min150m
Runway Stop
way

Plan

Engine Failure Case


Required Field Length (FS,FL, SW, CL)
Lengths for the critical aircraft:
Case 1: Normal take-off Case 2: Engine-failure take-off
Case 3: Eng. -failure aborted take-off Case 4: Landing
Final analysis
FL max( TOD1 , TOD2 , DAS3 , LD4 )
FS max( TOR1 , TOR2 , LD4 )
SW DAS max( TOR1 , TOR2 , LD4 ) SWmin 0
CL min( FL DAS 4 , CL1,max , CL2,max )
CLmin 0 CLmax 1000 ft .
If both ends of runway are to be used, the field length components (FS,
SW and CL) must exist in each direction.
Example Runway Length
Determine the runway length requirements for
turbine powered aircraft. Following aircraft
performance characteristics are observed:
Normal take off:
Lift off distance = 2100 m
Distance to 11 m height = 2400 m
Engine failure:
Lift of distance = 2460 m
Distance to 11 m height = 2730 m
Engine failure aborted take off:
Accelerate stop distance = 2850 m
Normal landing:
Stop distance = 1500 m
Solution: Runway Length (I)
For normal take off:
TOD1 = 1.15 (D351) = 1.15 X 2400 = 2760 m
CL1 = 0.5[TOD1-1.15 (LOD1)] = 0.5[2760-1.15 X 2100]=172.5 m
TOR1 = TOD1 CL1 = 2760 172.5 = 2587.5 m
For engine failure:
TOD2 = D35.2 = 2730 m
CL2 = 0.5[TOD2 LOD2] = 0.5[2730 - 2460] = 135 m
TOR2 = TOD2 CL2 = 2730 135 = 2595 m
For engine failure aborted take off:
DAS = 2850 m
For normal landing:
LD = 1500/0.667 = 2248 m
FL4 = FS4 = LD = 2248 m
Solution: Runway Length (II)
The actual runway components are:
FL = max (TOD1,TOD2, DAS, LD)
= max (2760, 2730, 2850, 2500)
= 2850 m
FS = max (TOR1, TOR2, LD)
= max (2587.5, 2595, 2248)
= 2595 m
SW = DAS max (TOR1, TOR2, LD)
= 2850 - max (2587.5, 2595, 2248)
= 2850 2595
= 255 m
CL = min [(FL DAS), CL1, CL2)
= min [(2850 2850), 172.5, 135)
= min (0, 172.5, 135) = 0
Correction for Elevation,
Temperature and Gradient
The basic runway length is for mean sea level
Elevation having standard atmospheric
conditions.
For any change in elevation, temperature and
gradient for actual site of construction,
necessary corrections are to be applied to
obtain the length of runway.
Correction for Elevation
The air density reduces as the elevation
increases, this in turn reduces the lift on the
wings of the aircraft and the aircraft requires
greater ground speed before aircraft becomes
airborne. To achieve greater speed, longer length
of runway is required.
Higher altitude requires longer runway length
ICAO recommends that basic runway length
should be increased at the rate of 7% per 300m
rise in elevation above MSL.
Correction for Elevation
Increase the required runway length at a rate of 7% for each
300m (1000ft.) airport elevation above MSL
Elevation factor, Fe = 0.07*E + 1
Where, E is airport elevation above MSL in units of
300m (1000ft.)
Correction for Temperature
Higher temperature requires longer runway
Higher temperatures results in lower air
density, resulting in lower output of thrust
Increase is not linear with temperature, rate
of increase higher at higher temperatures
Standard temperature is 59oF (15oC) at sea
level (MSL)
Increase in length is 0.42% to 0.65% per
degree Fahrenheit
Correction for Temperature
The length corrected for elevation is to be further increased at a
rate of 1% for each degree centigrade by which the airport
Reference temperature exceeds the Standard temperature at the
elevation of airport site.

Reference temperature (T) is defined as:


T2 T1
T T1
3
T1 = Mean of mean Daily Temp. for the hottest month
of the year (Hottest month has the highest mean
daily temperature)
T2 = Mean Maximum Daily Temperature for the same
month
Standard Temperature at the airport site can be
determined by reducing the standard temperature at
MSL (15oC) at a rate of 6.5oC per 1000 m or 1.981oC
per 1000 ft. rise in the airport elevation above MSL.
Temperature correction factor Ft , is computed
through following Equations
Ft 0.01T 15 6.5 * E 1 (in meters)
Ft 0.01T 15 1.981* E 1 (in feet )

Where, E = Airport elevation in 1000 m above MSL


Correction for Gradient
Uphill gradient requires more runway length than a
down-ward gradient
Increase and decrease in runway length is linear with
change in gradient
Length increases by 7-10% for each 1 percent increase
in gradient (max gradient is 1.5%)
Average uniform gradient: straight line joining the ends
of the runway (no point 5 ft. above the average)
Effective gradient: difference in elevation between the
highest and lowest points divided by length of runway
Correction for Gradient
The runway length having been corrected for
elevation & temperature be further increased at a rate
of 10% for each 1% of the runway Effective Gradient
(G). The Effective Gradient is the maximum elevation
differential of runway center line divided by the total
length of runway.
RLmax RLmin
G
L
Fg 0.1* G 1

Where, RLmax and RLmin are the reduced levels of highest and
lowest points along the runway center line.
Surface Wind
Greater the head wind, shorter is the runway
The direction of the wind also effects the
allowable take-off weight for the airplane
A 5-kn headwind approximately reduces the
take-off length by 3 percent
A 5-kn tailwind approximately increases the
take-off length by 7 percent.
For planning, no wind is considered if light
wind occurs at the airport sight
Condition of Runway Surface

Presence of water or slush (reduce braking


resistance)
From 0.25 to 0.5 inch, take-off weight must
be substantially reduced to overcome the
retarding force of water and slush
Velocity at which hydroplaning develops:
For tire pressure range = 120 200 psi, Vp
ranges from 110 to 140 mph (usual landing and
take-off speed)
Vp 10 * (Tire Pressure)
0.5
Example
Find out the required length for the airport of reference code 4 D, located at 450 m above
mean sea level. The runway effective gradient is 0.5%. The monthly mean maximum and
mean daily temperatures of the hottest month of the year are 27oC and 18oC, respectively.
Solution:
Field length = 1800 m
Correction for elevation = 0.07 *450/300 +1 = 1.105
Corrected runway length = 1800 * 1.105 = 1989 m
Standard temperature at the airport site = 15- 6.5*450/1000 = 12.08C
Airport reference temperature = 18 + (27-18)/3 = 21C
Rise in temperature = 21 12.08 = 8.92C
Correction for temperature = 0.01 * 8.92 + 1 = 1.0892
Corrected length for temperature = 1989 * 1.0892 = 2166 m
Correction for gradient = 0.01 * 0.05 + 1 = 1.05
Final runway length = 2166 * 1.05 = 2275 m