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University of Buffalo, the State University of New York

Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering


CIE 439: Transportation Systems Analysis (Fall 2014)

Students Name: ____________________________________________________

SOLUTION
Test One (VERSION A)
Time: 1:00PM 1:50PM Friday (September 19, 2014)

Question One (20 points): give brief answers to the following questions.

1. What are the main components of a transportation system? (5pts)

(1) Demand (or users, or operators);


(2) Supply (or transportation infrastructure, or physical elements); and
(3) Operation plans (or regulations, plans, rules, )

2. Briefly discuss the differences among the three types of sight distances, such as the stopping
sight distance, the decision sight distance, and the passing sight distance? (5pts)

SSD: minimum perception and reaction time, required action: full stop;
DSD: more perception and reaction time, required actions: full stop,
reduce speed, change lanes, and others;
PSD: for the two-lane highway scenario only, what is the required passing
distance without colliding with the vehicles running in the opposite
direction

3. Both the cumulative plots and the queueing theory can be used to analyze queues and delays
in a queueing system. List the condition(s) under which the queueing theory, rather than the
cumulative plots, should be used for analysis. (5pts)

Queueing theory applies to: (1) a queueing system with random arrivals
and/or random departures (or service); (2) the average arrival rate is less
than the average service rate (=/ < 1)

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4. List the potential factors that affect pedestrian walking speeds. (5pts)
Socio-economic characteristics, such as age

A freight train and a passenger train share the same rail track. The average speed of the
freight train is 45 mph, whereas that of the passenger train is 70 mph. The passenger train
is scheduled to leave 30 minutes after the freight train departs from the same station.
(1) Draw the time-space diagrams to show the trajectories of the two trains; and
(2) Determine the location of the siding where a siding would need to be provided to
allow the passenger train to pass the freight train. As a safety precaution, the
separation headway between the two trains should be at least equal to 6 minutes.

120

105

90

75

Distance (mile) 60

Distance (Freight) Distance (Passenger)


45

30

15

0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120

Time (min)

(2)
Assume the siding is located x miles away from the station:
The time for the freight train to arrive at the siding is: (3 pts)Tf = x/45 (1)
The time for the passenger train to arrive at the siding is: (3 pts)
Tp = 30min/60min + x/70 (2)
According to the safety rule: Tp-Tf>=6min/60min (3)
Bring (1)&(2) to (3): Tp Tf = (x/45) - [30/60+x/70] >= 6/60 (3 pts) thenx<=50 miles

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Answer: the siding should be no more than 50 miles away from Station A.

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Vehicles arriving at a toll plaza on an interstate highway arrive according to the pattern shown
below. It is estimated that on average a single toll booth can process a total of 40 passengers
every 15 minutes. For the first 15 minutes (i.e. from 9:00 9:15 am), only one toll booth was
open. Between 9:15 and 9:30 am, two booths were open, and after 9:30 am, three booths were
open.
Time Period 15-minute Counts
9:00 9:15 am 60 vehicles
9:15 9:30 am 70 vehicles
9:30 9:45 am 100 vehicles
9:45 10:00 am 50 vehicles
(1) Draw the cumulative plots to show the arrival and departure patterns;
(2) Determine the maximum length of the queue; and
(3) Determine the total wait time for all vehicles.

APPROXIMATE SOLUTION: assuming the cumulative arrivals and departures are


updated every 15 minutes. For instance, we assume that the queue is cleared up at 9:45AM,
but not at a time moment between 9:30AM-9:45AM.

Time 15-min Cumulativ Capacit 15-min Cumulative Queue


period arrivals e arrivals y departures departures length
9:00AM 0 0 0 0 0 0
9:15AM 60 60 40 40 40 20
9:30AM 70 130 80 80 120 10
Min(24
0,230)
=230**
9:45AM 100 230 120 120 * 0
10:00A
M 50 280 120 120 280 0

Note: *** if we update cumulative departures every 15 minute interval. For 9:45AM, the actual
cumulative departures are 240 vehicles which is greater than the cumulative arrivals (230
vehicles) (which means that the queue is cleared before 9:45AM). In this case, we just assume
that the cumulative departures are 230 vehicles so that the queue is assumed to be cleared at
9:45AM.

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300

250

200

N 150
Cumulative arrivals Cumulative departures
100

50

0
9:00AM 9:15AM 9:30AM 9:45AM 10:00AM
T

(2) According to the table, the maximum queue length is 20 vehicles at 9:15AM (5 pts)

(3) Total delay= the sum of the three areas = triangle 1 at the bottom + trapezoid in the middle +
triangle 2 at the top
Total area=20*15/2 + (20+10)*15/2 + 10*15/2 = 450 minutes (5 pts)

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EXACT SOLUTION: we look for the exact time moment between 9:30AM-9:45AM when
the queue is cleared up.
Time 15-min Cumulativ Capacit 15-min Cumulative Queue
period arrivals e arrivals y departures departures length
9:00AM 0 0 0 0 0 0
9:15AM 60 60 40 40 40 20
9:30AM 70 130 80 80 120 10
9:45AM 100 230 120 120 240*** 0
10:00A
M 50 280 120 120 280 0

Note: *** the cumulative departures are actually 240 vehicles by 9:45AM. This means that the
queue should be actually cleared up between 9:30AM and 9:45AM.

The following step is to look for the exact time moment when the queue is cleared:

According to the problem statement, the arrival rate between 9:30AM and 9:45AM is:
=100 veh/15 min = 6.667 veh/min

The departure rate between 9:30AM and 9:45AM is:


= 120 veh/15 min = 8 veh/min

Assume the queue will be cleared in x minutes from 9:30AM. By the time of (9:30 + x) AM, the
cumulative arrivals should be equal to the cumulative departures to clear the queue:

Cumulative arrivals by (9:30 + x) AM = the cumulative arrivals by 9:30AM + new arrivals in the
x minutes. So the cumulative arrivals should be (130 + 6.667*x)

Cumulative departures by (9:30+x) AM = the cumulative departures by 9:30AM + new


departures in the x minutes. So the cumulative departures should be (120 + 8*x)
130+6.667x=120+8*x x=7.5 minutes

Therefore, the queue should be cleared in 7.5 minutes after 9:30AM

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The queue is cleared in 7.5 minutes after 9:30AM

(2) According to the table, the maximum queue length is 20 vehicles at 9:15AM (5 pts)

(3) Total delay= the sum of the three areas = triangle 1 at the bottom + trapezoid in the middle +
triangle 2 at the top

Total area=20*15/2 + (20+10)*15/2 + 10*7.5/2 = 412.5 minutes (5 pts)

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Question Four (20 points)
An airport serves four different types of aircraft: Heavy (H), Large (L), Medium (M), and Small
(S). During a typical hour, 40 Heavy aircraft, 50 Large, 60 Medium, and 70 Small aircraft land.
Determine the probability that:
(1) Exactly four out of 10 aircrafts landing are of the LARGE type;
(2) In a stream of 10 aircraft, more than one LARGE aircraft would land; and
(3) In a stream of 10 aircraft, the first LARGE aircraft would be the third aircraft.

SOLUTION:

(1) Binomial distribution, PDF: the probability for a landed plane to be LARGE = 50/
(40+50+60+70) = 0.2273
P(X=4) = C(10,4)*0.22734*(1-0.2273)10-4 = 0.1193 (7 pts)

(2) Binomial distribution, CDF: p(x>1) = 1-p(x<=1) = 1- p(x=0) p(x=1) =


=1 - C(10,0)*0.22730*(1-0.2273)10-0 - C(10,1)*0.22731*(1-0.2273)10-1
= 0.7008 (7 pts)

(3) Geometric distribution, PDF: p(x=3) = (1-0.2273)2 * 0.2273 = 0.1357 (6 pts)

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Question Five (20 points)
Passengers at an airport arrive at a given security check point. The arrivals follow a Poisson
distribution with the average arrival rate as 120 travelers/hr. Check-in times for passengers vary
according to a negative exponential distribution with an average value of 25 seconds per
passenger. Determine:
(1) The average number of passengers waiting in line in front of the security check point;
(2) The average waiting time a passenger spends in a queue; and
(3) The average time a passenger spends in the system.

SOLUTION:
According to the problem statement, the type of queue is M/M/1

Common input: =120 travelers/hr; =3600/25=144 travelers/hr (2 pts)

Therefore, = / = 0.833 <1

Check if the queueing theory applies to the case: <1, and thus applicable. The
average number of passengers waiting in line in front of the security check point

__
2 (0.8333) 2
Q 4.17veh
1 1 0.8333 (6 pts)

(1) The average waiting time in the queue:


__
120
W 0.03472hr 2.08 min
( ) 144 * (144 120) (6 pts)

(2) The average waiting time in the system:


__
1 1
t 0.041667hr 2.5 min
( ) 144 120 (6 pts)