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OttomanEgyptianinvasionofMani
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TheOttomanEgyptianInvasionofManiwasacampaign
duringtheGreekWarofIndependencethatconsistedofthree OttomanEgyptianInvasionofMani
battles.TheManiotsfoughtagainstacombinedEgyptianand PartoftheGreekWarofIndependence
OttomanarmyunderthecommandofIbrahimPashaofEgypt.

OnMarch17,1821,theManiots(residentsofthecentral
peninsulaonthesouthernpartofthePeloponnese)declared
warontheOttomanEmpire,precedingtherestofGreecein
joiningtherevolutionbyaboutaweek.ThevariousGreek
forceswonaquickstringofvictories.However,disputesbroke
outamongsttheleadersandanarchyensued.TheOttomans
seizedthischanceandcalledforreinforcementsfromEgypt.
ThereinforcementscameunderthecommandofIbrahim
Pasha,thesonoftheleaderofEgypt,MuhammadAli.Withthe
Greeksindisarray,IbrahimravagedthePeloponneseandaftera
fourmonthssiegehecapturedthecityofMissolonghiinApril.
HethenwentbacktothePeloponneseandturnedhisattention
inJunetoMani.

IbrahimtriedtoenterManifromthenortheastnearAlmiroon MapofMani
June21,1826,buthewasforcedtostopatthefortificationsat
Vergas.Hisarmyof7,000menwasheldoffbyanarmyof Date 21June28August1826
2,000Maniotsand500refugeesfromotherpartsofGreece. Location Mani
DespiteEgyptianandOttomanartillery,theoutnumbered
Result Greekvictory
ManiotsmanagedtoholdofftheOttomans.Ibrahimsent1,500
mentoattemptalandingnearAreopolisandgonorthto Belligerents
threatentheManiotrear.Thisforcewasinitiallysuccessful Maniotsandother OttomanEmpire
howeverthewomenandoldmenoftheareafoughtbackand Greekrevolutionaries Egypt
repelledthemwithheavylosses.WhentheEgyptiansatVergas
heardthatTheodorosKolokotroniswasadvancingontheirrear Commandersandleaders
theyretreated. PetrosMavromichalis IbrahimPashaofEgypt
Strength
InAugust,Ibrahimrenewedtheoffensiveandhesentagroup
ofregularsoldiersdownthecoastandtheyreachedKariopoli Vergas:2,500men+ Vergas:7,000men
beforetheyretreated.Ibrahimsentaforceof8,000mendown 2000reinforcements Diro:1,500men
toPolytsaravoandonthewaytheydestroyedatowerthatwas Diro:500menand Polytsaravo:4,000men
opposingthem.WhentheyreachedPolytsaravo,theywere women
facedbytheManiotsintheirforts.TheEgyptiansandthe Polytsaravo:2,000men
Ottomanswereforcedtoretreatwithsignificantlosses.This
Casualtiesandlosses
wasthelasttimeManiwasinvadedduringtheWarfor
Independence,asGreecewasliberatedin1828. Vergas:Unknown Vergas:2,500,
Diro:Unknown Diro:1,000
Polytsaravo:8men Polytsaravo:400
Contents Total:3,900

1 Prelude
2 BattleofVergas
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2 BattleofVergas
3 BattleofDiro
4 BattleofPolytsaravo
5 Aftermath
6 Notes
7 References
8 Sources

Prelude
TheGreekWarofIndependencehadstartedontheMarch17,1821,whentheManiotsdeclaredwaronthe
OttomanEmpireatAreopoli.[1]OnMarch21,theManiotarmyof2,000menunderthecommandofPetros
MavromichaliswhichalsoincludedTheodorosKolokotronis,marchedfromAreopolisandheadedforMessenia.[1]
Thenextday,theyreachedKalamata,whichhadanOttomangarrisonandtheycapturedthecityonMarch23.[1]

TherestofGreecejoinedthewarwhenBishopGermanosofPatrasdeclared
GreeceinrebelliononMarch25.[2]AtKalamata,theGreeksestablishedthe
MessenianSenatewhichgovernedaffairsinthesouthernPeloponnese.[3]
KolokotroniswantedtoattackTripolibutPetrosMavromichalisconvinced
himtoattackthesmallertownsfirst.[2]Petrobeyalsosentletterstothecourts
ofEuropetellingthemoftheGreeks'plan.[4]Petrobeyfinishedofftheletters
bysigningitwithPetrobeyMavromichalis,PrinceandCommanderin
Chief.[4]OnApril28,theManiotarmyjoinedKolokotronisforcesat TheflagofMani.N
(VictoryorDeath)T
Karytainia.[5]FromtheretheywenttoTripoliandstartedtobesiegethecity.[6]
(Withtheshieldoron
ThecityeventuallyfellonSeptember23,1821andwassackedbythe
theshield).
Greeks.[7]

DuetotheunrelentinglossesandstoriesofGreekatrocitiesinTripolis,theSultanbecamedesperateandin1824
hecalledonhisViceroyinEgypt,MuhammadAli,toaidhim.[8]Alipromisedtoaidhiminreturnforcessionof
theislandofCrete,Cyprus,aswellasmakinghissonIbrahimPasha,PashaofthePeloponnese.[8]Afterhisoffer
wasaccepted,Alisenthissonincommandoftheexpedition.Meanwhile,theGreekswereindisarraybecauseof
politicalrivalrieswhichhadcausedacivilwar.Kolokotroniswasarrested,hissonPanoswaskilled,andhis
nephewNikitarasforcedtoflee.[9]

IbrahimusedtheconfusiontolandatMethoniinthePeloponnese.[10]FromMethoni,Ibrahimstartedpillagingthe
Peloponneseandtakingmanypeopleasslaves.[11]IbrahimcapturedTripolisbutwasstoppedfromcapturing
NauplionbyKostantinosMavromichalisandDimitriosYpsilantis.[11]Inretaliation,IbrahimburntdownArgos
beforereturningtoTripoli.[11]IbrahimdecidedtogowithhisarmyandjoinReshidPashaatMissolonghiin
CentralGreece.[12]TheEgyptiansreachedthecityonDecember12,1825andhelpedtheOttomanswiththe
siege.[12]OnApril10,1826,thecityfelltotheinvadersandthecitywassacked.[13]

BattleofVergas
IbrahimsentanenvoytoManidemandingitssurrenderorelsehewouldpillageit.[14]HereceivedtheManiotic
replyof:

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TheBattleofVergasasdepicted
byPetervonHess.

FromthefewGreeksofManiandtherestofGreekswholivetheretoIbrahimPasha.Wereceived
yourletterinwhichyoutrytofrightenussayingthatifwedon'tsurrender,you'llkilltheManiotsand
plunderMani.That'swhywearewaitingforyouandyourarmy.We,theinhabitantsofMani,signand
waitforyou.[14]

Ibrahim,furiouswiththeresponse,orderedanattackonnorthwesternManifromKalamataonJune23,1826.
Underhiscommandwasaforceof7,000men,amixtureofinfantryandcavalry.[14]Theinvaderswereforcedto
stopatthefortificationsoftheManiotsatVergasnearAlmiro.FortificationsofVergas[]Defendingthewallswere2,000
Maniotsoldiersand500Greekrefugees.[14]

TheEgyptianartilleryfailedtobreachthewalls,soIbrahimdecidedtolaunchtwoshipswithcannonsandhave
thembombardtheManiotdefencesfromthesea.[14]Healsocombinedthisattackwithinfantryassaults,however
thesefailedastheinvadersweredrivenbackfromthewallseighttimes.[14]Theattackslastedforafewmoredays
beforetheEgyptiansandOttomanswereforcedtoretreatwhennewsarrivedthatKolokotroniswasapproaching
theirrearwith2,000men.[15]TheManiotschasedtheEgyptiansuptoKalamatabeforewithdrawing.[16]Ibrahim
lost2,500menatVergasandtheGreeklossesareunknown.[16]

BattleofDiro
DuringtheBattleofVergas,IbrahimdecidedtoattacktheManiotsfromtherear.Hisplanwastosendasmallfleet
withafewsoldierstolandattheBayofDiros,2kilometerssouthofAreopolis.[17]Theaimofthiswastocapture
theunguardedAreopoli,whichcutthecommunicationlinesofthedefendersatVergasanddemoralizethemas
well.[17]HewouldthenbeabletoattacktheManiotsfromtherearandcontrolthemountainpassestoeasternMani
andGytheio.[17]AuthorsPeterGreenhalghandEdwardEliopoulosdescribethisplanasexcellent.[17]

OnJune23,hesentasmallfleetcarrying1,500tolandattheBayofDirosandtocaptureAreopolis.[17]Aidcame
fromothervillages.[17]OnJune26,thesurvivingEgyptianswererescuedbyIbrahim'sfleetfromthebeachand
thosewhowerenotrescuedhadtoswimtotheshipsorbekilledbytheManiots.[16][17]ThisbattlecostIbrahim
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1,000menandhewasforcedtoretreatfromManiafterbeingdefeatedat
Vergas.[17][18]

BattleofPolytsaravo
AfterhisretreatfromManiduetothedefeatsatVergasandDirosPasharenewedhis
offensiveinAugust.[16]Ibrahim'sarmywasledbyaLaconianfromBardounia
namedBosinaswhohadassistancefromtheEgyptianfleet.[16]OnAugust27,he
reachedKariopoliinanattempttotakeasafepaththroughthemountains.[16]Before
hereachedthetownofPolytsaravos,hisarmyof8,000Egyptianswasdelayedby
TheodorosStathakosandhisfamilyofthirteenmenwhorefusedtolettheinvaders
pasttheirtower.[16]BosinastriedtonegotiatewithStathakos.Stathakos,feigning
surrender,toldBosinastocomeandtakehisfamily'sguns.[16]AsBosinascameto
Maniotwoman.
retrievetheguns,theStathakosfamilykilledhim.Inretaliation,theEgyptiansused
theirtwocannonsandblewupthetower.[16]

TheEgyptiansthenproceededtowardsthetownofPolytsaravosandreacheditonAugust28.[16]Awaitingthem
therewere2,000Maniotsbehindtheirfortifications.[16]TheManiotshadchosenPolytsaravosastheirpositionof
defenceasitwasonhighgroundandwassurroundedbyrockyslopes.[19]Thiswouldhavemeantthatthe
Egyptianscouldhavebeenstoppedbeforetheyarrivedatthetown.[20]Aspartoftheirdefenceplanthevillages
sentallthewomenandchildrentothemountainsbeforeimprovingthefortifications.[16]AstheEgyptiansarrived
atthewalls,theManiotssalliedoutandcaughttheEgyptiansbysurprise.[16]TheEgyptians,sufferinglosses,
withdrewfromManiandbackintotheLaconianplain.[20]TheEgyptianshadlost400menduringthebattleand
theManiotsonlylost9.[16]ThiswasthelastinvasionlaunchedagainstMani.

Aftermath
Eventhoughthiscampaignisovershadowedbyotherbattlesoftherevolution,
itwasoneofthemostimportant.TheManiatesstoppedtheEgyptiansand
IbrahimPashawhohadnotbeendefeatedthisdecisivelybefore.Thewomen
whodefeatedtheEgyptiansatDiroshavebeengiventhenameof'The
AmazonsofDiros'.[21]ThiswasthelastinvasionofManiasIbrahim
abandonedanyideasofconqueringit.[19]OntheApril26,1827theTurkish
navybombardedOitylowithover1,700cannonballshittingthetown.

In1827,thecombinedfleetsofFrance,EnglandandRussiadefeatedthe Mapoftheboundariesofthe
[22]
combinedOttomanEgyptianfleetintheBattleofNavarino. In1828,under GreekKingdomaftertheTreaty
thetermsoftheTreatyofConstantinople,Greecebecameanindependentstate ofConstantinople.
[23]
whichwasrecognizedbytheOttomansin1829. WhenIoannisCapodistrias
wasmadepresidentofGreece,hehadPetrosMavromachalisimprisoned.[24]TheMavromichalis'reactedby
assassinatingCapodistriasinNauplionashewenttochurch.[24]TheManiotscontinuedcausingtroubleand
defeatedtwoBavarianarmiesKingOttosentagainstthembeforetheyweresubduedonlyaftersomeoftheleaders
werebribed.[25][25]ThisendedtheManiots'independenceandtheywereforcedtopaytaxes.

Notes
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman%E2%80%93Egyptian_invasion_of_Mani 4/5