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Name Roll no

Saugat Das DE - 12 - CE - 04

Joydweep Bor Deori DE - 12 - CE - 12

Lenli L Imchen DE - 12 - CE - 13

Sanasam Vipej Devi DE - 12 - CE - 15

North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology

(Deemed University)

Nirjuli -791109, Arunachal Pradesh


1. Introduction 1
2. Needs of Recruitment 2
3. Purpose of Recruitment 2
4. Recruitment Process 3
5. Sources of Recruitment 4
6. Methods and Techniques of Recruitment 7
7. Factors affecting Recruitment 8
8. Recent trends in Recruitment process 11
9. Conclusion 12


Human capital utilisation in an economy is contingent on sound recruitment. Recruitment is

the cornerstone of the entire personnel structure. Proper selection and placement of new
employees is a pre-requisite for the development of an effective work force. Unless
recruitment policy is soundly conceived, there can be little hope of building a first rate staff.
(Stahl, 1966) The aim is to ensure, as far as possible, that employees are engaged in jobs
wherein they have a fair chance of succeeding and at the same time feel well adjusted to their
work environment.

Recruitment is the development and maintenance of adequate manpower sources. It involves

the creation of a pool of available human resources from which the organisation can draw
when it needs additional employees. Recruiting is the process of attracting applicants with
certain skills, abilities, and other personal characteristics to job vacancies in an organisation.
According to Denerley and Plumblay (1969), recruitment is concerned with both engaging the
required number of people, and measuring their quality. It is not only a matter of satisfying a
companys needs, it is also an activity which influences the shape of the companys future.
The need for recruitment may arise out of: (i) vacancies due to promotion, transfer,
termination, retirement, permanent disability, or death; (ii) creation of vacancies due to
business expansion, diversification, growth, and so on.

Fairness and impartiality in recruitment are absolutely vital in public services. A.B. Vajpayee,
former prime minister of India, in a message to the platinum jubilee souvenir (1926-2001) of
Union Public Service Commission, observed, that free, fair and impartial selection of
personnel for posts in the government is critical, not only for good governance but also for
instilling confidence in people about the impartiality and neutrality of civil service. Faulty
recruitment inflicts a permanent weakness on the administration.

Lastly, but no less significantly, recruitment involves continuous review and improvement of
the examination process on the basis of facts gathered through research and development
regarding implementation, relevance of the process in changing times and need for review of
the process. Evaluation and feedback lead to better craft or articulation of policy inputs. The
reform exercise might be important from the point of view of morale of prospective

employees, quality of selections, considerations of justice and equity in the selection process,
besides organisation design and sociological theory implications.


Planned :-
i.e. the needs arising from changes in organization and retirement policy.

Anticipated :-
Anticipated needs are those movements in personnel, which an organization can
predict by studying trends in internal and external environment.

Unexpected :-
Resignation, deaths, accidents, illness give rise to unexpected needs.


Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organisation.

Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the

Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its
personnel planning and job analysis activities.

Recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees.

Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.

Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly
under qualified or overqualified job applicants.

Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave the
organization only after a short period of time.

Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its

Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate

Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and

sources for all types of job applicants.


Fig. 1. Recruitment Process

A general recruitment process is as follows:

1. Identifying the vacancy:

The recruitment process begins with the human resource department receiving
requisitions for recruitment from any department of the company. These contain:
Posts to be filled

Number of persons

Duties to be performed

Qualifications required

2. Preparing the job description and person specification.

3. Locating and developing the sources of required number and type of employees
(Advertising etc).

4. Managing the response.

5. Short-listing and identifying the prospective employee with required characteristics.

6. Arranging the interviews with the selected candidates.

7. Conducting the interview and decision making.

The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process i.e. the final
interviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities.


Every organisation has the option of choosing the candidates for its recruitment processes
from two kinds of sources: internal and external sources. The sources within the organisation
itself (like transfer of employees from one department to other, promotions) to fill a position
are known as the internal sources of recruitment. Recruitment candidates from all the other
sources (like outsourcing agencies etc.) are known as the external sources of recruitment.


1. Transfers
The employees are transferred from one department to another according to their
efficiency and experience.

2. Promotions
The employees are promoted from one department to another with more benefits and
greater responsibility based on efficiency and experience.

3. Upgrading and Demotion

Others are Upgrading and Demotion of present employees according to their

4. Retired and Retrenched employees
Retired and Retrenched employees may also be recruited once again in case of
shortage of qualified personnel or increase in load of work. Recruitment such people
save time and costs of the organisations as the people are already aware of the
organisational culture and the policies and procedures.

5. Deceased employees and Disabled employees

The dependents and relatives of Deceased employees and Disabled employees are also
done by many companies so that the members of the family do not become dependent
on the mercy of others.

1. Press Advertisements
Advertisements of the vacancy in newspapers and journals are a widely used source of
recruitment. The main advantage of this method is that it has a wide reach.

2. Educational Institutes
Various management institutes, engineering colleges, medical Colleges etc. are a good
source of recruiting well qualified executives, engineers, medical staff etc. They
provide facilities for campus interviews and placements. This source is known as
Campus Recruitment.
3. Placement Agencies
Several private consultancy firms perform recruitment functions on behalf of client
companies by charging a fee. These agencies are particularly suitable for recruitment
of executives and specialists. It is also known as RPO (Recruitment Process

4. Employment Exchanges
Government establishes public employment exchanges throughout the country. These
exchanges provide job information to job seekers and help employers in identifying
suitable candidates.

5. Labour Contractors

Manual workers can be recruited through contractors who maintain close contacts
with the sources of such workers. This source is used to recruit labour for construction

6. Unsolicited applicants
Many job seekers visit the office of well-known companies on their own. Such callers
are considered nuisance to the daily work routine of the enterprise. But can help in
creating the talent pool or the database of the probable candidates for the organisation.

7. Employee Referrals / Recommendations

Many organisations have structured system where the current employees of the
organisation can refer their friends and relatives for some position in their
organisation. Also, the office bearers of trade unions are often aware of the suitability
of candidates. Management can inquire these leaders for suitable jobs. In some
organizations these are formal agreements to give priority in recruitment to the
candidates recommended by the trade union.

8. Recruitment at Factory Gate

Unskilled workers may be recruited at the factory gate these may be employed
whenever a permanent worker is absent. More efficient among these may be recruited
to fill permanent vacancies.


Direct Methods:
The most frequently used direct method is at schools, colleges, management institutes
and university departments. Usually, this type of recruiting is performed in co-
operation with placement bureaus of educational institutions providing assistance in
attracting students, arranging interviews, and making available space and students
resumes. The organisations have definite advantages through campus recruitment.
First, the cost is low; second, they can arrange interviews at short notice; third, they
can meet the teaching faculty; fourth, it gives them an opportunity to sell the
organisation to a large student community seeking campus recruitment. In addition to

managerial and supervisory positions, several organisations use travelling recruiters to
recruit skilled and semi-skilled employees from vocational schools and industrial
training institutes. Sometimes, even unskilled workers are also attracted by this

Indirect Methods:
The most frequently used indirect method or technique of recruitment is advertisement
in publications such as newspapers, magazines and trade journals as well as technical
and professional journals. The choice of media, place and timing of the advertisements
and appeals to the reader, all determine the efficacy of advertisements. Other indirect
methods include advertising in the radio and television. Another method of advertising
frequently used is a notice-board placed at the gates of the company.

Third-party Methods:
The most frequently used third-party methods are public and private employment
agencies. Public employment exchanges have been largely concerned with factory
workers and clerical jobs. They also provide help in recruiting professional employees.
Private agencies provide consultancy services and charge a fee. They are usually
specialised for different categories of operatives, office workers, salesman,
supervisory and management personnel. Other third-party methods include the use of
trade unions.

Internet Recruiting:
Internet recruiting is an emerging field and therefore relatively few companies have
gathered substantive data at this point. Companies are successfully attracting a high
proportion on-line resumes, even for non-technical positions, because increasing numbers
of job seekers are turning to the internet. Job seekers are turning to the internet because it
simplifies the process of searching and applying for a position. The internet is playing a
more important role in recruitment. It advertises jobs and serves as a place to locate job
applicants. The majority of companies involved in active internet recruiting believe that it
helps them to attract better quality applicants, given that internet users tend to be better
educated and obviously more computer literate than non-users.



The external forces are the forces which cannot be controlled by the organisation. The major
external forces are:

1. Supply And Demand
The availability of manpower both within and outside the organization is an important
determinant in the recruitment process. If the company has a demand for more
professionals and there is limited supply in the market for the professionals demanded
by the company, then the company will have to depend upon internal sources by
providing them special training and development programs.

2. Labour Market
Employment conditions in the community where the organization is located will
influence the recruiting efforts of the organization. If there is surplus of manpower at
the time of recruitment, even informal attempts at the time of recruiting like notice

boards display of the requisition or announcement in the meeting etc will attract more
than enough applicants.

3. Image / Goodwill
Image of the employer can work as a potential constraint for recruitment. An
organization with positive image and goodwill as an employer finds it easier to attract
and retain employees than an organization with negative image. Image of a company
is based on what organization does and affected by industry. For example finance was
taken up by fresher MBAs when many finance companies were coming up.

4. Political legal and social environment

Various government regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring and employment
have direct impact on recruitment practices. For example, Government of India has
introduced legislation for reservation in employment for scheduled castes, scheduled
tribes, physically handicapped etc. Also, trade unions play important role in
recruitment. This restricts management freedom to select those individuals who it
believes would be the best performers. If the candidate cant meet criteria stipulated
by the union but union regulations can restrict recruitment sources

5. Unemployment rate
One of the factors that influence the availability of applicants is the growth of the
economy (whether economy is growing or not and its rate). When the company is not
creating new jobs, there is often oversupply of qualified labour which in turn leads to

6. Competitors
The recruitment policies of the competitors also effect the recruitment function of the
organisations. To face the competition, many a times the organisations have to change
their recruitment policies according to the policies being followed by the competitors.

The internal forces i.e. the factors which can be controlled by the organisation are:

1. Recruitment Policy

The recruitment policy of an organisation specifies the objectives of recruitment and
provides a framework for implementation of recruitment programme. It may involve
organizational system to be developed for implementing recruitment programmes and
procedures by filling up vacancies with best qualified people.

2. Human resource planning

Effective human resource planning helps in determining the gaps present in the
existing manpower of the organization. It also helps in determining the number of
employees to be recruited and what qualification they must possess.

3. Size of firm
The size of the firm is an important factor in recruitment process. If the organization is
planning to increase its operations and expand its business, it will think of hiring more
personnel, which will handle its operations.

4. Cost
Recruitment incur cost to the employer, therefore, organizations try to employ that
source of recruitment which will bear a lower cost of recruitment to the organization
for each candidate.

5. Growth and Expansion

Organization will employ or think of employing more personnel if it is expanding its


The following are the latest and current trends are being seen in recruitment:

1. Outsourcing
In India, the HR processes are being outsourced from more than a decade now. A
company may draw required personnel from outsourcing firms. The outsourcing firms
help the organisation by the initial screening of the candidates according to the needs
of the organisation and creating a suitable pool of talent for the final selection by the

Outsourcing firms develop their human resource pool by employing people for them
and make available personnel to various companies as per their needs. In turn, the
outsourcing firms or the intermediaries charge the organisations for their services.

Advantages of outsourcing are:

Company need not plan for human resources much in advance.

Value creation, operational flexibility and competitive advantage

Turning the management's focus to strategic level processes of HRM

Company is free from salary negotiations, weeding the unsuitable


Company can save a lot of its resources and time

2. Poaching / Raiding
Buying talent (rather than developing it) is the latest mantra being followed by the
organisations today. Poaching means employing a competent and experienced person
already working with another reputed company in the same or different industry; the
organisation might be a competitor in the industry. A company can attract talent from
another firm by offering attractive pay packages and other terms and conditions, better
than the current employer of the candidate.

3. E-recruitment
Many big organizations use Internet as a source of recruitment. E- recruitment is the
use of technology to assist the recruitment process. They advertise job vacancies
through worldwide web. The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae
i.e. CV through e mail using the Internet. Alternatively job seekers place their CVs in
worldwide web, which can be drawn by prospective employees depending upon their
Advantages of E-recruitment are:
Low cost.

No intermediaries

Reduction in time for recruitment.

Recruitment of right type of people.

Efficiency of recruitment process.


Recruitment is of great significance as the entire functioning an organisation depends upon

persons selected and placed at various positions. Human resource is the most important in an
organisation and effective career planning and development are imperative for its effective
utilisation. Sound recruitment and proper placements serve the said end. Technical efficiency
may not make up for poor human resource management. There is an imperative need to be
objective and impartial as regards the process to sustain organisations in good health.