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Chapter 2

Stress & Strain: Axial Loading


Suitability of a structure or machine may depend on the deformations in the
structure as well as the stresses induced under loading. Statics analyses
alone are not sufficient.
Another important aspect of the analysis and design of structures relates to
the deformations caused by the loads applied to a structure.
Considering structures as deformable allows determination of member
forces and reactions which are statically indeterminate b/c it is not always
possible to determine the forces in the members of a structure by applying
only the principles of statics.
Determination of the stress distribution within a member also requires
consideration of deformations in the member.
By considering engineering structures as deformable and analyzing the
deformations in their various members, it will be possible for us to compute
forces that are statically indeterminate.

Chapter 2 is concerned with deformation of a structural member under


axial loading. 2-1
Normal Strain Axial loading

2P P P
P
stress 2A A A
A 2

normal strain L 2L L 2-2
L
Stress-Strain Test

2-3
Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile Materials

2-4
Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle Materials
Brittle materials, which comprise cast iron, glass, and stone, are characterized by
the fact that rupture occurs without any noticeable prior change in the rate of
elongation.
For brittle materials, there is no difference between the ultimate strength and the
breaking strength. Also, the strain at the time of rupture is much smaller for
brittle than for ductile materials.
There is no any necking of the specimen in the case of a brittle material & nor-
mal stresses are primarily responsible for its failure.

2-5
Hookes Law: Modulus of Elasticity

E
E Youngs Modulus or
Modulus of Elasticity

within the proportional limits in which Hookes


law applies, the young's modulus has been
expressed by:-

Since the strain is a dimensionless quantity,


the young's modulus E is expressed in the
same units as the stress.
The largest value of the stress for which Hookes
law can be used for a given material is known as
the proportional limit of that material.
Strength is affected by alloying, heat treating, and
manufacturing process but stiffness (Modulus of
Elasticity/stiffness, or ability to resist a deformation)
2-6
is not.
Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior
If the strain disappears when the stress is
removed, the material is said to behave
elastically.

In other words, the material behaves as elastic and linear as


long as the stress is kept below the yield point.
The largest stress for which the material behaves elastically
is called the elastic limit.

NB:-When the strain does not return to zero after the stress is removed, the
material is said to behave plastically. 2-7
Fatigue
when loadings are repeated thousands or millions of times, rupture will occur
at a stress much lower than the static breaking strength; this phenomenon is
known as fatigue.
For example, a beam supporting an industrial crane loaded as many as 2
million times in 25 years, an automobile crankshaft will be loaded about 0.5
billion times if the automobile is driven 200,000 miles, and an individual
turbine blade may be loaded several 100 billion times during its lifetime.
Fatigue properties are shown on S-N diagrams.
A member may fail due to fatigue at stress
levels significantly below the ultimate
strength if subjected to many loading cycles.
When the stress is reduced below the
endurance limit, fatigue failures do not
occur for any number of cycles.
The endurance limit is the stress for which
failure does not occur, even for an
indefinitely large number of loading cycles.
Fatigue failure decrease as the number of
loading cycles is increased.
2-8
Deformations Under Axial Loading
From Hookes Law:
P
E
E AE
From the definition of strain:


L
Equating and solving for the deformation, for
homogeneous cross section &material properties.
PL

AE

With variations in loading, cross-section or material


properties, Pi L i

i Ai E i

2-9
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Apply a free-body analysis to the bar
BDE to find the forces exerted by
links AB and DC.
Evaluate the deformation of links AB
The rigid bar BDE is supported by two and DC or the displacements of B
links AB and CD. and D.

Link AB is made of aluminum (E = 70 Work out the geometry to find the


GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of 500 deflection at E given the deflections
mm2. Link CD is made of steel (E = 200 at B and D.
GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of (600
mm2).
For the 30-kN force shown, determine the
deflection a) of B, b) of D, and c) of E.

2 - 10
Cont.
SOLUTION: Displacement of B:
PL
Free body: Bar BDE B
AE


60 10 3 N 0 . 3 m
500 10 - 6 m 2 70 10 9 Pa
6
514 10 m

B 0 . 514 mm
MB 0
Displacement of D:
0 30 kN 0 . 6 m F CD 0 . 2 m
PL
D
F CD 90 kN tension AE

M D 0

90 10 3 N 0 . 4 m
0 30 kN 0 . 4 m F AB 0 . 2 m 600 10
-6
m 200 10 Pa
2 9

F AB 60 kN compressio n 300 10
6
m

D 0 . 300 mm
2 - 11
Cont.
Displacement of D:

BB BH

DD HD

0 . 514 mm 200 mm x

0.300 mm x

x 73 . 7 mm

EE HE

DD HD

E 400 73 . 7 mm

0 . 300 mm 73 . 7 mm

E 1 . 928 mm

E 1 . 928 mm

2 - 12
Static Indeterminacy
Structures for which internal forces and reactions
cannot be determined from statics alone are said
to be statically indeterminate.

A structure will be statically indeterminate


whenever it is held by more supports than are
required to maintain its equilibrium.

Redundant reactions are replaced with


unknown loads which along with the other
loads must produce compatible deformations.

Deformations due to actual loads and redundant


reactions are determined separately and then added
or superposed /compatible.
L R 0

2 - 13
Example
Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel
bar and loading shown, assuming a close fit at
both supports before the loads are applied.

SOLUTION:
Consider the reaction at B as redundant, release
the bar from that support, and solve for the
displacement at B due to the applied loads.

Solve for the displacement at B due to the


redundant reaction at B.

Require that the displacements due to the loads


and due to the redundant reaction be compatible,
i.e., require that their sum be zero.

Solve for the reaction at A due to applied loads


and the reaction found at B.
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Example
SOLUTION:
Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied
loads with the redundant constraint released,
3 3
P1 0 P2 P3 600 10 N P4 900 10 N

6 2 6 2
A1 A 2 400 10 m A 3 A 4 250 10 m

L1 L 2 L 3 L 4 0 . 150 m

9
Pi L i 1 . 125 10
L
i Ai E i E

Solve for the displacement at B due to the redundant


constraint,
P1 P2 R B

6 2 6 2
A1 400 10 m A 2 250 10 m

L1 L 2 0 . 300 m

R
Pi L i


1 . 95 10 R B
3

i Ai E i E
2 - 15
Cont.
Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to
the redundant reaction be compatible,
L R 0


1 . 125 10
9


1 . 95 10 R B
3
0
E E
3
R B 577 10 N 577 kN

Find the reaction at A due to the loads and the reaction at B


F y 0 R A 300 kN 600 kN 577 kN

R A 323 kN

R A 323 kN

R B 577 kN

2 - 16
Thermal Stresses
A temperature change results in a change in length or
thermal strain. There is no stress associated with the
thermal strain unless the elongation is restrained by
the supports.
Treat the additional support as redundant and apply
the principle of superposition.
PL
T T L P
AE
thermal expansion coef.

The thermal deformation and the deformation from


the redundant support must be compatible.
T P 0 T P 0
P AE T
PL
T L 0 P
AE E T
A

2 - 17
Poissons Ratio
For a homogeneous slender bar subjected to axial loading, the resulting stress
and strain satisfy Hookes law.
x
x
y z 0
E

y z 0

lateral strain y

z
axial strain x x

2 - 18
Multi axial loading & Generalized Hookes Law
For an element subjected to multi-axial loading, the
normal strain components resulting from the stress
components may be determined from the principle of
superposition. This requires:
1) strain is linearly related to stress
2) deformations are small

With these restrictions: the generalized Hookes law


for the multi axial loading of a homogeneous
isotropic material.

y
x
x
z
E E E
y
x
y
z
E E E
y
x
z
z
E E E
2 - 19
Dilatation: Bulk Modulus

Relative to the unstressed state, the change in volume


is e v 1 [1 ] 1 x y z

x
y
z

1 2
x
y
z

E
The quantity e represents the change in
volu me per unit volum e dilatation
For element subjected to uniform hydrostatic pressure,
P, each of the stress components is equal to P & :
3 1 2 p
e p
E k
E
k bulk modulus /modulus of compressio n of the material.
3 1 2

hydrostatic pressure can only decrease in volume ;thus


dilatation must be positive, therefore; 0 12
Shearing Strain

xy f xy

A plot of shear stress vs. shear strain is similar to the plots


of normal stress vs. normal strain except that the strength
values are approximately half. For small strains & For the
general stress condition,
xy G xy yz G yz zx G zx

where G is the modulus of rigidity or shear modulus of the


material.

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