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Designation: C 856 95e1

Standard Practice for

Petrographic Examination of Hardened Concrete1
This standard is issued under the xed designation C 856; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

e1 NOTEValues for (OH6) within formulas in Table 6 were editorially corrected in September 1999 to (OH)6.

1. Scope Section
1.1 This practice outlines procedures for the petrographic Qualications of Petrographers 3
examination of samples of hardened concrete. The samples Purposes of Examination 4
examined may be taken from concrete constructions, they may Apparatus 5
Selection and Use of Apparatus 6
be concrete products or portions thereof, or they may be Samples 7
concrete or mortar specimens that have been exposed in natural Examination of Samples 8
environments, or to simulated service conditions, or subjected Specimen Preparation 9
Visual and Stereomicroscope Examination 10
to laboratory tests. The phrase concrete constructions is Polarizing Microscope Examination 11
intended to include all sorts of objects, units, or structures that Metallographic Microscope Examination 12
have been built of hydraulic cement concrete. Report 13

NOTE 1A photographic chart of materials, phenomena, and reaction 1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded
products discussed in Sections 7-12 and Tables 1-6 are available as as the standard. The SI units in parentheses are provided for
Adjunct C856. information purposes only.
1.2 The petrographic procedures outlined herein are appli- 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the
cable to the examination of samples of all types of hardened safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
hydraulic-cement mixtures, including concrete, mortar, grout, responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-
plaster, stucco, terrazzo, and the like. In this practice, the priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-
material for examination is designated as concrete, even bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. A specic hazard
though the commentary may be applicable to the other mix- statement is given in
tures, unless the reference is specically to media other than 2. Referenced Documents
1.3 Annex A1 outlines an uranyl acetate method for identi- 2.1 ASTM Standards:
fying locations where alkali-silica gel may be present. It is a C 42 Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores
requirement that the substances in those locations must be and Sawed Beams of Concrete2
identied using any other more denitive techniques, such as C 215 Test Method for Fundamental Transverse, Longitu-
petrographic microscopy. dinal, and Torsional Frequencies of Concrete Specimens2
1.4 The purposes of and procedures for petrographic exami- C 227 Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of
nation of hardened concrete are given in the following sections: Cement-Aggregate Combinations (Mortar-Bar Method)2
C 294 Descriptive Nomenclature of Constituents of Natural
Mineral Aggregates2
C 295 Guide for Petrographic Examination of Aggregates
This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-9 on Concrete for Concrete2
and Concrete Aggregatesand is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C09.65on C 342 Test Method for Potential Volume Change of
Cement-Aggregate Combinations2
Current edition approved Dec. 10, 1995. Published March 1996. Originally
published as C 856 77. Last previous edition C 856 83 (1998)e1. C 441 Test Method for Effectiveness of Mineral Admixtures
or Ground Blast-Furnace Slag in Preventing Excessive
Expansion of Concrete Due to the Alkali-Silica Reaction2
C 452 Test Method for Potential Expansion of Portland
Cement Mortars Exposed to Sulfate3
C 457 Practice for Microscopical Determination of Air-Void

Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.02.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.01.

Copyright ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

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C 856
TABLE 1 Visual Examination of Concrete (1)6
Coarse Aggregate + Fine Aggregate + Matrix + Air + Embedded Items
Maximum dimension,A in. or
mm, in the range> d>
Type: Type: color, by comparison with more than 3 % of total, Type, size, location;
National Research kinds of metal; other
Council Rock Color items
Chart (1963)
1 Gravel 1 Natural sand predominantly in spherical
2 Crushed stone 2 Manufactured sand color distribution: voids?
3 Mixed 1 and 2 3 Mixed 1 mottled less than 3 % of total,
4 Other (name) 4 Other (name) 2 even abundant nonspherical
5 Mixed 1 + /or 2 + /or 4 5 Mixed 1 + /or 2 + /or 4 3 gradational changes voids?
If Type 1, 2, or 4, homogeneous If Type 1, 2, or 4, color differences between
or heterogeneous homogeneous or voids and mortar?
Lithologic types voids empty, lled, lined, or
Coarse aggregate more than 20, partly lled
30, 40, or 50 % of total

Shape distribution distribution shape voids below horizontal
Grading (even, uneven,
particle shape
preferred orientation
6 as per-
grading (as perceptible)
parallelism of long axes of
or low-angle

excess, or deciency of irregular voids or sheets

size or sizes) of voids: with each other;
Parallelism of at sides or with at sides or long
long axes of exposed axes of coarse aggregate
sections, normal to
direction of placement
+ /or parallel to formed and
nished surfacesB

Condition: clean or corroded?

Does it ring when hit lightly with a hammer or give a dull at sound? Can you break it with your ngers? Cracks? How distributed? Are cracks associated
Through or around coarse aggregate? With cores or sawed specimens, did the aggregate tear in drilling or sawing? Crack llings? with embedded
Surface deposits? If air dry, are there unusually wet or dry looking areas? Rims on aggregate? items?
A substantial portion of the coarse aggregate has maximum dimensions in the range shown as measured on sawed or broken surfaces.
Sections sawed or drilled close to and parallel to formed surfaces appear to show local turbulence as a result of spading or rodding close to the form. Sections sawed
in the plane of bedding (normal to the direction of placement) are likely to have inconspicuous orientation. Sections broken normal to placement in conventionally placed
concrete with normal bond tend to have aggregate knobs abundant on the bottom of the upper piece as cast and sockets abundant on the top of the lower piece as cast.

Content and Parameters of the Air-Void System in Hard- E 3 Methods of Preparation of Metallographic Specimens4
ened Concrete2 E 883 Practice for Metallographic Photomicrography4
C 496 Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylin- 2.2 ASTM Adjuncts:
drical Concrete Specimens2 Adjunct C856 A chart of 27 photos5
C 597 Test Method for Pulse Velocity Through Concrete2
3. Qualications of Petrographers
C 637 Specication for Aggregates for Radiation-Shielding
Concrete2 3.1 The examination should be performed by persons quali-
ed by education and experience to operate the equipment used
C 638 Descriptive Nomenclature of Constituents of Aggre- and to record and interpret the results obtained. In some cases,
gates for Radiation-Shielding Concrete2 the petrographer will have had experience adequate to provide
C 803 Test Method for Penetration Resistance of Hardened detailed interpretation of the materials performance with
Concrete2 respect to engineering and other consequences of the observa-
C 805 Test Method for Rebound Number of Hardened tions. In others, the interpretation will be made in part by
Concrete2 engineers, scientists, or others qualied to relate the observa-
C 823 Practice for Examination and Sampling of Hardened tions to the questions to be answered.
Concrete in Constructions2 3.2 This practice may be used by a petrographer employed
C 944 Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Concrete or directly by those for whom the examination is made. The
Mortar Surfaces by the Rotating Cutter Method2 employer should tell the petrographer, in as much detail as
C 1012 Test Method for Length Change of Hydraulic-
Cement Mortars Exposed to a Sulfate Solution3 4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01.
C 1260 Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of 5
Available from ASTM Headquarters, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Consho-
Aggregates (Mortar-Bar Method)2 hocken, PA 19428. Request adjunct No. 12-308560-00.

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C 856
TABLE 2 Outline for Examination of Concrete with a Stereomicroscope (1)

NOTE 1ConditionWhen it is examined at 6 to 103 under good light, the freshly broken surface of a concrete in good physical condition that still
retains most of its natural moisture content has a luster that in mineralogical terms is subtranslucent glimmering vitreous.A Thin edges of splinters of the
paste transmit light; reections appear to come from many minute points on the surface, and the quality of luster is like that from broken glass but less
intense. Concrete in less good physical condition is more opaque on a freshly broken surface, and the luster is dull, subvitreous going toward chalky. A
properly cured laboratory specimen from a concrete mixture of normal proportions cured 28 days that has shown normal compressive or exural strength
and that is broken with a hammer and examined on a new break within a week of the time that it nished curing should provide an example of concrete
in good physical condition.
Under the same conditions of examination, when there is reasonable assurance that the concrete does not contain white portland cement or slag cement,
the color of the matrix of concrete in good physical condition is denitely gray or denitely tan, except adjoining old cracks or original surfaces.
Coarse Aggregate Fine Aggregate Matrix Voids
Lithologic types and mineralogy as percep- Lithologic types and miner Color Grading
tible alogy as perceptible Fracture around or through aggregate Proportion of spherical to nonspherical
Surface texture Shape Contact of matrix with aggregate: Nonspherical, ellipsoidal, irregular, disk-
Within the piece: Surface texture close, no opening visible on sawed shaped
Grain shape Grading or broken surface; aggregate not Color change from interior surface to
Grain size extreme range observed, mm Distribution dislodged with ngers or probe; matrix
Median within range _ to _ mm boundary openings frequent, Interior surface luster like rest of ma-
Textureless (too ne to resolve) common, rare trix, dull, shining
Uniform or variable within the piece Width Linings in voids absent, rare, common,
From piece to piece: Empty in most, complete, partial, colorless,
Intergranular bond Filled colored, silky tufts, hexagonal tab
Porosity and absorptionB Cracks present, absent, result of spec lets, gel, other
If concrete breaks through aggregate, imen preparation, preceding spec Underside voids or sheets of voids un
through how much of what kind? imen preparation common, small, common, abundant
If boundary voids, along what kind of Mineral admixturesC
aggregate? All? All of one kind? More Contamination
than 50 % of one kind? Several kinds? Bleeding
Dana, E. S., Textbook of Mineralogy, revised by W. E. Ford, John Wiley & Sons, New York, N. Y. 4th ed., 1932, pp. 273274.
Pore visible to the naked eye, or at 3 _, or sucks in water that is dropped on it.
Dark solid spheres or hollow-centered spheres of glass, or of magnetite, or some of glass and some of magnetite, recognizable at magnication of 3 9 on sawed or
broken surfaces. Other mineral admixtures with characteristic particles visible at low magnication are recognizable. Ground surface of concrete containing portland
blast-furnace slag cement are unusually white near-free surfaces but retain greenish or blue-greenish patches, and slag particles can be seen with the stereomicroscope
or polarizing microscope.

necessary, the purposes and objectives of the examination, the 4.2.3 Determination of the probable future performance of
kind of information needed, and the extent of examination the concrete.
desired. Pertinent background information, including results of 4.2.4 Determination whether the concrete in a construction
prior testing, should be made available. If the petrographer is was or was not as specied. In this case, other tests may be
highly experienced, his advice and judgment should be sought required in conjunction with petrographic examination.
regarding the extent of the examination, and the matters 4.2.5 Description of the cementitious matrix, including
discussed in 3.3. qualitative determination of the kind of hydraulic binder used,
3.3 This practice may form the basis for establishing ar- degree of hydration, degree of carbonation if present, evidence
rangements between a purchaser of a consulting service and the of unsoundness of the cement, presence of a mineral admix-
consultant. In such a case, the purchaser and the consultant ture, the nature of the hydration products, adequacy of curing,
should together determine the kind, extent, and objectives of and unusually high water - cement ratio of the paste.
the examination and analyses to be made, and should record 4.2.6 Determination whether alkali - silica or alkali - car-
their agreement in writing. The agreement may stipulate bonate reactions, or cement - aggregate reactions, or reactions
specic determinations to be made, observations to be re- between contaminants and the matrix have taken place, and
ported, funds to be obligated, or a combination of these or other their effects upon the concrete.
conditions. 4.2.7 Determination whether the concrete has been sub-
4. Purposes of Examination jected to and affected by sulfate attack, or other chemical
attack, or early freezing, or to other harmful effects of freezing
4.1 Examples of purposes for which petrographic examina-
and thawing.
tion of concrete is used are given in 4.2-4.5. The probable
usefulness of petrographic examination in specic instances 4.2.8 Part of a survey of the safety of a structure for a
may be determined by discussion with an experienced petrog- present or proposed use.
rapher of the objectives of the investigation proposed or 4.2.9 Determination whether concrete subjected to re is
underway. essentially undamaged or moderately or seriously damaged.
4.2 Concrete from Constructions: 4.2.10 Investigation of the performance of the coarse or ne
4.2.1 Determination in detail of the condition of concrete in aggregate in the structure, or determination of the composition
a construction. of the aggregate for comparison with aggregate from approved
4.2.2 Determination of the causes of inferior quality, dis- or specied sources.
tress, or deterioration of concrete in a construction. 4.2.11 Determination of the factors that caused a given

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C 856
TABLE 3 Effects of Fire on Characteristics of Concrete
Characteristic Causes and Effects Ways of Investigation
Surface hardness Dehydration to 100C removes free water; dehydration is Beneath the softened concrete, which can be tested
essentially complete at 540C; calcium hydroxide goes in accordance with Test Method C 805, the
to CaO at 450500C. Paste expands with thermal concrete is probably normal if it has not undergone
coefficient effect and then shrinks, cracks, decrepitates, color change. Establish by coring for compressive
and becomes soft (4). tests, by wear tests (CRD-C 52) (4), and by
scratching with a knife.
Cracking Perpendicular to the face and internal, where heating or Examination of the surface, ultrasonic tests, coring,
cooling caused excess tensile stresses. In some new petrographic examination (4).
concrete, resembles large-scale shrinkage cracking; may
penetrate up to 100 mm but may heal autogenously (4).
Color changeWhen concrete has not Concrete made with sedimentary or metamorphic Color change is the factor most useful to the
spalled, observe depth of pink color to aggregates shows permanent color change on heating. investigator; permits recognizing how deeply a
estimate the re exposure. Color normal to 230C; goes from pink to red from 290 to temperature of about 300C occurred (5).
590C; from 590 to 900C color changes to gray and
then to buff (4). For temperatures up to about 500C
temperature distribution is little affected by using
carbonate rather than siliceous aggregate (5). At 573C
low quartz inverts to high with 0.85 % increase in
volume, producing popouts. Spalling over steel to
expose one fourth of the bar at 790C; white powdered
decomposed hydration products at 900C. Surface
crazing about 290C; deeper cracking about 540C.
Aggregate behaviorAggregate behavior Aggregates differ in thermal diffusivity, conductivity, Changes on heating are often accompanied by
affects strength, modulus, spalling, coefficient of expansion. Heat transmission decreases volume change (4).
cracking, surface hardness, and residual from concrete made with highly siliceous aggregate,
thermal strains (4). sandstone, traprock, limestone, lightweight aggregates
Spalling Occurs subparallel to free face; followed by breaking off
saucer-like pieces especially at corners and edges (4).
Note: Compressive strength and elastic Reduction in strength of concrete containing siliceous Determinations by compressive tests and static
modulus. For concrete at least 1-year gravel after heating, then cooling and testing: modulus of cores; Test Method C 805for
old, strength will increase after cooling Heated to Temperature qualitative determination; Test Method C 597 (4).
from 300C if design strength was C Reduction, %
attained (5). 180 25
370 50
570 80
Reduction in Modulus
Temperaturee, C Reduction, %
200 25
430 50
760 70

concrete to serve satisfactorily in the environment in which it amounts of reinforcement, embedded hardware, etc.
was exposed. 4.5 Laboratory SpecimensThe purposes of petrographic
4.2.12 Determination of the presence and nature of surface examination of laboratory specimens of concrete, mortar, or
treatments, such as dry shake applications on concrete oors. cement paste are, in general, to investigate the effects of the test
4.3 Test Specimens from Actual or Simulated Service on the test piece or on one or more of its constituents, to
Concrete or mortar specimens that have been subjected to provide examples of the effects of a process, and to provide the
actual or simulated service conditions may be examined for petrographer with visual evidence of examples of reactions in
most of the purposes listed under Concrete from Constructions. paste or mortar or concrete of known materials, proportions,
4.4 Concrete Products: age, and history. Specic purposes include:
4.4.1 Petrographic examination can be used in investigation
4.5.1 To establish whether alkali - silica reaction has taken
of concrete products of any kind, including masonry units,
place, what aggregate constituents were affected, what evi-
precast structural units, piling, pipe, and building modules. The
dence of the reaction exists, and what were the effects of the
products or samples of those submitted for examination may be
reaction on the concrete. The technique in Annex A1 is helpful
either from current production, from elements in service in
constructions, or from elements that have been subjected to for identifying locations where alkali-silica gel may be present.
tests or to actual or simulated service conditions. 4.5.2 To establish whether one or more alkali - carbonate
4.4.2 Determination of features like those listed under reactions have taken place, which aggregate constituents were
concrete from constructions. affected and what evidence of the reaction or reactions exists,
4.4.3 Determination of effects of manufacturing processes and the effects of the reaction on the concrete properties.
and variables such as procedures for mixing, molding, demold- 4.5.3 To establish whether any other cement - aggregate
ing, consolidation, curing, and handling. reaction has taken place. In addition to alkali - silica and alkali
4.4.4 Determination of effects of use of different concrete- - carbonate reactions, these include hydration of anhydrous
making materials, forming and molding procedures, types and sulfates, rehydration of zeolites, wetting of clays and reactions

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TABLE 4 Outline for Examination of Concrete in Thin Sections
Coarse and Fine Aggregate Relict Cement Grains and Hydration Products Characteristics of Cement Paste
Mineralogy, texture, fabric, variable or In concrete over 2 years old and normally cured, the Normal cement paste consists in plane transmitted
homogeneous. only residual cement grains are those that were light of pale tan matter varying somewhat in
Grading; excess or deciency of sand sizes is to be largest, which may be composed of several index of refraction and containing relict
judged after examination of a series of thin constituents or be of alite or belite (substituted unhydrated cement grains. In concrete sectioned
sections. Grain size and nature of internal C3S and C2S). The latter two may be bordered at early age or not adequately cured, the paste
boundaries in aggregate. Classication of coarse by one or two layers of gel having different contains unhydrated cement grains ranging down
and ne aggregate. indexes of refraction, or by a layer of calcium to a few micrometres in maximum size with an
Natural mineral aggregate or crushed stone; natural hydroxide. The largest relict grains may be truly upper limit as large as 100 m in maximum
or manufactured ne aggregate. unhydrated and retain the low (dark gray) diameter if the cement was ground in open-circuit
Bond with matrix; peripheral cracks inside the birefringence of alite in distorted quasihexagonal mills or was deliberately ground to low surface
borders of aggregate grains; internal cracks. sections and the visible birefringence to area to reduce the heat of hydration. With
General microfractures if one can establish that rst-order yellow of the lamellar twins in rounded crossed polars, normal paste is black or very
they existed before thin-sectioning. grains of belite. Interstitial aluminoferrite appears dark mottled gray with scattered anhedral
Alkali - carbonate reactionsIf the coarse as prismatic grains ranging in color from brown to poikilitic crystals or small segregations of calcium
aggregate is a carbonate rock or rocks, are there greenish brown to reddish brown and having a hydroxide and scattered relict grains of cement.
rims or partial rims depleted in calcium high refractive index and pleochroism masked by In concrete of high water - cement ratio and
hydroxide? Partly dolomitic rocks that have the color of the grain. Tricalcium aluminate is siliceous aggregate, the calcium hydroxide
reacted sometimes are bordered with paste free usually not recognized in thin section because the crystals are as large as the maximum size of
from calcium hydroxide along the dolomitic cubic form is isotropic or because it hydrates residual cement grains, about 100 m. In
portion while the paste along the limestone early in the hydration history of the concrete concrete of lower water - cement ratio, higher
portion is normal. See other comments in forming submicroscopic ettringite or tetracalcium cement content, and either siliceous or carbonate
Column 3. aluminum sulfate hydrate or other tetracalcium aggregate, the maximum size of calcium
Alkali - silica reactionDoes the aggregate contain aluminum hydrates with or without other anions. hydroxide crystals is considerably smaller.
particles of types known to be reactive (chert, These may be visible in voids in older concrete Regardless of water - cement ratio and type of
novaculite, acid volcanic glass, cristobalite, but are best discriminated by X-ray diffraction. aggregate, calcium hydroxide crystals occupy
tridymite, opal, bottle glass)? If quartzite, Cements from different sources have different space tangential to the undersides of aggregate
metamorphosed subgraywacke, argillite, phyllite, colors of aluminoferrite and the calcium silicates particles. Where all the aggregate is carbonate
or any of those listed in the sentence above, are have pale green or yellow or white shades. It rock the maximum size of calcium hydroxide is
there internal cracks inside the periphery of the should be possible to match cements from one smaller than in comparable concrete with
aggregate? Has the aggregate been gelatinized source. siliceous aggregate. (Calcium hydroxide is
so that it has pulled off during sectioning leaving probably epitaxial on calcite.)
only a peripheral hull bonded to the mortar? (This Cement paste in concrete that has been subjected
last phenomenon also occurs in concrete with to prolonged acid leaching is low in calcium
air-cooled slag aggregate, where it indicates hydroxide which is present as recrystallized
reaction between cement and slag.) Cracks that virtually anhedral grains precipitated near the
appear to be tensile and to narrow from the exterior surfaces.
center toward the border of the particle are also In concrete over 2 or 3 years old made with Type I,
evidence of alkali - silica reaction (6). II, or III cement, some ettringite is to be expected
as rosettes in air voids. This is a normal
phenomenon; to demonstrate sulfate attack it
must be established chemically that the SO3
content of the concrete is greater than would be
supplied by the original sulfate content of the
cement. Ettringite in voids is not ettringite that
has damaged concrete although it may
accompany submicroscopic ettringite in the paste
that has damaged the concrete.

involving solubility, oxidation, sulfates, and suldes (see Refs of a particular reaction in concrete or determine that the
1, 2, and 3).6 reaction cannot be detected.
4.5.4 To establish whether an aggregate used in a test has
been contaminated by a reactive constituent when in fact the 5. Apparatus
aggregate was not reactive. 5.1 The apparatus and supplies employed in making petro-
4.5.5 To establish the effects of a freezing and thawing test graphic examinations of hardened concrete depend on the
or other physical or mechanical exposure of concrete on the procedures required. The following list includes the equipment
aggregate and the matrix. generally used. Equipment needed to perform the examinations
4.5.6 To establish the extent of reaction, the nature of in Annex A1 is listed therein. Equipment required for eld
reaction products, and effects of reaction produced in exposure sampling is not listed. Any other useful equipment may be
to a chemically aggressive environment such as in Test Method added.
C 452 or Test Method C 1012. 5.2 For Specimen Preparation:
4.5.7 To determine the characteristics of moist-cured con- 5.2.1 Diamond SawSlabbing saw with an automatic feed
crete that has not been subjected to chemical attack or cement and blade large enough to make at least a 7-in. (175-mm) cut
- aggregate reaction or freezing and thawing. in one pass.
4.5.8 By comparison with appropriate laboratory speci- 5.2.2 Cutting Lubricant, for diamond saw.
mens, a petrographer may be able to substantiate the existence 5.2.3 Horizontal Lap Wheel or Wheels, steel, cast iron, or
other metal lap, preferably at least 16 in. (400 mm) in diameter,
The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to the list of references at the end of large enough to grind at least a 4 by 6-in. (100 by 152-mm)
this practice. area.

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TABLE 5 Characteristics of Concrete Observed Using Microscopes
Type of Microscope
Stereomicroscope Petrographic Metallographic
Shape X X X
Grading X ... ...
Distribution X ... ...
Texture X X X
Composition X X ...
Rock types X X ...
Alteration X X ...
degree X X
products X X ...
Coatings X X ...
Rims X X X
Internal cracking X X ...
Contamination X X
Air-entrained or not X X X
Air voids ... ... ...
shape X X X
size X X X
distribution X ... ...
Bleeding X ... ...
Segregation X ... ...
Aggregate-paste bond X X X
Fractures X X X
Embedded items
size X ... ...
shape X ... ...
location X ... ...
type X ... ...
degree and type X X X
reaction products
location X X X
identication XA X ...
Nature and condition of surface treatments X X ...
Color X X ...
Hardness X ... X
Porosity X ... X
Carbonation X X ...
Residual cement
distribution ... X X
particle size ... X X
abundance ... X X
composition ... X X
Mineral admixtures XB X X
size ... X X
abundance X X X
identication X X X
Compounds in hydrated cement XC X X
size X X X
abundance X X X
identication ... X XD
Secondary ettringite can sometimes be recognized by crystal habit and silky luster.
Fly ash can be detected by color and shape when dark spheres are present. In concrete that has not oxidized the presence of slag may be inferred from the green
or blue color of the paste.
Ettringite and calcium hydroxide in voids may be recognized by their crystal habits.
Magnesium oxide and calcium oxide should be identiable in polished section.

5.2.4 Free Abrasive Machine, using abrasive grit in lubri- 5.2.7 Prospectors Pick or Bricklayers Hammer, or both.
cant, with sample holders rotating on a rotating table. This type 5.2.8 AbrasivesSilicon carbide grits, No. 100 (150-m),
of grinding machine greatly increases the speed of preparation No. 220 (63-m), No. 320 (31-m), No. 600 (16-m), No. 800
of nely ground surfaces. (12-m); optical nishing powders, such as M-303, M-204,
5.2.5 Polishing Wheel, at least 8 in. (200 mm) in diameter M-309; polishing powders as needed.
and preferably two-speed, or a vibratory polisher. 5.2.9 Plate-glass Squares, 12 to 18-in. (300 to 450-mm) on
5.2.6 Hot Plate or Oven, thermostatically controlled, to an edge and at least 38 in. (10 mm) thick for hand-nishing
permit drying and impregnating specimens with resin or wax specimens.
for preparing thin sections, ground surfaces, and polished 5.2.10 Suitable Medium or Media, for impregnating con-
sections. crete and mounting thin sections plus appropriate solvent.

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TABLE 6 Secondary Deposits in ConcreteA
Compound and Mineral Equivalent Indexes of Refraction Form and Occurrence
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3); calcite v 5 1.658 Fine-grained, white or gray masses or coatings in the
e 5 1.486 cement paste, in voids, along fractures, or on exposed
surfaces; very common
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3); aragonite a 5 1.530 Minute, white prisms or needles in voids or fractures in
b 5 1.680 concrete; rare
g 5 1.685
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3); vaterite o 5 1.5441.550 Spherulitic, form-birefringent, white encrustations on
E 5 1.6401.650 moist-stored laboratory specimens (vaterite A); also
identied in sound concrete from structures by X-ray
diffraction (a-vaterite); common (7)
6-calcium aluminate trisulfate-32 hydrate {Ca6[Al(OH)6]2 v 5 1.4641.469B Fine, white bers or needles or spherulitic growths in
24H2O}(SO4)32H2O (8); ettringite e 5 1.4581.462 voids, in the cement paste, or in fractures; very common
(1, 7)
Tetracalcium aluminate monosulfate-12-hydrate (3CaO v 5 1.504 White to colorless, minute, hexagonal plates in voids and
Al2O3CaSO412H2O) e 5 1.49 fractures; very rare (7)
Tetracalcium aluminate-13-hydrate (Ca4Al2(OH)146H2O) v 5 1.53 Micalike, colorless, pseudohexagonal, twinned crystals in
e 5 1.52 voids; very rare (9)
Hydrous sodium carbonate (Na2OCO2H2O); a 5 1.420 Minute inclusions in alkalic silica gel; rare (7)
thermonatrite b 5 1.506
g 5 1.524
Hydrated aluminum sulfate (2Al2O3SO315H2O); a 5 1.463 6 0.003 Occurring in cavities in intensely altered concrete; very
paraluminite b 5 1.471 rare (9)
g 5 1.471
Calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO42H2O); gypsum a 5 1.521 White to colorless crystals in voids, in the cement paste,
b 5 1.523 or along the surfaces of aggregate particles in concrete
g 5 1.530 or mortar affected by sulfate or seawater attack;
Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2); portlandite v 5 1.574 White to colorless, hexagonal plates or tablets in the
e 5 1.547 cement paste, in voids, along fractures; ubiquitous in
Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2); brucite v 5 1.559 White to yellow, ne-grained encrustations and llings in
e 5 1.580 concrete attacked by magnesian solutions or seawater;
unusual (10, 11)
Hydrous silica (SiO2nH2O); opal h 5 1.43 White to colorless, nely divided, amorphous; resulting
from intense leaching
varies with water content or carbonation of cement paste; unusual in recognizable
Alkalic silica gel (Na2OK2OCaOSiO2) h 5 1.461.53 White, yellowish, or colorless; viscous, uid, waxy,
rubbery, hard; in voids, fractures,
exudations, aggregate; common (12, 13)
Hydrated iron oxides (Fe2O3nH2O); Limonite opaque or nearly so Brown stain in fractures and on surfaces; common
Thaumasite {Ca6[Si(OH)6]224H2O}(SO4)2(CO3)2(8) v 5 1.504 Prismatic, hexagonal; capable of growing in continuity with
e 5 1.4686 0.002B ettringite; in sewer pipe subject to sulfate attack, in
grout, in some pavement (14)
Syngenite (K2Ca(SO4)2)H2O a 5 1.501 (15) Found in cavities and zones peripheral to slate particles, in
b 5 1.51 brous form (16)
g 5 1.51
Hydrotalcite Mg3/4Al1/4(OH)2(CO3)1/8(H2O)1/2(8) v 5 1.510 6 0.003 Foliated platy to brous masses (17, 8)
e 5 1.4956 0.003
The literature and private reports include data on many unidentied secondary compounds in concrete; these are not included in the tabulation. Indexes of refraction
of common mineralogic types are taken from standard works on mineralogy.
Higher and lower indexes of refraction have been recorded for naturally occurring ettringite (15) and thaumasite (14), but it is not known that the naturally occurring
minerals and compounds found in hydrated cement are of the same composition.

Canada balsam, Lakeside 70 cement, and exibilized epoxy with tops curved to hold a section of core assist in manipulating
formulations have been used. concrete specimens under the stereomicroscope. WarningFlexibilized epoxies form strong bonds 5.3.3 Polarizing Microscope, for examinations in transmit-
but have higher indexes of refraction than Canada balsam or ted light, with mechanical stage; low-, medium-, and high-
Lakeside 70 and are toxic. Do not allow to touch the skin; power objectives such as 3.53, 103, and 20 to 253; 43 to
plastic gloves shall be worn, and the work shall be done under 503 with numerical aperture 0.85 or more; assorted eyepieces
a hood so as not to breathe the fumes.
having appropriate corrections and magnications for use with
5.2.11 Microscope SlidesClear, noncorrosive, glass ap-
each of the objectives; micrometer eyepiece; condenser adjust-
proximately 24 mm wide and at least 45 mm long. Thickness
able to match numerical aperture of objective with highest
may need to be specied to t some thin section machines.
5.2.12 Cover Glasses, noncorrosive and preferably No. 1 numerical aperture to be used; full-wave and quarter-wave
(0.18-mm) thickness. compensators, quartz wedge, and other accessories.
5.3 For Specimen Examination: 5.3.4 Metallographic Microscope, with vertical illuminator,
5.3.1 Stereomicroscope, providing magnications in the mechanical stage, metallographic objectives of low, medium,
range from 73 to 703 or more. and high magnication, and appropriate eyepieces to provide a
5.3.2 DolliesSmall, wheeled dollies with at tops and range of magnications from about 253 to 5003. Reected

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polarized light should be available and appropriate compensa- cient. Specimens for petrographic examination may be ob-
tors provided. Some polarizing microscopes can be equipped tained by sending samples to individuals or rms that offer
with accessories for metallographic examination, if the tube custom services in preparing thin or polished sections and
can be raised or the stage lowered to give adequate clearance nely ground surfaces. It is more convenient to prepare
for the vertical illuminator and the thicker specimens usually specimens in house, and their prompt availability overrides
employed. their probably greater cost.
5.3.5 Eyepiece MicrometerEyepiece micrometers cali- 6.3 X-ray diffraction, X-ray emission, differential thermal
brated using a stage micrometer are useful for measuring analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, analytical chemistry, in-
particles of aggregate, cement grains, calcium hydroxide and frared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy or
other crystals, and crack widths. wavelength dispersive analysis, and other techniques may be
5.3.6 Stage Micrometer, to calibrate eyepiece micrometers. very useful in obtaining quick and denite answers to relevant
5.3.7 Microscope LampsMany modern polarizing micro- questions where microscopy will not do so. Some undesirable
scopes have built-in illuminators which are convenient and constituents of concrete, some hydration products of cement,
satisfactory if, with the condenser, they can be adjusted to ll and some reaction products useful in dening the effects of
the back lens of the objective of highest numerical aperture different exposures, and many contaminating materials may
with light. If the microscope requires a separate illuminator, not be identied unless techniques that supplement light
tungsten ribbon-lament bulbs in suitable adjustable housings microscopy are used. (18, 19). The uranyl-acetate technique
are satisfactory. Many kinds of illuminators are available for given in Annex A1 can be helpful in locating sites where
stereomicroscopes; some can be mounted on the microscope, alkali-silica gel may be present.
some stand on their own bases; choice is a question of
adequacy of illumination for the tasks intended. Focusable 7. Samples
illuminators are preferred. 7.1 The minimum size of sample should amount to at least
5.3.8 Needleholders and PointsIn addition to pin vises one core, preferably 6 in. (152 mm) in diameter and 1 ft (305
and needles from laboratory supply houses, a No. 10 sewing mm) long for each mixture or condition or category of
needle mounted in a handle or a selection of insect pins from concrete, except that in the case of pavement the full depth of
size 00 to size 4 are useful for prying out reaction products. pavement shall be sampled with a 4 or 6-in. (102 or 152-mm)
5.3.9 Bottles with Droppers, for acid, water, and other core. Broken fragments of concrete are usually of doubtful use
reagents applied during examination. in petrographic examination, because the damage to the con-
5.3.10 Assorted Forceps, preferably stainless steel, includ- crete cannot be clearly identied as a function of the sampling
ing ne-pointed watchmakers forceps. technique or representative of the real condition of the con-
5.3.11 Lens Paper. crete. Cores smaller in diameter than 6 in. can be used if the
5.3.12 Refractometer, and Immersion Media, covering the aggregate is small enough; in deteriorated concrete, core
range of refractive indexes from 1.410 to at least 1.785, in steps recovery is much poorer with 218-in. (54-mm) diameter core
not larger than 0.005. Stable immersion media, calibrated at a than with 6-in. diameter core. While it is desirable in exami-
known temperature and of known thermal coefficient, are nation and testing to have a core three times the maximum size
preferable and should be used in a temperature-controlled of aggregate, this circumstance is a rare occurrence when
room. A thermometer graduated in tenths of a degree Celsius concrete with aggregate larger than 2 in. is sampled, because of
should be used to measure air temperature near the microscope the cost of large bits and the problems of handling large cores.
stage so that thermal corrections of refractive index can be 7.2 Samples from ConstructionsThe most useful samples
made if needed. for petrographic examination of concrete from constructions
are diamond-drilled cores with a diameter at least twice (and
6. Selection and Use of Apparatus preferably three times) the maximum size of the coarse
6.1 Laboratories should be equipped to provide photo- aggregate in the concrete. If 6-in. (152-mm) aggregate is used,
graphs, photomacrographs, and photomicrographs to illustrate a core at least 10 in. (250 mm) in diameter is desirable; usually
signicant features of the concrete. While ordinary microscope a 6-in. diameter core is the largest provided.
lamps are sometimes satisfactory for photomicrography in 7.2.1 The location and orientation of all cores, including
transmitted and reected light, lamps providing intense point cores or core lengths not sent to the laboratory, should be
or eld sources, such as tungsten ribbon-lament bulbs, or clearly shown; and each core should be properly labeled. For
zirconium or carbon arcs, are highly desirable. For much useful vertically drilled cores, the elevation or depth at top and bottom
guidance regarding photomicrography, especially using re- of each section should be shown, and core loss and fractures
ected light, see Practice E 883. antedating the drilling should be marked. For cores taken
6.2 The minimum equipment for petrographic examination horizontally or obliquely, the direction of the vertical plane and
of concrete where both specimen preparation and examination the tops and bottoms should be marked. A eld log should be
are completed within the laboratory consists of a selection of provided.
apparatus and supplies for specimen preparation, a stereomi- 7.2.2 Broken pieces of concrete from extremely deteriorated
croscope preferably on a large stand so that 6-in. (152-mm) structures or pieces removed while preparing for repair work
diameter cores can be conveniently examined, a polarizing are sometimes used for petrographic examination. The samples
microscope and accessories, lamps for each microscope, and will be more useful if their original locations in the structure
stable calibrated immersion media of known thermal coeffi- are clearly described or indicated in a sketch or photographs.

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7.2.3 The information provided with the samples should scope (see Table 2 and the section on Visual and Stereomicro-
include: scopic Examination). In some cases, further study is unneces- The location and original orientation of each speci- sary, and a report can be prepared. In other cases, specimens
men (see Practice C 823), are chosen during the visual and stereomicroscope examination The mixture proportions of the concrete or con- for further processing and additional stereomicroscope study,
cretes, more detailed examination using the petrographic or metallo- Sources of concrete-making materials and results of graphic microscopes or by X-ray diffraction and other instru-
tests of samples thereof, mental methods, and for other chemical or physical tests. Description of mixing, placing, consolidation, and Methods for specimen preparation are outlined in the Specimen
curing methods, Preparation Section. Tables 2-4 summarize characteristics of Age of the structure, or in case of a structure that concrete conveniently observed with stereomicroscopic, petro-
required several years to complete, dates of placement of the graphic, and metallographic microscopes. Examination using a
concrete sampled, stereomicroscope is outlined in the Visual and Stereomicro- Conditions of operation and service exposure, scopic Examination Section. Examination of re-damaged The reason for and objectives of the examination, concrete is outlined in Table 3; using a polarizing microscope Symptoms believed to indicate distress or deteriora- in the Polarizing Microscope Examination Section and Table 4;
tion, and and using a metallographic microscope in the Metallographic Results of eld tests such as measurements of pulse Microscope Examination Section. During each kind of study,
velocity (Test Method C 215), rebound hammer numbers (Test the petrographer should note specic examinations to be made
Method C 805) or probe readings (Test Method C 803). in detail, later, and may recognize the need to reexamine
7.3 Samples from Test Specimens from Natural Exposures, specimens. Observations possible using different kinds of
Concrete Products, and Laboratory Specimens: microscopes are shown in Table 5; properties of some relevant
7.3.1 Information provided should include: materials used, compounds are listed in Table 6. A broad overview of possible
mixture proportions, curing, age of concrete when placed in locations where alkali-silica gel may be present can be ob-
service or test, orientation in exposure, present age, condition tained using the uranyl-acetate method outlined in Annex A1.
surveys during exposure, characteristics of the natural or 8.3 Photography2It is frequently desirable to maintain a
laboratory exposure, and method of manufacture of concrete photographic record as illustrations for the report and for future
products. Large concrete products may be sampled like con- reference. Photographs which may be useful include:
structions; smaller ones may be represented by one or more 8.3.1 Overlapping close-ups of a core or cores, laid out in
showing the range of condition from service or fabrication or sequence, including a dimensional scale. It is convenient to use
both. a view camera at a constant distance using the same lighting in
7.3.2 The exposure of laboratory specimens should be all photographs.
described with test results, age at test and available test results
8.3.2 Photographs and photomacrographs of features of
on the aggregates, hydraulic binders, and admixtures used.
interest on a core surface, a ground surface, or an old or new
This information should accompany test specimens from
crack surface, at magnications of 0.73 to 33 are particularly
natural exposures and concrete products or samples therefrom,
useful if the specimen will be destroyed during subsequent
if available.
studies. A camera equipped with a long extension bellows and
8. Examination of Samples lenses of focal length from 6.5 to 2.9 in. (165 to 74 mm), and
8.1 Choice of ProceduresSpecic techniques and proce- a ground-glass back, is desirable.
dures employed in examination of a sample depend on the 8.3.3 Photomacrographs at magnications of at least 33 to
purpose of the examination and the nature of the sample. 103, and sometimes at higher magnications, may be used to
Procedures to be used should be chosen after the questions that illustrate reaction products or growths on the specimen or
the examination is intended to answer have been clearly signicant crack patterns. Black and white photographs such as
formulated. The procedures should be chosen to answer those 4 by 5 in. (102 by 127 mm) taken at 13 magnication on
questions as unequivocally and as economically as possible. ne-grained lm with a long gray scale, convey a great deal of
The details that need to be resolved will be dictated by the information and may be more useful than a photograph taken
objectives of the examination and will vary for different at a higher magnication on smaller format. As a general guide,
situations. Consequently, the selection and location of speci- the subject should be illuminated by oblique lighting at a low
mens from the samples submitted for examination should be angle if the relief on the subject surface is low, and at a higher
guided by the objectives of the study. Practice C 457 should be angle if the relief is high. The object of the oblique illumination
referred to for those relevant subjects not described here. is to reveal detail and contrast without obscuring features by
8.2 Visual Examination and Outline of Additional long shadows. Details can also be enhanced by the use of
ExaminationA petrographic examination of concrete, mor- colored lters such as Wratten G or other yellow lters. Cross
tar, or cement paste should begin with a review of all the lighting from two sides is sometimes successful in revealing
available information about the specimen or specimens, fol- detail and obliterating confusing shadows.
lowed by a visual examination of each sample. An outline of 8.3.4 Photomicrographs of thin sections, immersion
information that can be obtained is given in Table 1. That study mounts, and polished sections at magnications from 23 to an
should be followed by an examination using a stereomicro- upper limit appropriate to the subject and dependent on the

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quality of the equipment and the skill of the photographer may ric acid to see if peripheral rims on coarse aggregate particles
be used to illustrate textures, compounds, and crack patterns. are more or less susceptible to etching than the interior of the
8.3.5 The range of photographic techniques used should be particle. Since etching destroys the surface, this step should not
adequate to provide a choice useful for illustrations for the be taken until all other examinations of the surface have been
report and for the record. The subjects may usually be selected completed. Etching the ground surface for 30 s in 10 %
during the visual and stereomicroscopic examinations. hydrochloric acid is an appropriate procedure.
9.2 Preparation of Immersion Mounts Secondary prod-
9. Specimen Preparation
ucts of nondeleterious anddeleterious chemical processes may
9.1 Preparation for Visual and Stereomicroscope Examina- be observed during the stereomicroscopic examination. Finely
tion: pointed probes may be used to excavate and transfer them to
9.1.1 Diamond-drilled cores, formed or nished surfaces, microscope slides. The material is then covered with a cover
freshly broken surfaces, or old crack surfaces should be glass, immersed in a refractive index liquid, and examined
examined in the condition received. It is sometimes helpful to using a polarizing microscope to determine the optical charac-
have drilled surfaces and formed and nished surfaces wetted teristics of the product such as index of refraction, birefrin-
to increase contrast. gence, and optical character.
9.1.2 Diamond saw cuts should be oriented with relation to 9.3 Preparation of Thin SectionsThe detailed description
signicant features of the concrete, either normal to the of thin-section preparation is beyond the scope of this practice.
bedding directions in conventional concrete, or normal to a There are many laboratories that provide this service if
formed or nished surface, or to a crack or crack system, in in-house facilities are not available. The procedure includes
order to reveal the structure and fabric of the concrete and the slicing the concrete into 116-in. (2-mm) thick wafers if the
extent of alteration outward from the crack. concrete is strong and thicker slices if it is not. It may be
9.1.3 It is useful to prepare at least one sawed surface by necessary to impregnate the concrete with a resin before slicing
grinding it with progressively ner abrasives (as described in to prevent disintegration. Diluted exibilized epoxy resins or
Practice C 457) until a smooth matte nish is achieved and to thermoplastic resins have been used successfully. The thin
select areas on the matching opposing surface for preparation concrete slices are then mounted on glass slides with either
of thin sections and specimens for optical, chemical, X-ray exibilized epoxy, Canada balsam, or Lakeside 70, and ground
diffraction, or other examinations. on laps using progressively ner abrasive until a thickness of
9.1.4 Specimens obtained by diamond drilling are not ordi- 30 m or less is obtained; thickness not greater than 20 m is
narily damaged in the process; however, weak concrete dam- required for detailed examination of the paste in transmitted
aged by chemical attack, an alkali - aggregate reaction, light. It is usually necessary to check the thickness of the
freezing and thawing, or several of these, will give poor core section by the use of birefringent colors of common minerals in
recovery with many fractures if it is drilled with a 218-in. or the aggregate, such as quartz or feldspar, during the nal
54-mm bit and barrel while it will give essentially complete grinding stages. A cover glass is placed on the cleaned,
recovery if drilled with a 6-in. (152-mm) diameter bit and prepared section and secured with Canada balsam or other
barrel. This difference is particularly important in petrographic media.
examinations made during condition surveys of old structures. 9.3.1 Semiautomatic thin-section making machines are
Weakened concrete may also break during sawing. The re- available which prepare the original surface of the blank for
moval and preparation of specimens for laboratory studies mounting, trim the excess thickness of the blank after mount-
usually involves the application of force and sometimes the ing, and grind the section to 50 to 100 m, leaving little
application of heat to the specimen. thickness to be removed by hand lapping.
9.1.5 The effects of force can be minimized during speci-
9.4 Preparation for Examination with the Metallographic
men preparation by using thicker slices and making only one
cut parallel to the long axis of a core section. Fractured or
9.4.1 The preparation of specimens for examination with
fragile concrete can be supported by partially or completely
the metallographic microscope is described in Methods E 3.
encasing it in plaster, epoxy resin, or other reinforcing media
before sawing. 9.4.2 The procedures described here are intended as guides
9.1.6 Heat used while impregnating concrete with thermo- only. Methods should be used that are appropriate to the
plastic wax or resin will cause cracking if the concrete is heated varieties of microscopical techniques to be employed, and to
while it is wet, and will alter the optical properties of some specimen condition and composition. It is impossible to
compounds, such as ettringite. Artifacts may therefore be provide instructions to suit every possible situation.
produced and compound identication made difficult. These 9.5 The preparation of the specimens for the uranyl-acetate
artifacts may be mistaken as original features. Care must method given in Annex A1 is provided therein.
therefore be used in evaluating a particular feature and index-
ing it as original in the specimen, or produced during the 10. Visual and Stereomicroscope Examination
removal of the specimen from the structure or during labora- 10.1 If there is more than one specimen, arrange them in
tory processing. logical order to represent: position in the structure and differ-
9.1.7 When alkali - carbonate reactions are suspected and ences in materials, proportions, and exposure, or combinations
rims around crushed carbonate aggregate are seen, it is useful of these. Photographs and sketches of signicant features
to etch a sawed or ground surface in 6 N or weaker hydrochlo- should be made before specimens are altered. Tables 1 and 2

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list some features to be observed during visual and stereomi- as cracking, staining, chemical deposits, presence of foreign
croscopic examination. matter, segregation, surface defects, and the like.
10.2 Concrete from Constructions (Core Log): 10.4.2 Procedures such as those set forth in 10.1 and 10.2
10.2.1 Fit fragmented cores together and determine if any are applicable in the examination of concrete products. The
pieces are missing. Measure cores to verify eld data and investigation may be directed toward features resulting from
prepare a diagramatic log of each core, if necessary. The log the specic manufacturing operations involved, such as mix-
should be made to a scale to show relevant features. The log ing, molding, demolding, curing, and any prestressing proce-
may be used to show fresh and old fractures, reacted particles, dures. For example, lack of uniformity might originate in
reaction products, changes in size or type of coarse and ne incomplete mixing, improper consolidation during molding, or
aggregates, distribution of coarse aggregate, honeycomb, seg- incomplete or nonuniform curing. Surface defects and poor
regation of components, cold joints or lift or course boundaries, appearance may result from improper application of form-
location and direction of steel or other embedded items, release agents, possibly giving rise to inhibition of hydration of
changes in color of paste, and other signicant features. Notes the cement in a near-surface zone. Features like these can be
should be taken and suitably referenced in the log. If cores detected and described by visual and microscopical examina-
have been suitably packed so as to preserve the moisture tion of formed or molded surfaces, sawed and lapped surfaces,
content as drilled (which may or may not be the actual in-place or fracture surfaces across the sample.
moisture content) specimens should be carefully handled to 10.5 Laboratory SpecimensThese should be laid out in
preserve the moisture content and avoid breakage. Tests that logical order and compared with respect to composition and
may be made of specimens in the as-received moisture condition, and to features inuenced or expected to be inu-
condition include compressive strength, static or dynamic enced by the test process.
modulus of elasticity, air content by high-pressure meter, 10.6 Stereomicroscope ExaminationThe stereomicro-
permeability, and freezing and thawing. scope examination reveals additional details at magnications
10.2.2 During the visual examination, general comparison from 53 to 1503 (see Tables 1 and 2). The stereomicroscope
of cores representing different conditions, materials, and extent examination and visual examination are often carried on
and nature of deterioration should be made and recorded. The alternately. Examinations at low magnications reveal charac-
specimens should be sorted into comparable groups based on teristics of formed, nished, deteriorated, broken, sawed, or
condition or location of regions designated for more detailed ground surfaces. Old cracks may be opened and their surfaces
examination. In some cases, during the visual examination or examined to detect reaction products and secondary alteration.
the stereomicroscope examination, one or more specimens Old cracks are frequently of different color than the mass of the
from each group may be selected for more detailed studies. If concrete, and appear blurred by secondary deposits.
a reduced number of specimens is to be selected for detailed 10.6.1 Freshly broken surfaces may follow structural weak-
examination, the selection should be made after careful visual nesses and reveal signicant features that have not been
and stereomicroscope examinations have been used to dene masked by secondary alteration.
one or more factors that characterize each group. 10.6.2 Sawed and ground surfaces are examined to detect
10.3 Specimens from Natural Exposures These specimens ne cracks and trace networks of cracks that are not perceptible
should be laid out in logical order, either by materials, on drilled or sawed surfaces, to examine lling and partial
proportions, age, or combinations of these, and compared with lling in voids and cracks, and to detect rims on aggregate
respect to composition and condition. Signicant features for particles that may indicate chemical reactions between the
more detailed examination should be marked and noted. Table cement and the aggregate. Rims on gravel or natural sand
3 shows features of re-damaged concrete. should be presumed to be a result of weathering in the deposit,
10.4 Concrete Products: unless samples of aggregates used are available and show that
10.4.1 The samples may consist of complete units when rims were not present before the aggregate was used in the
they have relatively small dimensions (such as tile, block, or concrete. Rims produced in the concrete on particles of sand
brick), or portions removed from units by coring or sawing. and gravel are absent or relatively thin and faint at locations
The samples should be organized and oriented in a manner where the particle is in contact with an air void. Rims produced
appropriate to the objectives of the examination. So, for by weathering may mask rims produced by alkali - silica
example, portions taken from a single product unit should be reaction. Rimmed crushed stone in concrete usually indicates
grouped together, and each sample should be described by alteration in the concrete, as alkali - silica reaction or alkali -
visual observation and measurement of dimensions in relation carbonate reaction (12, 20, 21). Pale rims in mortar bordering
to markings or labels. The following information should be coarse aggregate (7, 19) and pale areas in the mortar may be
recorded or clearly marked on the samples: location in the gel-soaked paste (6) or highly carbonated paste adjoining
product unit (top, side, end, interior, etc.); vertical and hori- carbonate aggregate that has undergone an alkali - carbonate
zontal directions as cast or molded; outer and inner ends; reaction. The method in Annex A1 is helpful in locating
position in the product unit during curing period; position of deposits of alkali-silica gel.
the sample relative to highly stressed portions of the concrete 10.6.3 Deposits in old cracks may include calcite or ettring-
adjacent to tendon anchorages; and location in the unit as put ite or calcium hydroxide, or combinations of these compounds,
in place in construction, etc. Sketches or photographs of or more unusual crystalline substances, but sometimes include
pertinent features should be recorded to show such conditions sand, silt, clay, and freshwater or saltwater organisms. Such

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organisms may provide evidence that a part of a structure that dust present does not contain much colorless mica. Thin akes
is not ordinarily submerged has been submerged. of muscovite can be confused with thin tablets of calcium
10.6.4 Quantitative determination of constituents of con- hydroxide when both are viewed on edge; they can be
crete can be made by microscopical point-count or linear- distinguished if the higher index of the mica is observed.
traverse procedures in general accord with the requirements of 11.1.2 It is sometimes preferable to lose part of the section
Practice C 457. A total analysis may include the proportional or crack the quartz in order to distinguish among quartz
amounts of coarse aggregate, ne aggregate, cementitious (birefringence 0.009), calcium hydroxide (birefringence
matrix, and air voids. The differentiation of coarse and ne 0.027), and calcite (birefringence 0.172). When the three
aggregate is not accurate unless the two fractions are distin- materials occur together, the quartz particles will be shaped
guishable lithologically, since the maximum dimension of the like sand grains or rock fragments, while calcium hydroxide
particles usually is not intersected by the prepared surface. will be present either as tablets tangential to aggregate or as
Likewise, the proportion of individual rock types can be poikilitic crystals in the paste enclosing residual cement grains
determined quantitatively by these methods, such as, the or areas of gel. The birefringence of calcium hydroxide is three
content of unsound or reactive constituents in the coarse or ne times that of quartz; the birefringence of calcite is 6.4 times
aggregate or both; proportions of lightweight and normal that of calcium hydroxide; and birefringence of aragonite is 5.7
weight aggregate; and the abundance of granular contaminat- times that of calcium hydroxide. While aragonite is fairly
ing substances. uncommon in concrete, calcite is common as a product of
carbonation and as an ingredient of aggregate. At normal
11. Polarizing Microscope Examination
thickness of 30 m, the highest birefringence of calcium
11.1 Characteristics of Good Concrete Thin Sections hydroxide viewed parallel to the cleavage is bright rst-order
Features that characterize good, thin sections of concrete or yellow with an occasional orange or rst-order red area.
mortar are as follows: the mounted lower surface is free of Calcite in the same section has high-order white birefringence
abrasive and has been ground to a smooth matte nish except in very minute grains in which it is very thin, approxi-
ordinarily obtained by nishing the surface with optical alu- mately rhombic in shape, and the birefringence color is
mina or equivalent; the lower surface of the blank is entire; air rst-order white. The birefringence relations discussed in this
voids have complete peripheries; there is a sharp boundary paragraph are the basis that makes possible much of the
between the void and surrounding mortar; deposits in voids are interpretation of concrete thin sections.
preserved; and aggregate that has been observed under the 11.2 Choice of Areas for Thin Sections of ConcreteAreas
stereomicroscope to be entire when the blank was selected has from which thin sections are to be prepared usually should be
remained entire and microfractures have not been produced in chosen after examining the sawed or sawed and ground surface
sectioning. It is very difficult to avoid production of microf- with a stereomicroscope. Selection of the area may depend on
ractures when the aggregate is principally quartzite and quartz, the features to which the examination is directed, or the choice
if it is desired to reduce the section to a thickness of 30 m so may be affected in the case of highly deteriorated concrete by
that the brightest birefringence color of quartz is rst-order the desire to choose a volume strong enough to endure
white. Some cracks will be formed and some loss of paste sectioning even after impregnation. In that second case, an area
which is softer than quartz aggregate will occur. of mortar with coarse aggregate at the corners or along the
11.1.1 The desirable thickness of the thin sections ranges sides may be the successful choice. If it is desired to examine
from about 40 to 20 m. Thinner sections may be required for the aggregate to compare it with aggregate of a known source
detailed examination of the cement paste matrix. It is some- to establish whether the two probably came from the same
times necessary to give up normal thickness and use a thicker deposit or quarry, coarse aggregate should be chosen in
section to preserve fragile deposits in voids such as alkali - sufficient number to cover the range of varieties present and
silica gel, ettringite, calcium hydroxide, calcite, aragonite, or their physical condition. If the concrete has been subjected to
thaumasite. When it is desired to preserve the contacts between alkali - silica or alkali - carbonate reactions, areas selected for
mortar and coarse aggregate, it may be preferable to leave the sectioning should include coarse aggregate with cracks inside
section thicker than normal with the highest birefringence color the periphery but surrounding the center and cracks in the
of the quartz pale rst-order yellow. In normal concrete, the middle of the particle which narrow toward the border which
material bordering the aggregate consists of amorphous cement may or may not contain gel in the case of alkali - silica
gel, with calcium hydroxide crystals quite evenly distributed reaction. Reaction-rimmed particles may be chosen for section-
but with slight concentrations along the undersides of coarse ing in the case of either kind of reaction, but it is ordinarily a
aggregate and ne aggregate, if the section is cut parallel to the futile effort; the rims distinct to the naked eye or the low power
placement direction. In cases of alkali - silica reaction, there is of the stereomicroscope may not be visible in thin section.
usually a zone depleted in or free of calcium hydroxide
11.2.1 Features visible in the examination of thin sections of
surrounding reacted aggregate particles; sometimes gel is
concrete are shown in Table 4.
present surrounding the aggregate or soaking the paste so that
it is completely dark with crossed polars and brown grading
hazily to more normal paste in plane polarized light. It is fairly 12. Metallographic Microscope Examination (22)
easy to recognize gel-soaked paste; it is possible with experi- 12.1 There are two advantages of examining concrete with
ence to recognize depleted calcium hydroxide around a reacted a metallographic microscope: only one prepared surface is
aggregate particle, so long as the ne aggregate or any crusher required; the polished surface enhances and allows etching

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residual cement. When the aim of the petrographic examina- 13.1.1 Location and orientation of the samples in the
tion is particularly concerned with the composition and char- construction or products or type of specimen,
acteristics of the cement, polished sections that are produced 13.1.2 History of the samples insofar as is available,
by grinding and polishing a sawed piece of concrete are 13.1.3 Physical and chemical tests made on the samples,
particularly useful in detection of ususual amounts of free CaO with their results,
or MgO or their hydration products and other cement constitu- 13.1.4 Description of the samples and a report on mixture
ents. Although the coarser relict cement grains may be far from proportions, if available or if estimated, workmanship, con-
a representative sample, they can reveal characteristics that, if struction practice, and original quality of the concrete in the
correlated with the behavior and history of the concrete, can be constructions, insofar as such information is available, and
extremely helpful in interpreting its behavior. Table 5 lists 13.1.5 Interpretation, insofar as possible, of the nature of the
constituents of concrete visible, after preparation, using differ- materials and the chemical and physical events that have led to
ent microscopes. Table 6 is a list of substances reported as the success or distress of the concrete.
occurring in concrete.
14. Keywords
13. Report 14.1 aggregates; air voids; alkali-silica reaction; analysis;
13.1 The report of the examination should include the deterioration; examination; re effects; hardened concrete;
following: microscopy; paste; petrographic; secondary deposits


(Mandatory Information)


A1.1 Scope and uranyl-acetate-treated concrete. Annex A1 does not ad-

A1.1.1 This technique has been used for detecting alkali- dress the use and all cautions to be used regarding ultraviolet
silica gel resulting from reactions of forms of silica in light applications and exposure to the eyes and skin.
aggregates with alkalies in portland-cement paste. The tech- A1.2.2 Before using uranyl-acetate and ultraviolet light
nique involves treating the surface of conditioned concrete involved in this technique, it is the responsibility of the user to
with a solution of uranyl-acetate and observing the treated establish adequate safety, health, and disposition of materials
surface exposed to short-wave ultraviolet light. practices and procedures for handling uranyl-acetate and ultra-
A1.1.2 This technique is one of a number of procedures that violet radiation. It is also the responsibility of the user to
may be used to identify if alkali-silica reactions have occurred conform to all local, state, and federal regulatory requirements.
in hardened concrete. The test is ancillary to more denitive A1.2.3 Protective clothing, including polyethylene gloves,
petrographic examinations and physical tests for determining laboratory coat, and other clothing as may be needed should be
concrete expansion. The petrographic examinations include used when handling uranyl-acetate and other chemicals.
identication of alkali-silica gel and the reactive aggregate A1.2.4 Short-wave ultraviolet light can be harmful to the
component(s), as may be supplemented by electron micros- eyes and skin. Ultraviolet-ltering goggles or face shields that
copy and ancillary elemental probe analysis. The physical tests will absorb the ultraviolet radiation should be used.
may include length change tests of prisms from the concrete. A1.2.5 Uranyl-acetate is classed by the United States Gov-
A1.1.3 Fly ash, silica fume, and other materials that possess ernment as a hazardous material requiring special handling and
pozzolanic properties can react and produce secondary prod- disposition. Handling, storage, and disposition of the uranyl-
ucts similar to the gel produced by alkali-silica reaction (ASR). acetate solution and materials to which it is applied and
If these products are uniformly distributed, their effect is to contacts must be in conformance to applicable regulations.
create a uniform background on which the more localized and A1.3 Qualication
concentrated alkali-silica gel usually can be distinguished.
A1.3.1 This technique can be used by an adequately trained
Opal-containing materials and possibly other components of
rocks, however, will also be detected. Localized concentrations
of secondary ettringite have also been reported to uoresce. A1.4 Apparatus, Reagents, and Materials
Secondary ettringite is widespread as a component of concrete A1.4.1 Specimen Conditioning Apparatus:
affected by many processes. A1.4.1.1 Plastic Beaker 500-mL capacity or larger,
A1.4.1.2 Plastic Squeeze Bottle (for Water)Nominal
A1.2 Cautions 250-mL capacity,
A1.2.1 Uranyl-acetate is a hazardous material that requires A1.4.1.3 Disposable Polyethylene Gloves,
special handling and disposition. Ultraviolet light is hazardous A1.4.1.4 Protective Clothing (for example, laboratory
to eyes and skin. Annex A1 does not address the safety coat),
problems of handling, use, and disposition of uranyl-acetate A1.4.1.5 Absorbent Paper Towels, and

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A1.4.1.6 Enclosed Space for Applying the ReagentA eyeglasses or plastic goggles or face shield will absorb the
fume hood, glove box, or disposable glove bags have been harmful rays.
found to be suitable for this purpose. A1.6.2.2 If a viewing cabinet is being used, place the UV
A1.4.2 Specimen Treatment Apparatus: lamp in the proper place on the viewing cabinet. Place the
A1.4.2.1 Non-Atomized or Non-Misting Type Applicator damp specimen inside the viewing cabinet. If a darkened room
Unit for Reagent (for example, a small, hand-held squeeze is being used, place the damp specimen on the table and turn
bottle for applying dilute reagent solutions), and off the lights.
A1.4.2.2 Applicator for WaterA small hand-held squeeze A1.6.2.3 Turn on the short-wave UV light in the viewing
bottle for applying dilute solutions. cabinet or the darkened room, and shine it on the damp
A1.4.3 Reagent (Uranyl-Acetate Solution), specimen. Use UV-ltering goggles and observe and note for
A1.4.3.1 Acetic Acid Solution (1N), future comparison whether any of the aggregates or other
A1.4.3.2 Boiling Flask Nominal 250-mL capacity, components uoresce. Non-uorescent aggregates will appear
A1.4.3.3 Distilled or Deionized Water, dark, while cement paste and naturally uorescent aggregates,
A1.4.3.4 Volumetric FlaskNominal 100-mL capacity, such as opal and some slags, will uoresce mildly. Note the
A1.4.3.5 Polyethylene Storage Bottle with Tight Fitting location and nature of any uorescence.
CapNominal 100-mL capacity,
A1.7 Uranyl-Acetate Treatment Procedure:
A1.4.3.6 Uranyl-Acetate Powder (ACS Reagent Grade),
A1.4.3.7 BalanceCapable of weighing up to 10 g within A1.7.1 Wear protective clothing including polyethylene
0.05 g, and gloves, laboratory coat, and UV ltering goggles.
A1.4.3.8 Uranyl-Acetate Solution (prepared as follows) A1.7.2 The test should be conducted only on freshly frac-
Weigh 5 g of powdered uranyl-acetate. Measure 100 mL of tured interior surfaces. If the interior surface of the specimen is
acetic acid solution using a 100-mL volumetric ask. not damp, dampen it using the squeeze bottle lled with
CautionUse proper safety precautions in handling the distilled or deionized water.
uranyl-acetate and the acetic acid. Transfer the measured acetic A1.7.3 Fill the squeeze bottle to about half its capacity with
acid solution from the volumetric ask to the boiling ask. Add the prepared uranyl-acetate solution.
5 g of powdered uranyl-acetate to the boiling ask. Warm the A1.7.4 Line the bottom of the glove box, glove bag, or fume
mixture over a low ame until the powder is dissolved. Do not hood with absorbent paper towels. Place the squeeze bottles
bring the mixture to a rolling boil. Remove the ask from the containing the distilled or deionized water and reagent, the
burner, cover, and let it cool to room temperature. Store the 500-mL plastic beaker, and the dampened specimen inside the
cooled solution at room temperature in a tightly capped glove box, glove bag, or fume hood.
polyethylene storage bottle. The reagent, when stored as A1.7.5 Place the specimen in a horizontal position on a
described, will keep for at least one year. paper towel. Apply the uranyl-acetate solution to the wet
A1.4.4 Short-Wave (254-nm) Ultraviolet (UV) Lamp, interior surface of the specimen. Direct the squeeze bottle
A1.4.5 Viewing Cabinet or a Dark Room, and nozzle on the specimen surface at all times. The nozzle should
A1.4.6 Gogglesfor shielding short-wave ultraviolet light. be kept approximately 25 mm (1 in.) away from the surface.
The bottle pressure should be kept to a minimum to avoid
A1.5 Specimens misting and rebound from the specimen surface.
A1.7.6 Allow the uranyl-acetate to absorb on the interior
A1.5.1 Samples to be evaluated can be of any size or shape. surface of the concrete for 1 min.
The surface area for testing should have a nominal area of 155 A1.7.7 After 1 min, hold the specimen in a vertical position
cm 2 (24 in.2) or sufficiently large to be representative of the over the 500-mL plastic beaker and wash the treated surface
concrete. The size will be dictated in part by the maximum size three times with distilled or deionized water to remove excess
of the aggregate. The method is applicable to eld and uranyl-acetate. Collect the wash water from the specimen in
laboratory-prepared samples. The latter includes samples the plastic beaker.
tested using Test Methods C 227, C 342, C 441, and C 1260. A1.7.8 Remove the specimen from the glove box, glove
A1.5.2 Break the specimen to expose the interior of the bag, or fume hood, and place it on a paper towel. Proceed with
concrete using any suitable method, such as the splitting observation of the specimen immediately after the uranyl-
techniques of Test Method C 496. Immediately conduct the test acetate treatment is completed.
on the freshly exposed surfaces.
A1.8 Ultraviolet Exposure of Treated Surface
A1.6 Conditioning and Pre-Screening Procedure A1.8.1 If a viewing cabinet is being used, place the UV
A1.6.1 Conditioning and Pre-Screening: lamp at the proper place in the viewing cabinet. Line the
A1.6.1.1 Dampen the freshly broken specimen surface us- bottom surface of the viewing cabinet with paper towels. If a
ing the squeeze bottle lled with distilled or deionized water. dark room is being used, line an area of a table top with paper
Proceed with the test while the specimen is still damp. towels.
A1.6.2 Pre-screen the specimen for natural uorescence. A1.8.2 Dampen the specimen again using the squeeze bottle
A1.6.2.1 Wear protective clothing including polyethylene lled with distilled or deionized water. Place the specimen
gloves, laboratory coat, and UV-ltering goggles. Short-wave inside the viewing cabinet on the paper towel. If a dark room
UV light can be harmful to the eyes and skin. Normal is being used, place the wet specimen on the paper towel on the

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Licensed by Information Handling Services
C 856
table top in the dark room and turn off the lights. A1.9.3 Some y ash, silica fume, slag, and natural poz-
A1.8.3 Shine the UV light on the treated surface. Do not zolans can react and form reaction products that uoresce. Well
view, and do not allow anyone to view the UV light without dispersed y ash and silica fume and ne ground slag and
eye protection. natural pozzolans, however, cause only an increase in the
generally uniform background uorescence intensity of the
A1.9 Identication of Alkali-Silica Gel
paste. If these materials are not well dispersed or are clumped
A1.9.1 Alkali-silica gel will uoresce bright greenish- together, the uorescence will be observed as discrete ne
yellow, and usually occurs in and around aggregate particles, in areas. The size of these areas is normally very small and
voids, and in cracks. It has been reported that ettringite may usually is distinguishable from the bright uorescence of gel
similarly uoresce. derived from the coarse and ne aggregates.
A1.9.2 Carbonated areas of concrete also may uoresce.
The uorescence due to carbonation products, however, is A1.9.4 Identication of the presence of alkali-silica gel
usually uniform and normally present along concrete surfaces using this technique must be conrmed by other petrographic
exposed to the atmosphere. Carbonation may also be present techniques, such as microscopical examinations of thin sec-
where there is extensive deterioration or cracks, or both, which tions or powder mounts, or both.
allow atmospheric carbon dioxide into the interior of the A1.9.5 Literature on the development and use of this
specimen. technique is given in Refs (23-29).


(1) Mather, K., Petrographic Examination of Hardened Concrete in (15) Winchell, A. N., and Winchell, H., The Microscopical Characters of
Signicance of Tests and Properties of Concrete-Making Materials, Articial Inorganic Solid Substances, Academic Press, New York and
Symposium on Signicance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and London, 1964.
Concrete Making Materials, ASTM 169 A, Am. Soc. Testing Mats., (16) Lea, F. M., The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, 3d ed., Edward
1966, pp. 125143. Arnold Ltd., London, England, pp. XIV and 727.
(2) Hansen, W. C., Anhydrous Minerals and Organic Materials as (17) Lerch, W., Ashton, F. W., and Bogue, R. H., The Sulfoaluminates of
Sources of Distress in Concrete, Highway Research Record No. 43, Calcium, National Bureau of Standards Journal of Research,
Highway Research Board, HRBRA, 1963, pp. 17. JRNBA, Vol 2, 1929, pp. 715731.
(3) Mielenz, R. C., Reactions of Aggregates Involving Solubility, Oxi- (18) Erlin, Bernard, Methods Used in Petrographic Studies of Concrete,
dation, Sulfates, or Suldes, Highway Research Record No. 43, Analytical Techniques for Hydraulic Cements and Concrete, ASTM
Highway Research Board, HRBRA, 1963, pp. 818. STP 395, Am. Soc. Testing Mats., 1966, pp. 317.
(4) Smith, Peter, Investigation and Repair of Damage to Concrete Caused (19) Erlin, Bernard, Analytical Techniques, Observations of the Perfor-
by Formwork and Falsework Fire, ACI Journal, JACIA, No. 11, Nov mance of Concrete in Service, Highway Research Board Special
1963; ACI Proceedings, PACIA, Vol 60, 1963, pp. 15351566. Report 106, Highway Research Board, HRBRA, Publication 309-
(5) Green, J. Keith, Some Aids to the Assessment of Fire Damage, 01790-4, 1970.
Concrete, COCTA, Vol 10, No. 1, January 1976, pp. 1417. (20) Brown, L. S., Some Observations on the Mechanics of Alkali-
(6) Idorn, G. M., Durability of Concrete Structures in Denmark, Technical Aggregate Reaction, ASTM Bulletin No. 205, April 1955, p. 40ff.
University of Denmark, Copenhagen, January 1967, p. 208. (21) Symposium on Alkali-Carbonate Rock Reactions, Highway Research
(7) Mielenz, R. C., Petrography Applied to Portland Cement Concrete, Record No. 45, HRBRA, Washington, 1964.
Reviews in Engineering Geology, edited by T. Fluhr and R. F. Legget, (22) Brownmiller, L. T., The Microscopic Structure of Hydrated Portland
Geological Society of America, GAEGA, Vol I, 1962, pp. 138. Cement, Journal of the American Concrete Institute, JACIA, Pro-
(8) Taylor, H. F. W., Crystal Structures of Some Double Hydroxide ceedings, Vol 39, January 1943, pp. 193210.
Minerals, Mineralogical Magazine, MNLMB, Vol 39, No. 304, (23) Natesaiyer, K., and Hover, K. C., Insitu Identication of ASR
December 1973, pp. 377389. Products in Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol 18, 1988,
(9) Idorn, G. M., Concrete Deterioration of a Foundation, Acta Poly- pp. 455463.
technia (Copenhagen, Denmark), APOBA, No. 4, 1957, pp. 548. (24) Natesaiyer, K., and Hover, K. C., Further Study of an Insitu
(10) Idorn, G. M., Disintegration of Field Concrete, Danish National Technique for the Identication of Alkali-Silica Reaction Products in
Institute of Building Research and Academy of Technical Science, Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol 19, 1989, pp.
Commission on Alkali Reactions in Concrete, Progress Report N1, 770778.
DNBRA, 1956, 39 pp. (25) Natesaiyer, K., and Hover, K. C., Some Field Studies of the New
(11) Hutton, C. O., Two Unusual Occurrences of Paraluminite, New Insitu Technique for the identication of ASR Products, Proceedings
Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, NZTBA, Vol 26B, 1945, of the 8th International Conference on Alkali Aggregate Reaction,
pp. 242244. Kyoto, Japan, 1989, pp. 555560.
(12) McConnell, D., Mielenz, R. C., Holland, W. Y., and Greene, K. T., (26) Natesaiyer, K., Stark, D., and Hover, K. C., Gel Fluorescence
Cement-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete, Journal of the American Reveals Reaction Product Traces, Concrete International, January
Concrete Institute, JACIA, Proceedings, Vol 44, October 1947, pp. 1991.
93128. (27) Pug, H. D., and Crumpton, C. E., Analysis of Sodium and Concrete
(13) Mather, B., Cracking of Concrete in the Tuscaloosa Lock, Highway by Fluorescence Photometry, ASTM Materials and Research Stan-
Research Board Proceedings, HIRPA, Vol 51, 1951, pp. 218233. dards, July 1963.
(14) Erlin, Bernard, and Stark, David C., Identication and Occur-rence (28) Natesaiyer, K., Some Applications of the Gel Fluorescence Test for
of Thaumasite in Concrete, Highway Research Record No. 113, Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete, Cement and Concrete
HRBRA, 1966, pp. 108113. Deposits, El Sevier Science Publishers Limited, England, 1993.

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C 856
(29) Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), Handbook for the
Identication of Alkali-Silica Reactivity in Highway Structures,
SHRP-C/FR-91-101, National Research Council, 1991, p. 49.

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