Sie sind auf Seite 1von 23






Personnel of the Bridges

Specifications and Standards Committee (i) & (ii)

1. Introduction ...... 1

2. Scope ...... 1

3. Construction Requirements ...... 2

4. Epoxy Jointing of Segments ...... 3

5. Dry Jointed Precast Segmental Construction ...... 11

6. References ...... 19
(As on 20-12-2004)
1. V. Velayutham Addl. Director General, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport &
(Convenor) Highways, New Delhi
2. V.K. Sinha Chief Engineer, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport &
(Co-Convenor) Highway, New Delhi
3. Chief Engineer (B) S&R
(Member-Secretary) Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways, New
(A.N. Dhodapkar)
4. K.N. Agrawal C-33, ChandraNagar, Ghaziabad-201 O il
5. S. Ahmed Secretary to the Govt. of Meghalaya PWD, Shillong
6. C.R. Alimchandani Chairman & Managing Director, STUP Consultants Ltd.,
7. A.K. Banerjee B-210, (SF), Chitranjan Park, New Delhi
8. Ashok Basa Director (Tech.) B. Engineers & Builders Ltd., Bhubaneswar
9. P.C. Bhasin ADG (B), MOST (Retd.) 324, Mandakini Enclave, New Delhi
10. S.S. Chakraborty Managing Director, Consulting Engg. Services (I) Pvt. Ltd.,
New Delhi
11. K.K. Gupta
House No.l 149, Sector 19, Faridabad
12. A.R. Jambekar Chief Engineer & General Manager (Tech.) CIDCO, NAVI
13. S.K. Jain Director & Head, Civil Engg. Department, Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi
14. S.K. Kaushik Chairman, Estate & Works & Coordinator (TJFAC-CORE)
IIT, Roorkee Consultant, Bhopal
15. C.V. Kand DG (RD) & Addl. Secy., MOST (Retd.), H-54, Residency
Green, Gurgaon
16. Ninan Koshi
DG (RD) & AS, MORT&H (Retd.) D-86, Sector-56, Noida
17. Prafulla Kumar Director, Freyssinet Prestressed Concrete Co. Ltd., Mumbai
18. P.Y. Manjure Principal Secy., Maharashtra PWD (Retd.), Mumbai
19. N.V. Merani 40/182, Chitranjan Park, New Delhi
20. M.K. Mukherjee Director General (Road Dev.) & Addl. Secretary, MOST
(Retd.) B-186, Sector-26, NOIDA
21. A.D. Narain
Chief Engineer, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and
22. S.K. Puri
Chief Technical Advisor, L&T-Ramboll Consulting Engg.
Ltd., Chennai
23 N Rajagopalan

24. M.V.B. Rao A-181, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi Chairman, Construma
25. Dr. T.N. Subba Rao Consultancy (P) Ltd., Mumbai Dy. Managing Director,
26. S.A. Reddi Gammon India Ltd., Mumbai Highway Research
27. Director Station, Chennai
28. G. Sharan Member (T), National Highways Authority of India, New
29 N.K. Sinha DG (RD) & SS, MORT&H (Retd.) G-1365, Ground Floor,
Chitranjan Park, New Delhi
30. Dr. M.G. Tamhankar BH-1/44, Kendriya Vihar Kharghar, Navi Mumbai Managing
31. Mahesh Tandon Director, Tandon Consultants (P) Ltd., New Delhi A-39/B,
32. P.B. Vijay DDA Flats, Munirka, New Delhi (Shri S.K. De) M.P. PWD,
33. Chief Engineer (NH) Bhopal
Planning & Budget
34. Addl. Director General HQ DGBR, Seema Sadak Bhavan, New Delhi U.P.
35. Chief Engineer (NH) PWD, Lucknow Chepauk, Chennai Engineer-in-
36. Chief Engineer (NH) Chief, PWD, New Delhi
37. R. Subramanian (R.K. Gupta) Executive Director (B&S) Bidges & Structures
38. Rep. ofRDSO Directt, RDSO, Lucknow

Ex-Offido Members
(S.S. Momin), Secretary (R), Maharashtra PWD, Mumbai
39. President, IRC (Indu Prakash), Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport &
40. Director General Highways, New Delhi
(Road Development) (R.S. Sharma), Indian Roads Congress, RK. Puram, Kama
41. Secretary, IRC Koti Marg, Sector-6, New Delhi

Corresponding Members
Engineer-in-chief, Haryana PWD (Retd.), Panchkula
1. M.K. Agarwal Executive Director, Engg. Consultant Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi
2. M.K. Bhagwagar Addl. Director General (TD), CPWD, New Delhi B-13,
3. A. Chakraborti Sector-14, Noida
4. Dr. V.K. Raina



1. INTRODUCTION 1.2. At its first meeting on 29th April, 2003, the

Committee felt that in the light of the
1.1.The Reinforced, Prestressed and massive construction programme that was
Composite Concrete Committee (B-6) of the under execution in the highway sector, it was
Indian Roads Congress was reconstituted in necessary to bring out guidelines on certain
2003 with the following personnel: topics which were not adequately covered in
Ninan Koshi the existing IRC Codes and Standards. The
Addl. DGBR T. Convenor design and construction of segmental bridges
Viswanathan Co-Convenor was one of the topics selected. It was decided
that while highlighting the special design and
Members detailing requirements in each case, the
guidlines would be generally in line with
A.K. Banerjee
Alok Bhowmick
IRC: 18 and IRC:21 with additional inputs
A.N. Dhodapkar from BS:5400, EURO and AASHTO codes,
Vinay Gupta wherever necessary.
G.R. Haridas 1.3. The initial draft of the guidelines was
S.G. Joglekar prepared by Shri Vinay Gupta. The draft was
Jose Kurian discussed by the B-6 Committee at several
S.D. Limaye meetings and finalized in its meeting held on
M.K. Mukherjee
3rd September, 2004. The draft document was
Dr. A.K. Mullick
approved by Bridges Specifications and
Dr. N. Rajagopalan
Dr. G.P. Sana
Standards Committee in its meeting held on
R.S. Sharma 20th December, 2004. The document was
N.K. Sinha considered by IRC Council in its 173rd
K.B. Thandavan meeting held on 8th January, 2005 in
C.E. (B) S&R, MOSRT&H Bangalore and approved with certain
modifications. The required modifications
Ex-Officio Members were accordingly carried out by the Convenor,
President, IRC (S.S. B-6 Committee before sending the document
Momin) DG(RD), for publication.
Prakash) Secretary, IRC
(R.S. Sharma) The guidelines cover the specific design and
construction requirements of precast and cast-in-
Corresponding Members situ prestressed concrete segmental
superstructures of bridges. The provisions apply to
Ashok Basa
the following types of superstructures :
C.V. Kand
(i) Epo^y jointed precast segmental
superstructure with internal bonded tendons breaking material, such as, flax soap, talc, wax or
as well as external unbonded tendons, any other approved material shall be used between
previously cast segment and newly cast segment,
(ii) Dry jointed precast segmental superstructure
as well as the end headers when required.
with external unbonded tendons,
(iii) Precast as well as cast-in-situ cantilever 3.1.1. Segments shall not be moved from the
construction superstructure, and casting yard until stipulated strength requirements
have been attained and shall be supported in a
(iv) Precast prestressed girder segments manner that will minimize warping. Under any
assembled using post tensioning (i.e., spliced circumstances, the concrete shall have attained a
girder system) with cast-in-situ stitch as well minimum compressive strength of 20 MPa at the
as match cast epoxy jointed girder segments. time of removal of forms. At the time of lifting
and assembly of precast segments into the
2.1. Applicability in High Seismic Areas structure, the concrete shall have attained
sufficient strength to withstand the handling
Dry jointed precast segmental superstructures stresses. Curing of segments may be achieved
monolithic with piers shall not be permitted in through water or steam followed by water curing.
the seismic Zones IV and V defined in IRC: 6- Approved curing compound may be used.
3.1.2. In case of spliced girder system, usually
3. CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS match casting is not necessary because the gap
between the girder segments is filled with concrete
Minimum grades of concrete, minimum or epoxy material at the locations of splices. The
cement content, maximum water-cement ratio and faces, which are required to receive the cast-in-
other durability requirements shall be same as situ stitch concrete, shall be adequately roughened
indicated in Table 5 of IRC:21-2000. and prepared as construction joint before pouring
the stitch concrete. In case of epoxy jointed
There are several specific requirements spliced girder system (with no gap between the
relating to construction which need to be adhered girder segments), match casting shall be resorted
to. These are specified hereinafter. to, and all provisions of epoxy jointed segmental
structure as per this document shall apply.
3.1. Precasting
3.1.3. A full scale mock-up of the lifting and
All sides, bottom inside and header forms holding equipment (including assembly truss,
shall be of steel. Forms shall be of sufficient cantilevering formwork, etc.) shall be performed
thickness, with adequate external bracing and to demonstrate their adequacy and efficacy prior
shall be stiffened and adequately anchored to to beginning any erection/assembly of the
withstand the forces due to placement and segments.
vibration of concrete. Compaction of concrete
may be achieved through needle vibrators or form 3.1.4. Tolerances in Precasting: Finished
vibrators along with needle vibrators. For casting segment tolerances should not exceed the
of precast segmental superstructure, any of the following:
two commonly known techniques of precasting,
viz, Long Line method or Short Bench method Length of match-cast segment 5mm
may be used. After the first segment of each unit (not cumulative)
is cast, succeeding segments shall be match cast Overall span length between bearings 1 Omm
against the previous ones and shall be given a Web thickness, depths of top
unique identification mark so as to be placed at and bottom flanges width of top
the intended location in the superstructure. A bond and bottom flanges, overall depth
of segment, thickness of IRC:SP:65-2005
diaphagm 5mm However, in case of spliced girder
Grade of edge and soffit Imm/m superstructure, not using match casting, large
Tendon hole location 3mm amplitude shear keys may be used.
Position of shear keys 5mm
3.2. Shear Keys
In case of epoxy jointed superstructure, mating
surfaces of both adjoining segments shall be
Precast segments shall be provided with shear effectively prepared by wire brushing, water jetting
keys at match cast joints. These shear keys shall and /or any other approved means to ensure that
cover as much area of the cross-section as the bond breaking material is completely removed.
possible. Shear keys in the webs shall be smaller Epoxy of about 1mm thickness on each of the
in size and more in number whereas those in top mating surfaces shall be applied (usually by hand
flange and bottom flange may have larger sizes application) within 70 per cent of its pot life.
with lesser number. Shear keys shall be Subsequently, the segment shall be brought closer
dimensioned in the form of trapezium. Shear keys to hug each other and an axial temporary
shall be avoided at the tendon hole locations. Refer compression of at least 0.3 MPa shall be applied
Fig. 1 for general details of shear keys in precast by approved means for a minimum of 24 hours.
box girder segments. An example of shear keys in a Refer Fig. 3 for a sample arrangement of temporary
box girder segment is also enumerated in Fig. 2. prestressing. The Epoxy shall essentially have
properties as indicated in para 4.2.1.




Fig. 1. Examples of Shear keys in Box Segments

The contractor shall plan his erection system fast reacting and medium fast reacting
in such a way that the time elapsed between formulations and 60C for slow reacting
mixing of components of epoxy applied to the formulations. It must be ensured that mixing
mating surfaces of precast concrete segments and paddles scrape the bottom and sides of the
application of temporary axial force does not container, so as to ensure complete mixing of the
exceed 60 minutes. No epoxy from a batch for two components. The mixing should be carried
which the time since combining the components out as close as possible to the place where the
has exceeded 20 minutes shall be used. epoxy will be applied, so as to avoid loss of time,
and, therefore, wasting of pot life in transport.
4.1. Sequence of Operation
4.2.1. Epoxy shall be tested for its conformance
The broad sequence of operation shall to the FIP-1978 "Proposal for Standard Tests and
generally comprise placing of all segments of a Verification of Epoxy Bonding Agents for
portion intended to be assembled and prestressed Segmental Construction". Some of the important
in one stage, touching each other and then visually properties (minimum values) of epoxy are as
examining the matching of mating surfaces. follows:
Subsequently, each segment shall be separated
from adjoining segment by a distance just Pot life Open 20 minutes (at upper
sufficient to apply the epoxy. After applying
temperature limit) 60
epoxy, temporary axial compression shall be time minutes (at upper
imparted and maintained for minimum 24 hours.
temperature limit)
Thereafter, intended permanent prestress shall be Compressive
imparted prior to demobilizing the temporary 60 MPa at 24 hours and 75
strength MPa at 168 hours on
axial prestress.
50x50x50mm cube (at
4.2. Epoxy lower temperature limit)
Tensile bonding after 24 hours at 100
Depending upon the ambient temperature percent strength humidity,
range, following types of epoxies are should have concrete
recommended for use: failure, no joint failure with
M40 concrete (at lower
Fast reacting temperature limit)
5 to 20 Celsius 15 to 30 Medium fast
Celsius Shear strength 12 MPa (at lower
reacting Slow
reacting temperature limit)
25 to 40 Celsius Curing rate compressive strength on
50x50x50mm cube shall be
Epoxy comprises two components, namely, 20 MPa at 12 hours, 40
resin and hardener. Resin must be stirred by a MPa at 24 hours and 75
mixer in its container for about 10 seconds or until MPa at 168 hours (at lower
homogeneity is reached. Thereafter, hardener temperature limit)
must be added and mixing continued. For a mix
of 5 kg batch, a mixing rotor attached to a 350W, 4.3. Cast-in-situ Concrete Pour
400rpm electric hand drilling machine is
recommended. The speed of 400rpm should not In every continuous precast segmental unit
be exceeded because higher revolutions will of superstructure, there shall be suitable numbers
entrap air in the mix, cause excessive frictional (at least one) of cast-in-situ concrete pour/stitch,
heat and, therefore, shorten the pot life. The which is essential to ensure longitudinal alignment
mixing time should not exceed 3 minutes and the of the segment.
temperature not allowed to rise above 40C for
4.4. Spliced Girder System 4.6. Prestressing Ducts

A spliced girder system is provided to obtain In the case of dry jointed segments,
large girder spans, given the limitations of weight prestressing duct shall necessarily be of HDPE
and length of individual girder segments, which material. In the case of epoxy jointed segments,
could be on account of limitations of handling or either metallic or HDPE duct may be used for
transportation of the same. In this system, smaller internal prestressing and only HDPE duct for
girder segments, usually pretensioned at external prestressing. The ducts shall be
precasting yard, are assembled together using corrugated for internal prestressing and plain for
cast-in-situ concrete or epoxy and post tensioning. external prestressing. In case of external
For this purpose, the girder segments are prestressing, wall thickness of the HDPE ducts
temporarily supported over centering/steel tower shall be at least 1/21 of the outside diameter of
or assembled at ground level and then post the duct and diameter as per the provisions of
tensioned after jointing. In case of superstructures IRC: 18-2000. In case of internal prestressing, duct
curved in plan, straight girder segments are placed size and thickness shall be as per the provisions
along the chord line of the curvature to obtain the of IRC: 18-2000. Adequate precaution shall be
required geometry. In such cases, it is necessary to taken to ensure that epoxy material does not leak
provide a cast-in-situ cross diaphragm at each into joints of the ducts.
such kink in plan coinciding with the splice. The
splicing can either be done before casting the deck 4.7. External Prestressing
or along with the deck. In the former, post-
tensioning is imparted to the girder section alone External prestressing, if used, shall employ
whereas in the latter, the post-tensioning is specialized external anchorages (replaceable
imparted to the composite section, (refer Fig. 4 type), suitably protected against corrosion. In the
for one such arrangement). Other methods of replaceable system of prestressing, the bearing
splicing, such as, structural steel splicing and RCC plate is outside the concrete, which is provided
splicing are not in the purview of these guidelines. with grease filled cap for protection against
Similarly, RCC girder segments spliced using corrosion. Usually a sliding layer is provided
post-tensioning are also not in the purview of between trumpet and duct in such a way that the
these guidelines. duct along with bearing plate and wedges can be
removed for replacement after detensioning of the
4.4.1. A preferred location of splice will be the cables. In some systems of prestressing, the
points of minimum stress, such as, l/3rd span anchorage cone/trumpet remains connected to a
points. At each cast-in-situ splice location, small piece of duct, which is connected to the
adequately designed untensioned reinforcement remaining duct, through a duct coupler, which is
shall be provided by lapping, welding or with the decoupled for replacement. For the purpose of
use of mechanical reinforcement couplers subject detensioning, the cables remain sufficiently
to the limitations of the relevant codes. However, projected beyond anchorages, which are
in the case of epoxy jointed splice, such encompassed in long grease filled caps. Refer
reinforcement is not provided. Figs. 5, 6 and 7 for general system of replaceable
anchorages. The tendons may be protected against
4.5. Placement of Bearings corrosion using grouting with approved grease,
wax, cement or any other approved material. Refer
Bearings under precast segments shall be Fig. 8 for some of the systems of corrosion
placed by sandwiching shrinkage compensated protection of external prestressing tendons.
high strength prepackaged cement mortar in order Design of end block for external anchorages shall
to ensure homogeneous contact between top be in conformity with Clause 17 (along with Foot
surface of the bearing and bottom surface of the Note (ii) below Table 8) of IRC: 18-2000.
4.7.1. In the case of external prestressing, the 4.7.3. The structure shall be designed for snapping
minimum web thickness shall be 200 mm, of any cable, one at a time, which will cater for
the condition of replacement of cables. In this
4.7.2. The loss of prestress in unbonded tendons condition, load factors and permissible stresses
shall be calculated from the average creep corresponding to erection condition in Table 1 of
movement between anchors. The creep loss in the IRC:6-2000 shall be considered.
unbonded tendons is not directly proportional to
the local creep strain in the concrete at center of
gravity of tendons.

Guide pipe

Threaded anchor head Trumpet

Steel pipe

Tension ring

Extra strand overlength

Protection cap
Fig. 5. Replaceable Anchorages for External Prestressing

Fig. 6. Protection Cap over Permanently Sealed

Fig. 7- Protection Cap over Anchorages to be Handled in Future




Fig. 8. Options for Corrosion Protection of External Tendons

4.8. Deviator Blocks blocks shall be located at a spacing not exceeding

12 m. In case, it not possible to adhere to this
In the case of external prestressing, it is a usual maximum spacing criteria, check shall be made
practice to provide concrete protrusions inside the to ensure that the first natural frequency of the
box girder in order to pass the prestressing ducts tendons vibrating between the fixing points
so as to maintain the intended alignment. Refer (deviator blocks or anchorage points) is not in
Figs. 9 and 10 for some suggested details of the range 0.8 to 1.2 times that of the bridge.
deviator blocks. These deviator blocks also help Deviator blocks shall be so detailed as to avoid
control the vibrations of the cables. The deviator damage to tendon/sheathing/deviator blocks
during stressing operation. In case, a permanently weather conditions. Since, dry-jointed
embedded duct in concrete deviator block is segments do not have filler material, like,
provided, it shall be of galvanized steel (at least epoxy, there could be a likelihood of stress
150 micron coating thickness). concentrations. Precautions may be exercised
4.9. Prestressing Couplers to avoid such warping. The possibility of
water leakage through the dry joints cannot
In case, prestressing couplers are used, not be ruled out and hence in climates where
more than 50 per cent of the prestressing cables freeze-thaw conditions exist, dry-jointed
passing through a section shall, in general, be
construction shall be avoided.
coupled at that section. Longitudinally, the
couplers shall be staggered by at least a distance
5.1. Design
equal to each segment length or twice the overall
depth of the girder, whichever is more. Usual
Design shall, in principle, be done in the same
practice is to couple half the cables in one span
way as for cast-in-situ structure as per IRC: 18-
and the other half in the next span and so on. Two
2000 except for the additional provisions and/or
immediately adjacent cables shall not be provided
deviations indicated below, which need to be
with couplers at one section. Void areas around
the coupler shall be deducted from the gross
concrete section area and other section properties
5.2. Basis of Design
when computing stresses at the stages before
Permissible stresses in concrete and
prestressing steel shall be applicable as per
4.10. Deck Waterproofing
Clauses 7 and 8 of IRC: 18-2000 respectively
except as modified below. Similarly, section
Bituminous or any other approved flexible
properties and modulus of elasticity shall be
membrane waterproofing shall be provided over
applicable as per clauses 9 and 10 of IRC: 18-2000
the deck slab.
respectively. Losses in the prestressing shall be
calculated in the manner given in Clause 11 of
IRC: 18-2000. Ultimate flexural strength shall be
calculated as per Clauses 12 and 13 of IRC: 18-
2000 except as modified below. Shear design shall
Dry jointed construction shall not be used be done as per Clause 14 of IRC: 18-2000 except
with internal tendons. Dry jointed precast as modified below. Other Clauses 15 to 25 of
segmental externally prestressed IRC: 18-2000 shall be applicable unaltered.
superstructures have advantage of speed of
construction over the epoxy jointed precast 5.3. Permissible Stresses in Concrete
segmental externally prestressed
superstructures. However, adequate caution 5.3.1. Permissible temporary stresses in
needs to be exercised while adopting the concrete: Temporary maximum compressive
former. Generally, these structures have been stresses in concrete shall be as per Clauses 7.1.2
and 7.1.3 of IRC: 18-2000. The stresses on the
found to exhibit lower ductility level, lower
tensile face shall be limited to no tension in case
shear strength and larger deflections of epoxy jointed precast segments, minimum
compared to epoxy jointed superstructures residual compression of 0.7 MPa in case of dry
under the ultimate loading conditions. It is jointed precast segments and as per Clause 7.1.4
also apprehended that a small order warping of IRC: 18-2000 for cast-in-situ segmental
is caused after precasting of segments due to structure and spliced girder structure with cast-
non-uniform exposure to the sun and other in-situ stitch.
5.3.2. Permissible Stresses in concrete During 5.4. Design for Ultimate Shear
Service: During service condition, after all losses
of prestressing, the maximum compressive Provisions of Clause 14 of IRC: 18-2000 shall apply
stresses, in normal condition, shall be limited to except as modified by the provisions given below. 5.4.1.
0.33/rt as per Clause 7.2.1 of IRC: 18-2000 for all Cast-in-Situ segmental super structures and
types of segmental structures. The stresses on the spliced girder super structures with cast-in-situ
tensile face shall be limited to minimum residual stitch: Provisions of Clause 14 of IRC: 18-2000
compression of five per cent of maximum apply.
permanent compressive stress that may be
developed in the same section in case of epoxy 5.4.2. Epoxy jointed precast segmental
jointed precast segments. In case of dry jointed superstructures with internal bonded tendons
precast segments, minimum residual compression or external unbonded tendons: Ultimate load
of 0.7 MPa or five per cent of maximum factors shall be followed as per Clause 12 of
permanent compressive stress that may be IRC: 18-2000. Any helping effect of bearing
developed in the same section, whichever is more, resistance developed through the shear keys shall
shall be ensured on the tensile face. For cast-in- be ignored.
situ segmental structure and spliced girder
structure with cast-in-situ stitch, no tensile stresses For structures with internal bonded
shall be permitted on the tension face as per tendons, the ultimate shear capacity calculated as
Clause 7.2.2 of IRC: 18-2000. per Clause 14 of IRC: 18-2000 shall be multiplied
by a factor of 0.90. In the load combinations involving
temperature effects (over all temperature variation Structure with external unbonded tendons
as well as differential temperature gradient), shall be considered as reinforced concrete column
minimum residual compression of upto zero (no subject to externally applied loads for the purpose
tension) shall be ensured through prestressing in of shear design. For this purpose, the limit of
all types of precast segmental structures where maximum shear stress shall be as per Table 6 of
untensioned reinforcement can not continue across IRC: 18-2000. For structures with external
the segments. The permissible compressive stresses unbonded tendons, calculated shear capacity shall
in concrete may be enhanced by 15 per cent. be multiplied by a factor of 0.85.
Tension, upto a maximum of two third of the
modulus of rupture may be permitted in case of 5.4.3. Dry jointed precast segmental
cast-in-situ segmental structures and spliced girder superstructures with external unbonded
structures with cast-in-situ stitch where adequately tendons: Structure with external unbonded
designed untensioned reinforcement, continuing tendons shall be considered as reinforced concrete
across the segments, can be provided as per the column subject to externally applied loads for the
provisions of Clause 5.2(iv) of IRC: 18-2000. In purpose of shear design. For this purpose, limit
this case, permissible stresses in concrete and steel of maximum shear stress shall be as per Table 6
may be increased by 15 per cent. In all load of IRC: 18-2000. The ultimate shear capacity so
combinations involving differential temperature, calculated shall be multiplied by a factor of 0.85.
gradient maximum 50 per cent live load shall be In the case of dry jointed segmental superstructure
considered. associated with external unbonded tendons, under
any load combination, the design shear resistance The structure shall also be checked for of mating surfaces of precast segments shall be
20 per cent higher time dependant losses, like, more than the net applied shear at any dry joint in
creep, shrinkage, relaxation, etc. for normal load order to prevent joint slippage. For calculating
combination for the above mentioned limits of shear capacity of joints of segments, add a + b,
stresses as per Clause 7.2.4 of IRC: 18-2000. where 'a' is the capacity of shear key acting as
corbel (designed by shear friction theory) with strains in unbonded tendons are not the same as
frictional coefficient U, = 1.4 and axial force those in the concrete. In the case of internal
derived from prestressing after all losses and 'b' is bonded tendons, ultimate flexural capacity of the
equal to the capacity of the remaining web area structure may be calculated by principles of strain
using friction coefficient ja2 = 0.6 and axial force compatibility or any other appropriate method.
derived from prestressing after all losses. In other Figs. 11 and 12 illustrate sample arrangements of
terms, a = \il x (0.87x prestressing force after all external and internal prestressing tendons
losses/cross-sectional area of superstructure) x respectively. Fig . 13 illustrates analogus model
shear key area. And b = u x (0.87x prestressing of externally prestressed superstructure.
force after all losses/cross-sectional area of
superstructure) x (web area - shear key area). The 5.5.3. For Dry jointed precast segmental
ultimate shear capacity of the shear keys so superstructure with external unbonded
calculated shall be multiplied by a factor of 0.75. tendons: The ultimate flexural capacity
Ultimate load factors shall be followed as per calculated as per Clause 13 of IRC: 18-2000 shall
Clause 12 of IRC: 18-2000. be multiplied by a factor of 0.85. In the case of
unbonded tendons where the tendons are only
5.5. Design for Ultimate Flexure connected to the structure at the anchorages, any
strain will be distributed equally through out the
Design shall, in general, be carried out as per length of the tendon's length. Available
Clause 13 of IRC: 18-2000 except as modified prestressing force after all losses is used for
below. Ultimate load factors shall be followed as working out ultimate moment carrying capacity.
per Clause 12 of IRC: 18-2000. The untensioned In such cases failure takes place due to crushing
reinforcement not continuinig between the precast of concrete. Generally, it considered adequately
segments shall not be assumed to contribute to accurate to assume that deflection geometry of
the flexural strength. superstructure will not cause any additional strain in
the tendons. It must be specifically noted that
5.5.1. For Cast-in-situ segmental and spliced strains in unbonded tendons are not the same as
girder superstructures with cast-in-situ stitch: those in the concrete.
The provisions of Clause 13 of IRC: 18-2000 shall
apply. 5.6. Tension Behind Intermediate Anchorages

5.5.2. For Epoxy jointed precast segmental At the intermediate anchorage locations,
superstructure with internal bonded tendons concentrated tensile stresses develop behind the
or external unbonded tendons: The ultimate anchorages. Adequately designed reinforcement
flexural capacity calculated as per Clause 13 of shall be provided for the same. Appropriate
IRC: 18-2000 shall be multiplied by a factor of specialist literature may be followed for design
0.95 for internal bonded tendons and 0.90 for of this reinforcement. In the case of precast
external unbonded tendons. In the case of segmental superstructure, the design needs
unbonded tendons where the tendons are only additional precautions because the reinforcement
connected to the structure at the anchorages, any cannot continue between the adjoining segments.
strain will be distributed equally through out the In such cases, appropriate specialist literature may
length of the tendon's length. Available be followed for catering to such tensions behind
prestressing force after all losses is used for the intermediate anchorages.
working out ultimate moment carrying capacity.
In such cases, failure takes place due to crushing of 5.7. Correction for Centre of Gravity of
concrete. Generally, it is considered adequately Tendons
accurate to assume that deflection geometry of
superstructure will not cause any additional strain in Draped tendons shall be assumed to be below
the tendons. It must be specifically noted that the duct CG in hogging ducts and above the duct
CG in sagging ducts by 6 mm, 12 mm, 18 mm the time of publication, the edition indicated were
and 25 mm for duct ID of 50 mm, 51 mm to 75 valid. All standards are subject to revision and
mm, 76 mm to 100 mm and above 101 mm the parties to agreements based on these
respectively. For portions of transitions between guidelines are encouraged to investigate the
hogging and sagging ducts, intermediate values possibility of applying the most recent editions
may be used appropriately. of standards.

5.8. Axial Tensions 6.1. Codes and specifications

Design shall adequately take account of the 1. IRC:6-2000, Standard Specifications

axial tensions occurring in the superstructure on and Code of Practice for Road Bridges,
account of bearing restraints against creep, Section II-Loads and Stresses (Fourth
shrinkage, thermal movements, breaking/tractive Revision)
forces and longitudinal seismic forces. This effect 2. IRC: 18-2000, Design Criteria for Prestressed
is, more importantly, required to be taken care of Concrete Road Bridges (Post Tensioned
in precast segmental structure due to the absence Concrete) (Third Revision)
of continuing reinforcement. 3. IRC:21-2000, Standard Specifications and
Code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section
5.9. Local Effects of Blisters Ill-Cement Concrete (Plain Reinforced)
(Third Revision)
It is a common practice to provide concrete 4. BS 5400: Part 4: 1984 Code of Practice for
protrusions called blisters inside the box girder Design of Concrete Bridges
to accommodate tendon anchorages. These 5. BS 58/94, The Design of Concrete Highway
blisters associated with prestressing force cause Bridges and Structures with External and
significant local bending moments. Therefore, Unbonded Prestressing
every possible attempt shall be made to locate 6. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design
these blisters at web-bottom slab or web-top slab Specifications: 1999 Interim
junctions so as to minimize additional local 7. American Segmental Bridge Institute July
bending moments. If it is inevitable to provide 1998 Guide Specifications for Design and
blisters over the mid width of top/bottom slab or Construction of Segmental Concrete Bridges
mid-height of webs, they shall be extended till (Second Edition)
the adjoining top/bottom slabs or the webs, as the 8. FIP-1978 Proposal for standard tests and
case may be. In any case local bending moments verification of Epoxy bonding agents for
from such blisters shall be accounted for segmental construction.
appropriately in the design of the adjoining
structure for which appropriate specialist literature 6.2. Papers & Publications
may be consulted.
1. 'External prestressing' by Service D' Etudes
Techniques des et Autoroutes, France.
6. REFERENCES 2. Ahmed M, Abdel Karim and Mahen K
Tadros-'Splicing Increases Span Capabilities
In this publication, reference to the following
of Precast Bridge I Girders' (Technical Paper).
IRC, BS, AASHTO Standards has been made. At