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Wear 319 (2014) 1218

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Wear
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/wear

Inuence of tool steel microstructure on friction and initial


material transfer
Patrik Karlsson n, Anders Grd, Pavel Krakhmalev
Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Karlstad University, Universitetsgatan 2, 65637 Karlstad, Sweden

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: An investigation was conducted to study the inuence of tool steel microstructure on initial material
Received 31 December 2013 transfer and friction. Two different powder metallurgy tool steels and an ingot cast tool material were
Received in revised form tested in dry sliding against 1.4301, 1.4162, Domex 355 MC and Domex 700 MC sheet materials. It was
30 June 2014
found that tool steel hard phase heights inuence initial material transfer and friction. The coefcient of
Accepted 1 July 2014
Available online 16 July 2014
friction increased with decreasing tool steel hard phase heights at 50 N normal load and initial material
transfer occurred around protruding hard phases. At higher load of 500 N the sheet material adhered to
Keywords: both the tool steel matrix and hard phases. Coefcient of friction decreased with increasing proof
Material transfer strength of the sheet material at 500 N normal load.
Friction
& 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Galling
Microstructure
Tool steel

1. Introduction rst transfer are not clear and inuences of tool steel microstruc-
ture, phase composition and chemical composition have not been
Surface damage related to material transfer and adhesive wear systematically investigated. Therefore, it is important to investi-
in sheet metal forming (SMF) operations is known as galling. The gate the initiation of material transfer for several different material
ASTM standard G40 denes galling as A form of surface damage couples.
arising between sliding solids, distinguished by macroscopic, usually In the present study the inuence of tool steel microstructure
localized, roughening and creations of protrusion rising above the on initial material transfer and friction was studied. Three different
original surface; it often includes material transfer, or plastic ow, or tool steels were tested against four different sheet materials under
both [1]. In SMF, galling results in high and unstable friction, dry sliding conditions in a slider-on-at-surface (SOFS) tribometer
scratching of produced parts and damage of the metal forming using a single pass of sheet material over the tool steel surfaces.
tool causing costly production stops due to replacement of the Tests were done under high- and low-load conditions to evaluate
tool. Therefore, it is of high importance for the sheet metal inuence of contact situation on the beginning of sheet material
forming industry to gain more knowledge about galling. transfer to the tool steel surface.
It has been shown that galling is a gradual process and is
inuenced by factors such as tool and sheet mechanical properties
and surface roughness, type of lubricant, contact pressure and 2. Experimental
lubricant failure due to frictional heating [27]. Tool steel micro-
structure is another important factor inuencing the galling 2.1. Wear tests
resistance of the tool [2,5,813]. However, details of the very
beginning stage of galling are not systematically investigated. Wear tests were performed in ambient air (24 1C, 30% relative
Thus, tests focusing on the initial material transfer are important. humidity) under dry sliding condition in a slider-on-at-surface
It has been shown in studies of the early stage of galling under (SOFS) tribometer, Fig. 1(a), using a sliding speed of 0.0025 m/s
lubricated conditions [11,13] that material transfer already and normal loads of 50 N and 500 N. Changes in friction during
occurred after short sliding distances. Mechanisms of the very wear testing were continuously logged by a computer through
collection of signals from force gauges measuring normal force, F1,
and friction force F2, Fig. 1(a). In the SOFS tribometer a disc was
slid against a counterbody material. The disc was slid in one
n
Corresponding author. Tel.: +46547001533; fax: +46547001449. direction and at a predetermined sliding length the disc was lifted
E-mail address: Patrik.Karlsson@kau.se (P. Karlsson). and moved back to the point of origin. After a small shift

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2014.07.002
0043-1648/& 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
P. Karlsson et al. / Wear 319 (2014) 1218 13

Fig. 1. Overview of the SOFS (a) displaying the disc xed in a disc holder and force gauges F1 and F2. In the SOFS tests, discs made of sheet material were slid against plates
made of tool steels (b).

Fig. 2. Microstructure of the IC (a) steel comprising M7C3 carbides and the Vancron 40 steel (b) comprising M(C,N) carbonitrides and M6C carbides. In (c) the microstructure
of the PM2 tool steel containing MC carbides is shown.

perpendicular to the sliding direction the disc sliding movement Domex 355 MC (DX355) and Domex 700 MC (DX700). Data from
might be reiterated against a fresh counterbody surface. The the manufactures of the materials on chemical composition and
history of material transfer and wear was preserved on the surface mechanical properties are shown in Table 1. Independent of tool
of the counterbody. In the present study, the sheet material material type, the corresponding contact pressures to the normal
transfer to tool steel surface was in focus and, therefore, tool loads used in the SOFS wear tests were approximately 0.83
steels were chosen as counterbody. In the tests done in the present 0.85 GPa and 0.991.0 GPa at normal loads of 50 N and 500 N
research, a double-curved disc made of sheet material with 25 mm respectively in tests against the sheet materials EN 1.4301 and
and 5 mm radii was pressed and slid against plates made of tool DX355. The corresponding contact pressures to 50 N and 500 N
steels with size of approximately 85  45  12 mm3, Fig. 1(b). The normal loads were 1.01.1 GPa and 1.51.7 GPa respectively in
disc was slid in a single stroke against the tool steel plate and the tests against the EN 1.4162 and DX700 sheet materials. Both the
stroke length was 75 mm. Test specimens were ultrasonically tool steels and sheet materials were delivered in as hardened
cleaned in ethanol prior to testing to ensure that no surface condition.
contaminants would affect the results. Prior to wear tests, the test specimens were polished to
approximately 0.05 mm (Ra) and subsequently cleaned in ethanol.
2.2. Materials The surface preparation of the discs made of sheet materials was
performed manually using 500, 800 and 1000 mesh SiC papers for
The investigated tool materials were ingot cast (IC) EN 4 min at each SiC paper mesh. Subsequently, polishing the discs to
X153WCrMoV12 tool steel and two different powder metallurgy a mirror-like surface nish was performed using Struers MD-plus
(PM) steels: Uddeholm Vancron 40 and PM2, Fig. 2. The IC steel polishing disc and 3 mm diamond slurry for 4 min. The grinding
comprises M7C3 carbides with size of about 57 mm in diameter and polishing of the tool steel plates were done automatically
and 1520 mm in length and the Vancron 40 steel contains M(C,N) using Hermes EWK 500 mesh grinding disc for initial grinding of
carbonitrides and M6C carbides with a diameter of approximately the plates at 150 N for 1 min. Subsequently, the tool steel plates
12 mm. MC carbides with a diameter of about 12 mm were the were polished with Struers MD-Allegro polishing disc with 9 mm
hard phase in the PM2 material. Austenitizing temperatures of diamond slurry at 180 N for 5 min and MD-Plus with 3 mm at
approximately 1050 1C and 1020 1C with holding time of 30 min 140 N for 4.5 min. In the last surface preparation step of the tool
and tempering at 525 1C for 2  2 h and 560 1C for 3  1 h were steel plates a mirror-like surface was achieved by polishing the
used to achieve the hardness of the IC and Vancron 40 tool steels, plates using Struers MD-Nap with 1 mm diamond slurry at 60 N for
respectively. The austenitizing temperature for the PM2 steel was 1.5 min.
about 1020 1C with holding time of 30 min and tempering was Surface roughness, height of hard phases and microstructure
performed at 525 1C for 2  2 h. were investigated using a GEMENI LEO 1530 FEG scanning electron
The sheet materials were austenitic (EN 1.4301) and duplex (EN microscope (SEM) and a Innova atomic force microscope (AFM).
1.4162) stainless steels and two carbon steel sheet materials: Heights of the tool steel hard phases were measured using AFM.
14 P. Karlsson et al. / Wear 319 (2014) 1218

Table 1
Chemical composition and mechanical properties of the steel types. Rp0.2 and A5 stands for proof stress and ductility of the materials respectively. The ductility A5 was
measured as % elongation.

Steel Chemical composition [Wt%] Hard phase content [vol%] Rp0.2 [MPa] Hardness A5 [%]

IC 1.5C, 12Cr, 0.9Mo, 0.8V 13% M7C3 61 HRC


PM 1.1C, 4.5Cr, 3.2Mo, 3.7W, 1.8N, 8.5V 5% M6C,14% M(C,N) 61 HRC
PM2 2.3C, 4.8Cr, 3.6Mo, 0.4Si, 8.0V 17% MC 60 HRC
1.4301 0.04C, 18Cr, 8.1Ni 300 1707 10 HV0.05 45
1.4162 0.03C, 21.5Cr, 0.3Mo, 0.22N, 1.5Ni 600 2707 30 HV0.05 30
DX355 0.10C, 0.03Si, 1.5Mn, 0.025P, 0.010S, 0.015Al, 0.09Nb, 0.20V, 0.15Ti 355 1307 10 HV0.05 23
DX700 0.12C, 0.10Si, 2.10Mn, 0.025P, 0.010S, 0.015Al, 0.09Nb, 0.20V, 0.15Ti 700 230 710 HV0.05 12

Fig. 3. The coefcient of friction values for the material couples measured in SOFS at 50 N (a) and 500 N (b) load. Below the diagram (b), the proof strength of each sheet
material is included.

Scan areas of 10 mm  10 mm in AFM were compared to SEM scans 3.2. Material transfer
of the same area and by this method it was possible to distinguish
the different hard phases from the tool steel matrix. Typical sites of sheet material transfer to the tool surfaces are
shown in Fig. 4 at 2 cm sliding distance. At 50 N load, the
transferred and adhered sheet material was more pronounced
around the tool steel hard phases, Fig. 4(a, c, and e). The site of
3. Results material transfer for the two different hard phases of the Vancron
40 tool steel was more pronounced around the M(C,N) carboni-
3.1. Friction coefcient trides, Fig. 4(a). On the IC tool steel, lumps of transferred material
were more pronounced around the M7C3 carbides. However,
An average coefcient of friction value for each material couple material was also transferred to the IC tool steel matrix as shown
tested in SOFS was calculated for steady-state conditions, which in Fig. 4(c). Similar transfer was observed on the PM2 tool steel
was reached after approximately 2 cm sliding distance. The aver- where transferred material was observed around the MC carbides
age coefcient of friction (COF) data, representing the average COF and the tool steel matrix.
values for the material couples during the sliding period of 27.5 cm, At 500 N load, transferred sheet material was observed at both
at 50 N and 500 N loads, is presented in Fig. 3. The general trend at hard phases and matrix of all tested tool steels, Fig. 4(b, d, and f).
50 N load was that independently of sheet material type, the COF The sheet material was smeared out in the sliding direction as can
values were the lowest for the Vancron 40 tool steel followed by IC be seen for the IC tool steel after tests at 500 N against the steel
and PM2 tool steels, Fig. 3(a). The highest COF value of approxi- sheet type 1.4301, Fig. 4(d). However, the transferred material was
mately 0.6 was observed for the PM2 tool steel against the carbon less pronounced on the Vancron 40 M(C,N) carbonitrides and the
sheet material DX355. The lowest COF value of approximately PM2 MC carbides, Fig. 4(b and f).
0.3 was observed for the Vancron 40 tool steel against the duplex
stainless steel type 1.4162. The observed COF value for the IC tool 3.3. Hard phase heights
steel against all sheet material types was approximately 0.45.
At 500 N load the COF values for the material couples Fig. 5(a) shows typical hard phase height values for the
decreased with increasing proof strength of the sheet material, different tool steels using AFM. In the PM tool steel Vancron 40
Fig. 3(b). The highest COF value of approximately 0.6 was observed the two hard phases M(C,N) carbonitrides (dark hard phase in
for the Vancron 40 tool steel against the austenitic stainless steel Fig. 5(b)) and M6C carbides (bright hard phase in Fig. 5(b)) differed
sheet 1.4301. In tests against the sheet material types DX355, in height. This was observed in SEM with tilted specimens as
1.4162 and DX700 the highest COF was observed for the PM2 tool shown in Fig. 5(b) and the hard phase heights were measured in
steel. The lowest COF value of approximately 0.3 was observed for AFM after phase type conrmation in SEM, Fig. 5(c and d).
the IC tool steel against the carbon steel sheet material DX700. The height of the hard phases in Vancron 40 was approximately
Additionally, the COF values were the lowest for the tool steel IC 2225 nm for the M(C,N) carbonitrides and 35 nm for the M6C
independent of sheet material type. carbides. The height of the MC carbides in the PM2 steel were
P. Karlsson et al. / Wear 319 (2014) 1218 15

Fig. 4. Typical material transfer sites, indicated with arrows, on the Vancron 40 (a, b), IC (c, d) and PM2 (e, f) tool steel after tests at 50 N (a, c, e) and 500 N (b, d, f) against the
sheet materials 1.4162 (a) and 1.4301 (bf). Sliding direction of the sheet material discs against the tool steel plates from top to bottom.

about 24 nm and the M7C3 carbides in the IC tool steel had a using SEM, Fig. 5(c and d). Similar height values have been
height of approximately 57 nm. reported in [10], which interestingly indicate that hard phases in
tool steels protrude above the matrix even though the preparation
method is different.
4. Discussion Investigations of the worn tool steel surfaces at 50 N load
showed that the main area of transferred material was around the
Prior to tests, the tool steels were polished to a mirror-like tool steel hard phases, Fig. 4. This trend was observed for all
surface. However, as has been shown in [10] that even for very ne investigated tool steels, but some material transfer also occurred
polished tools the tool steel microstructure features inuence the to the matrix of the tool steels. It is likely that more contact
nano scale roughness. The surface roughness on the nano scale between sheet material and tool steel matrix occurs for tool steels
involves surface protrusions such as tool steel hard phases and with lower hard phases such as the IC and PM2 tool steels. Other
the origin of these protrusions is believed to be the difference in factors such as volume fraction, size and distribution of the hard
hardness between the tool steel matrix and the hard phases. To phases also affect the separation of sheet material to the tool steel
understand what parts of microstructure are in the very rst matrix. Because of these factors, the IC tool steel has large open
contact, nanoroughness measurements were done, Fig. 5. It was areas of matrix which are vulnerable to damage and material
observed that the heights of the different hard phases differed, transfer. Nevertheless, material transfer was more pronounced
Fig. 5(a). The heights were approximately 2225 nm for the M(C,N) around the hard phases in this steel as well. The preferential area
carbonitrides and 35 nm for the M6C carbides in the Vancron 40 of material transfer for the Vancron 40 tool steel was around the M
steel, 24 nm for the MC carbides in the PM2 steel and 57 nm for (C,N) carbonitrides. Due to the lower height of the second tool
the M7C3 carbides in the IC tool steel. The height values were steel hard phase M6C in the Vancron 40 tool steel, only minor
measured using AFM surface scans and additional validation of contact between the sheet material and the M6C phase occurs as
type of hard phases was performed by scanning the same area was observed in Fig. 4(a). Similar observations have been reported
16 P. Karlsson et al. / Wear 319 (2014) 1218

Fig. 5. Height of the hard phases (a). The difference in height of the M(C,N) carbonitrides and the M6C carbides in the Vancron 40 tool steel is shown with a tilted specimen
in SEM (b). The height values of the hard phases were extracted from AFM surface scans (c) after phase type conrmation in SEM (d).

in [1416] using different laboratory test equipments and lower and adhered sheet material as can be seen in Fig. 4(b and f). The
normal loads. In [14,15] for example, it has been shown that reason for this is not clear but less adhesion is possible resulting in
aluminum transferred and accumulated on tool surface protru- more easy slip at the interface between the sheet material and the
sions such as hard phases and surface damages such as scratches. tool steel hard phase and thus less material transfer. Similar results
Transfer of material was more pronounced after several passages have been shown in dry sliding of tool steels against carbon sheet
of aluminum against the tool steel surfaces. The transfer of sheet materials coated with a thin lm of gold [18].
material to the M(C,N) hard phase in the present study could The coefcient of friction is described in the theory of friction
therefore be attributed to height of the protruding hard phases. as the ratio between the traction force and the normal force.
However, it is generally believed that the carbonitrides have low Factors such as adhesion, plowing and asperity deformation may
afnity against steel sheet materials [2,10,17]. Thus, the observed contribute to the traction force [19]. Plowing can occur at larger or
transferred material to the hard phase is likely to occur due to smaller scales. In the present study the disc made of sheet material
mechanical interlocking of sheet material against the hard phase was softer than the counterbody made of tool steel and thus the
resulting in microploughing of the sheet material by tool steel plowing effect of the disc against the tool steel surface was
hard phases rather than adhesion between the sheet and the tool. negligible in the one-stroke tests. The contribution of asperity
This effect was also observed for the IC and PM2 tool steels but less deformation to friction is small for smooth surfaces. Prior to
pronounced because of the lower height of hard phases resulting testing the tool steel plates and sheet material discs were polished
in more contact and thus additional transfer to the matrix of the to a mirror-like surface resulting in Ra of approximately 0.05 mm.
tool steels. The effect of sheet asperity deformation on friction may, therefore,
At 500 N load, the transferred and adhered sheet material was be considered negligible. Interlocking of sheet material against the
observed on both the hard phases and matrix of all tested tool protruding tool steel hard phases resulting in microploughing on
steels. Thus, in dry sliding at higher loads the height of the tool the other hand could occur even though the heights of the hard
steel hard phase was not sufcient to prevent the sheet material to phases were in nanometer scale. However, because of the smooth
reach the tool steel matrix. Due to strong adhesion in this contact surfaces and selected test arrangement, the microploughing effect
situation, material transfer to the tool steel matrix occurs as was on friction may be considered as minor and the remaining factor
observed, Fig. 4. Transfer of sheet material to both the matrix and contributing to friction is adhesion.
hard phases of tool steels at higher loads is typical and has been In the present study, the coefcient of friction was measured
observed in tests under lubricated sliding too [5,9,13]. However, in tests at 50 N and 500 N normal loads. It was observed that the
the transferred material in the present study was less pronounced coefcient of friction differed at the different load regimes, Fig. 3.
on the Vancron 40 M(C,N) carbonitrides and the PM2 MC carbides. The general trend for tests performed at 50 N load was that the
Spaces in between the hard phases were lled with transferred coefcient of friction increased with decreasing tool steel hard
P. Karlsson et al. / Wear 319 (2014) 1218 17

phase height. At 50 N load the measured coefcient of friction for tests at 500 N, Fig. 3(b). The highest coefcient of friction value
among the tested tool steels was the lowest for the Vancron 40 of approximately 0.6 was observed for the austenitic stainless steel
tool steel, Fig. 3(a). This trend was observed in tests against all type 1.4301 with proof strength of 300 MPa. The lowest coefcient
sheet materials. With decreasing tool steel hard phase height the of friction value of approximately 0.3 was observed for the high
sheet material is more in contact with the tool steel matrix. This strength carbon steel sheet material DX700 with a proof strength
results in a steel to steel contact with high adhesion and thus of 700 MPa. Additionally, the sheet material DX700 has lower
higher coefcient of friction as was observed for the IC and PM2 ductility as can be seen in Table 1 showing a A5 value of 12%
tool steels [20]. Interlocking of sheet material against the protrud- compared to the 1.4301 steel type with A5 value of 45%. It has been
ing hard phases resulting in microploughing on the other hand shown that materials with higher strength are less prone to galling
could occur. However, if microploughing was the dominating and thus transfer and related wear problems such as galling
factor contributing to friction, the Vancron 40 with the high M depend on mechanical properties of materials [13,20,21]. In [13]
(C,N) carbonitrides should have the highest friction particularly in for example it has been shown that in lubricated galling tests
the tests against the softer sheet materials. In the present study, galling occurred at higher contact pressures for sheet materials
the Vancron 40 had the lowest coefcient of friction values among with higher proof strength. Additionally, in [13] it was observed
the tested tool steels. Therefore, the microploughing effect on that the ow of sheet material against the tool steel surface caused
friction may be considered negligible compared to adhesion at tool steel damages around the tool steel hard phases resulting in
tests performed at 50 N normal load. wear induced galling initiation sites. In the present study, the high
Contrary to the results obtained at the lower load of 50 N, the coefcient of friction in tests against sheet material with lower
coefcient of friction was higher at 500 N load for tool steels proof strength and higher ductility might also be explained by the
comprising high hard phases. This was more pronounced for tests plastic deformation of sheet material. Sheet material with lower
with Vancron 40 against the austenitic stainless steel sheet 1.4301, proof strength and ductility will ow more easily in between the
Fig. 3(b). The reason may be designated to adhesion between the tool steel hard phases and quickly reach the matrix of the tool
materials as the softer sheet material is pressed down to the steels. This results in high friction because of high adhesion in the
matrix at higher loads resulting in a steel to steel contact and thus metal to metal contact. Another possible factor contributing to
high friction. However, the microstructure of the IC tool steel has higher friction is microploughing of the sheet material by protrud-
more open areas of matrix than the other tool steels. Sheet ing tool steel hard phases. The plowing effect may be more
material can therefore more easily reach the tool steel matrix pronounced for the softer low strength sheet material because of
resulting in higher friction. Additionally, it has been shown that in larger plowing penetration depth resulting in higher friction.
lubricated tests quicker damage to the tool steel matrix occurs for the
IC tool steel due to open areas matrix resulting in wear-induced
galling initiation sites [13]. Nevertheless, as can be seen in Fig. 3
(b) the IC tool steel has lower coefcient of friction values than the
other tool steels against all sheet materials. It is therefore likely that 5. Conclusions
an additional mechanism to adhesion occurs. Possible mechanism
may be interlocking of sheet material against protruding hard phases The inuence of tool steel microstructure on friction and initial
as has been shown in [14] resulting in microploughing of the sheet material transfer was investigated. An ingot cast (IC) tool steel EN
material by tool steel hard phases. The ploughing effect on friction X153WCrMoV12 and two different powder metallurgy (PM) tool
may be higher for tool steels with higher hard phases in tests against steels Vancron 40 and PM2 were tested against EN 1.4301 and EN
softer low strength sheet materials because of larger penetration 1.4162 stainless steels and DX355 and DX700 carbon steels under
depth of the microploughing. This would explain the higher coef- dry sliding conditions.
cient of friction value for tests with Vancron 40 against the austenitic It was shown that at lower loads the tool steel microstructure
stainless steel sheet 1.4301, Fig. 3(b). inuences both the initial material transfer and the coefcient of
Compared to the M(C,N) carbonitrides in Vancron 40, the lower friction. Independently of sheet material type, the Vancron 40 tool
height of the M7C3 carbides in IC allows for the sheet material to steel had the lowest coefcient of friction among the tool steels at
ow more easily over the carbides resulting in less interlocking 50 N normal load. The M(C,N) carbonitrides with a height of
and thus lower friction as was observed, Fig. 3(b). The results approximately 2225 nm were the highest of all tool steel hard
obtained for the PM2 tool steel, however, do not follow the same phases. Higher tool steel hard phases are benecial because the
trend and other factors might affect the results. The height of the material transfer to the tool steel matrix is prevented which most
MC carbides in the PM2 tool steel was the lowest among the tested likely results in less adhesion and thus lower friction. However,
steels and following the previous discussion, the tool steel is because of the height the sheet material interlocked on tool steel
expected to have the lowest coefcient of friction values at hard phases which were more pronounced on the M(C,N) than the
500 N. As seen in Fig. 3(b) the coefcient of friction values for M6C carbides of the Vancron 40 tool steel.
this steel are instead often higher than the other tested material At higher load of 500 N sheet mechanical properties such as proof
couples. One possible contributing factor to the deviating trend for strength and ductility inuenced friction. The highest coefcient of
the PM2 tool steel which might be further investigated is higher friction value of 0.6 was observed for the austenitic stainless steel
afnity between the MC carbides and the tested sheet materials. type 1.4301 with proof strength of 300 MPa and A5 ductility value of
The afnity between tool steel carbides and sheet material has 45%. In tests against the high strength carbon sheet material DX700
been discussed many times in literature but only a few attempts to with proof strength of 700 MPa and ductility value A5 of 12%, the
measure adhesion for different types of tool steel hard phases have lowest coefcient of friction value of 0.3 was observed. The highest
been made [2,17]. The measurements are challenging and factures coefcient of friction value of 0.6 was observed in tests against the
such as humidity, specimen cleaning methods and type of probe Vancron 40 tool steel with the highest hard phase height. The lowest
material may affect the results. coefcient of friction value of 0.3 was observed in tests against the IC
Sheet material mechanical properties are another factor con- tool steel with lower hard phase heights. Thus, higher hard phase
tributing to the material transfer and friction. It was observed heights are not benecial at higher loads in dry sliding conditions
that independently of tool steel type, the coefcient of friction possibly because of more interlocking between high hard phases and
decreased with increasing proof strength of the sheet material as sheet material resulting in higher friction.
18 P. Karlsson et al. / Wear 319 (2014) 1218

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