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Feier. GBWb 33, 16. August 1902: 4). (Hirek. A trkbecsei szabadsgszobor. Torontl
, , - 202. sz., 1903. szeptember 7: 2; Hirek. A trkbecsei
, szabadsgszobor. Torontl 206. sz., 1903. szeptember
- - 12: 2; Hirek. A trkbecsei emlkoszlop. Torontl
(Die Csatder Lenau-Feier. GBWb 33, 16. 207. sz., 1903. szeptember 14: 12; Sd-Ungarn.
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, Torontl 111. sz., 1904. mjus 16: 12; Sd-Ungarn.
. Enthllung des Magyar-Ittebeer Kossuth-Denkmals.
1850. . - GBWb 21, 21. Mai 1904: 3), ,
. - , -
.: Anton Peter Petri, Biografisches Lexikon des Banater
(Sd-Ungarn. Kossuth-Feier in Zsombolya.
Deutschtums, Marquartstein 1992, 13601362; Borovszky
Samu, Torontl vrmegye, Budapest 1911, 279283; Adam
GBWb 26, 1. Juli 1905, 23), -
Mller-Gutenbrunn, Dmonische Jahre. Ein Lenau-Roman, ( ,
Leipzig 1920; Adam Mller-Gutenbrunn, Auf der Hhe. Ein ,
Lenau-Roman, Leipzig 1921; Anton Scherer, Die nicht ster- , -
ben wollten. Donauschwbische Literatur von Lenau bis zur , -
Gegenwart, Graz 1985; Roman Roek, Dmonie des Bieder- ) (Sd-Ungarn. Kossuth-Feier in Zsombolya.
meier. Nikolaus Lenaus Lebenstragdie, Wien 2005. GBWb 26, 1. Juli 1905: 23; A zsombolyai Kossuth-
8
szobor leleplezse. Torontl 146. sz., 1905. junius
, 1903. 1904. 30: 12.). 1906,
(Sd-Ungarn. Das Lenau-Denkmal. Gross-Becs-

kereker Wochenblatt 9, 1. Mrz 1903: 2);
13. 1904, 102.
(Sd-Ungarn. Das Csatder Lenau-Denk- 9
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mal. Gross-Becskereker Wochenblatt 14, 4. April 1903: 23; ,
: Hirek. A csatdi Lenau-szobor. Torontl 297. : . ,
sz., 1903. december 31: 3. .
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160 XXIX
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- 1904: 4). ,

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Torontl 32, 8. August 1903: 4),
(Hegeds Jnos. Kiss Ern, Torontl 133. sz., -
1903. junius 15: 1; Hirek. Kiss Ern szobra. Torontl . .
142. sz., 1903. junius 25: 1; Lokales. Ein Denkmal 200 (Hirek.
fr General Ernst Kiss. GBWb 26, 27. Juni 1903: 4). A fvros Kiss Ern szobrra. Torontl 202. sz., 1903.
- szeptember 7: 2), -
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30: 1; Szobrot Kiss Ernnek. Torontl 150. sz., 1903. , , -
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GBWb 28, 11. Juli 1903: 3). sz., 1903. november 16: 2).
- 1000 (Hirek.
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162 XXIX
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: Torontl 284. sz., 1905. december 13: 23; Hirek.
, - Adakozs Kiss Ern szobrra (Folytats). Torontl
, 285. sz., 1905. december 14: 2; Hirek. Adakozs Kiss
. - Ern szobrra (Folytats). Torontl 286. sz., 1905.
(. . .) (Lokales. General Ernest december 15: 3; Hirek. Adakozs Kiss Ern szobrra
Kiss-Monument. GBWb 30, 29. Juli 1905: 4). (Folytats). Torontl 288. sz., 1905. december 18:
23; Hirek. Adakozs Kiss Ern szobrra (Folytats).
, Torontl 290. sz., 1905. december 20: 2; Hirek.
Wochenblatt-, Adakozs Kiss Ern szobrra (Vge). Torontl 291.
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Bogovi, Aleksandar Stefanov, Aleksandar Radlovaki, Gro- Szozt- ( ).
bovi koji putuju: Jevrejsko spomen-groblje u Zrenjaninu, , ,
Zbornik Jevrejskog istorijskog muzeja u Beogradu 10, Beo-
grad 2015, 430, 442, 451.

XXIX 163
, , . .
(Lokales. : -
General Ernest Kiss-Denkmal. GBWb 5, 3. Februar ;
1906: 4). -
, - 1848. .
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- KISS ERN 48AS HONVDTBORNOK SZOBRNAK
(Lokales. General Ernest Kiss-Denkmal. LELEPLEZSI NNEPLYRE; Az aradi golgotn vrta-
GBWb 16, 21. April 1906: 4). nuhallt halt 13-ak egyiknek, TORONTLVRMEGYE
, NAGY FINAK KISS ERN, A LEGELS MAGYAR
, HONVDTBORNOK, MAJD ALTBORNAGY, MA-
GYAR HADGYMINISTER S ORSZGOS FHADPA-
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H 27-IKN TRTN LELEPLEZSI NNEPLYRE
(Lokales. General Ernest Kiss- Nagybecskerek vros kznsgt TISZTELETTEL MEG-
Denkmal. GBWb 17, 28. April 1906: 4). HIVJUK A SZOBORBIZOTTSG NEVBEN DR. DELLI-
MANICS LAJOSN FISPNN, MINT A SZOBORBI-
- ZOTTSG ELNKE. HEGEDS JNOS LLAMI ANYA-
, KNYVI FELGYEL, MINT A SZOBORBIZOTTSG
(Lokales. TITKRA. STEINITZER GZA BANKIGAZGAT, MINT
General Ernest Kiss-Monument. GBWb 18, 5. Mai A SZOBORBIZOTTSG PNZTRNOKA. DR. BALS
1906: 4). IVNN, DR. BRJJER LAJOSN, ID. BOBOR GYUL-
NE, IFJ. BOBOR GYULN, BR DNIEL ERNN,
,
DANIEL FERENCZN, DIENSTL EMILIA, FAUR KOR-
(- NLN, FAUR MARGIT, DR. GYERTYNFFY JENN,
, . 3 , GYERTYNFFY ANDORN, DR. HAIDEGGER LAJOS-
17691918, - N, HEGEDS JNOSN, JANK GOSTONN, K-
, . LER KOSN, KYASK LAJOSN, KOKITS A. F.-N,
49/1906). DR. MIHLOVITS DNN, MENCZER LIPTN, DR.
A NEMZET HLJA ( MANGOLD SAMUN, MIKE FLRINN, DR. NAGY
), DEZSN, PAPP LILIKE, DR. PERISICS ZOLTNN,
, DR. STASSIK FERENCZN, STEINITZER GZN,
STAGELSCHMIDT JNOSN, SZALAY JZSEFN,

164 XXIX
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XXIX 165
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. .: Kalapis Zoltan, letrajzi kalauz. Ezer ma-
- gyar biogrfia a dlszlv orszgokbl, III, jvidek 2003, 276
, . 277; Anton Peter Petri, Biografisches Lexikon des Banater
Deutschtums, Marquartstein 1992, 19941995;
15
.: Nada Boro (.), , 1938, passim;
Vesna Majstorovi, Spomenik kralju Petru Prvom Karaore- . . , 149,
viu u Zrenjaninu, Zrenjanin 2005. . IV, 28. 1939, 2.
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2624, . XLIX, 4. 2002: 16;
, Marcsk Vilma. A magyar golgota. 2625,
. XLIX, 10. 2002: 16; Marcsk Vilma. A
( ) magyar golgota. 2626, . XLIX, 18. -
, - 2002: 16). 6. 2002.
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168 XXIX
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lepleztk le. Kiss Ern, aradi vrtannk szobrt.
2806, . LIV, 12. 2006: 16; Marcsk
Vilma. Kiss Ern ftri szobra (II. rsz).
2807, . LIV, 19. 2006: 16; Marcsk Vilma. A
Kiss Ern szobor leleplezse (III. rsz).
2808, . LIV, 26. 2006: 16; Marcsk Vilma. A
Kiss Ern szobor leleplezse (IV. rsz).
2809, . LIV, 2. 2006: 16; Marcsk Vilma. Kiss
Ern szobrnak leleplezse (V. rsz). 2810,
. LIV, 9. 2006: 16; Marcsk Vilma. Uthang a
Kiss Ern szobor nneplyhez. 2011, .
LIV, 16. 2006: 16); , 2007. , -
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(II. rsz), 2877, 21. 2007, 16;
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2878, 28. 2007: 16; Marcsk Vilma, 1848/49.
Kiss Ern, az aradi vrtan (IV. rsz), ( ) -
2879, 5. 2007: 16; Marcsk Vilma, Kiss -
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lete (VI. rsz), 2881: 19. 2007,
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Ern lete (I rsz), 2884, 9. ,
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XXIX 169
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12, 1974). - 2799, . LIV, 17. 2006: 16; R. P.
Oktber 6 - a Bntban. 2827, . LIV, 6.
: , / 2006: 16; Marcsk Vilma. Oktber hatodika,
/ a magyar golgota. 2827, . LIV, 6. -
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: ! ( .
2002: 437) ( , - - (Nedeljko Kolundija. Peticijom
, ). protiv maarskog generala. Blic 18. mart 2011),
, ().
- ,
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,
, , , - . -
-
(D. J. Mrcius 15-re emlkeznk,
2645, . LI, 7. 2003: 16; k-ko.
Mrcius 15-re emlkeznk. 2645, . LI, (Apel pet udruenja iz Paneva: Neemo spomenik
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170 XXIX


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XXIX 171
The Culture of Remembrance and the Culture of
Oblivion: The Ern Kiss Monument in Nagy Becskerek
Filip Krmar

Key words: Ern Kiss, monument, Nagy Becskerek, Hungarian revolution of 1848, the culture of remembrance.

Born in 1799 to a wealthy and respectable aristocratic Hungarian family of Armenian descent, Ern Kiss
pursued a military career as a cavalry officer from the 1820s to the 1840s. He rose to prominence during the
Hungarian revolution of 1848, when he was appointed military commander of the Hungarian National Guard
in his native Banat (Torontl County). As such, he was in charge of fighting the Serbs from the Banat Military
frontier and Nagykikinda district, which opposed the Hungarian rebels and had the support of their compatriots
volunteering from the neighboring Principality of Serbia. In the summer of 1848, Kiss launched a successful
military campaign in the course of which he defeated the Serbs in the battle of Perlez on September 2nd and
effectively thwarted several of their efforts to rebel. He was relieved of duty in late December, after having
suffered defeat near Panevo, and was called to Buda, where he held several key positions in the revolutionary
Hungarian government, including that of Minister of War. He was executed in the city of Arad in the aftermath
of the Revolution on October 6th 1849, along with 12 of his wartime comrades and fellow generals. Ever since,
Kiss has been considered one of the so-called Thirteen Martyrs of Arad and a Hungarian national hero, who sac-
rificed his life in the struggle for national independence and liberty.
In 1903, Torontl county official Janos Hegeds, an avid history lover and 1848-memorabilia collector,
came out publicly with the initiative for a monument to Kiss to be erected in the Countys capital of Nagy Bec-
skerek. At that time, numerous other monuments dedicated to the Revolution and its notable participants were
already being built all over Southern Hungary, as a part of the intensive Magyarisation policy conducted by
the authorities towards non-Hungarian minorities. Hegedss idea quickly gained supporters, especially among
high and influential County representatives, with the Monument-Committee being established soon afterwards.
Beside Hegeds himself, that Committee gathered mostly the wives of senior County officials, who displayed a
great deal of interest, zeal and enthusiasm in pursuing this goal. In the couple of years following, this Committee
collected donations for the monument from all over the country, provided a suitable location in the main square
in Nagy Becskerek and commissioned academic sculptor Bla Radnay from Budapest for the project. After sev-
eral postponements, the Kiss monument was officially unveiled on May 27th 1906 in the presence of County and
City officials, numerous delegations and representatives from all parts of Hungary, members of Kiss family,
etc. It was brought down in 1920 by the new Yugoslav city authorities, who perceived it as a symbol of the old
Austro-Hungarian rule and order and rather unpleasant and ineligible reminder of Kiss anti-Serb involvement in
the revolutionary year of 1848. The only remaining part of the monument that survived until today is the monu-
ments head, kept in the National Museum of Zrenjanin.

Reminiscences of Kiss and the Revolution of 1848, such as the annual commemorations that take place on
October 6th in the Catholic church in Elemir, on Kiss former family estate, raise the sensitive issue of interpret-
ing local history in a multiethnic environment, which inflicts serious damage to the widely accepted image of
centuries of peaceful coexistence of the Serbs and Hungarians, not only in Banat, but in the neighboring areas
as well. Ever since the monuments demolition, the Hungarian minority in Banat has successfully managed to
preserve the memory of Kiss as its national hero and martyr. In the interwar period, his cult was cherished dis-
creetly and secretly, as it was considered unacceptable by Yugoslav/Serbian authorities. As time went by, this
practice became more and more public, as Serbian authorities adopted a conciliatory attitude towards this issue,
while displaying, on the other hand, a bewildering forgetfulness, negligence and indifference towards cherishing
historic Serbian figures hailing from the same period.

172 XXIX
List of figures:
Photo 1. Ern Kiss (17991849). Publisher: Borovszky Samu, Torontl vrmegye, Budapest 1911.
Photos 2 and 3. An invitation for Ern Kiss statue ceremony. Zrenjanin historical arhives, F.3 Veliki Bekerek, city with an
organized senate 17691918, n0 47/1906
Photo 4. A postcard with Ern Kiss statue motive. Zrenjanin historical arhives, F. 45 Photograph collection 18902003, N0 821,
13.5 9 cm. A gift from ika Jovanovi from Zrenjanin.
Photo 5. Ern Kiss statue in front of the county palace in Veliki Bekerek (postcard). Zrenjanin historical archives, F. 45.
Photograph collection 18902003, N0 1189, 13.5 9 cm.
Photo 6. Remnant the head of Ern Kiss statue. Zrenjanin Public museum. Photo: D. Marinkovi
Photo 7. Wreath Laying Ceremony at Kisss grave in Elemir in 1990. . Zrenjanin historical arhives, F. 45 Photograph collection
18902003, N0 1205.

XXIX 173