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Dictionaries store connections between pieces of

List comprehensions information. Each item in a dictionary is a key-value pair.

squares = [x**2 for x in range(1, 11)] A simple dictionary
Slicing a list alien = {'color': 'green', 'points': 5}
finishers = ['sam', 'bob', 'ada', 'bea']
Accessing a value
first_two = finishers[:2]
print("The alien's color is " + alien['color'])
Variables are used to store values. A string is a series of Copying a list
characters, surrounded by single or double quotes. Adding a new key-value pair
copy_of_bikes = bikes[:]
Hello world alien['x_position'] = 0
print("Hello world!") Looping through all key-value pairs
Hello world with a variable Tuples are similar to lists, but the items in a tuple can't be fav_numbers = {'eric': 17, 'ever': 4}
modified. for name, number in fav_numbers.items():
msg = "Hello world!"
print(name + ' loves ' + str(number))
print(msg) Making a tuple
Concatenation (combining strings) dimensions = (1920, 1080)
Looping through all keys
fav_numbers = {'eric': 17, 'ever': 4}
first_name = 'albert'
for name in fav_numbers.keys():
last_name = 'einstein'
print(name + ' loves a number')
full_name = first_name + ' ' + last_name If statements are used to test for particular conditions and
print(full_name) respond appropriately. Looping through all the values
Conditional tests fav_numbers = {'eric': 17, 'ever': 4}
for number in fav_numbers.values():
equals x == 42 print(str(number) + ' is a favorite')
A list stores a series of items in a particular order. You
not equal x != 42
access items using an index, or within a loop.
greater than x > 42
Make a list or equal to x >= 42
less than x < 42 Your programs can prompt the user for input. All input is
bikes = ['trek', 'redline', 'giant'] or equal to x <= 42 stored as a string.
Get the first item in a list Conditional test with lists Prompting for a value
first_bike = bikes[0] 'trek' in bikes name = input("What's your name? ")
Get the last item in a list 'surly' not in bikes print("Hello, " + name + "!")
last_bike = bikes[-1] Assigning boolean values Prompting for numerical input
Looping through a list game_active = True age = input("How old are you? ")
can_edit = False age = int(age)
for bike in bikes:
print(bike) A simple if test
pi = input("What's the value of pi? ")
Adding items to a list if age >= 18: pi = float(pi)
print("You can vote!")
bikes = []
bikes.append('trek') If-elif-else statements
bikes.append('redline') if age < 4:
bikes.append('giant') ticket_price = 0
Making numerical lists elif age < 18: Covers Python 3 and Python 2
ticket_price = 10
squares = [] else:
for x in range(1, 11): ticket_price = 15
A while loop repeats a block of code as long as a certain A class defines the behavior of an object and the kind of Your programs can read from files and write to files. Files
condition is true. information an object can store. The information in a class are opened in read mode ('r') by default, but can also be
is stored in attributes, and functions that belong to a class opened in write mode ('w') and append mode ('a').
A simple while loop are called methods. A child class inherits the attributes and
methods from its parent class. Reading a file and storing its lines
current_value = 1
while current_value <= 5: filename = 'siddhartha.txt'
Creating a dog class
print(current_value) with open(filename) as file_object:
current_value += 1 class Dog(): lines = file_object.readlines()
"""Represent a dog."""
Letting the user choose when to quit for line in lines:
msg = '' def __init__(self, name): print(line)
while msg != 'quit': """Initialize dog object.""" = name Writing to a file
msg = input("What's your message? ")
print(msg) filename = 'journal.txt'
def sit(self): with open(filename, 'w') as file_object:
"""Simulate sitting.""" file_object.write("I love programming.")
print( + " is sitting.")
Functions are named blocks of code, designed to do one Appending to a file
specific job. Information passed to a function is called an my_dog = Dog('Peso')
argument, and information received by a function is called a filename = 'journal.txt'
parameter. with open(filename, 'a') as file_object:
print( + " is a great dog!") file_object.write("\nI love making games.")
A simple function my_dog.sit()

def greet_user(): Inheritance

"""Display a simple greeting.""" class SARDog(Dog): Exceptions help you respond appropriately to errors that
print("Hello!") """Represent a search dog.""" are likely to occur. You place code that might cause an
error in the try block. Code that should run in response to
greet_user() def __init__(self, name): an error goes in the except block. Code that should run only
Passing an argument """Initialize the sardog.""" if the try block was successful goes in the else block.
def greet_user(username): Catching an exception
"""Display a personalized greeting.""" def search(self): prompt = "How many tickets do you need? "
print("Hello, " + username + "!") """Simulate searching.""" num_tickets = input(prompt)
print( + " is searching.")
greet_user('jesse') try:
my_dog = SARDog('Willie') num_tickets = int(num_tickets)
Default values for parameters
except ValueError:
def make_pizza(topping='bacon'): print( + " is a search dog.") print("Please try again.")
"""Make a single-topping pizza.""" my_dog.sit() else:
print("Have a " + topping + " pizza!") print("Your tickets are printing.")

If you had infinite programming skills, what would you Simple is better than complex
Returning a value build?
If you have a choice between a simple and a complex
def add_numbers(x, y): As you're learning to program, it's helpful to think solution, and both work, use the simple solution. Your
"""Add two numbers and return the sum.""" about the real-world projects you'd like to create. It's
return x + y code will be easier to maintain, and it will be easier
a good habit to keep an "ideas" notebook that you for you and others to build on that code later on.
can refer to whenever you want to start a new project.
sum = add_numbers(3, 5)
If you haven't done so already, take a few minutes
and describe three projects you'd like to create. More cheat sheets available at