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ALTO MAIPO HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT

CONTRACT AM-CO630

HYDROMECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL DESIGN SERVICES

6305-EL-MCA-7050-A00
AC & DC AUXILIARY SERVICES CALCULATION REPORT
MAITENES DISCHARGE ZONE

REV PREPARATION STRABAG STRABAG


REVIEW PYRY PYRY APPROVAL
PYRY REVIEW APPROVAL
NAME SIGN. NAME SIGN. NAME SIGN. DATE NAME SIGN. NAME SIGN.

A00 SZE MGM FUP 17-03-17

AES GENER APPROVAL NAME SIGNATURE DATE

Modifications:
6305-EL-MCA-7101-A00
AC & DC SYSTEM CALCULATION REPORT
LAS LAJAS SURFACE WORK
ALFALFAL DISCHARGE CHANNEL
MODIFICATION

INDEX
1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 4
2. SCOPE ................................................................................................................. 4
3. PURPOSE ............................................................................................................ 5
4. REFERENCE LIST ............................................................................................... 5
4.1 Codes and Standards ................................................................................. 5
4.2 Project Documents ..................................................................................... 5
4.2.1 Basic Engineering Documents ....................................................... 5
4.2.2 Basic Engineering Drawings .......................................................... 6
4.2.3 Detailed Engineering Documents ................................................... 6
4.2.4 Detailed Engineering Drawings ...................................................... 6
5. SERVICE CONDITIONS....................................................................................... 6
6. DESIGN CRITERIA .............................................................................................. 6
6.1 Alternating Current Equipment.................................................................... 7
6.2 Direct Current 24 VDC Equipment .............................................................. 7
7. CALCULATION METHODOLOGY ....................................................................... 7
7.1 General considerations ............................................................................... 7
7.2 Loads Type Definition ................................................................................. 8
7.2.1 Alternating Current Load ................................................................ 8
7.2.2 Direct Current Load ........................................................................ 8
7.3 Power Transformer Selection ..................................................................... 9
8. SHORT CIRCUIT SIZING ..................................................................................... 9
8.1 Short Circuit in Alternating Current - Low Voltage (220 VAC) ..................... 9
8.2 Short Circuit in Direct Current - Low Voltage (24 VDC) .............................. 9
8.2.1 Rectifier charger contribution ....................................................... 10
8.2.2 Battery Banks Contribution .......................................................... 10
8.2.3 Total short circuit current at 24 VDC ............................................ 11
8.3 Nominal Current in Bars ........................................................................... 11
9. BATTERY SIZING .............................................................................................. 11
9.1 Definition ................................................................................................... 11
9.2 Cycle Duty Definition ................................................................................ 11
For sizing DC battery sets; we will represent the operating cycle diagram in the
case of loss. That corresponds to voltage loss in 8 hours period. ............ 11
9.3 Battery Bank Cells Number Selection ....................................................... 12
9.4 Battery Capacity Determination ................................................................ 13
9.5 Battery Correction Factors ........................................................................ 14
9.5.1 Temperature Reduction Factor (Tt) .............................................. 14
9.5.2 Design Margin .............................................................................. 15
9.5.3 Aging Factor ................................................................................. 15
10. SELECTING THE BATTERY CHARGER ........................................................... 16

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MODIFICATION

10.1 Permanent Charge Current (Lc) Determination ........................................ 17


10.2 24VDC Battery Charger sizing .................................................................. 17
11. CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................. 18
12. ATTACHMENTS ................................................................................................. 18

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1. INTRODUCTION
The Alto Maipo Hydroelectric Project (AM Project) will be located southeast of
Santiago City, in the municipal district of San Jos de Maip, Cordillera Province,
Metropolitan Region, specifically at the Maip River upper basin.

It includes the construction of two hydroelectric plants which are Alfalfal II and Las
Lajas, that are laid out in hydraulic series.

The AC and DC auxiliary services for the discharge channel modification at the
Alfalfal site will supply electric power for control and supervision of the
hydromechanical equipment and the corresponding actuators.

Figure 1.1 Auxiliary Services Location Plan - Discharge Channel Modification

2. SCOPE
The low voltage alternating and direct current auxiliary services will be fed from a
distribution transformer connected to the existing 12 kV Maintenes-Alfalfal medium
voltage distribution line. This report takes into account the loads to be fed to
determine the size of the distribution transformer.

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3. PURPOSE
The purpose of this calculation report is to size the AC and DC auxiliary services
system according to document 600-SC-CDD-001.

The following will be selected:

Distribution power transformer


Emergency Diesel generator
Circuit breakers for the DC switchboard
Circuit breakers for the AC switchboard
Battery bank and battery charger

4. REFERENCE LIST

4.1 Codes and Standards


NCh 4/2003 : Instalaciones de Consumo en Baja Tensin

International Standards
IEC 60529 : Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures (IP Code).
IEC 60439 : Low-Voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies.
IEC 60896 : Stationary lead-acid batteries
IEEE Std. 485 : Recommended Practice for Sizing Large Lead Storage
Batteries for Generating Stations and Substations.
IEEE Std. 1188 : IEEE Recommended Practice for Maintenance, Testing,
and Replacement of Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) Batteries for Stationary
Applications
IEEE Std. 1184 : IEEE Guide for Batteries for Uninterruptible Power
Systems
Switchgear Manual - Asea Brown Boveri, 11th edition.

4.2 Project Documents

4.2.1 Basic Engineering Documents


600-SC-CDD-001 Rev. 3 Electrical Power Design Criteria Auxiliary Services
Surface installation.
600-PC-ETG-001 Rev. 4 General Technical Specification Detailed
Engineering
600-ME-LEQ-001 Rev. 2 General List of Hydromechanical Equipment.

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4.2.2 Basic Engineering Drawings


630-SC-PLA-080 Rev. 0 Las Lajas Surface Works Low Voltage Single Line
Diagram Discharge Channel Modification.
630-SC-PLA-082 Rev. 0 Las Lajas Surface Works Lighting power ducts and
installations Discharge Channel Modification.

4.2.3 Detailed Engineering Documents


6305-EL-PLA-7010 AC&DC Auxiliary Services Single-Line Diagram -
Generator and Transformer - Maintenes Discharge
6305-EL-PLA-7011 AC&DC Auxiliary Services Single Line Diagram
Alternating Current System - Maintenes Discharge
6305-EL-PLA-7012 AC &DC Auxiliary Services Single Line Diagram Direct
Current System - Discharge Channel Modification

4.2.4 Detailed Engineering Drawings


6305-EL-PLA-7010 AC&DC Auxiliary Services Single Line Diagram -
Generator and Transformer - Discharge Channel Modification
6305-EL-PLA-7011 AC&DC Auxiliary Services Single Line Diagram
Alternating Current System - Discharge Channel Modification
6305-EL-PLA-7012 AC &DC Auxiliary Services Single Line Diagram Direct
Current System - Discharge Channel Modification

5. SERVICE CONDITIONS
The ambient environmental conditions for the transmission lines are as follows.

Altitude : 800 to 2 500 m (above sea level)


Maximum Temperature : 40C
Average temperature : 30C
Minimum Temperature : - 10C

6. DESIGN CRITERIA
The main equipment selection is based on the following criteria:

Modularity : To facilitate auxiliary circuits expansion.


Flexibility : To change any auxiliary services configuration.
Simplicity : For simple operation.
Maintenance : To perform maintenance considering the above criteria.
Optimization : Equipment will be selected by minimum cost to guarantee all
criteria described above.

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6.1 Alternating Current Equipment


The selection of alternating current equipment is based on the following criteria:

The rated voltage on the LV-side of the distribution transformer will be 400-230
V (at no-load condition).
The distribution transformer will be sized with an extra 15% reserve capacity.
The main circuits of the AC switchboard will be equipped with three-pole
molded-case circuit breakers (MCCB) and the switchboard will be equipped with
non-segregated busbars solidly grounded, five wires (3 phases + N + PE)
The AC switchboards will be provided with busbar voltage presence
signalization lamps.
The single-phase power outlet circuits will be equipped with single-pole 16, 20
and 25 A mini circuit breakers (MCBs), provided with 30 mA residual current
protection devices.
The Single-phase illumination circuits will be equipped with 16 A mini circuit
breakers (MCBs).
The AC switchboards will be provided with 25% reserve outputs circuits.
The rated short-circuit withstand current for switchboard busbar will be 14 kA-
peak(600-SC-CDD-001 item 05), 3 s at 380-220 V.
The AC switchboard will supply three-phase, five pins, 380-220 V power outlets
and single-phase, three pins, 220 V power outlets.

6.2 Direct Current 24 VDC Equipment


The selection of direct current equipment is based on the following criteria:

The 24 VDC switchboards will basically feed: protection, control, measuring


and communication circuits.
The battery bank and the battery charger will be sized according to the loads to
be fed, the corresponding utilization and demand factors, and good engineering
practice.
The 24 VDC switchboards will be of the indoor type and located into a control
building.
The DC switchboard will be provided with 25% reserve output circuits.

7. CALCULATION METHODOLOGY

7.1 General considerations


The duty cycle imposed on the battery by any of the conditions described herein will
depend on the dc system design and the requirements of the installation. The battery
must supply the dc power requirements when the following conditions occur:

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a) Load on the dc system exceeds the maximum output of the battery charger
b) Output of the battery charger is interrupted
c) AC power is lost [may result in a greater dc power demand than item b)]

The most severe condition will be considered to determine the battery size in terms
of its charge and duration.

The auxiliary service calculation methodology is shown below:

Loads type definition.


Loads classification.
Definition of Operation Cycle and / or Simultaneity Factor.
Calculation of battery cell number.
Calculation of the battery bank and the Charger-Rectifier.
Auxiliary service power transformer calculation.

7.2 Loads Type Definition

7.2.1 Alternating Current Load


In general, the following are AC loads:

Gear motor
Electric Lifting Motor
Electric Trolley Motor
Heating - Penstock
External illumination
Outlets: Single phase(1) and Three phase (3)
Battery charger
Illumination and heating Switchboard
Air Extractor Switchboard

For more details on other installations see Appendix A to D

7.2.2 Direct Current Load


In general, the following are DC loads:

Board feeder

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Instrumentation and controls


Camera feeder
Charger Rectifier
Battery Bank

7.3 Power Transformer Selection


The criteria taken into account to determine the distribution transformer power are
the following:

Demand load to feed (indicating simultaneity factor).


Supply voltage level.
Level of insulation by height correction.
Insulation medium, type of cooling and impedance.

The total power for the auxiliary service transformer is calculated by adding all loads,
multiplied by simultaneity factor (fs), and divided the power factor (fp).

KVATransf .
Demandas fs
fp

8. SHORT CIRCUIT SIZING


The short-circuit capacity for main copper bars in the auxiliary service boards. And
short-circuit current contribution from battery banks and rectifier-chargers.

8.1 Short Circuit in Alternating Current - Low Voltage (220 VAC)


The short-circuit current for low voltage AC systems at 380-220 V will be 14 kA
according to document 600-SC-CDD-001 item 05.
The short-circuit impedance for auxiliary service transformer will be 4%.

8.2 Short Circuit in Direct Current - Low Voltage (24 VDC)


In the DC auxiliary service bar; the short-circuit current has been calculated based
upon the short-circuit currents inputs of battery chargers connected in parallel to their
own battery banks.

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8.2.1 Rectifier charger contribution


The formulas used to calculate the short-circuit current are as follows:

V * Xt pu *U 22
U 2 cc X 1
2 2 St
X total X t X f U2
Iccca
X TOTAL

Where:
Xtpu Short-circuit impedance for rectifier transformer (p.u.).
U2 Secondary voltage of rectifier transformer [Vca].
St Apparent power of rectifier transformer [kVA].
Xf . Rectifier filter inductance [H], typical 40 H.
Vcc Rectifier output voltage [24 VDC].
Iccca AC short-circuit current [A].
Icccc DC short-circuit current [A].

8.2.2 Battery Banks Contribution


The following methodology is used to calculate short-circuit current; provided by
battery banks at 24 VDC.

The battery short-circuit current is determined by the following formula:


V flotacin
Iccmx
Rint erna
Where:
Vflotation Flotation voltage per cell. [V]
Rinternal Internal resistance per cell []

The float voltage for lead-acid batteries is considered 2.23 V / cell..


Under these conditions, all values are replaced in the Icmax formula, hence obtaining
the short-circuit current provided by the battery banks (Icmax).

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8.2.3 Total short circuit current at 24 VDC


The total short-circuit current is obtained by adding the rectifier-charger and battery
bank short-circuit currents:
Icc (Vdc) = Icc (ac) + Icc (mx)

The calculations details are shown in Appendix H.

8.3 Nominal Current in Bars


The nominal current for auxiliary service bars is calculated by the following equation:

S 3
In *
3 * VL L

In Rated current for design bar [A]


S3 Rated power for transformer [kVA
VL-L Rated phase-to-phase voltage for busbar [V]
K Design factor (Typically k = 1.5)

The calculation details are shown in Appendix C.

9. BATTERY SIZING

9.1 Definition
Available capacity: A specific discharge time; and at the end voltage
discharge that can be removed from a cell under specific operating conditions.
Battery Duty Cycle: Charging a battery is anticipated for specified periods of
time.
Full Operating load (Constant Potential): the DC system operating with battery,
battery charger, and all loads connected in parallel to the battery normal DC
charger supply plus any self-discharge or any charge current required by the
battery. (The battery supplies power only when the load exceeds the charger
output).
Period: A time interval at working cycle during which the load is assumed to be
constant for cell size calculations.

9.2 Cycle Duty Definition

For sizing DC battery sets; we will represent the operating cycle diagram in the case
of loss. That corresponds to voltage loss in 8 hours period.

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The following is a typical emergency operation cycle, with momentary, permanent


and non-permanent loads: The most critical failure situation will be the 12 kV bus
fault.

Section 1 (S1): After the fault, the opening coils of the switches from AC mainboard
auxiliary services (time 1 minute).
Section 2 (S2): After 5 minutes, switches disconnectors are opened to initiate
verification work.
Section 3 (S3): Closing switches to restore service after 8 hours with simultaneously
motors start.
Section 4 (S4): During this time: protection, control and measurement panels are in
operation.

I(A)

I1
S1 S3
S2

I2
S4
T (min)
0 1 5 6 479 e480

9.3 Battery Bank Cells Number Selection


The selection of cells numbers has been calculated following procedure indicated in
the IEEE 485-2010 Standard.

The selected cells are Lead-Acid type, with GEL type electrolyte, sealed, and
maintenance-free.

Operating and / or service voltages:

Bank Rated voltage (V) = 24 VDC


Voltage per cell at floating load = 2,23 VDC (Float voltage)

The following formula is used to calculate the number of battery cells:

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Number of cells = Maximum voltage allowed by the system


Voltage of the cell

The following formula is used to calculate the battery minimum voltage per cell:
Final Discharge Voltage = Minimum Battery Voltage
Number of cells

The calculations details are shown in Appendix D for 24 VDC.

9.4 Battery Capacity Determination


The battery capacity is determined by analyzing the most critical operation cycle. A
sizing factor of battery capacity (Ct) will be used.

The battery capacity is calculated to supply current, during all operation cycles
established by sections.

From the graph, the capacity calculation for each section is:

For calculation purposes, the battery sizing factor can be expressed as:

Where: KT is the ratio of nominal capacitance in amperes-hour (Ah).

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Then, applying iteratively the capacitance calculation for each section and replacing
the KT factor, we obtain the following relation to determine battery capacity in
amperes - hour (Ah).

The calculations details are shown in Appendix E for 24 VDC.

9.5 Battery Correction Factors

9.5.1 Temperature Reduction Factor (Tt)


The cell available capacity is affected by its operating temperature. The standard cell
temperature is 25 C. If the expected low temperature for the electrolyte is below
the standard, a large enough cell with the required capacity for the lowest
temperature will be selected.

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Temperature factor: We will use a factor of 1,056 (20C)

9.5.2 Design Margin


It is design practice to provide a margin for unforeseen additions to the DC system,
for optimum battery operating conditions due to inadequate maintenance, recent
discharge, lower than expected ambient temperatures, or a combination of these
factors. One method to provide the design margin is to add a percentage factor to the
calculated cell.
Design factor: We will use a factor of 1.10.

9.5.3 Aging Factor

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Capacity decreases gradually over the battery lifespan, with no sudden loss of
capacity occurring under normal operating conditions. Since the rate of loss capacity
depends on factors such as operation temperature, electrolyte specific gravity
,discharge depth and discharge frequency; an aging factor must be chosen based on
battery lifespan required ( See IEEE Std 485).

IEEE Std. 1115 recommends using the following aging factors:

1.25 and replace the batteries when their capacity decreases to 80%.
1.43 and replace the batteries when their nominal capacity decreases to 70%.
For UPS an aging factor of 1.11 is recommended, and batteries should be
replaced when their nominal capacity drops to 90%.

Therefore, for the present project:


Aging factor: We will use a factor of 1.25

At the battery purchasing stage; manufacturer should be consulted for additional


information on aging factors.

Multiplying the three chosen factors we obtain:


Total Factor = 1.45.

10. SELECTING THE BATTERY CHARGER


The rectifier nominal current shall be sufficient to supply:

The maximum load connected to it, plus necessary current to keep the battery bank
float voltage.

The necessary load current for the battery bank capacity, and the recharging time
required.

For rectifiers with UI curves and voltage limits of 2.23 V / cell, the required nominal
current is calculated as follows:

C r Ch f
I n Lc
Tr

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Where:
In : Nominal Current (A)
Tr : Charging time (h)
Cr : Required Capacity (Ah)
Lc : Charging current (A)
Chf : Battery charge factor

10.1 Permanent Charge Current (Lc) Determination


For the 24VDC battery bank; the following permanent loads are considered:

Protection, control and signaling equipment loads


Battery charge loads
Fault recorder
Alarm and Auxiliary Relay Annunciators

For design purposes; the switch and disconnector motor loads shall be considered as
permanent loads, so their simultaneity factor shall be applied.

The 24VDC Charger-rectifier should supply 100% loads in flotation, and provide
enough current to recharge their respective battery banks.

Also, simultaneity factor has been considered according to type and numbers of
equipment for each load; The factor will be 1.0 for all permanent loads considerate.

For 24 Vdc battery bank; the following permanent loads are considered:
HMI panel
Communications Panel N 1
Red Lan Board

For design purposes, Communication Panels will be considered as permanent loads,


so their simultaneity factor shall be applied.

10.2 24VDC Battery Charger sizing


The battery charger will be sized according to the following:
Permanent loads.
Permanent load Lc.

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Battery float current, which is usually in the order of 1 A.


Recharge.
Deep recharge of batteries considering 10-20 mA per 100 Ah batteries.

In our case, we will consider that each rectifier absorbs 100% of the normal load, and
has 8 hours recharge period.

11. CONCLUSIONS
From the alternating and direct current calculation for Auxiliary services, as well as
their 220 Vca and 24 VDC boards short circuit calculations, the following is
concluded:

Considering the project load (Distribution substation loads, gate load and its
equipment), the 12/0.23 kV auxiliary service transformer capacity shall be75
kVA.
The maximum short-circuit capacity for 220 VAC auxiliary services shall be 14
kA.
The capacity for 220 VAC auxiliary services general Board (TD MC) wont be
less than 630 A, for which a 20x5 mm painted copper bar is recommended.
The auxiliary service general board (TD MC) will be fed from 220 Vca transfer
board bar, which will supply AC loads including the projected chargers-rectifiers.
The busbar capacity for 24 VDC auxiliary service board (TD MC) wont be less
than 400 A, which shall be fed from its charger-rectifier. A 20x5 mm painted
copper bar is recommended.
There will be one (01) lead acid battery bank, with 12 cells that shall has 72
hours independent autonomy, and 100 Ah capacity.
The short-circuit capacity for 24 Vdc auxiliary service switches and busbars
shall be 14 kA.

12. ATTACHMENTS

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APPENDIX A
LIST OF ELECTRICAL CONSUMERS

Power Maximum Calculated Design Selection Nro.


Ite
Load Installed F.D. Demand Current Current Current Phase
m
(W) (W) (A) (A) (A) s
100 - Switchboard 380
VCA - Current Altern
54,390 35,412 109.33 137 160 3
System - Maitenes
Discharge
Reductor Motor - Alfalfal
1 7,500 0.80 6000 23.16 29.00 32.00 3
channel - 630-MOT-001
Electric Motor Lifting -
2 7,500 0.80 6,000 23.16 29.00 32.00 3
630-MOT-002
Electric Motor Trolley -
3 7,500 0.80 6,000 23.16 29.00 32.00 3
630-MOT-022
4 Available 1 7,500 0.80 6,000 23.16 29.00 32.00 3
5 Heating - Penstock 3,500 0.30 1,050 10.81 14.00 32.00 3
6 Lighting Extern 1,500 0.30 450 4.63 6.00 16.00 3
7 Plugs 1f and 3f 3,500 0.80 2,800 10.81 14.00 32.00 3
8 Battery charger 1,440 0.80 1,152 6.55 8.00 16.00 1
9 Heating - Switchboards 6,000 0.80 4,800 18.52 23.00 32.00 3
Heating Communication
10 1,000 0.80 800 3.09 4.00 16.00 3
Cabinet
Air Extractor -
11 450 0.80 360 2.05 3.00 16.00 1
Switchboards
12 Available 2 3,500 0.80 2,800 10.81 14.00 16.00 3
13 Available 3 3,500 0.80 2,800 10.81 14.00 32.00 3

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APPENDIX B - DIRECT CURRENT CONSUMERS 24 VDC


Power Maximum Calculated Design Selection
N Descripcin Installed F.S. Demand Current Current Current
(W) (W) (A) (A) (A)

120 - Switchgear 24 VDC - Continue Current System - Maintenes Discharge


EQUIPMENT
1.
TDC MC Switchboard Control and Communication 140 98 4 5 10
0
Coil Open IN Q101 70 0.70 49
Coil Closed IN Q102 70 0.70 49
2.
Instrumentation 01 100 70 3 4 6
0
Flow switch 50 0.70 35
Penstock position sensor 25 0.70 18
Level switch 25 0.70 18
3.
Camera 150 1.00 150 6 8 6
0
130 - TDC "MC" COMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT
4.
Alarm Announcer and Auxiliary Relays 100 1.00 100 4 5 6
0
5.
Communications Panel 100 40 2 2 4
0
Multiplexor 10 0.25 3
Router 30 0.25 8
Switch de comunicacin 1 20 0.50 10
Concentrador RTU 20 0.50 10
GPS 20 0.50 10
6.
Panel HMI 100 30 1 2 4
0
Pantalla Tactil 20 0.25 5
Radio Modem Satelital 30 0.25 8
Telefonia IP 20 0.50 10
Servidor CCTV 30 0.25 8
7.
Available 150 1.00 150 6 8 10
0
8.
Available 150 1.00 150 6 8 10
0

TOTAL TABLERO MDC 24VDC (TGCC-03) 990 788 33 41 40

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APPENDIX C - GENERATOR AND TRANSFORMER SELECTION

AUXILIARY SERVICE TRANSFORMER SELECTION

Maximum Demand Final


Select Power Design Power
DESCRIPTION Demand x fs F.P. Selected
(kVA) (kVA)
(kW) Power (kVA)

Transformer 12/0.4-0,23 kV 53.91 0.85 63.42 73.00 75.00

(*)

DIESEL GENERATOR
SELECTION

Final
Maximum Demand Select Power Design Power
DESCRIPTION Factor Selected
(kW) (kVA) (kVA)
Power (kVA)

Diesel Generator 54.39 0.86 63.91 74.00 75.00

% Consider Demand 10%


Efficiency Factor 0.95
Height Factor 0.90
(*)

BUS NOMINAL CURRENT


SELECTION

Voltage Level Calculated Selection


Power Switchboard Design
Description Phase-Phase Ampere Ampere
(kVA) Factor
Bus (V) (A) (A)

220 Vac Auxiliary Service General


75.00 1.15 220.00 226.35 250.00
Board (TD MC)
24 Vdc Auxiliary Service General
2.16 1.25 24.00 112.29 160.00
Board (TD MC)

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BUS BAR SIZING

From the table shown; a 50x5 mm painted copper bar per phase is selected for auxiliary service in alternating current (TD
AC), because is the smallest bar size that can carry more than 630A

From the table shown; a 20x5 mm painted copper bar is selected for auxiliary service in direct current (TD DC), because is
the smallest bar size that can carry more than 200A

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APPENDIX D
CELL NUMBER CALCULATION FOR THE 24VDC BATTERY BANK

Definitions

* Flotation Voltage: voltage that ensures that the battery will remain charged.
* Equalization voltage: voltage needed to charge the battery. It is also known as load voltage.
* Deep charging voltage: voltage needed for the first charge and recommended in certain cases of
maintenance.
* Cycle: period of time specified to feed the expected load current.
* Period: time interval for each cycle of battery life.
* Capacity: the capacity required in Ah on plates; assigned to batteries banks or plates by cell, that
are fabricated for the discharge time.

Cell number Calculation

Given the operating conditions for 24 VDC equipment, a tolerance limit is established for battery bank
voltage level. With new electronic and numerical solid state technologies; the equipment can support
up to 25% of the nominal operating voltage in the SS.AA bar, however a limit of 10% is established at
the lower limit, then the operating voltage range is 21.6 to 26.4 Volts.

* The maximum system voltage will be: 26.4 Vcc


* The minimum system voltage will be: 21.6 Vcc
* Floating voltage per cell: 2.23 Vcc
* Flotation voltage per cell 1.83 Vcc
* Discharge end volatge:

According to IEEE Std 485-2000; the number of cells is calculated as follows:

* Maximum battery voltage during charging


* Voltage during normal operation.
* Voltage during discharge
* Each element in Pb-Acid equals a voltage in the system of 2.23 VDC

Maximum voltage allowed by the


Number of cells = system
Voltage of the cell

Number of cells = 26.4 = 12


2.23

* Considering the minimum system voltage as limiting.

Final Discharge Voltage = Minimum Battery Voltage


Number of cells

Final Discharge Voltage = 21.6 = 1.82 VDC


12

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6305-EL-MCA-7101-A00
AC & DC SYSTEM CALCULATION REPORT
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DISCHARGE CHANNEL MODIFICATION

According to specifications, the battery discharge voltage should be 1.72 Vdc for each cell for
Lead-Acid type, which must be achieved within 8 hours

Number
of cells
= 12

Therefore, 12 cells are chosen, which will provide a minimum of 21,6 VDC, guaranteeing the
minimum required system voltage.

According to manufacturers' catalogs, the flotation voltage for Pb-Acid batteries is between 1,83 VDC
and 2,23 VDC.

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DISCHARGE CHANNEL MODIFICATION

APPENDIX E
BATTERIES SELECTION

Charge Vdc : 24
Days of Autonomy : 3

Panel Charge
Star
Signal and Instrume- Communi- Panel
Power Relays Alarms
Controller ntation cation HMI
Switch
Total Demand (kW) 0.10 0.10 0.14 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Coincided Factor 0.50 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Maximum Demand (kW) 0.05 0.05 0.14 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10

Current Maximum
2.08 2.08 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17
Demand (A)

Equipment Qty

Rated Voltage of the Bank : 24 VDC


Battery discharge time : 8 Hour
480 Minutes

Star Panel Charge Total Factor Producto


Tiempo Signal and
Power Alarms Panel
Minutos Controller Instrumentation Comunication ( Ii ) Ki Ki(Ii-I0)
Switch Relays and HMI
(A) (A) (A) (A) (A) (A) (A) (A)

479 - 480 2.08 2.08 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 26.67 7.19 191.85
478 - 479 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 7.18 -29.92
477 - 478 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 7.17 0.00
476 - 477 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 7.15 0.00
475 - 476 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 7.14 0.00
474 - 475 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 7.13 0.00
473 - 474 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 7.11 0.00
472 - 473 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 7.10 0.00
471 - 472 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 7.09 0.00
470 - 471 2.08 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 24.58 7.07 14.74

239 - 240 2.08 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 24.58 3.95 0.00
238 - 239 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 3.94 -8.21
237 - 238 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 3.92 0.00
236 - 237 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 3.91 0.00
235 - 236 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 3.90 0.00
234 - 235 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 3.88 0.00
233 - 234 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 3.87 0.00

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Star Panel Charge Total Factor Producto


Tiempo Signal and
Power Alarms Panel
Minutos Controller Instrumentation Comunication ( Ii ) Ki Ki(Ii-I0)
Switch Relays and HMI
(A) (A) (A) (A) (A) (A) (A) (A)
232 - 233 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 3.86 0.00
231 - 232 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 3.84 0.00
230 - 231 2.08 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 24.58 3.83 7.97

29 - 30 2.08 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 24.58 0.85 0.00


28 - 29 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.83 -1.73
27 - 28 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.81 0.00
26 - 27 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.80 0.00
25 - 26 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.78 0.00
24 - 25 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.76 0.00
23 - 24 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.74 0.00
22 - 23 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.72 0.00
21 - 22 2.08 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 24.58 0.70 1.47

10 - 11 2.08 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 24.58 0.47 0.00


9 - 10 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.45 -0.94
8-9 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.43 0.00
7-8 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.41 0.00
6-7 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.40 0.00
5-6 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.38 0.00
4-5 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.36 0.00
3-4 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.35 0.00
2-3 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.34 0.00
1-2 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 22.50 0.33 0.00
0-1 2.08 2.08 5.83 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 26.67 0.33 1.36

The required capacity for the battery bank is calculated as follows:

Solving It has: C 135.61 AH

Temperatura factor (Ft) : 1.06


Aging factor (Fe) : 1.25
Design factor (Fd) : 1.10

Where:
n = 1/(Ft x Fe x Fd)) = 1.30

C = 160.00 AH

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6305-EL-MCA-7101-A00
AC & DC SYSTEM CALCULATION REPORT
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DISCHARGE CHANNEL MODIFICATION

Page27 of 29
6305-EL-MCA-7101-A00
AC & DC SYSTEM CALCULATION REPORT
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APPENDIX G
SELECTING THE NOMINAL CURRENT OF THE 24V DC RECTIFIER
SWITCHBOARD TD MC

The nominal current of the rectifier will be sufficient to supply the maximum load plus
the current necessary for the recharge of the battery bank.
The required charge current of the battery bank capacity and the time required for
recharging, in addition to the battery charge factor (1.2 for lead-acid batteries).
For rectifiers with UI curves and voltage limits of 2.23 V / cell, the required nominal
current is calculated as follows:

C r Ch f
I n Lc
Tr
Where:
Rated current In (A)
Recharge time Tr (h)
Required capacity Cr (Ah)
Charging current Lc (A)
Battery charge factor Chf
Determinacin de la Carga Permanente en: 24 VDC

Description Load (kW) % Load Quantity f.s. kW

Coil Open IN Q101 0.07 100% 1 0.50 0.04


Coil Closed IN Q102 0.07 100% 1 0.50 0.04
Instrumentation 01 0.10 100% 1 1.00 0.10
Communications Panel 0.10 100% 1 1.00 0.10

Total de Carga (kW) 0.52


Corriente de Carga (Amp) 21.67
Coil Open IN Q101 0.07 100% 1 0.50 0.04
Coil Closed IN Q102 0.07 100% 1 0.50 0.04

In the substation for the rectifier for the loads in 24 VDC you have:

Recharge time 8 (H)

Page28 of 29
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Required capacity 160.00 (AH)


Charging current 21.67 (A)
Battery charge factor 1.2 (Batteries Lead Acid)
Temperature & Altitude Derating Factor 1.15 (A >1000 msnm @ 25C)
Percent of Safety Margin 10% (Design Factor)

Then, the nominal current of the charger will be:


In = 57.77 (Amperes)

Selection 60.00 (Amperes DC)

2.00 kW

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