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The Study of Bus Superstructure Strength Based on Rollover Test Using Body Sections

Guosheng Zhang, Xuewen Zhang, and Bin Liu

Key Laboratory of Operation Safety Technology on Transport Vehicles Ministry of Communication, PRC, Research Institute of Highway Ministry of Communications, Beijing 100088, China gs.zhang@rioh.cn

Abstract. Taking a full load bus as the research object, the finite element analysis theory is applied to build the finite element model of the bus and the numerical simulation environment of the structural strength of the superstructure. According to the ECE R66 equivalent authentication method, gravity center position of the bus is calculated, the rollover test of bus body section is carried out. The deformation of the superstructure and its invasion to residual space of passengers are evaluated. Comparing the rollover test result with the numerical simulation result, it can be found that there is a good agreement between the two results. On this basis, the energy-absorbing situation of the side wall pillars during the rollover process is studied and evaluated. The results show that the body section of bus is complied with the regulatory requirements; its structural safety characteristic is good. This design method of the rollover crash safety has important significance to research and development of manufacturer.

Keywords: Bus, Superstructure strength, Body section, Residual space.

1

Introduction

With the prosperity of the domestic market and the rapid development of highways, the number of bus continues to grow rapidly, following by the frequent occurrence of traffic accident, especially occurrence of road accidents such as “cluster killed and cluster wounded” and so on, resulting in extremely bad social impacts. Relevant government departments and people concern much about this situation. Although the topic is the research focus currently, and it has important practical significance, because of fierce commercial competition among manufacturers, various reasons such as technology related to secrecy .etc, the relevant research output is still rare. In this paper, according to ECE R66 regulations equivalent authentication method, a finite element model of nine-meter full load bus is built. Using the method of combining body section rollover test with numerical simulation, energy absorbing of the side wall pillars during the rollover test is studied, and the deformation of the superstructure and its invasion to residual space of passengers are evaluated. The results have important guiding significance and application value on superstructure strength design of bus.

D. Jin and S. Lin (Eds.): Advances in MSEC Vol. 2, AISC 129, pp. 315–322.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

316 G. Zhang, X. Zhang, and B. Liu

2 The Superstructure Strength of Bus

Many countries take the bus rollover test as a mandatory certification program of imported bus, requiring the superstructure of bus have sufficient strength. The ECE R66 regulation offers five ways to detect the superstructure strength when the bus rollovers: (1) rollover test; (2) rollover test using body sections; (3) quasi- static loading test of body sections; (4) quasi-static calculation based on testing of components; (5) computer simulation of rollover test of complete vehicles. The fundamental idea of the regulation is that bus manufacturers can choose among the above-mentioned five test methods, because the last four methods are equivalent to the first one, the standard rollover test. GB/T 17578-1998 provisions on strength of the superstructure of bus, Australia ADR59/00 and South Africa SANS 1563, are cited from the ECE R66 the bus rollover test part. The ECE R66 regulation requires that the superstructure of the vehicle shall have the sufficient strength to ensure that the residual space during and after the rollover test on complete vehicle is unharmed. That means no part of the vehicle which is outside the residual space at the start of the test shall intrude into the residual space during the test. No part of the residual space shall project outside the contour of the deformed structure. Specification requirements are detailed in document [1].

3 Determination of the Centre of Gravity of the Vehicle

In this paper, the nine-meter full load bus in the stage of research and development of company serves as research object. The reference and the total energy to be absorbed in the rollover test directly depend on the position of the vehicle’s centre of gravity position. Therefore, its determination should be as accurate as practical [1]. The longitudinal position (l1)of the centre of gravity relative to the centre of the contact point of the front wheels is given by:

l

1

=

(P

3

+

P )

4

L

1

+

(P

5

+

P )

6

L

2

P

tota

l

(1)

where: P i is reaction load on the load cell; P Total is unladen kerb mass or total effective vehicle mass, as appropriate L i is the distance from centre of wheel on 1st axle to centre of wheel on (i+1)th axle, if fitted. The transverse position (t) of the vehicle's centre of gravity relative to its longitudinal vertical centre plane is given by:

t =

(P

1

P )

2

T

1

2

+

(P 3

P )

4

T

2

2

+

(P 5

P )

6

T

3

⎞ ⎟

1

2

P total

(2)

where: T i is distance between the centers of the footprint of the wheel(s) at each end of the ith axle.

The Study of Bus Superstructure Strength Based on Rollover Test Using Body Sections

317

Strength Based on Rollover Test Using Body Sections 317 Fig. 1. The centre gravity The height
Strength Based on Rollover Test Using Body Sections 317 Fig. 1. The centre gravity The height
Strength Based on Rollover Test Using Body Sections 317 Fig. 1. The centre gravity The height

Fig. 1. The centre gravity

The height of the centre of gravity (h 0 ) shall be determined by tilting the vehicle longitudinally and using individual load-cells at the wheels of two axles. The support structures shall be sufficiently tall to generate a significant angle of inclination α (> 20°) for the vehicle. The height of the vehicle centre of gravity is given by [1][2]:

h

0

=

r

+

⎛ ⎜ ⎜ 1 tan(arcsin ⎜ ⎝ F + F ⎞ 3 4 l −
⎜ ⎜ 1 tan(arcsin ⎜
F
+
F
3
4
l
L
⎛ ⎜ H ⎞ ⎞ ⎟ ⎛ ⎜
1
⎟ ⎟ )
⎟ ⎜
1
L
F
1
⎠ ⎠ ⎝
total

(3)

where, r is height of wheel centre (on first axle) above the load cell top surface; Ftotal is unladen kerb mass or total effective vehicle mass. The transverse position (t) is 23.4 mm, the longitudinal distance from the centre line of front axle (a) is 2903.4 mm, the height of the vehicle center of gravity (H s ) is 1036

mm.

318 G. Zhang, X. Zhang, and B. Liu

4 Analysis of the Bus Superstructure Using FEM and Results

This paper uses the finite element model of bus components based on the CAD model, which imports LS-DYNA into Hypermesh to mesh and assemble [3][4], building the numerical simulation environment of bus superstructure strength. The structure includes the body frame, chassis, wheels general and tilting platform, body parts such as glass, skin, interior parts, seats, batteries and air conditioning which are equivalent to the distribution of mass in the corresponding position, to ensure that deviation of gravity center height and height of the complete vehicle in finite element model is less than 0.02 m. The finite element model of the bus and numerical simulation environment is shown in figure 4, in which the finite element model including 133,431 elements, 131,080 nodes. Analysis model defines residual space in accordance with test requirements of ECE R66 regulation, which is conducted to the reference of body deformation to determine whether it meets the requirements. The superstructure of the designed bus to be analyzed consists of eight closed bays that are accommodated from the front to back of the bus, and the bays from the front to the gravity center of the bus are called “front bays”, while those from the gravity centre to the back of the bus are called “back bays”. In analysis it is assumed that elastic deformations are negligibly small. Deformations obtained in analysis, which occurred in all bays of the modeled bus after rollover simulation, are determined as follows:

bus after rollover simulation, are determined as follows: Fig. 4. Numerical simulation environment Table 1.

Fig. 4. Numerical simulation environment

Table 1. Deformation of closed bays unit: m

Bays

Front side

Bays

Rear side

1

d1=0.70

5

d5=0.93

2

d2=0.68

6

d6=1.00

3

d3=0.74

7

d7=1.04

4

d4=0.83

--

----------

5 Rollover Test of Bus Body Section

In this paper, the superstructure section of the bus to be tested is abutted on the third and the fourth frame bearer. The simulation analysis shows that the total energy absorbed by body section is 5.46kJ. The rollover test of a body section is carried out on the same way as the standard rollover test with a complete vehicle. The body section have the same position, same the centre of gravity’s height on the tilting platform as that of the complete vehicle. The body section is equipped with residual space indicator to prove that during the rollover test residual space is unharmed[5][6]. The rollover test of real section structure is executed by a bus manufacturer according to the conditions which are defined by ECE R66 regulation. The body section is located on a rotational tilt platform, and the platform is lifted up by a crane. The body section structure has the weight of 746 kg about 8.14 % of bus mass, and the free dropping begins after the center of gravity moves out of the hinge point.

The Study of Bus Superstructure Strength Based on Rollover Test Using Body Sections

319

As the result of rollover test, the deformation of the superstructure doesn’t invade the residual space of passengers. The fall of the center of gravity of body section is about 0.83 m at the end of the roll-over. By means of this value, the energy absorbed by the section rolled-over in the test is determined by equation (4) as E F3 =6.08KJ.

(4)

Comparing the rollover test result with the numerical simulation result, it can be found that there is a good agreement between the two results. The absorbed energy of other bus section can be calculated by equation (5):

(5)

E

F3

= mgh

f

E j =E 3 (dj/d3)

j=1,2,4,5,6,7

E F3 = mgh f E j =E 3 ╳ (dj/d3) j=1,2,4,5,6,7 Fig. 5. Body section
E F3 = mgh f E j =E 3 ╳ (dj/d3) j=1,2,4,5,6,7 Fig. 5. Body section
E F3 = mgh f E j =E 3 ╳ (dj/d3) j=1,2,4,5,6,7 Fig. 5. Body section
E F3 = mgh f E j =E 3 ╳ (dj/d3) j=1,2,4,5,6,7 Fig. 5. Body section

Fig. 5. Body section rollover test

The energy that would be absorbed by every body section was determined as in Table 2.

Table 2. The absorbed energy of every body section unit: KJ

Front side

Rear side

E

E

E

E

F1

F2

F3

F4

=5.75

=5.62

=5.46

=6.84

E F,Total =24.27

E

E

E

R5

R6

R7

=7.62

=8.20

=8.57

——

E R,Total =24.27

therefore,

E

Total

=

E

Fi

+

E

Ri

=48.653 KJ.

320 G. Zhang, X. Zhang, and B. Liu

6 Energy Absorption of Bus Structure

According to ECE R66 regulation, assuming suspension system is rigid fixed without considering other energy loss, the total energy to be absorbed in a roll-over test can be determined by equation (6):

E

T

=

⎡ 2 ⎛ W ⎞ ⎟ 2 0.75M g ⎢ ⎢ ⋅ ⎜ + Hs
2
⎛ W ⎞ ⎟
2
0.75M g ⎢
+
Hs
2

W H

2

0.8

2

2H

+

0.8

Hs

H

(6)

WhereM is the unladen kerb mass of vehicle (kg); W is the overall width of the vehicle (m); H is the height of the vehicle (m), H s is the height of the centre of gravity of the unladen vehicle (m). Therefore, E T =45.4KJ [7][8][9]. The primary body deformation shows the deformation of the pillar. The energy is absorbed by the pillar as the deformation energy. In accordance with the technical requirements of bus, the energy absorbed by the pillar of superstructure during the rollover should be evaluated by equation (7).

E

E

L

F

L

R

E

Total

=

n

=

i

1

E

i

> E

T

(a)

F,Total

=

n

=

i

1

E

iF

0.4E

T

R,Total

=

p

=

i

1

E

iR

0.4E

T

=

=

n

=

i

1

(E

iF

×

L

if

)

P

=

i

1

n

=

i

1

E

iF

(E

iR

×

L

ir

)

p

=

i

1

E

iR

0.4l

0.4l

F

(b)

(c)

(d)

R

(e)

(7)

The Study of Bus Superstructure Strength Based on Rollover Test Using Body Sections

321

Where, E i is the absorbed energy by the ith pillar; E iF is the declare amount of energy that can be absorbed by the ith bay forward of the centre of gravity of the vehicle; E iR is the declare amount of energy that can be absorbed by the ith pillar to the rear of the centre of gravity of the vehicleL if is the distance from the centre of gravity of the vehicle of the ith pillar forward of the centre of gravityL ir is the distance from the centre of gravity of the vehicle of the ith pillar rearward of the centre of gravity.

Table 4. Checking of technical requirement

Conditions

Checking

Regulatory requirements

a 48.653 kJ > 45.40 kJ

Yes

b 24.27 kJ > 18.16 kJ

Yes

c 24.383 kJ > 18.16 kJ

Yes

d 2.61 m > 1.96 m

Yes

e 2.20 m > 1.57 m

Yes

From the results we can be seen, the energy absorbed in all superstructure section is 7 to 36% higher than the required values and thus the superstructure of the designed bus fulfils the Regulation conditions. In addition, the calculated values L F and L R meet the requirements.

7

Conclusion

In this paper, the rollover test of the body section of a bus is performed according to ECE R66 regulation and the approximate values of the displacements at the main pillars are obtained. Then, with these values the energy absorbed by main pillars is calculated. Additionally, the modeled superstructure of the bus is analyzed so that the energy every bus section absorbs is determined. By means of the results obtained, it is concluded that the results of the rollover test of the bus body section can be approached by finite element analyses.

Acknowledgement. This research is supported by National Key Technology R&D Program (Grant No.2009BAG13A04) and Ministry of Transportation Western Construction Projects (Grant No.2009318000043) and Research Institute of Highway of Transport Basic Science Research Project (Grant No.2010-1004, 2010-1026).

References

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(2006)

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322 G. Zhang, X. Zhang, and B. Liu

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(2003)

4. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China, Standardiaztion Administration Of The people’s republic of china. GB 13094-2007 the safety requirements for bus construction. China Standards Publishing House, Beijing (2007)

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7. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China, standardiaztion administration of the people’s republic of china. GB/T17578-1998 Provisions of Strength for the Superstructure of Bus. China Standards Publishing House, Beijing (1998)

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