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A

PROJECT REPORT
ON
BAMBOO CRAFT

Submitted to H.N.B Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal for the partial


fulfilment of the requirement of degree of Bachelor of Science in Forestry

By
WEDNERA R MARAK
B.Sc (Forestry) VIIth semester
(2013-2017)
UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF
SIR REYAZ AHMAD BHAT
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, DCAST
DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY

D.C.A.S.T
DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY
DOON (PG) COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
CAMP ROAD, SELAQUI, DEHRADUN (UTTARAKHAND)
DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project entitled Bamboo Craft Submitted by me to HNB
Garhwal University, Srinagar (Uttarakhand) in

the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of B.Sc Forestry in a

required of bonafied project work carried out by Wednera R Marak (Enrollment no.

G13660646) under the guidance of Mr Reyaz Hmad Bhat

I further declare that the work reported in this project is my original work and

interpretation drawn therein are based on material collected by myself.

Batch: 2013-2017 Signature of the candidate


Place: Dehradun Wednera R Marak
BSc. Forestry 7 th Sem
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I thank Almighty God for blessing me with good health and wisdom to do this
project. I am immensely grateful to my family members and relatives for their tremendous
support and encouragement which has helped me complete this project in time and with
success.

I would also like to express my grateful indebtedness and sincere thanks to my guide
Sir Reyaz Ahmad Bhat Assistant Professor, Doon (PG) college of Agriculture Science
Technology and Management, Selaqui, Camp road, Dehradun under whose supervision the
project work would not have been completed successfully. His valuable suggestions,
guidance and encouragement are acknowledged, without which this project could not have
been completed.

My special thanks to Shri D.S.Chaudhary (chairman) and Dr.R.R.Dwivedi


(Principal), Dr. Manzoor Ahmed Dar (Dean Academics) and Dr.Mohd. Maqbool Rather
(H.O.D forestry) for their immense support towards conducting the project work and also all
the faculties of forestry department Miss Kalpana kukreja, Dr .Arti Khanduri and Dr Vishaka
Saxena of Doon (PG) college of Agriculture science and technology Selaqui, Camp road,
Dehradun for giving the basic academic foundation in the field of forestry.

I am extremely thankful to Mr Keshav Sharma, Pramod Kumar chaurasia and Mr.


Surendra kumar (Master trainer) for their sincere guidance and inspiration and also for
providing me the platform in completion of the project.
I also thank my friends and classmates for more or less contribution in preparation of
this project report. I will be always indebted to them.

WEDNERA R MARAK

Bsc Forestry 7th Sem

CONTENTS
SI No CHAPTERS PAGE NO

1 INTRODUCTION 61-65

2 RIVIEW OF LITERATURE 66

3 MATERIALS & 67-72


METHODHOLOGY

4 RESULT & DISCUSSION 73-78

5 CONCLUSION 79

6 REFERENCES 80

7 PHOTO GALLERY 81

INTRODUCTION

Bamboo is a tribe of the flowering perennial evergreen plant in the grass family
Poaceae. The intermodal regions of the stems are hollow and the vascular bundles in the cross
section are scattered throughout the stem. Bamboos are some of the fast growing plants of the
world, in rainy season for a month they grow at the rate of 40 to 50 cm per day. Most species
comes across in our country are indigenous. Of them there are two primary species Dendro
calamusstrictus and bambusa arundinacea.

Bamboo are grasses. Currently about 1200 species are recognised, divided into two
main groups: woody and herbaceous bamboos. The bamboos are a subfamily of flowering
perennial evergreen plants in the grass poaceae. Giant Bamboo are the largest members of the
grass family. In bamboo the intermodal regions of stem are usually hollow and the vascular
bundles in the cross section are scattered through the stem instead of a cylindrical
arrangement. Bamboo are the fastest growing plants in the world, due to a unique rhizome
dependent system. Certain species of bamboo can grow 91 cm within an 24 hour ( a growth
around 1mm every 90 seconds, or one inch every 40 minutes ). Bamboo has a higher
compressive strength than wood, brick, or concrete and a tensile strength that rivals steel.
(G.K. Ghosh 2014).

Objectives

To know the marketing of bamboo.


To study about the various types of tools in bamboo crafts.
To study the methods of making bamboo products.
To study about the preservation of bamboo.

DISTRIBUTION OF BAMBOO IN THE WORLD:

Worldwide bamboo plants are more than 70 genera, about 1,200 species, the total
area of about 22 million hm2. Bamboo concentrated in Asia, Latin America and Africa. Most
of them grow in tropical and sub tropical regions with good monsoon climate and water and
heat conditions, a few are grown in temperate and even sub-arctic regions. China, India and
Japan are the best countries for bamboo production and bamboo resource development.
World distribution of bamboo are divided into three regions(Walter Liese, Michael Kohl
2015) 61

1.Asia-Pacific bamboo:-

This area is the worlds largest bamboo area south to south latitude 42 S, north to
latitude 51N, east to the pacific islands , west to the southwest Indian ocean, the
distribution of bamboo about 50 genera and 900 species. The main bamboo producing
countries are China, India, Japan, Myanmar, Thailand, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Vietnam,
Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines.

2. American bamboo:-

South to south latitude 47 S in southern Argentina, north to latitude 51N, the


easthern United States, there are about 18 genera and 270 kinds. The Amazon basin in south tropic of
cancer is the area for bamboo distribution centre.

3. African bamboo:-

South to south latitude 22S in southern Mozambique, north to latitude 16N in eastern
Sudan, a total of about 13 genera and more than 40 kinds. In east Africa, there are 11 genera and 40
kinds in Madagascar more than the African continent.

DISTRIBUTION OF BAMBOO IN INDIA:

India is the second richest country in bamboo genetic resources after China. Sharma
(1987) reported 136 species of bamboo occurring in India. 58 species of bamboo belonging to
10 genera are distributed in the north eastern states alone. The forest area, over which
bamboos occur in India on a conservative estimate, is 9.57 million hectares, which constitutes
about 12.8% of the total area under forest ( Bahadur and Sharma 1980). Out of 22 genera in
india, 19 are indigenous and three are exotic. The annual production of bamboo in India is
about 4.6 million tonnes; 1.9 million tonnes is used by the pulp industries. The annual yield
of bamboo per hectares varies between 0.2 and 0.4 tonnes with an average of 0.33 tonnes per
hectare, depending upon the intensity of stocking and biotic interferences.

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Table: Distribution of main bamboo species in India (ICFRE 2001)

Species States\UTs

Bambusa arundinacea Arunachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa, Maharashtra, Himachal


Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat

Bambusa balcooa Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram

Bambusa pallid Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, Tripura

Bambusa tulda Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura

Bambusa polymorpha Tripura

Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Mizoram, Nagaland

Dendrocalamus longispathus Mizoram

Dendrocalamus strictus Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Himachal


Pradesh, M.P, Manipur, Orissa, U.P, Karnataka, Rajasthan

Melocanna bambusoides Assam, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura, Manipur, Meghalaya

Neebenzia balcoa Nagaland

Oxytenanthera nigrociliata Tripura, Assam

Oxytenanthera parviflora Assam

Psuedostachyus polymorphium Arunachal Pradesh

Polystachia pargracile Orissa

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DISTRIBUTION OF BAMBOO IN UTTARAKHAND:

Although bamboo occurs throughout the state, the most significant concentrations
are the Landowne and Kalagarh forest division. In the hills, in the Shivalik hills, and in the
adjacent plains areas, the dominant species are Dendrocalamus strictus. Bambusa bambos,
Bambusa nutans and Dendrocalamus hamiltonii are cultivated on private lands, especially on
lower slopes and valleys. In the hills, the dominant groups of species is locally known as
ringaal, typically thin, thornless, shrubby and clump forming. The flowering cycle is 30
years. The clumps are used for weaving mats and baskets and leaves are used for fodder.

Ringaal grows on steep mountain slopes, within temperature zones, at elevation of


1800-2400m in the Garhwal and Kumoan Hills. It is distributed over 66,000 hectare at
elevation between 1800-2500 metres. There are about 5 to 6 types of ringaal bamboo growing
in the hills, among them are the following most common:

Drepanostachyum falcatum (syn. Arundinaria falcata) locally known as Ghad ringaal


Himalayacalamus falconeri (syn. Thamnocalamus falconeri) locally known as deo
ringaal.
Thamnocalamus spathiflorus (thamnocalamus aristatus) locally known as thaam
ringal.
Thamnocalamus jausarensis (syn. Chimnobambusa jaunsarensis) locally known as
jamura ringaal

Characteristic of bamboo and its uses:

1. Bamboo is flowering perennial evergreen grass belonging to poaceae family.

2. It is much denser and stronger than hard woods.

3. In bamboos the intermodal regions of the stems are hollow and the vascular bundles are
scattered throughout the stem instead of a cylindrical arrangement.

4. Bamboo is a fast growing species can grow about 2-3 feet in first 24 hours when sprouting
from ground in spring.

5. Minimize Co2 gases and generates up to 35% more oxygen than equivalent stands of trees.

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6. Reduces runoff, prevents massive soil erosion.

7. Bamboo shoot is taken as food.

8. Bamboo is used as medicines for treating infections and healing

9. Due to its high strength to weight ratio it is used for constructions.

10. Bamboos are used in textile industry as well as for making musical instruments.

11. Furnitures like beds, table and chairs can be made out of bamboo.
65

RIVIEW OF LITERATURE

The main constitutes of bamboo culms are holocellulose (60-70%), pentosans (20-
25%), hemicelluloses and lignin (each amounted to about 20-30%) and minor constituents
like resins, tannins, waxes and inorganic salts. The proximate chemical compositions of
bamboo are similar to those of hardwoods, except for the higher alkaline extract, ash and
silica contents. The carbohydrate content of bamboo plays an important role in its durability
and service life(Tomalang et. Al, 1990).
It was found out that bambusa vulgaris contains glucose 2.37%, fructose 2.07%, and sucrose
0.5%. The total sugar before and after soaking was 4.94% and 0.28% respectively. This study
showed that by the technique of soaking the sugar content could be reduced below 0.5%, a
permitted level for the production of cement15 bounded particleboard(Chew et. Al 1992)

It is explained that bamb oo start to shrink both in the wall thickness and diameter as soon
as it starts to lose moisture. This behaviour is unlike wood, where most of the properties will
start to change when it reaches the fibre saturation point.(Tewari,1992).

It is stated that the smaller bamboo species are mostly found in high elevations or temperate
latitudes, and the larger ones are abundant in the tropic sub tropic areas.(Lee Al,1994).

Sernek studied the penetration of liquid urea formaldehyde adhesive into beech wood using
an eip-fluorescence microscope. The study found 34out that moisture content had a
significant influence on the urea formaldehyde penetration when heated using a conventional
press, but showed no significant difference when cured in a high-frequency press. This study
also found out that there was a significant difference of the adhesive penetration between the
radial and tangential directions. The tangential direction has a greater penetration than the
radial direction. According to this study, when the adhesive was spread on the surface without
any pressure applied, the effective penetration decreased 3 to 4 times compared to the
samples made with applied pressure.(Sernek et. Al, 1999).

The study established that the BMEs are providing employment to urban residents who
would otherwise have been unemployed and poor, bamboo was also used in several
environmental rehabilitation and conservation initiatives in the city.(Wadh, 2010).

66

MATERIALS & METHODOLOGY

STUDY AREA

Bagwan Gramodhyog samiti is a registered non-governmental organisation (NGO) situated


at Ambiwala Prem nagar Dehradun which is 10-15 km away from the main city Dehradun.
This NGO deals with the study of bamboo craft, Mushroom production , Food processing,
Medicinal plants production etc. This NGO was established in 2002. It has different
operational areas such as Jammu & Kashmir, Manipur and uttarakhand. This organisation is
mainly working in the remote and inaccessible parts of the district Dehradun and focussing
on awareness and establishing the community for their long term sustainable development.
They produce many bamboo products and sell their products in workshops, exibition sales,
market, shops, festivals, occasions etc.

67
CLIMATE:

Uttarakhand is a region which has some of the most majestic places, and also provides
some outstanding natural beauty. It is a part of the greater Himalayan ranges and is covered
by beautiful Himalayan peaks and glaciers. In summers maximum temperature can cross the
36C mark in the plains and there can be considerable humidity. In winters the temperature
goes below 5C mark. The monsoon is the most pleasant season when temperature differs
from 15 to 25C at most places which reigns from July to September. The average rainfall of
Dehradun is 1284mm.
METHODOLOGY

RAW MATERIALS USED IN BAMBOO CRAFT

Bambusa bamboos.
Dendro calamusstrictus.

TOOLS USED

1. Hammer: To fix nails

2. Saw: To cut bamboos.

3. Chisel: To gouge out materials.


4. Hacksaw: To cut internodes from a length of the bamboo.

5. Draw bolt and Nuts: For fixing joints.

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6. Driller: For drilling holes.


7. Brushes: Painting the culms.

8. Wrench: To tighten the nuts and bolt.

10. Small knives: For making bamboo nails and for scraping.

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12. Sander: For finishing the surface of the products quickly.

13. Measuring Tape

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Some machines which are being used in making of bamboo craft

Bamboo cross cut machine Angular & Simple cutter


Bamboo chain split machine Spliting of bamboo

Research Team

The project on bamboo craft was carried out at Bagwan Gramodhyog Samiti (BGS) centre at
Ambiwala Prem nagar Dehradun. A live project on bamboo craft was done by constructing of
various products like a flower vast, candle stand, mugs, planter , etc through bamboo. A total
number of more than eighteen students and one instructor managed to carry. The trainer
instructed us to perform the various activities involved in constructing of crafts. An individual
student manages to make more than two craft during the live project with the help of
instruction given by the instructor. Students of Doon pg college of Agriculture Science &
Technology and students from other institutes are combined & taken to the board centre for
training which are based on bamboo craft such as Uttarakhand Bamboo & Fibre
Development Board (UBFD) which is loacted in kodwar and 100 km distance from

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Dehradun and Common Facility Centre for Bamboo Processing & Training(CFC BPT) at
Forest Research Institute.

Random collection

Under the main work stations i.e BGS an NGO laid out the work plan in which groups
were made and each group has 10-15 members which was randomly selected and assigned
with different project work . Each group was dispersed to different research centre, training
centre, crafts industry etc for data collection.
Data source

Randomly data was collected with certain aim. Forest Research Institute (FRI) Dehradun was
one of the mode of data source. Another source was Uttarakhand Bamboo & Fibre
Development Board (UBFD), which helped in data collection of preservation techniques. The
booklet provided by of the National Bamboo Mission, Dehradun gave ideas about the
different techniques and steps involved in making various products of bamboo craft.

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RESULT

Collected bamboos for crafts

The rate of the bamboo according to their feet

Species- Dendrocalumus strictus

Foot Rate
24 Rs 150
20 Rs 120
15 Rs 130
12 Rs 120
10 Rs 110
Source- Dehradun bamboo shops, Sudhowala
Transportation
Cost more than 1 lakh
It takes 10-15 days .
They use trucks for transportation.
Mainly transported from Assam, Bihar and West Bengal.

Bamboos selling according to their foot

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MAKING OF MUG & LAMP STAND

Materials required: Simple cutter, Angular cutter, pencil, glues, pencils, sand paper, varnish,
LED light, wooden base, wire, driver, small knife, Hammer, nails, Drill machine.

Process of making Bamboo Mug

Bamboo are being cut according to required size.


The cut bamboo is cleaned with sand paper until the dirts are gone.
After cleaning the hand of the mug is prepared.
The hand of the mug is pasted with the help of glue and small knife.
After that it is dried in the sun.
Varnish is applied and dried for some hours.
Kept it in cool and dry place.

ITEMS USED & COST FOR MAKING BAMBOO MUG


Items Rate
1 stick bamboo Rs 190(Rs 10 each)
Varnish & Sand paper Rs 10
Glue Rs 5
Labour charge for hour Rs 50
TOTAL Rs 75

Bamboos Cutting of bamboo with Angular cutter

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Cleaning the bamboo mug with sand paper Products made in BGS

Process of making LED light

The bamboo is cut into required length.


Cleaning is done with the sand paper.
After cleaning the various designs are made with the help of angular cutter and other
tools.
A driver is fixed on the wooden base to convert AC into DC.
Butter paper & insulation tape is used to insulate the driver and a wire with plug is
attached to the LED & driver.
After that the designed bamboo is fixed on the wooden base with LED with the help
of glue.
Polishing with varnish is done.
Then it is dried in the sun.

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ITEMS USED & COST FOR MAKING LED LIGHT

Items used Items Cost


Bamboo 1 stick Rs 190(Rs 10 each)
Led lights & Cable Rs 17
Wood base Rs 20
Driver Rs 25
Varnish & sand paper Rs 10
Glue Rs 5
Machine utilization Rs 6
Labour charge for hour Rs 50
TOTAL Rs 143

SELLING PRICE:

The determination of the selling price varies depending on the kind, shape, size, and quality
of the bamboo product. The selling price of bamboo is relatively different from one region to
another region. The products made from bamboos are reasonable in price according to their
product quality.
Here in making the bamboo mug the selling price of the product is Rs 75 approximately. The
selling price varies from 75-100 according to the size and materials used.

The materials used are more in making of LED lights than making of bamboo mug. Therefore
the product is quiet higher in price. According to the materials use in making of LED lights
the selling price should be Rs 143 approximately. The price ranges from 140-200 according
to the size.

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PRESERVATION TECHNIQUES

Bamboo is easily attacked by insects and fungi due to presence of starch and sugar in
abundance.

Traditional or Non Chemical Treatment

Traditional or non-chemical methods are being widely used by villagers and artisans in
several countries for many centuries and the skill is passed on from generation to generation.
Some types of traditional treatment adopted for bamboos are

Water seasoning
Heat treatment
Smoke treatment

Treatments for whole bamboo containers

Small scale treatment


Large scale treatment

CHEMICAL TREATMENT
Chemical treatment is more effective than traditional treatments but it is also more
expensive than the traditional treatments. Bamboo is non-durable in its natural state.
Durability can be greatly increased by preservation with safe, environment-friendly
chemicals, such as boron. Several simple and cost-effective treatment methods are:

Creosote treatment
Acid copper treatment
Copper chrome arsenic
Boron copper chrome boron

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There are several ways by which these chemicals can be applied in bamboos. This includes

Smearing
Penetration
Steeping
Dipping or Soaking
Modified boucherie method:
Bamboo craft items made in BGS

78

CONCLUSION

The project on bamboo craft at BGS (Bagwan Gramodyog Samiti) gave me a platform to do
a live project on the use of bamboo for making various craft as well as learning the art of
making various products through bamboos.

I also learned about the various tools and implements used in making crafts as well as
the production & manufacturing of bamboos. It also gave me an idea about the advantages
and drawbacks of the bamboo industry and the problems that are being faced by the local
artisans.

Lastly, through this project I have acquired the hands on practical knowledge required
for the completion of my project and also for my future endeavours.

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REFERENCES

- GOSH G.K. 2014. BAMBOO THE WONDERFUL GRASS.

Bamboo: The plant and its uses 2015 Walter Leise, Michael Kohl

Tomalang et Al 1998- Physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of bamboo and its
utilization

Proccedings of International workshop on Bamboo industrial- Chew et al,1992)


Dina Nath Tiwari,1992- A monograph on Bamboo, Lee et al, 1994- Development of
laminated bamboo lumber

Sernek et Al ,1999 Strain Distribution of a bamboo

Negi S.S. and Naithani ,H.B (1994) Hand book of Indian Bamboos.Oriental
enterprises,Dehradun

JHA L.K.L Lalnunwawia F(2004), Agroforestry with bamboo and ginger to rehabilitate
degraded areas in north east India Journal of bamboo and Rattan

BIS, Indian standard-bamboo mat board for general purposes- Specifications, IS :13958,
Bureau of Indian standards (1999)

Rao, BK, Kurothe, RS, Pande, VC, Kumar, Gopal(2012) Throughfall and stemflow
measurement in bamboo( Dendrocalumus strictus) Plantation, Indian journal of soil
conservation.

Tewari, D.N.1992. A monograph on bamboo, International Book Distribution, Dehradun


(India),.

National Bamboo Mission(2006) Centrally Sponsored Scheme, Operation Guidelines,


Ministry of Agriculture and cooperation, Government of Meghalaya

NBM, 2011, National Bamboo Mission

UBFDB- Uttarakhand Bamboo and Fibre Development Board,Kumar,S.K.S Shukla, P.B.


Dobriyal,1994.bamboo preservation techniques.

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PHOTO GALLERY
Different products of Bamboo

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