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L. Joyprakash Singh, PhD

EE - 304 Electrical Network and Theory (August - December 2016 Session)

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

North-Eastern Hill University (NEHU)

(B.Tech. 3 rd Semester)

Handout: # 01

1. Network Topology: Terms and Definitions

(a)

Circuit elements:

i. The mathematical models of a two terminal electrical devices,

ii. Completely characterized by its voltage-current relationship,

iii. Can not be subdivided into other two-terminal devices. Example:

(b)

-

A Resistor The mathematical model of a real ideal capic- itor is defined as

v R = iR
v R = iR

(1.1)

Please note that v R and i are functions of time, if needed, we can emphsize this fact that by writing v R (t) and i(t), instead.

-

A Capacitor The mathematical model of a real ideal capic- itor is defined as

i = C dv dt C
i = C dv dt C

(1.2)

Also note that v C and i are functions of time, if needed, we can emphsize this fact that by writing v C (t) and i(t), instead.

-

An Inductor The mathematical model of an ideal inductor is defined by a simple differential equation as

di v L = L dt
di
v L = L
dt

(1.3)

Here v L and i are functions of time, if needed, we can emphsize this fact that by writing v L (t) and i(t), instead.

Node:

i R + v R − Fig. 1.1: Electrical symbol and current-voltage conventions for a
i R
+ v R −
Fig.
1.1:
Electrical
symbol
and
current-voltage conventions for a
capacitor

C

i + v C − Fig. 1.2: Electrical symbol and current-voltage conventions for a
i
+ v C −
Fig.
1.2:
Electrical
symbol
and
current-voltage conventions for a

capacitor

i L

and current-voltage conventions for a capacitor i L + v L − Fig. 1.3: Electrical symbol

+ v L

Fig. 1.3: Electrical symbol and current-voltage conventions for an inductor

i. A point at which two or more circuit elements have a common connection,

ii. The number of branches incident to a node is known as the degree of that node.

L. Joyprakash Singh, PhD

EE - 304 ENT

August 19, 2016

(c)

Branch:

 

i. A single path, containing one circuit element, which connnects one node to any other node,

ii. Represented by a line in the graph.

(d)

Path:

 

i.

A set of elements that may be traversed in order without passing through the same node twice.

(e)

Loop:

 

i. A close path or a closed contour selected in a network/circuit,

ii. A path that may be started from a prticular node to other nodes through branches and comes to the original/starting node,

iii. Also known as closed path or circuit.

(f)

Mesh 1

[2]:

 

i. A loop that does not contain any other loops within it,

ii. Any mesh is a circuit/loop but any loop/circuit may not be a mesh.

(g)

Network:

 

i.

The interconnection of two or more circuit elements forms an electical network.

(h)

Circuit:

 

i. A Network that contains at least one closed path,

ii. Every circuit is a network, but not all networks are circuits.

(i)

Planar circuit:

i.

A circuit that may drawn on a plane surface in such a way that no branch passes over or under any other branch.

(j)

Topology:

 

i. Deals with properties of networks which are unaffected when the network is stretched, twisted, or otherwise distorted the size and the shape,

ii. Not concerned with the particular types of elements appearing in the circuit, but only with the way in which branches and nodes are arranged.

(k)

Graph:

i. A graph corresponding to a given network is obtained by replacing all circuit ele- ments with lines. α) Connected graph: A graph in which at least one path exists between any two nodes of the graph. If the network has a transformer as one of the element, then the resulted graph is unconnected β) Directed or Oriented graph: A graph that has all the nodes and branches numbered and also directions are given to the branches. γ) Subgraph: The subset of a graph. If the number of nodes and branches of a subgraph is less than that of the graph, the subgraph is said to be proper. Note: Circuits [closed paths] of a graph have the following properties

- The maximum number of branches possible, in any circuit/loop, will be equal to the number of nodes or vertices.

- There are exactly two paths between any pair of vertices in a circuit.

- There are at least two branches in a circuit.

If the two terminal nodes of a path are made to coincide, the result will be a circuit or loop.

1 Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8e

August 19, 2016

EE - 304 ENT

L. Joyprakash Singh, PhD

(l) Example - 01

L I L R 1 R 2 I R 1 2 I R 2 1
L
I L
R 1
R 2
I
R 1
2 I R 2
1
3
I s
I R 3
I C
V
C
s
R 3
+

4

(a) A circuit.

2 1 4
2
1
4

(b) Its graph.

2 3 1 3 4
2
3
1
3
4

(c) Directed graph.

Fig. 1.4: A circuit with topologically equivalent graphs.

2 1 3 4
2
1
3
4

(a) A graph of (a).

2 1 3 4 (b) Another graph of (a).
2
1
3
4
(b) Another graph of (a).
2 4 1 3
2
4
1
3

(c) Another graph of (a).

Fig. 1.5: Three topologically equivalent graphs of Fig. 1.4(a).

(m) Example - 02

L I L R R 1 2 I 1 2 I 2 1 3 I
L
I L
R
R
1
2
I
1
2
I
2
1
3
I
3
I
R
C
5
C
R
3
I
s
V
s
+

4

(a)

a b 2 c 1 d e f 5 g 4 (b)
a
b
2
c
1
d
e
f
5
g
4
(b)
a b 2 c 3 1 3 e f d 4, 5 (c)
a
b
2
c
3
1
3
e
f
d
4, 5
(c)

Fig. 1.6: (a) A circuit, (b) its directed graph and (c) simplified directed graph of (b).

L. Joyprakash Singh, PhD

EE - 304 ENT

August 19, 2016

(n) Example - 03

L I L R 1 R 2 I 1 2 I 2 1 3 R
L
I
L
R 1
R 2
I
1
2
I 2
1
3
R
I C
5
C
I v s
V s
+

4

(a)

II s

a b 2 c 1 e d 4
a
b
2
c
1
e
d
4

(b)

a 3 1 3 b c d 2 e 4
a
3
1
3
b
c
d
2
e
4

(c)

Fig. 1.7: (a) A circuit, and (b),(c) its directed graphs(simplified).

Note:

- The active elements are excluded[replaced by their internal resistances] from the graph to simplify analysis and computation.

(o)

Example - 04 R R 1 2 I I 1 R 1 2 R 2
Example - 04
R
R
1
2
I
I
1
R 1
2
R 2
3
I
I
R 3
R 4
I
C
5 A
R
C
3
R 4

4

(a) A circuit.

a 2 b 1 e f d c
a
2
b
1
e
f
d
c

4

3

(b) Its directed graph.

Fig. 1.8: A circuit and its directed graph.

Note:

- If each of the line/branch in a given graph has a reference direction [as indicated by an arrow mark], then the resulted graph is called an/a oriented/directed graph.

(p) Example - 05 1 A 1 V 1 Ω 1 Ω 1 Ω 1
(p)
Example - 05
1 A
1 V
1 Ω
1 Ω
1 Ω
1 Ω
1 Ω
+

(a)

05 1 A 1 V 1 Ω 1 Ω 1 Ω 1 Ω 1 Ω +

(b)

1 A 1 V 1 Ω 1 Ω 1 Ω 1 Ω 1 Ω + −

(c)

Fig. 1.9: (a) A circuit, and its- (b) simplified graph and (c) directed graph.

Note:

- Where direction of flow of currents are not shown in the given circuit diagram, arbitrary directions may be assigned in each branch before drawing the directed graph.

- When voltage source is not in series with any passive element in the given network, it is kept in the graph as a branch.

August 19, 2016

EE - 304 ENT

L. Joyprakash Singh, PhD

- In the above graph, the current source is removed to reduce the brance in the graph for simplicity. However, current sources are normally kept in the graph like voltage sources during circuit analysis.

(q) Example - 06 C 1 C 1 4 R 2 R 2 2 2
(q)
Example - 06
C 1
C 1
4
R
2
R 2
2
2
1
3
R
R
2
2
R S
C
2
R 1
R
R
S
L
C 2
R L
1
3
0
v 1
R
1
C
C
1
1
Ref.node
4
(a)
(b)
+

Fig. 1.10: (a) A circuit, and its- (b) simplified graph and (c) directed graph.

(r)

Few non-planar Graphs:

1

2 1 2 3 6 3 4 5 4 (a) (b)
2
1 2
3
6
3
4
5 4
(a)
(b)

(s)

(t)

Problems for Practice:

Note: While replacing all elements of the network with lines to form a graph, we replace active elements by their internal resistances to simplify analysis and computation. Practice Problem - 1:

Problems for Practice - II Note: Transformer gives a unconnected graph! Practice Problem - 2:

2. Network Topology: Terms and Definitions

(a) Tree:

i. A connected subgraph having all the nodes of a graph without any loop. ii. Thus, a tree is a subgraph that has the following properties:

α) It must consist of all nodes of a complete graph. β) For a graph having n number of nodes, the tree of the given graph will have n 1 branches. γ) There exists one and only one path between any pair of nodes.

L. Joyprakash Singh, PhD

EE - 304 ENT

August 19, 2016

L I L R 2 R 3 I 1 3 I 2 4 2 I
L
I L
R 2
R 3
I 1
3
I 2
4
2
I s
I 3
I C
R 1
C
R 4
1
V
s
+

5

(a)

I s

C R 2 I 2 2 3 I C 4 1 I 3 R 1
C
R
2
I 2
2 3 I C
4
1
I 3
R 1
K
I 1
R 3
V s
6
5
+

(a)

I

3 2 1, 5
3
2
1, 5

(b)

4

2 3 1 4 6 5
2
3
1
4
6 5

(b)

δ) A tree should not have any closed path. ) The rank of a tree is (n 1) which is the total number of possible branches in the tree. This is also the rank of the graph to which the tree belongs.

(b)

Twigs:

i.

The branches of a tree are known as twigs.

(c)

Links or Chords:

The branches that are removed from the graph while forming a tree are termed as links or chords. ii. Links are complement of twigs.

i.

(d)

Co-tree:

i. The graph constituted with links is known as co-tree.

August 19, 2016

EE - 304 ENT

L. Joyprakash Singh, PhD

Example - 01:

L I L R R 1 2 I 1 2 I 2 1 3 I
L
I L
R
R
1
2
I
1
2
I
2
1
3
I
3
I
R
C
C
R
3
I
s
V
s
+

4

(a) A Circuit

a b 2 c 1 3 e f d 4
a
b
2
c
1
3
e
f
d
4
(c) Tree 1 a b 2 c 1 3 e f d 4
(c) Tree 1
a
b
2
c
1
3
e
f
d
4
(g) Tree 5 a b 2 c 1 3 e f d 4
(g) Tree 5
a
b
2
c
1
3
e
f
d
4
(k) Tree 9 a b 2 c 1 3 e f d 4
(k) Tree 9
a
b
2
c
1
3
e
f
d
4

(o) Tree 13

a b 2 c 1 3 e f d 4
a
b
2
c
1
3
e
f
d
4
(d) Tree 2 a b 2 c 1 3 e f d 4
(d) Tree 2
a
b
2
c
1
3
e
f
d
4
(h) Tree 6 a b 2 c 1 3 e f d 4
(h) Tree 6
a
b
2
c
1
3
e
f
d
4
(l) Tree 10 a b 2 c 1 3 e f d 4
(l) Tree 10
a
b
2
c
1
3
e
f
d
4

(p) Tree 14

a b 2 c 1 e f d 4 (b) The graph
a
b
2
c
1
e
f
d
4
(b) The graph

3

a b 2 c 1 3 e f d 4
a
b
2
c
1
3
e
f
d
4
a b 2 c 1 3 e f d 4
a
b
2
c
1
3
e
f
d
4
(e) Tree 3 (f) Tree 4 a a b 2 c b 2 c 1
(e) Tree 3
(f) Tree 4
a
a
b
2
c
b
2
c
1
3
1
3
e
f
e
f
d
d
4
4
(i) Tree 7 a b 2 c 1 3 e f d 4
(i) Tree 7
a
b
2
c
1
3
e
f
d
4
(m) Tree 11 a b 2 c 1 3 e f d 4
(m) Tree 11
a
b
2
c
1
3
e
f
d
4

(q) Tree 15

(j) Tree 8 a b 2 c 1 3 e f d 4
(j) Tree 8
a
b
2
c
1
3
e
f
d
4
(n) Tree 12 a b 2 c 1 3 e f d 4
(n) Tree 12
a
b
2
c
1
3
e
f
d
4

(r) Tree 16

L. Joyprakash Singh, PhD

EE - 304 ENT

August 19, 2016

100 V

Example - 02:

8 Ω 15 Ω 1 2 3 + v x − 4 Ω + −
8 Ω
15 Ω
1
2
3
+
v x
4 Ω
+

0

v x

14

(a) Given circuit

1 2 3 0
1
2
3
0

(b) Graph of (a)

1 2 3
1
2
3

0

(c) A tree of (b)

1 2 3
1
2
3

0

(d) Another tree of (b)

Example - 03: 2 + v x 1 S 2 A − S 2 1
Example - 03:
2
+
v x
1 S
2 A
− S
2
1
3
Ref.
node
1 V
2v x
− S
1
2 S
v y
4v y
+
+
+

4

(a) Given circuit

2 1 Ref. node
2
1
Ref.
node

4

(b) The graph of (a)

2 3 1 3 Ref. node
2
3
1
3
Ref.
node

4

(c) A possible tree of (b)

Summary:

- A linear graph is defined as a collection of nodes and branches where nodes are joined together by branches.

- A subgraph is a subset of branches and nodes of a given graph.

- Point of intersection of two or more branches is called node.

- A circuit elements is represented by lines in a graph and these lines are called branches of the graph.

- Voltage and current sources may be represented by their internal impedances while drawing a graph in which a voltage source would be assumed to be an ideal voltage source and thus would be replaced by short circuit while current source [an ideal current source] would be replaced by an open circuit to simplify the graph.

References

[1] M. E. Van Valkenburg, Network Analysis, 3/e, PHI, 2005.

[2] W. H. Hayt, J. E. Kemmerly, S. M. Durbin, Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/e, MH, 2012.

[3] M. Nahvi, J. A. Edminister, Schuams Outline Electric Circuits, 4/e, TMH, SIE, 2007.

[4] D. Roy Choudhury, Networks and Systems, New Age Publishers, 1998.

[5] A. Sudhakar, S. S. Palli, Circuits and Networks: Analysis and Synthesis, 2/e, TMH, 2002.