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L.

Joyprakash Singh, PhD

EE - 304 Electrical Network and Theory


(August - December 2016 Session)
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
North-Eastern Hill University (NEHU)
(B.Tech. 3rd Semester)

Handout: # 02

1. Graph Theory
(a) Incidence Matrix: Incidence matrix provides information like
- Which branches are incident at which nodes,
- Orientation of branches to nodes.
Types:
- Complete incidence matrix, Ai ,
- Reduced incidence matrix (simply incidence matrix ), A.
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai :
A complete incidence matrix of a connected graph with 4 branches and 5 nodes is given
by:
branches
a b c d
nodes
1 a11 a12 a13 a14
2
a21 a22 a23 a24

Ai = 3
a31 a32 a33 a34

4 a41 a42 a43 a44
5 a51 a52 a53 a54

In this matrix, Ai , having n rows and b columns, an entry, aij , in the ith row and j th
column has the following values:

1, if the branch j is incident to and oriented away from the node, i,
aij = 1, if the branch j is incident to and oriented towards the node, i,
0, if the branch j is not incident to the node, i.

Example - 1: Find the complete incidence matrix of the circuit of Fig. 1.1(a).

IL L
a

R1 R2 b 2 c
I1 2 I2
1 3 1 3
I3
R IC

C R3 d e f
Is

Vs +

4 4

(a) (b)

Fig. 1.1: (a) A circuit, and (a) its graph (b).

2060720-02#20140822LJS 1/6
L. Joyprakash Singh, PhD EE - 304 ENT August 22, 2016

The complete incidence matrix of the above graph is



1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
Ai =
1

0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1

Complete incidence matrix, Ai , has the order n b and satifies the following properties:
- The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
- Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be constructed
since Ai is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
- The determinant of Ai of a closed loop is zero.
Incidence Matrix, A:
Incidence matrix or Reduced incidence matrix, A:
1. Suppose a graph has n number of nodes and b number of branches. Now, if we
remove any row from the complete incidence matrix Ai obtained from the graph,
the resulted matrix is known as a reduced incidence matrix, A.
2. The order of the reduced incidence matrix A is (n 1) b, i.e. it has (n 1) rows
and b columns.
3. Normally, the row corresponding to the reference node is deleted from a complete
incidence matrix, Ai to form a reduced incidence matrix, A.

1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0
A = 0 1
Ai =
1 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai Reduced incidence matrix, A.
Number of possible trees in the graph, Fig. 1.1(b):
Let us considered the Fig. 1.1(b) and write the complete incidence matrix, Ai and its
reduced incidence matrix, A as

1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0
Ai =
1 A = 0 1 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
The transpose of the reduced incidence matrix, A is then given by

0 1

1
1 1 0

T
0 1 1
A =
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
And now we have,

0 1

1
1 1 0
1 1 0 1 0 0 3 1 1
0 1 1
AAT = 0 1

1 0 1 0 = 1 3 1
1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 3
0 1 0
0 0 1

Handout: # 02 ECE, NEHU, Shillong 2/6


August 22, 2016 EE - 304 ENT L. Joyprakash Singh, PhD

Therefore the possible number of trees that can be constructed from the graph in
Fig. 1.1(b) is

AAT = 3 3 1 (1) 1 1 +(1) 1 3

1 3 1 3 1 1 = 3(91)+(31)1(1+3)

6
Although C3 = 20 combinations exist for tree formation, the possible combnations are
T

AA = 24 4 4 = 16 only.

And all possible trees of Fig. 1.1(b) are:


a a a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3

d e f d e f d e f d e f d e f d e f

4 4 4 4 4 4

(a) Tree 1 (b) Tree 2 (c) Tree 3 (d) Tree 4 (e) Tree 5 (f) Tree 6
a a a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3

d e f d e f d e f d e f d e f d e f

4 4 4 4 4 4

(g) Tree 7 (h) Tree 8 (i) Tree 9 (j) Tree 10 (k) Tree 11 (l) Tree 12

a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3

d e f d e f d e f d e f

4 4 4 4

(m) Tree 13 (n) Tree 14 (o) Tree 15 (p) Tree 16

Summary: In the given graph, the number of nodes and the branches are n = 4 and
b = 6 respectively.
Hence, total number of twigs and links in any tree constructed from this graph equal
t = n 1 = 3, and l = b t = b n + 1 = 3.
Possible trees of the given graph of Fig. 1.1(b) may be written as:


Tree 1 : T wigs{a, b, d},Links{c, e, f }
Tree 2 : T wigs{a, b, e}, Links{c, d, f }




Tree 3 : T wigs{a, c, e}, Links{b, d, f }



Possible trees: Tree 4 : T wigs{a, c, f },Links{b, d, e}


Tree 5 : T wigs{a, b, f },Links{c, d, e}

.. .. ..
. . .




Tree 16 :T wigs{b, e, f },Links{a, c, d}

Example - 2 Draw a complete graph from the following incidence matrix.



1 1 0 1 0 0
A = 1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0

ECE, NEHU, Shillong Handout: # 02 3/6


L. Joyprakash Singh, PhD EE - 304 ENT August 22, 2016

Solution: Creating a complete Incidence Matrix, Ai , from the given reduced incidence
matrix, A, we get
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
Ai =
0 1 1 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 1 1

a
a
3 1 2
1 c 2
b c
b f
And thus its graph is e f Another possible graph may be
d e
3 4
d
4
Example - 3 In the circuit of Fig. 1.2,abc
(a) Draw a directed graph and 1A
+
1V

1
1
(b) Find reduced incidence matrix. 1

1 1

Fig. 1.2
Answer: (a) First, we assign arbitrary direction of flow of current on each branch of the
given circuit of Fig. 1.2 and also assign node numbers and branch names. We then re-draw
the circuit and its directed graph as shown below
2 2
1A 1V
+ a g
1
1 b d f
1

1 3 c e
1 3
1 4 1 4

Fig. 1.3 Fig. 1.4: Graph of Fig.-1.3


Note: A student may also draw the graph by suppressing the current source to simplify
the drawing [Similar to that of Fig. 1.5].

(b) The complete incidence matrix derived from the graph of Fig. 1.4 is

branches
a b c d e f g
nodes
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
2 1 1 0 1 0 1 1
Ai =
3 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
4 0 0 1 1 1 0 0

Therefore, the incidence matrix (reduced incidence matrix) is given by

branches
a b c d e f g
nodes
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
A= 2 1 1 0 1 0 1 1
3 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

Handout: # 02 ECE, NEHU, Shillong 4/6


August 22, 2016 EE - 304 ENT L. Joyprakash Singh, PhD

Tree: The possible number of trees that can be drawn from Fig. 1.4 is calculated as
1 1

0
1 1 0


1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 2 0
AAT = 1

1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 = 2
0 5 2
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
0 1 0 2 3
0 1 1
0 1 1

T
5 2 2 2 2 4
Thus AA = 3
(2) + (0)
= 21 only. abcdefghijk
2 3 0 3 0 2

Another Possible Answer of Q. 1(b): Using the graph of Fig. 1.5

To reduce the complexity of analysis, we suppress the current source and draw a directed
graph of the circuit of Fig. 1.2 as shown below
2

d
a b c
Let us write the complete incidence matrix,
Ai and its reduced incidence matrix, A as e f
1 3
4

Fig. 1.5: Graph of Fig.-1.2 by suppressing 1A source.


The complete incidence matrix derived from Fig. 1.5 is
branches
a b c d e f
nodes
1 1 0 0 0 1 0
2 1 1 1 1 0 0
Ai =
3 0 0 1 1 0 1
4 0 1 0 0 1 1
And the incidence matrix (reduced incidence matrix) derived from Fig. 1.5
branches
a b c d e f
nodes
1 1 0 0 0 1 0
A= 2 1 1 1 1 0 0
4 0 1 0 0 1 1
Tree: The transpose of the reduced incidence matrix, A is then given by
1

1 0
0 1 0

T
0 1 1
A =
0 1 1

1 0 0
0 0 1
And now we have,
1

1 0
0 1 0
1 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 0
0 1 1
AAT = 1 1

1 1 0 0 0 1 = 1 4 2
1
0 0 1 1 0 1 0 2 3
1 0 0
0 0 1

ECE, NEHU, Shillong Handout: # 02 5/6


L. Joyprakash Singh, PhD EE - 304 ENT August 22, 2016

Therefore, the possible number of trees that can be constructed from the graph in Fig. 1.5
is

T
4 2 1 2 1 4
AA = 2 (1) + (0) = 2(12 4) + (3 0) 0(2 0)
2 3 0 3 0 2

Although 6 C3 = 20 combinations exist for tree formation, the possible number of trees that
can be drawn is AAT = 16 3 = 13 only.

Rank of the Incidence Matrix:


2
Suppose in the Fig. 1.6, a tree has
been selected with twigs {c, d, e} as a g
shown by solid lines while links by b d f
dashed lines. That is,
c e
1 3
T ree : {c, d, e} 4
Links : {a, b, f, g}
Fig. 1.6: Graph of Fig.-1.3 showing a selected tree.
Now, the complete incidence matrix derived from Fig. 1.6 may be written as
branches
a b c d e f g
nodes
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
2 1 1 0 1 0 1 1
Ai =
3 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
4 0 0 1 1 1 0 0

Let the incidence matrix, A, be obtained by eliminating the last row of Ai as


branches
a b c d e f g
nodes
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
A= 2 1 1 0 1 0 1 1
3 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

The above matrix, A, may also be written as

T wigs Links
branches
c d e a b f g
nodes
1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
A= 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 1
3 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
A = [At Al ]

where At is a square matrix of order (n 1) (n 1) and Al is a matrix of order


(n 1) (b n + 1) which corresponds to the links.
Thus,
1 0 0
At = 0 1 0
0 0 1
The determinant of At = 1 and |A| =
6 0. The rank of A is n 1. Hence, for Ai , the rank
is also n 1.

Handout: # 02 ECE, NEHU, Shillong 6/6