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Se Ce eel Tee UNDERSTANDING MICROWAVES Allan W. Scott A WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PUBLICATION JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. New York / Chichester / Brisbane / Toronto / Singapore 94/3248 SA-YQA 2, This text is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright © 1993 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada. Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data: Scott. Allan W. Understanding microwaves / Allan W. Scott. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-471-57567-4 1. Microwave devices. I. Title. TK7876.536 1993 621.381'3—de20 92-16863 CIP Printed in the United States of America 09 8 765 43 2 ~'1 PREFACE Microwaves are a significant part of our lives. Television programs are transmitted by satellites using microwaves. Telephone and data signals are transmitted by microwave relay. Photos taken by space probes are sent to earth by microwaves. Cellular phone communication is by microwave. Our missiles, planes, ships, and tanks are guided and controlled by microwave radar. Commercial aircraft are guided from takeoff to landing by microwave radar and navigation systems. Microwaves are used to cook food and treat cancer patients. Microwaves are big business, too. The microwave equipment market in the free world is $60 billion a year. The American market is $25 billion a year, which accounts for about one tenth of all electronic equipment manufactured in the United States. The microwave market will continue to grow as new equipment for communications, navigation, and radar is continually de- veloped. Unfortunately, conventional electronic components, such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, and integrated circuits, don’t work at high micro- wave frequencies. Even conventional wiring and PC boards can’t be used to conduct microwaves. Consequently, hundreds of special microwave com- ponents have been developed to make microwave equipment work, and, of course, a specialized ‘‘language of microwaves” has arisen. The purpose of this book is to help anyone working in the microwave industry to understand this language and how the components are used to devise communication, navigation, and radar systems. Recent electrical engineering graduates needing training in microwave electronics, engineers who are experts in some microwave areas but need an overview of the entire field, technicians who build and test microwave equip- ment, mechanical, industrial, and other engineers who work with microwave equipment, sales and marketing personnel who need to understand the tech- nical details of microwave products to better supply their customers’ needs, and program managers who must understand technical details of microwave programs can all benefit from Understanding Microwaves. Explanations are given in terms of devices without complicated mathematics. The book has three parts. Part 1 (Chapters 1-5), ‘‘Microwave Fundamen- tals,’ covers the language of microwaves. Microwave systems and devices ¥