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Airports Authority of India

Civil Airport, Jodhpur-342011


(Rajasthan)

Training Report on
Communication, Navigation and
Surveillance

Submitted by
Anuj Sharma
III Year (6th Semester)
B.Tech (Electronics and Communication
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Engineering)
Jodhpur Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Jodhpur, Rajasthan
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank the Airport Authority of


India, Jodhpur for providing the opportunity to
train here.
I would like to express my gratitude to the
Director Mr S.K. Singh for the opportunity and his
guidance. I am thankful to the manager
MrManjeshChowdhary for his mentorship and
guidance.
I am thankful to all the staff at Airport Authority
of India for their cooperation and support.
Content

Functional Chart of AAI


Communication Navigation Surveillance
NOTAM
VHF Omni directional Range(DVOR)
Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
Instrument Landing System(ILS)
AMSS
X-ray Baggage System
Communication Navigation Surveillance
CNS

Communication, Navigation and surveillance are three main


functions which constitute the function of Air Traffic Management
(ATM) infrastructure.

Communication: - Communication is the exchange f voice and data


information between pilot and Air traffic Controller or flight
information centers.

Navigation: - Navigation element of CNS/ATM system is meant to


provide accuracy, reliability and seamless position determination
capability to aircrafts.

Surveillance:- The surveillance system is divided into two main


types dependent surveillance and independent surveillance. In
dependent surveillance systems, aircraft is determined on board and
then transmitted to ATC. The current voice position of the aircraft is
dependent surveillance system in which the position of aircraft is
determined from on board navigation equipment and then conveyed
by the pilot to ATC. Independent surveillance is a system which
measures the aircraft position from the ground. Current surveillance
is either based on voice positioning reporting or based on radar
which measures ranges and azimuth of aircraft from ground station.
NOTAM

A Notice to Airmen (NOTAM)is a notice filed with an aviation


authority to alert aircraft pilots of potential hazards along a flight
route or at a location that could affect the safety of the
flight. NOTAMs are unclassified notices or advisories distributed by
means of telecommunication that contain information concerning
the establishment, conditions or change in any aeronautical facility,
service, procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is
essential to personnel and systems concerned with flight
operations. NOTAMs are created and transmitted by government
agencies and airport operators under guidelines specified by Annex
15: Aeronautical Information Services of the Convention on
International Civil Aviation (CICA).

Usage

NOTAMs are issued (and reported) for a number of reasons, such as:

Hazards such as air shows, parachute jumps, kite flying, lasers,


rocket launches, etc.
flights by important people such as heads of state (sometimes
referred to as temporary flight restrictions, TFRs)
closed runways
inoperable radio navigational aids
military exercises with resulting airspace restrictions
inoperable lights on tall obstructions
temporary erection of obstacles near airfields (e.g., cranes)
passage of flocks of birds through airspace (a NOTAM in this
category is known as a BIRDTAM)
notifications of runway/taxiway/apron status with respect to
snow, ice, and standing water (a SNOWTAM)
notification of an operationally significant change in volcanic
ash or other dust contamination (an ASHTAM)
software code risk announcements with associated patches to
reduce specific vulnerabilities

VHF Omni Directional Radio Range(VOR)

VHF Omni Directional Radio Range (VOR) is a type of short-


range radio navigation system for aircraft, enabling aircraft with a
receiving unit to determine their position and stay on course by
receiving radio signals transmitted by a network of fixed
ground radio beacons. It
uses frequencies in
the very high
frequency (VHF) band from
108 to 117.95 MHz.
Developed in the United
States beginning in 1937
and deployed by 1946, VOR
is the standard air
navigational system in the
world,[1][2] used by both
commercial and general
aviation. By 2000 there
were about 3,000 VOR stations around the world including 1,033 in
the US, reduced to 967 by 2013with more stations being
decommissioned with the widespread adoption of GPS.

A VOR ground station sends out an omnidirectional master signal,


and a highly directional second signal is propagated by a phased
antenna array and rotates clockwise in space 30 times a second.
This signal is timed so that its phase (compared to the master)
varies as the secondary signal rotates, and this phase difference is
the same as the angular direction of the 'spinning' signal, (so that
when the signal is being sent 90 degrees clockwise from north, the
signal is 90 degrees out of phase with the master). By comparing
the phase of the secondary signal with the master, the angle
(bearing) to the aircraft from the station can be determined.
There are two types of VOR, namely, conventional VOR (C-VOR) and
Doppler VOR (D-VOR). Even though both serve thesame purpose as
far as the aircrafts are concerned, the selection of C-VOR and D-VOR
depends upon various site conditions in an airfield. D-VOR is more
accurate than C-VOR but it is costlier than C-VOR.

The DVOR system provides a reference from which aircraft bearing


can be determined. To do this, a carrier is radiated in the 108 to 118
MHZ band and modulated by two 30 Hz signals. One amplitude
modulates and the other frequency modulates (also called the
reference phase and variable phase signals, respectively) the carrier
signal. This is done in such a way that the phase difference of the 30
Hz signals varies degree for degree with the magnetic bearing
around the VOR station

The DVOR concept is based on the 360 radials, which originate


from a transmitting station and on the airborne equipment, which
resolves the particular radial data from the station. The resolved
radial, called line-of-position (LOP) is the displacement angle
between magnetic north and the aircraft, as measured from the
DVOR antenna. Therefore, regardless of its heading, an aircraft
which is on the 0 radial is north of the DVOR station. The magnetic
course to the station is the reciprocal of the radial. In addition, the
airborne equipment also resolves to/from orientation data, relative
to the DVOR station.

Operation
VORs are assigned radio channels between 108.0 MHz and
117.95 MHz (with 50 kHz spacing);
this is in the Very High Frequency
(VHF) range. The VOR
encodes azimuth (direction from
the station) as
the phase relationship between a
reference signal and a variable
signal. The omnidirectional signal
contains a modulated continuous
wave (MCW) 7 wpm Morse code
station identifier, and usually
contains an amplitude
modulated (AM) voice channel. The
conventional 30 Hz reference signal
is frequency modulated (FM) on a 9,960 Hz subcarrier. The variable
amplitude modulated (AM) signal is conventionally derived from the
lighthouse-like rotation of a directional antenna array 30 times per
second. Although older antennae were mechanically rotated, current
installations scan electronically to achieve an equivalent result with
no moving parts. This is achieved by a circular array of typically 60
directional antennae, the signal to each one being amplitude
modulated by the 30 Hz reference signal delayed in phase to match
the azimuthal position of each individual antenna. When the
composite signal is received in the aircraft, the AM and FM 30 Hz
components are detected and then compared to determine the
phase angle between them.
+
-
Radiation pattern

- +
Figure. Rotating Limacon

Purposes and use of VOR:


1. The main purpose of the VOR is to provide the navigational
signals for an aircraft receiver, which will allow the pilot to
determine the bearing of the aircraft to a VOR facility.

2. In addition to this, VOR enables the Air Traffic Controllers in the


Area Control Radar (ARSR) and ASR for identifying the aircraft in
their scopes easily. They can monitor whether aircraft are
following the radials correctly or not.

3. VOR located outside the airfield on the extended Centre line of


the runway would be useful for the aircraft for making a straight
VOR approach. With the help of the AUTO PILOT aircraft can be
guided to approach the airport for landing.

4. VOR located enroute would be useful for air traffic 'to maintain
their PDRS (PRE DETERMINED ROUTES) and are also used as
reporting points.

5. VORs located at radial distance of about 40 miles in different


directions around an International Airport can be used as holding
VORs for regulating the aircraft for their landing in quickest time.
They would be of immense help to the aircraft for holding
overhead and also to the ATCO for handling the traffic
conveniently.

Figure 6 Frequency spectrum of DVOR


DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME)

Distance Measuring Equipment Distance measuring equipment


(DME) is a transponder-based radio navigation technology that
measures slant range distance by timing the propagation delay of
VHF or UHF radio signals.

Frequency Bands: UHF (300 MHz to 3GHz) 960 MHz to 1215 MHz (For
DME)

Aircraft use DME to determine their distance from a land-based


transponder by sending and receiving pulse pairs two pulses of
fixed duration and separation. The ground stations are typically co-
located with VORs. A typical DME ground transponder system for en-
route or terminal navigation will have a 1 kW peak pulse output on
the assigned UHF channel. A low-power DME can be co-located with
an ILS Localizer antenna installation where it provides an accurate
distance to touchdown function, similar to that otherwise provided
by ILS Marker Beacons. The DME system is composed of a UHF
transmitter/receiver (interrogator) in the aircraft and a UHF
receiver/transmitter (transponder) on the ground.Concept

DME provides to aircrafts: -

Figure 1 Front panel of DME Figure 3 Back panel of DME


equipment equipment
Straight-line distance to the DME ground station.
Aircraft ground-speed.
Time to DME ground station.

The DME coverage is limited by the line of


sight, if there isnt line of sight between the
emitter and the receiver there will not be
communication link.

Range from 0 to 65 NM radius and above


65 NM.

When a signal is sent by the aircraft on board DME (interrogator),


the on board DME starts counting the time until it gets a reply from
the ground station.

The resulting time depends of the DISTANCE, the propagation


speed and the signal reflections.
The DME ground station transponder generates replies (artificial
echoes) and sends it back to the aircrafts. The time interval between
interrogation emission and reply reception provides the aircraft with
the real distance information from the ground station.

This information may be read by the pilot or the navigator directly


on the airborne indicator. The error is near to zero when the aircraft
is far from the ground station and it increases when the aircraft is
near from the ground station in the range of 0,5NM.

DME performance is not affected by the weather conditions.

Figure 4 Block of DME communicating with aircraft

Purpose of DME installation


Distance Measuring Equipment is a vital navigational Aid, which
provides a pilot with visual information regarding his position
(distance) relative to the ground based DME station. The facility
even though possible to locate independently, normally it is
collocated with either VOR or ILS. The DME can be used with
terminal VOR and holding VOR also. DME can be used with the ILS in
an Airport; normally it is collocated with the Glide path component
of ILS.
Association of DME with VOR
Associated VOR and DME facilities shall be co-located in accordance
with the following:

1. Coaxial co-location: the VOR and DME antennas are located on


the same vertical axis; or

2. Offset co-location:

For those facilities used in terminal areas for approach purposes


or other procedures where the highest position fixing accuracy of
system capability is required, the separation of the VOR and DME
antennas does not exceed 30 m (100 ft.) except that, at Doppler
VOR facilities, where DME service is provided by a separate
facility, the antennas may be separated by more than 30 m (100
ft), but not in excess of 80 m (260 ft.);
Instrument landing system (ILS)

Instrument landing system (ILS) enables aircraft to land if the


pilots are unable to establish visual contact with the runway. It does
this by way of transmitted radio signals.It consists of two antennas
which transmit signals to receivers in the aircraft cockpita glide
path tower located next to the runway at the northern end and a
localizer antenna at the southern end. These antennas provide the
pilot with vertical and horizontal guidance when landing in low
visibility

Principle of operation
An instrument landing system operates as ground-
based instrumentapproach system that provides precision lateral
and vertical guidance to an aircraft approaching and landing on
a runway, using a combination of radio signals and, in many cases,
high-intensity lighting arrays to enable a safe landing

during instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), such as


low ceilings or reduced visibility due to fog, rain, or blowing snow.

An instrument approach procedure chart is published for each ILS


approach to provide the information needed to fly an ILS approach
during instrument flight rules (IFR) operations. A chart includes the
radio frequencies used by the ILS components or navaids and the
prescribed minimum visibility requirements.

Radio-navigation aids must provide a certain accuracy (set by


international standards of CAST/ICAO); to ensure this is the
case, flight inspection organizations periodically check critical
parameters with properly equipped aircraft to calibrate and certify
ILS precision.

An aircraft approaching a runway is guided by the ILS receivers in


the aircraft by performing modulation depth comparisons. Many
aircraft can route signals into the autopilot to fly the approach
automatically. An ILS consists of two independent sub-systems. The
localizer provides lateral guidance; the glide slope provides vertical
guidance.

Localizer
A localizer is an antenna array normally located beyond the
approach end of the runway and generally consists of several pairs
of directional antennas.
Glide slope of ILS (G/S)
The pilot controls the aircraft so that the glide slope indicator
remains centered on the display to ensure the aircraft is following
the glide path of approximately 3 above horizontal (ground level) to
remain above obstructions and reach the runway at the proper
touchdown point (i.e., it provides vertical guidance).

Beacons
They aid in indicating the distance of the aircraft from the runway.
1. Outer Marker (OM) - The outer marker is normally located 7.2 to
10 km (4.5 to 6 mi) from the runway threshold. The cockpit indicator
is a blue lamp that flashes in unison with the received audio code.
The purpose of this beacon is to provide height, distance, and
equipment functioning checks to aircraft on intermediate and final
approach. On the aircraft, the signal is received by a 75 MHz marker
receiver. The pilot hears a tone from the loudspeaker or headphones
and a blue indicative bulb lights up.

2. Middle Marker (MM)- The middle marker should be located so as


to indicate, in low visibility
conditions, the missed
approach point, and the
point that visual contact
with the runway is
imminent, ideally at a
distance of approximately
3,500 ft (1,100 m) from
the threshold. The cockpit
indicator is an amber lamp
that flashes in unison with
the received audio code.

3. Inner Marker (IN) - Some ILS runways have an inner marker


located about 1.000 feet from the approach end of the runway, so
the pattern intersects the glide angle at 100 feet. The transmitter is
modulated by a tone of 3000 Hz keyed by continuous dots.

Limitations
Due to the complexity of ILS localizer and glide slope systems, there
are some limitations. Localizer systems are sensitive to obstructions
in the signal broadcast area like large buildings or hangars. Glide
slope systems are also limited by the terrain in front of the glide
slope antennas. If terrain is sloping or uneven, reflections can create
an uneven glide path, causing unwanted needle deflections.
Additionally, since the ILS signals are pointed in one direction by the
positioning of the arrays, glide slope supports only straight-line
approaches with a constant angle of descent. Installation of an ILS
can be costly because of siting criteria and the complexity of the
antenna system.
ILS critical areas and ILS sensitive areas are established to avoid
hazardous reflections that would affect the radiated signal. The
location of these critical areas can prevent aircraft from using
certain taxiwaysleading to delays in take-offs, increased hold times,
and increased separation between aircraft.

Difference in the depth of modulation


The difference in the depth of modulation or DDM is used
by instrument landing systems in conjunction with the associated
airborne receiving equipment to define a position in airspace.DDM is
usually expressed in percentage but may also be expressed in
microamperes. Instrument landing system ground stations
provide radio frequency signals that vary linearly in the depth
of modulation from the center or course line at a rate of 0.145% per
meter. The two individual audio modulation frequencies and their
associated sidebands are 150Hz and 90Hz. The DDM for a localizer
at the outer extremity of the course sector is 15.5% or an electric
current equivalent of 150 microamperes half-scale deflection.

Method
A modulation depth comparison navigational aid (MDCNA), also
known as an instrument landing system uses the concept of space
modulation to provide guidance to aircraft when on final approach.

A carrier and sideband (CSB), and sideband only (SBO) signal,


transmitted from localizer and glide path antennas produce a space-
modulated signal resulting from the vector addition of two or more
audio signals that vary according to position of the receiving aircraft.
The difference between the two modulation depths produces an
error current signal in the airborne receiver. When an aircraft follows
the course line, the difference between the two frequencies is zero
percent (0%). This difference is traditionally displayed by the
deflection of a moving coil indicator or needle/s on an instrument
known as a horizontal situation indicator, HSI.
Space modulation

Space modulation is a radio amplitude modulation technique used


in instrument landing systems that incorporates the use of multiple
antennas fed with various radio frequency powers and phases to
create different depths of modulation within various volumes
of three-dimensional airspace. This modulation method differs from
internal modulation methods inside most other radio transmitters in
that the phases and powers of the two individual signals mix within
airspace, rather than in a modulator.

An aircraft with an on-board ILS receiver within the capture area of


an ILS, (glideslope and localizer range), will detect varying depths of
modulation according to the aircraft's position within that airspace,
providing accurate positional information about the progress to the
threshold

.
X-RAY BAGGAGE SYSTEM

DETECTION OF X-RAYS AND IMAGE FORMATION

DETECTION METHOD
X-rays are detected by scintillator crystals which convert X-rays
into visible light, photodiodes then convert this light into
electrical current. In a multi energy system the single energy
X-Ray beam is converted into dual energy by the following
arrangement of detectors.

FIG: THE X-RAY DETECTOR


After the X-rays pass through the item, they are picked up by a
detector. This detector then passes the X-rays on to a filter, which
blocks out the lower-energy X-rays. The remaining high-energy X-
rays hit a second detector. A computer circuit compares the pick-ups
of the two detectors to better represent low-energy objects, such as
most organic materials.

DETECTOR ARRAYS:

The Heimann X-BIS 6040i uses array of detectors consisting of 576


dual detector elements. All these detectors are placed to form a line
covering the inspection chamber. A fan shaped beam

Of X-Rays is projected into the inspection chamber and the detector


array is illuminated by x-rays. The baggage present in the in the
inspection chamber attenuates the X-RAYS according to its chemical
density and detectors give out their intensity dependent output
which then becomes the line signal.

IMAGE PROCESSING

The DETECTOR MODULES provide the conversion of X-radiation into


process able voltage values. The radiation generated by means of
the X-ray generator penetrates the object transported on the
conveyor; the X-rays have previously passed a double collimator and
come out as a narrow, fan-shaped beam. Depending on the chemical
density and thickness of the object, part of the radiation is absorbed;
the X-RAYS not absorbed reach the detector modules.

Conveyer system and luggage detection


Conveyer system
X-Bisuse a conveyer motor, which drives the conveyer belt to
transport the luggage or baggage into the inspection tunnel. This
may be a single or three phase motor depending upon the size of
the machine. The conveyer motor must run at a uniform speed,
single motor is used for running the conveyer belt in forward and the
reverse direction by suitable phase shifting arrangement. The
material of the conveyer belt is transparent to the X-Rays.

Conveyer speed
Conveyer speed is an important factor for the image processing.
This is kept constant at a predefined value and the timing
calculations for the image processing are done on this basis. If there
is any deviation in the speed of the conveyer it will result in no
picture or distorted picture.
In the 9080 machines the conveyer speed is monitored continuously
and processing is possible only at correct speed.

Luggage detection
Light barriers
The light barriers serve to detect objects transported on the
conveyor belt into the inspection tunnel. As standard, a light barrier
is installed at the tunnel entry so that inspections can only be
carried out in forward direction. X-ray units equipped with the option
Full-reverse mode provide another light barrier at the tunnel exit. In
this case, inspections can be carried out in both forward and reverse
direction.

The light barriers operate with infrared beams. If an object interrupts


a beam, the output signal of the light barrier changes its state (logic
level) and the object is detected. A number of light barriers may be
required at suitable locations so as to detect objects of various
shape and sizes.
L SHAPED DETECTOR LINE

X-RAY ONINDICATIONS

EMERGENCY STOP BUTTON


INSPECTION TUNNEL

CONVEYOR BELT FAN SHAPED BEAM

COLLIMATOR

X-RAY GENERATOR

ADJUSTING SPINDLES

CASTORS

FIG: CROSS SECTION VIEW OF SMITH-HIEMANN 6040i X-BIS

The objects to be inspected are transported through the unit


inspection tunnel via a conveyor at a constant speed. When the
object enters the tunnel, it is detected by a light barrier system.
Simultaneously, the X-ray generator is switched on. By means of a
collimator, an extremely thin, fan-shaped X-ray beam is generated,
which penetrates the object in the course of the inspection. The
beam is partially absorbed by the object and finally strikes a
detector line (line scanning principle).

The detector line used in the HI-MAT PLUS system for material
distinction consists of 9 * exchangeable modules. On every module
the low and the high energy ranges of the X-ray spectrum are
converted into electrical voltages. For the conversion, 2 x 64
scintillator crystals are mounted one over another in pairs, in
combination with 2 x 64 photodiodes and 2 x 64 voltage amplifiers.
A copper filter mounted between the crystals, which are sensitive to
different X-ray spectral ranges, serves the purpose of spectrally
separating the X-radiation (multiple energy method).

The extremely thin X-ray beam does not scan the objects by its
whole length, but by slices of about 1mm thickness. The scanning of
one object slice and the transmission of the voltage values obtained
by means of scintillator crystals and photodiodes will last only a few
milliseconds. Due to the L-shaped arrangement of the detector
modules and the X-ray generator located in the opposite corner
emitting X-rays in a diagonal direction, the whole cross section of
the inspection tunnel is scanned, i.e. even large objects will be
completely inspected and represented on the monitor screen. Per
slice, 576* voltage values are transmitted (9* modules x 64
crystals), i.e. owing to the geometrical arrangement of the modules
and crystals, each object slice will be "cut up" into 576* pixels.

GAGAN - GPS Aided GEO Augumented


Navigation
The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and the Airports Authority of India
(AAI) have implemented the GAGAN project as a Satellite Based Augmentation
System for the Indian Airspace. The primary objective of GAGAN is to establish a
certifiable satellite based augmentation system for safety-of-life applications. The
functional performance and operational requirements of GAGAN shall be governed
by the specifications as mentioned in the international standards. The system shall
have inter-operability with other international SBAS systems like US-WAAS,
European EGNOS, and Japanese MSAS etc.

GAGAN Final System Acceptance Test (FSAT) was completed on 16th-17th July
2012. Further the GSAT-8 satellite-GAGAN Payload has been integrated with Indian
Land Uplink station-1(INLUS), Bangalore and GAGAN SIS (Signal in Space) is
available since Dec 15, 2011. GSAT-10 satellite has been integrated with Indian Land
Uplink station-2, Bangalore and second GAGAN SIS is available from April 2013.
The backup Delhi INLUS has also been Operational since March 2013 and is
integrated to GSAT-8.

The Key elements of GAGAN are: 15 Indian Reference Stations (INRESs)

2 Indian Master Control Centers (INMCCs)

3 Indian Lank Uplink Stations (INLUSs)

4 chains of networks (OFC and VSAT)

3 GEO satellites with GAGAN payloads

GAGAN FOP configuration consisting of space segment, ground


segment and user segment is shown below
The successful completion of system stability test during June-July 2013 paved the
way for certification of GAGAN System to meet the civil aviation requirements. The
objective of Stability Test was to evaluate the system performance and its critical
parameters in the integrated live environment using the satellite signals and ground
based systems on integrity, accuracy, continuity and availability for aviation use.

India is the fourth country in the world, after USA, Europe and JAPAN, to take up the
challenge of establishing the regional SBAS that will redefine the navigation over
India and adjacent regions. The footprint of GAGAN will cover huge area beyond
Indian Territory, from Africa to Australia and can support seamless navigation across
the Globe.

Further, GAGAN is the first system in the world that would be certified to serve the
equatorial anomaly region with its unique IONO algorithm (IGM-MLDF: ISRO GIVE
Model Multi-Layer Data Fusion) designed and developed by ISAC in
collaboration with vendor.

The GAGAN is designed to provide the additional accuracy, availability, and integrity
necessary to enable users to rely on GPS for all phases of flight, from en route through
approach for all qualified airports within the GAGAN service volume.

GAGAN will also provide the capability for increased accuracy in position reporting,
allowing for more uniform and high-quality Air Traffic Management (ATM). In
addition, GAGAN will provide benefits beyond aviation to all modes of
transportation, including maritime, highways, railroads and public services such as
defense services, security agencies, telecom industry and personal users of position
location applications.

The GAGAN, a safety of life system, has been certified by DGCA to provide NPA
(Non Precision Approach) services of RNP-0.1 over Indian FIR (Flight Information
Region) and certified for PA service of APV-1.0/1.5 over Indian landmass.

The GPS-Aided Geo Augmented Navigation, or Gagan, can allow as many as 50


aircraft to safely operate in airspace that two planes take at present.

It can also help ease landing in airports that are poorly lit and do not have
instrument landing systems. India, which spent Rs 774 crore to develop the
system indigenously, launched it on July 13 with little fanfare. Only the US,
European countries and Japan have similar systems in place.

Current rules say two aircraft must maintain a distance of 18 kilometres between them
to ensure safe operations. With Gagan, that distance can be reduced to as little as 360
metres, said a senior Airports Authority of India (AAI) official.
"Just imagine the number of aircraft we will be able to fit in the space consumed by
only two aircraft in the past," the official said.

One of the advantages will be during landings, because the distance between planes
approaching the runway in congested airports like Delhi can be reduced significantly,
though it is unlikely that it will be cut to as low as 360 metres.

Gagan is much more precise in informing about the location of the plane than the
radar-based system most of the world still uses. "The location that Gagan provides is
exact and the error, if any, could be only of up to 7.6 metres. Our analysis, however,
has found that the error has been only of 1 to 1.5 metre," said the official. The system
was built by the AAI and the Indian Space Research Organisation.

The Indian government invested Rs 378 crore in the project, while the AAI put in Rs
226 crore and the remaining Rs 170 crore came from ISRO.

Gagan works using signals from two communication satellites - geosynchronous


satellites (GSAT) 8 and 10 - ISRO had put into orbit. The signals form these satellites
are received at 15 reference stations across the country. There are also three uplink
stations, two in Bengaluru and one in Delhi.

"While we need only two stations for the uplink, we have built a third one for back
up," said the AAI official.

Officials said India's Gagan system was capable of providing en-route and approach
with vertical guidance to aircraft. This means that the aircraft will not just be guided
during its cruise but also during its landing and takeoff.

"The ability of Gagan to guide planes during landing and takeoff enables us to land at
airports without instrument landing system, but with basic lights. This will give great
push to the government's plan to increase regional air connectivity," said another AAI
official.

Instrument landing is a ground-based instrument approach system that provides


precision lateral and vertical guidance to an aircraft approaching the runway, using a
combination of radio signals and, in many cases, high-intensity lighting.

While the system is up and running, it is not compulsory for airlines to adopt it yet.
The biggest hurdle in the implementation of Gagan in the country is the inability of
the current fleet of aircraft to work on this system. Also, to better utilise Gagan, the
rules on the safe distance that aircraft need to keep while in air need to be changed.

Aircraft need to have a receiver called Space Based Augmentation System (SBAS) to
be able to receive signals from the Gagan satellites. "This receiver and training to
pilots will cost about Rs 2 crore per aircraft and the airlines are not very keen about
implementing it," said the first AAI official.
Conclusion

As an undergraduate of the Jodhpur institute of engineering and technology I


would like to say that this training program was an excellent opportunity for us
to get the ground level and experience the things we would have never gained
through going straight into the job. I am grateful to airport authority of india for
providing us this wonderful opportunity.

The main objective of the industrial training is to provide an opportunity to


undergraduate to identify, observe and practise how engineering is applicable
to real industry. It is good to observe the machines and to interact with the
staff of AAI. I learnt the way of working in an organization. The training
included AMSS, VOR, DME, ILS, NOTAM etc. in my opinion I have gained lots
of knowledge and experience.