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NMR for oil gas prospecting and exploration

Alexander Yurchuk Owner, Institute geophysics and problems of the


Earth

Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance for oil gas prospecting and


exploration gives unique results. Company Halliburton and Schlumberger
used NMR in logging surveys in the wells (only to a distance of 20-30
meters).
We use NMR properties from ground surface (without drilling) and see the
hydrocarbons directly to a depth of 5 km and possibly deeper. This is our
big advantage over the Schlumberger and Halliburton.
Our technology provides a direct detection of hydrocarbons and shows the
effectiveness of exploratory surveys to 98% and significantly exceeds the
aeromagnetic and aerogravity and seismic surveys. (These surveys provide
the anomalies).
Our technology is based on effect of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR,
in medicine is called MRI),
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_magnetic_resonance
Video of NMR, look: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7aRKAXD4dAg
Kirlian effect, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirlian_photography
Kirlian effect is widely used around the world to visualize the images
invisible to the eye, is what we use when a transfer the image from the
infrared range to the visible eye image.
And the property of radio waves at terahertz range, THz (1012 - 1015 Hz)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terahertz_radiation
Terahertz range of radio waves used in airports to detect explosives in
passengers baggage and passengers inside at distance of tens of meters.
MRI sees the human body through (no matter how body was- thick or
thin), and NMR in geophysics allows technology to see to great depth.
Nuclear magnetic resonance
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei


in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation. This energy is at
a specific resonance frequency which depends on the strength of the magnetic
field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms;

In practical applications, the frequency is similar to VHF and UHF television


broadcasts (601000 MHz). NMR allows the observation of specific quantum
mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus. Many scientific techniques
exploit NMR phenomena to study molecular physics, crystals, and non-crystalline
materials through NMR spectroscopy.
NMR is also routinely used in advanced medical imaging techniques, such as in
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
All isotopes that contain an odd number of protons and/or of neutrons (see
Isotope) have an intrinsic magnetic moment and angular momentum, in other
words a nonzero spin, while all nuclides with even numbers of both have a total
spin of zero. The most commonly studied nuclei are 1H and 13C, although nuclei
from isotopes of many other elements (e.g. 2H, 6Li, 10B, 11B, 14N, 15N, 17O,
19F, 23Na, 29Si, 31P, 35Cl, 113Cd, 129Xe, 195Pt) have been studied by high-
field NMR spectroscopy as well.
A key feature of NMR is that the resonance frequency of a particular substance is
directly proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic field. It is this feature that
is exploited in imaging techniques; if a sample is placed in a non-uniform magnetic field
then the resonance frequencies of the sample's nuclei depend on where in the field
they are located. Since the resolution of the imaging technique depends on the
magnitude of magnetic field gradient, many efforts are made to develop increased field
strength, often using superconductors. The effectiveness of NMR can also be improved
using hyperpolarization, and/or using two-dimensional, three-dimensional and higher-
dimensional multi-frequency techniques.
The principle of NMR usually involves two sequential steps:
The alignment (polarization) of the magnetic nuclear spins in an applied, constant
magnetic field H0.
The perturbation of this alignment of the nuclear spins by employing an electro-
magnetic, usually radio frequency (RF) pulse. The required perturbing
frequency is dependent upon the static magnetic field (H0) and the nuclei of
observation.
The two fields are usually chosen to be perpendicular to each other as this
maximizes the NMR signal strength. The resulting response by the total
magnetization (M) of the nuclear spins is the phenomenon that is exploited in
NMR spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging. Both use intense applied
magnetic fields (H0) in order to achieve dispersion and very high stability to
deliver spectral resolution, the details of which are described by chemical shifts,
the Zeeman effect, and Knight shifts (in metals).
NMR phenomena are also utilized in low-field NMR, NMR spectroscopy and
MRI in the Earth's magnetic field (referred to as Earth's field NMR), and in
several types of magnetometers.
Data acquisition in the petroleum industry

Main article: NMR in porous media


Another use for nuclear magnetic resonance is data acquisition in the petroleum
industry for petroleum and natural gas exploration and recovery.
A borehole is drilled into rock and sedimentary strata into which nuclear magnetic
resonance logging equipment is lowered.

Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of these boreholes is used to measure rock


porosity, estimate permeability from pore size distribution and identify pore fluids
(water, oil and gas). These instruments are typically low field NMR spectrometers.
Low field NMR spans a range of different nuclear magnetic resonance
(NMR) modalities, going from NMR conducted in permanent magnets,
supporting magnetic fields of a few T, all the way down to zero field
NMR, where the Earth's field is carefully shielded such that magnetic
fields of nT are achieved where nuclear spin precession is close to zero.
In a broad sense, "Low-field NMR" is the branch of nuclear magnetic
resonance that is NOT conducted in superconducting high-field
magnets. Low field NMR also includes Earth's field NMR where simply
the Earth's field is exploited to cause nuclear spin-precession which is
detected. With magnetic fields on the order of T and below
magnetometers such as SQUIDs or atomic magnetometers (among
others) are used as detectors. "Normal" high field NMR relies on the
detection of spin-precession with inductive detection with a simple
coil. However, this detection modality becomes less sensitive as the
magnetic field and the associated frequencies decrease. Hence the
push toward alternative detection methods at very low fields.
When a sample is placed in a constant magnetic field and stimulated (perturbed) by a
pulsed or alternating magnetic field, NMR active nuclei resonate at characteristic
frequencies. Examples of such nuclei are the isotopes carbon-13, and hydrogen-1 also
referred to as protons. The resonant frequency of each isotope is directly proportional to
the strength of the applied magnetic field, and the magnetogyric or gyromagnetic ratio of
that isotope. The signal strength is proportional both to the stimulating magnetic field and
the number of nuclei of that isotope in the sample. Thus in the 21 tesla magnetic field that
may be found in high resolution laboratory NMR spectrometers, protons resonate at
900 MHz. However in the Earth's magnetic field the same nuclei resonate at audio
frequencies of around 2 kHz and generate very weak signals.
The location of a nucleus within a complex molecule affects the 'chemical environment' (i.e.
the rotating magnetic fields generated by the other nuclei) experienced by the nucleus.
Thus different hydrocarbon molecules containing NMR active nuclei in different positions
within the molecules produce slightly different patterns of resonant frequencies.
EFNMR signals can be affected by both magnetically noisy laboratory environments and
natural variations in the Earth's field, which originally compromised its usefulness. However
this disadvantage has been overcome by the introduction of electronic equipment which
compensates changes in ambient magnetic fields.
Whereas chemical shifts are important in NMR, they are insignificant in the Earth's field.
The absence of chemical shifts causes features such as spin-spin multiplets (that are
separated by high fields) to be superimposed in EFNMR. Instead, EFNMR spectra are
dominated by spin-spin coupling (J-coupling) effects. Software optimised for analysing
these spectra can provide useful information about the structure of the molecules in the
sample.